25, AWOL Shelby county soldiers' families barred from receiving aid
Families of Soldiers.—Esquire Richards has been unremitting in his efforts to obtain for the families of soldiers county aid, and to have it properly distributed. With this object he had blanks printed at his own expense, and at his own expense went last week to Columbus to have the blanks filled with the names of those soldiers from this county whose families are entitled to aid. He visited personally twenty-seven companies, and he obtained the lists, properly signed, of twenty-eight companies. On his return, he found that the payments had begun; and it appears probable that there are instances in which families have received their allowance, the heads of which have been entered as "absent without leave." If this be so, caution should be exercised; for those fully entitled to claim aid will require all that can be done for them. The devotion of Esquire Richards to the cause of patriotism and benevolence is worthy of all praise.
Memphis Daily Appeal, October 25, 1861
25, Major General William T. Sherman issues orders relative to changes in the Memphis police force
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 90. HDQRS. FIRST DIV., ARMY OF THE TENN., Memphis, October 25, 1862.
To insure harmony in the administration of government in the Division of Memphis the following modifications and changes are made and published for the information of all concerned.
I. Col. D. C. Anthony is announced as the provost-marshal for the city and Division of Memphis, with Maj. Willard and Lieut. Edwards as assistants; office on Court street, corner of Third. One regiment of infantry and a squadron of cavalry will compose the provost guard; headquarters in the Irving Block, Second street, opposite Court Square. This guard will be distributed according to the orders of the provost-marshal, and will receive their instructions from him. A military commission, composed of three officers of the army, will sit daily at the office of the provost-marshal and try all offenders under the laws of war. Their sentences, when approved by the commanding general, will be executed by the provost-marshal.
II. The city police, composed of 100 men, will also be under the orders and supervision of the provost-marshal. He will muster and inspect them and satisfy himself that the officers are competent, and that the men are sober, industrious, and of good reputation. He will require each and every one to take the oath of allegiance prescribed by the Congress of the United States. He will, on consultation with the chief of police, divide them into a day and night watch, assigning to each a beat or district, for which he will be held responsible. If a burglary, robbery, riot, or disturbance of the peace occurs on any beat the policeman will be forthwith suspended from duty and pay, and be tried by the military commission or recorded of the city for complicity or neglect, and on the trial the burden of proof will rest with the accused, to show that he was on his post and vigilant. If found guilty he will be punished by dismissal from office, by fine, imprisonment, or such other penalty as the court may impose. The appointment of the city police will remain as now, with the city authorities; but should they fail to fill a vacancy within three days of a notice the provost-marshal will appoint a successor. Their payment will also be made by the city treasurer, and all fines, penalties, and seizures made by the city recorder and police will, as heretofore, go to the city treasury.
III. All soldiers or officers arrested or citizens taken by scouts, pickets, or guards will be sent to the Irving Block, and all offenders against the laws of the State of Tennessee or the ordinances of the city of Memphis will be sent to the city lock-up, at the corner of Third and Adams streets. Military prisoners will be sent under guard daily to their respective brigades; offenders against military law or order will be tried by the military commission. All other offenders will, as heretofore, be tried by the city recorder.
IV. Soldiers will not be arrested by the city police, unless detected in the actual commission of crime, when they will be taken to the nearest camp or provost guard. But if any unlawful assemblage of soldiers or stragglers from camp is discovered it is the duty of the police to send prompt notice to the nearest military guard.
V. Citizens detected in the commission of any grade of crime will be arrested by any guard, civil or military; and all vagrants, thieves, or men of bad reputation, having no visible means of support, or who are known to be dangerous persons to the peace and quiet of the community, will be restrained of their liberty and organized into a gang to work on the trenches, roads, or public streets, under the direction of the chief of police or provost-marshal, at the latter's discretion.
VI. Citizens found lurking about the camps or military lines will be arrested and treated as spies. None will by day approach Fort Pickering nearer than headquarters on Tennessee street or the Horn Lake road, and by night are cautioned that the sentinels have loaded muskets and are ordered to use them if persons are found lurking under suspicious circumstances.
VII. All citizens will keep to their houses at night, between tattoo and reveille, unless attending church, a place of amusement, a party of friends, or on necessary business, in which cases they will return to their homes by proper streets. After midnight all must be in their houses, except the proper guards, watchmen, or patrols. If found in alleys, by-ways, lots not their own, or unusual places, they will be locked up for the night.
VIII. Negroes will be subject to the laws of the State and city ordinances applicable to free negroes [sic]. They can work at any trade or calling, hire out, or, if they choose, return to their former masters, but no force will be used one way or the other. Soldiers not on duty should not meddle in this matter, but guards and sentinels on duty will assist all who appeal to them for protection against violence or undue force. Assemblages of negroes [sic] are prohibited, except on permission previously granted by the provost-marshal, setting forth the object, place, time of closing, and probable number to be assembled. If, however, they commit crime of any kind-theft, robbery, violence, or trespass on property-they must be punished according to law.
