21, "WHAT TENNESSEE HAS DONE IN THIS WAR"
In a former article on this subject we endeavored to point out some of the efforts that had been made and some of the privations that had been endured by Tennessee since this war commenced. So soon as Tennessee perceived that the Lincoln Government did not intend to respect the rights of the South, but was determined, in violation of the Constitution, to use force for the purpose of bringing back the more Southern States into the Union, she did not hesitate as to the proper course for her to pursue-With promptness and decision she cast in her lot with her sister States of the South, although she knew that war, perhaps a terrible war, was to be the result. With alacrity her sons responded to the call to arms, and in less than a month more troops had tendered their services to the Government than could be received, and there has not been a time since when Tennessee could not furnish more troops than the Government could arm. What her soldiers have done on the battle field we have too often mentioned to repeat here. Suffice it to say, Tennessee has just cause to be proud of the gallantry of her soldiers, and has no fear but the honor of the State will always be safe in their hands. The peculiar advantages of Tennessee to the Confederacy were in furnishing our army with the article they so much needed in the way of food and clothing. At the commencement of this struggle the Government had to be supplied with money, which has justly been said to be the sinews of war. The Banks of Tennessee very materially aided the Confederate Government at that time by advancing money to arm and equip troops, to feed and clothe the army. Fortunately for the country, Tennessee made fine crops of grain and corn during last year and was able to supply the Southern army with all necessary articles of food during the present year. We have no means of ascertaining the exact amount of flour, bacon and beef that was taken from Tennessee for the use of our army. The fact that after the loss of Tennessee these articles increased enormously in price shows how dependent the Southern State were at that time upon Tennessee for food. The horses for our artillery and the mules for the wagons were mostly obtained from Tennessee. We admit that now since the altercation [began?] the farmers in the more Southern states have been drawn from them cultivation of cotton to the production of articles of food that dependence upon Tennessee is not so great-Even now, however, if this war continues as it bids fair to do for some years, it will require all the labor of the South and Tennessee included to raise enough food to sustain our army and support our people. But since Tennessee has been in the hands of the enemy she has illustrated her devotion to the cause of the South in a manner of which every citizen of Tennessee may be justly proud. Notwithstanding Northern troops were in their midst, and although some of those who had formerly stood highest in their estimation abandoned the cause of the South, taking sides with the enemy, aiding, assisting and associating with the invaders upon terms of friendship and intimacy, yet the great body of the people remained firm and true. In the midst of disaster and defeat, as well as in the hour of triumph, they never deserted their principles, or their country, and now when an opportunity is given them to show their devotion to the cause of the South they are ready and willing to do it in any and every manner. We could give individual instances to show what sacrifices the people have made rather than abandon our cause, but it is useless to do so. Tennessee is now ready to furnish as many and brave troops, in proportion to her population, to defend the honor and rights of the South as any State in the Confederacy. Even many of those who have, from causes which we will not now mention, heretofore been Union men are now ready and willing to take up arms to resist the tyranny of the Lincoln Government. He has by his duplicity deceived them and they are now in hear and felling with the South although having hitherto differed in opinion as to the causes of the war from many of their Southern brethren. In view of these facts it is not only just and wrong in any of the Southern people to speak disparagingly of Tennessee or to treat unkindly her troops but it is very bad policy. Nothing but the kindest feeling should be cultivated between the citizens and soldier of the various states, and if any breaches exist the utmost efforts should be made to heal them.
Our articles have all been written with this view and we trust they will do some good towards accomplishing this object, for we learn that in some instances the troops from Tennessee have not been received with the cordiality and warmth of feeling in some of the Southern states to which their services and their sacrifices entitle them.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel of October 21, 1862.
21, "CARELESS DRIVERS"
Every few days we heard of young mules running away and breaking their wagons all to pieces, crippling their drivers in some instances, and often endangering the lives of hundreds of pedestrians. Yesterday a government team on Market Street got frightened or started off for some cause, which frightened two or three other teams, and in a few minutes the entire street was filled with runaway mules, and portions of their wagons and harness; a cavalry company was on the street at the time and the general uproar and noise came near stampeding their horses. For a little while everything and everybody was on the move to avoid being run over. One or two country wagons were demolished. This all proceeded, we are told, from the inexperience of the drivers put in charge of the government wagons. The government cannot afford this recklessness, and it should be stopped in some manner or another.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, October 21, 1862.
21, Major-General William T. Sherman report on the situation in West Tennessee
HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, Memphis, October 21, 1862.
Maj. JOHN A. RAWLINS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Jackson, Tenn.:
SIR: Since my last, some attacks have been made on the boats navigating the Mississippi River, but in no case have the guerrillas succeeded in getting a boat. They came near firing the Gladiator, but the captain (Irwin) got her off-shore and brought her to Memphis with two dead and many wounded on board. The conduct of the guerrillas was fiendish in the extreme. I ordered parties to Island 21, also to the point where the Catahoula was fired into. At the latter place the officer in command, Col. Walcutt, Forty-sixth Ohio, found much evidence of complicity with the guerrillas, and he burned, their places. I shall compel ten families to leave for every boat fired on, and let them try whether they prefer to live with their own people or with ours. I know from their actions that it is not agreeable, but it is not to be expected that we should feed and clothe the families of men who are engaged in firing upon boats engaged in peaceful commerce. To-morrow I dispatch all my cavalry to Colliersville [sic], then north to Rising Sun, and thence west to Randolph, cleaning up the country of guerrillas. I wish to break up all parties north of Wolf River. At the same time an infantry regiment will march to Raleigh and Union Depot in concert. I will have boats at Randolph to bring them down. I find it difficult to hire regular spies, but I get full information from other who come to Memphis on various pretexts.
* * * *
....If ever you design to attack, remember LaGrange is an admirable place; then Davis' Mill.
I will continue to report as often as I get definite news... All very quiet with us on our picket lines, and all town people begin to respect our power.....
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pp. 285-286.
21, Stopping Confederate stragglers from reaching Knoxville
Special Order No. 49
Headquarters Breckinridge's Division,
Knoxville, October 21, 1862
I. Brig-Genl. Maxey will send a Regiment under one of his most competent officers out on the Tazewell road to Cumberland Gap, to stop the stragglers from Gen'l Bragg's army. He will order the officers in command to use such vigilance as caution as will prevent their getting to the Rail Road Depot or into the town of Knoxville.
By Command of Maj. Genl Breckinridge.
Military daily log, 1862-1865, William B. Bate collection,
Univ. of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tenn. Box 3, MS 142
21, Confiscation of civilian firearms by Federal forces in Nashville
Special Order No. 19.
Headquarters, United States Forces
Camp Nashville, Tennessee,
October 21, 1862.
I. The citizens of Nashville will immediately turn over to Lieut. C. C. Cooke, Aid de Camp and Ordnance Officer, at these Headquarters, all the Arms or Munitions of War, in their possession or concealed within their knowledge.
II. Those persons who, before the 24th inst., voluntarily deliver up their arms, properly marked with their names, will receive a receipt for them to be returned or settled for as the Government may direct.
III. The refusal to deliver arms of any description, or to report their whereabouts, if known, will be taken as sufficient evidence of disloyalty to subject the offender to severe penalties. No excuse whatever will be taken for an evasion of this order
IV. A rigid inquiry will be instituted to discover parties who may evade this order in any particular, and a liberal reward will be offered for information which will lead to such discovery.
By command of Gen. Negley.
Jas. A. Lowrie, Capt. and A. A. G
Nashville Daily Union, October 23, 1862
21, Exuberant journalism from the pages of the Murfreesboro Daily Rebel Banner
We have been favored with a copy of the Daily Rebel Banner, printed at Murfreesboro, dated October 21st. The Extra is printed on a small half sheet of brown wrapping paper, and has a decidedly secesh appearance. As news is scarce the public will be amused at the ridiculous nonsense of this doughty rebel.
["]Warm Work Below!
A Rustling Among the Dry Bones
The Music of "On to Nashville" Begun!!
Glorious News from the Front.
Gen. Forrest is one of those men with whom it is physically impossible for inactivity to agree. He is, par excellence, a "fighting man." And ever since his occupation of Murfreesboro, his vigilance, energy, and ceaseless "attentions" to our quondam friends in Nashville have exemplified, in a striking manner, his claim to be considered the most dashing cavalry officer in the service.
We have cheering news from the front. As our readers are aware, our outposts have been skirmishing daily with the pickets of the enemy. We have repeatedly driven them in with loss in the most gallant style.
This morning, however, we made a general onset. Upon every hand our advanced guard made a dash upon the entire pickets of the enemy simultaneously. Whilst our rifles were rattling along the Charlotte road, our guns were rolling back an echo from the Lebanon pike, and the melody of these beautiful sounds was chorused by artillery from the Murfreesboro and Nolensville pikes.
Lieut. Colonel Collins commanding the advance, telegraphs that the work under his immediate command was particularly good.
"The troops under my immediate command have acted most gallantly. They were led by Captain Draper, who made his attack at daylight, and drove the enemy's outpost, in force. We captured one major, one captain, one lieutenant, four corporals, and twenty-seven privates. Also, guns, ammunition, and horses. I have already heard the guns below, and to the right and left."
So Nashville is beginning to be invested in solid earnest, and the guns of the confederacy are singing a lullaby (over the left) into the ear of Andrew Johnson.
If the fellow keeps lying in this style he will find "warm work below" sure enough. Lt. Col. Collins is some on a grape vine. "Guns below and to the right and left!" What ears the Lieutenant must have! But the Extra announces tidings yet more startling:
["]Still More Glorious!
Dibbrell's Defeats the Enemy—Stokes
Killed! His Command Worsted!
Col. Dibrel's command met the enemy, October 21, and repulsed them on the Lebanon Pike. We killed Stokes and cut up his command.