IX. The object and purpose of this order is to punish or restrain all disorders or crimes against the peace and dignity of this community. In time of war the military authorities must of necessity be superior to the civil, but all officers and soldiers must remember that this state of war is but temporary, and the time must come when the civil will resume its full power in the administration of justice in all parts of the country. The interest and laws of the United States must be paramount to all others, but so far as the laws, ordinances, and performances of the people of this community are consistent with those of the Gen. Government they should be respected.
The provost-marshal and city council will make all proper rules necessary to carry this order into effect and make them public.
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 294-296.
25, "Nashville Protestant School of Industry, for the Support and Education of Destitute Girls;" maintenance of a gender-based charity in Civil War Nashville
A few years ago, an article explanatory of the objects and speaking of the benefits of "The House of Industry," as the above institution is generally denominated, would have been deemed superfluous-a waste of time to the Editor and space to the reader; it was so well know, and so thoroughly appreciated. Our population has, however, materially changed during the past twenty months, until, at the present time, we think we may safely say that more than one-half the inhabitants are comparative strangers to our public institutions. For the benefit of these, therefore, chiefly, we will endeavor to give a brief, but correct history, of the rise and progress of the Nashville Protestant School of Industry.
About twenty one years ago, a number of little girls, wholly destitute of homes, were found upon our streets, apparently without relatives or friends to protect them from the many evils which fall in the way of such unfortunate creatures. Some of our benevolent ladies consulted together as to the best means to be adopted to serve them, and after due deliberation concluded that they would rent a house, procure a matron, and trust in God to aid them in carrying out of their charitable intentions. The act followed the resolution without unnecessary delay, and they struggled on for months and months, paying their rent by the proceeds of public suppers, tableaux, etc., etc., and keeping the girls together in their new home.
During the first four or five years, these charitable ladies were often compelled to draw largely from their private purses to keep their little adopted daughters from suffering, as liberally did they contribute, by money and labor, to the comfort of those under their care, that the children ever wore a smile of contentment and happiness on seeing their kind benefactresses. At length, on the 2d of February, 1846, a charter was procured from the Legislature, constituting the following named ladies a Board of Trustees, with power to fill vacancies, and possessing other privileges of similar corporate institutions:
Mrs. Francis B. Fogg, Mrs. G. W. Campbell,
Mrs. H. M. Rutledge, Mrs. James Porter,
Mrs. Thomas Maney, Mrs. R. H. McEwen
Mrs. A. V. Brown, Mrs. Wash. Barrow,
Mrs. Geo. Martin, Mrs. H. Kirkman,
Mrs. D. T. McGavock, Mrs. O. Ewing.
About this time, Mr. Joseph T. Elliston, a very benevolent gentleman, proposed to provide the Board of Trustees with a permanent home for the poor girls under their care, and he did so, giving to them the ground and the rear part of the building they now occupy, on Vine street, near Church.
Everything now went on prosperously, and the original founders were happy in seeing so noble a conception grow up to be self-supporting institution, an ornament and a credit to Nashville, and to the liberality of its citizens. In 1849, all but three of the original trustees had retired, and the following names stand upon the record:
Mrs. H. M. Rutledge, Mrs. L, Stone,
Mrs. Thomas Maney, Mrs. A. W. Putnam,
Mrs. Was. Barrow, Mrs. Medora Riggs,
Mrs. Hetty M. McEwen, Mrs. M. A. Lindsley,
Mrs. B. T. McGavock Mrs. W. G. Harding,
Mrs. Wm. R. Elliston, Mrs. Sarah L. Stewart,
Mrs. A. Allison, Mrs. John M. Bass
Notwithstanding the changes in the list of Trustees, the work progressed as before, as if the original conception had been perfect, and needed only time to mature and display all its beauties.
In 1854 we find that several of the old Trustees had retired, namely, Mesdames Rutledge, Putnam, Riggs, Lindsley, and Stewart, and that Mrs. James K. Polk and Mrs. C. D. Elliot were elected.
In 1855, the institution having proved to be a great public benefit, with every prospect of being self-sustaining, it was resolved to extend the accommodations by putting up, on the front part of the lot, a two story and basement building, 30 feet front and 30 deep, adjoining and connecting with the old building, providing subscriptions for that purpose would warrant the undertaking. All doubt upon the subject if any exited, was removed, when Mr. Jos. T. Elliston, with his princely liberality, headed the subscription list with $500 and very liberal sums were subscribed by the following, among others: No. M. Bass, R. H. McEwen, sr., John M. Hill, A. W. Putnam, Andrew Ewing, Alex Fall, the late Robert Porter, Jas. Woods, sr., Edwin H. Ewing, Wm. F. Cooper, John A. McEwen, Wm. B. Cooper, Lenox R. Cheatham, Dr. John Waters, John Q. Ewing, the late Felix K. Zollicoffer, E. B. Fogg, G. M. Fogg, R. C. McEwen, sr., John Harding, sr., W. S. Eaking, the late James Ellis, John Hugh Smith, Samuel Lee Morgan, Evans & Co., Ewing, Pendleton, Evans & Co., R. H. Mc McEwen, jr., Sam. Watkins, A. G. Payne, Spain & Coleman, Warren & Moore, Venny & Turbeville, etc., etc., the Legislature of 1855 appropriating the sum of $300 toward furnishing a new addition, or rather, contributing $300 worth of furniture from the Penitentiary.
As the building now stands, there is sufficient room for fifty girls. In the basement of the front building is the kitchen, store-rooms, and laundry. On the next floor is a parlor about 20 feet wide by 15 feet deep, another room in the rear of the parlor, about 20 by 12, in the rear of that is the matron's room, and to the rear of that again, bed-room and store-room. On the next floor is a large work-room, about 20 by 30 feet, lighted by four large windows on the front and north sides, the hall, about ten feet wide, being on the south side, and the dress-makers bed-room over the lower hall, being a neat well-lighted room, about ten-feet square with entrance from the work-room To the rear of the work-room, running back to the rearmost part of the old building, are bedrooms for the girls.
As the name of the institution indicates, it is a school of industry; for the support and education of destitute girls, and from personal observation we would call it an industrial and a happy home. When we dropped in there a few days ago, as we always do when visiting public institutions, without any notice, we found all the girls at work, old and young, making dresses and aprons, knitting stockings and notions, washing dinner dishes and cleaning up, and all seemed cheerful and happy as they wished to be.
We may here state that a professional dress-maker, one of the best in the city, is employed in the establishment for the purpose of instructing the girls and superintending this particular department. There is no style of dress, however rich, that may not be entrusted to the care of Miss Jane Fitzsimons, who is a perfect fitter, and a young lade of exceeding good taste, if we may judge by the fact we hear that the lady Trustees wear few, if any dresses, expect those made by the inmates of the house. Many other of our most influential lady friends also patronize this house exclusively, and while the girls delight in receiving orders for silks and satins, the never turn away muslins or calicoes, or any kind of needle work whatever. Miss Fitzsimmons speaks very highly of the abilities of some of the inmates who have reached years of maturity, but who still remain in the institution, as their home.
We are not aware that there exists any rule as to the age at which girls may be received. The youngest now in the institution is about eight years old, and there are eight or nine who ought to be at school, and who would be, if our public schools were open. When in operation, all the little girls were sent every day to the Hume building. Last year three or four of the youngest were taught gratuitously by Miss Maggie Barr; the present year, Mr. Dorman has taken one, and Miss Quinn another, being the only two now at school. There are no religious services or instructions given in the house, but all the inmates who desire to go to Sunday school and church, have perfect liberty to go to one they properly belong to. There is no particular age fixed, at which the children are taken from school, and placed at work, the lady managers regulating this matter according to circumstances; but none are permitted to remain there in idleness, nor are they required or permitted to work beyond their ability. Under the matron, the older girls are instructed in all that pertains to housekeeping each taking her turn for one week in practical cooking, washing, ironing, house-cleaning, marketing, milking; in short, in everything that is necessary to make a good housewife, while in the sewing room they are instructed in all that pertains to that part of the duty of wife and mother. Each cleans up her own room every morning. One evening in each week is set apart for the girls to receive their relatives and friends, and they have a right pleasant time of it on these occasions.
From the opening of the House of Industry to the present time there have usually been from twenty to twenty five inmates, who have always performed the domestic duties of the establishment. Several of the young women have married happily and respectably, and some of them are still residing amongst us, ornaments to the circle in which they move; while others have left and gone into other homes, but not on has ever brought a blot upon the institution.
Two of the Trustees have died, and go to receive their reward-Mrs. A. W. Putnam, Oct. 27, 1858, and Mrs. John M. Bass, in July of the present year. Mrs. Frances Brinley Fogg was the first president of the Board of Trustees, Mrs. R. H. McEwen, senior, was the first Treasurer, and remained constantly in that position to the present day. The Board of Trustees now consists of the following ladies:-
Mrs. Thomas Maney, President
Mrs. William R. Eliston, Secretary.
Mrs. K. H. McEwen, senior, Treasurer
Mrs. Felix, Compton, Mrs. R. C. Foster,
Mrs. J. K. Polk, Mrs. Liston Stone,
Mrs. Jane Watkins, Mrs. Henry Frazier,
Mrs. Isaac Nicholson, Mrs. W. L. Murphy
Mrs. John Trimble
We may mention in conclusion that from the fact that many of the old patrons of this institution are absent from the city, the inmates have not been kept as busy as they would like to be, and unless the public come to their relief by sending in their orders, they will be obliged to consider themselves dependent upon the kindness of their benefactresses. All lady managers ask of the public is needle work, which they will have well and promptly executed. Give them a call, ladies, their house is on Vine street.
Nashville Dispatch, October 25, 1863.
25, Skirmish near Memphis
No circumstantial reports filed.
 The furniture was made by convict labor. The prison was meant to be self sustaining, the wherewithal coming from the sale of convict labor. It was similar in concept to the House of Industry. Both were to reform the poor through the means of work.
 The Victorian definition of this word was ambiguous, meaning both "resident" and "prisoner."
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214