Everything begins to look up!["]
And all this ridiculous stuff is about a skirmish in which the aforesaid Dibbrel and his command fled from their camp and across the river with as much precipitation and trepidation as if Buell's whole army had been after them. It was a most cowardly skedaddle on the part of Dibrel. But thus the rebels bolster up each other's courage. The extra appeals thus to Tennesseans:
"What are you doing? Here is your Forrest—your own native, Tennessee Forrest—ready to lead you on to Nashville. Are you going to flinch? UP, up to a front; where the bullets are ringing, and honor, and liberty await you.
We have whipped them in Kentucky, and we must burn them out of Nashville."
We can tell you what you are doing; you are forcing Union men into the ranks to fight the battles of treason. Fetch on your Forrest, and try to burn Nashville as soon as you please, and we will show you a trick worth two of that.
Nashville Daily Union, October 26, 1862.
21, Correspondence between Major-General Charles A. Dana and U. S. Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, relative to illegal cotton trade involving "Yankees and Jews"
MEMPHIS, January 21, 1863.
DEAR SIR: You will remember our conversations on the subject of excluding cotton speculators from the regions occupied by our armies in the South. I now write to urge the matter upon your attention as a measure of military necessity. The mania for sudden fortunes made in cotton, raging in a vast population of Jews and Yankees scattered throughout this whole country, and in this town almost exceeding the numbers of the regular residents, has to an alarming extent corrupted and demoralized the army. Every colonel, captain, or quartermaster is in secret partnership with some operator in cotton; every soldier dreams of adding a bale of cotton to his monthly pay. I had no conception of the extent of this evil until I came and saw for myself. Besides, the resources of the rebels are inordinately increased from this source. Plenty of cotton is brought in from beyond our lines, especially by the agency of Jewish traders, who pay for it ostensibly in Treasury notes, but treaty in gold. What I propose is that no private purchaser of cotton shall be allowed in any part of the occupied region. Let quartermasters buy the article at a fixed price, say 20 or 25 cents per pound, and forward it by army transportation to proper centers, say to Helena, Memphis, or Cincinnati, to be sold at public auction on Government account. Let the sales take place on regular, fixed days, so that all parties desirous of buying can be sure when to be present. But little capital will be required for such an operation. The sales being frequent and for cash, will constantly replace the amount employed for the purpose. I should say that $200,000 would be sufficient to conduct the movement. I have no doubt that this $200,000 so employed would be more than equal to 30,000 men added to the national armies. My pecuniary interest is in the continuance of the present state of things, for while it lasts there are occasional opportunities of profit to be made by a daring operator; but I should be false to my duty did I, on that account, fail to implore you to put an end to an evil so enormous, so insidious, and so full of peril to the country. My first impulse was to hurry to Washington to represent these things to you in person; return East so speedily. I beg you, however, to act without delay if possible. An excellent man to put at the head of the business would be Gen. Strong. I make this suggestion without any idea whether the employment would be agreeable to him.
CHARLES A. DANA.
P. S.-Since writing the above I have seen Gen. Grant, who fully agrees with all my statements and suggestions, except that imputing corruption to every officer, which, of course, I did not intend to be taken literally. I have also just attended a public sale by the quartermaster here of 500 [sic.] bales of cotton confiscated by Gen. Grant at Oxford and Holly Springs. It belonged to Jacob Thompson and other notorious rebels. This cotton brought to-day over $1,500,000 cash. This sum alone would be five times enough to set on foot the system I recommend, without drawing upon the Treasury at all. In fact, there can be no question that by adopting this system the quartermaster's department in this valley would become self-holders would no longer find that the rebellion had quadrupled the price of their great staple, but only doubled it.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, p. 331
21, The metropolitan gas works close in Nashville
The gas works will be closed up after to-day until a supply of coal can be obtained. Our citizens have already had a foretaste of the deprivation they will experience from the stoppage of the gas works in the fact that the streets have not been lighted for five or six nights. But the greatest deprivation will fall upon those whose business requires the use of gas lights. Candles were largely in demand yesterday, and dealers advanced their prices very considerably.
Nashville Dispatch, January 21, 1863
21, Questions about issuing a liquor license to a freedman
County Court Clerk's office
Nashville, October 21, 1864.
Gov. And. Johnson
Application is made to my by Wade Hickman, a slave, for license to sell spirituous & other liquors.
I understand your Proclamation of Sep. 7th, 1864, to declare that all cases coming before judicial tribunals, involving the rights of colored person, shall be adjudicated as cases of free persons of color. Sec. 690. Code of Tennessee, provides that the license before mentioned shall not be granted to free person of color.
I beg leave therefore to make the following enquiries:
1 Is the granting of this license such a case coming before a judicial tribunal as is contemplated in your proclamations?
2 Am I directed by you to proceed to grant the license without regard to Sec. 690. of the Code?
3 If I am so directed, shall I dispense with the oath prescribed in Sec. 690?
4 Am I to act in the future as in this case in the determination of similar questions?
Very Respectfully yours &c
P L. Nichol County Clerk
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 7, pp. 241-242.
 Corbit Special Collections/University Archives,. University of Tennessee at Martin. These are original hand written orders. [Hereinafter cited as: William B. Bate collection.]
 See February 24, 1865, "The Colored People's Friend," in which Hickman is among a party who presented Andrew Johnson with a keepsake watch.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
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