Wednesday, October 2, 2013

10/2/2013 Tennessee Civil War Notes

2, Civil War Romantic Praise for a Spouse's Love


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Woman's love, like the rose blossoming in the arid desert, spreads its rays over the barren plain of the human heart, and while all round is black and desolate, it rises more strengthening from the absence of every other charm. In no situation does the love of woman appear more beautiful than in that of wife; parents, brethren, and friends have claims upon the affections; but the love of a wife is of a distinct and different nature. A daughter may yield her life to preservation of a parent, a sister may devote herself to a suffering brother but the feeling which induce her to this conduct are not such as those which lead a wife to follow the husband of her choice through every pain and peril that can befall him to watch over him in danger to cheer him in adversity, and over remain unalterable at his side in the depths of ignominy and shame. It is an heroic devotion which a woman displays in her adherence to the fortunes of a hapless husband. When we behold her in her domestic scenes, a mere passive creature of enjoyment, and intellectual toy, brightening the family circle with her endearments and prized for the extreme joy which that presence and those endearments are calculated to impart, we can scarcely credit that the fragile being. Who seems to hold her existence by a thread, is capable of supporting the extreme of human suffering; nay, when the heart of man sinks beneath the weight of agony, that she should maintain her pristine powers of delight, and by her words of comfort and patience, lead the distracted murmurer to peace and resignation.

Memphis Daily Appeal, October 2, 1861.[1]




2, Concerns expressed about Confederate money in Chattanooga

Our Government in carrying on this war, has been compelled to rely almost entirely upon issuing Treasury notes in payment of its debts. These Treasury notes in payment of its debts. These Treasury notes have become the circulating medium of the country to a great extent, and upon their free circulation and the confidence which the people have in them depends the ability of the Government to carry on the war. It therefore follows that whoever attempts to discredit these notes, by any means whatever, and especially by refusing to receive them, becomes an enemy of the country, and is giving aid and assistance to those who are attempting to subjugate us. It is too plain to need argument, that if our currency becomes worthless in the estimation of our own people, and is refused by them, that we will have no means of paying our soldiers and of purchasing things necessary for the army. It is for these reasons that a man who refuses Confederate money should be regarded as a public enemy and treated accordingly. There are several ways in which Confederate money may be discredited besides openly refusing to take it. The man who asks a higher price in Confederate money for what he has to sell than he does in gold or the issues of the various banks of the country, is discrediting it to that extent. Anything which shows a want of confidence in the money is discrediting it. The ability of our Government to redeem these notes is evident to any one at all acquainted with the resources of the Confederate States. All the property in the South is bound for the redemption of these notes. The debt of our Government up to the 1st of January, 1863, will be $556, 823, 445.

Of course the amount of our debt will be in proportion to the duration of the war; but whilst our debt is increasing that of our enemy is increasing in a three fold ratio. Their debt now amounts to not less than fifteen hundred millions of dollars, and will increase faster hereafter, because they have called out a much larger force than formerly. The interest upon their debt now is not less than one hundred and five millions per annum, whilst the interest upon our debt at eight per cent would only be forty millions per annum. The tribute which the South paid to the North every years under the former state of affairs, was four or five times as much as the interest upon our present public debt. As we have not the statistics before us, we prefer to under rather than over estimate the amount. Suffice it to say that during the continuance of the old Union the South paid to the North every year several hundred millions of dollars as tribute money. The ability of the South to pay their debt, compared with that of the North is illustrated by the fact that in 1860 the value of bread stuffs (which is the main article of export from the Northern States.) exported from the United States was only $28,590, 000, whilst the export of cotton alone front the Southern States was not less than $150.000,000, to say nothing of sugar, rice, tobacco and other things These figures show that relative ability of the two countries to pay their debts, and the relative value of the Treasury notes issued by the two governments. If the war were now to cease, three cotton crops would pay the whole debt of the Southern States

There is one point of view in which our money can become worthless, and that is in the event of our subjugation. But we do not permit ourselves to consider this as an event at all to be thought of in our calculations. But even in that case, Confederate money would be worth as much as anything else. All our property is confiscated by the act of the Lincoln Congress, and of course in the event of our subjugation, whether we have Confederate Treasury notes, gold, negroes [sic], or other species of property it will amount to the same thing: all will be of no value to us. Some may flatter themselves that they are in no danger-that they have never "incited, set on foot, assisted or engaged in any rebellion, have never given aid or comfort thereto," and that therefore their property will not be confiscated, and on that account they refuse Confederate money. Such men as these, if there be any among us, are as more enemies to us than the Yankees...because whilst they will enjoy the benefits of our revolution. If we are successful, they are subject to none of the dangers and hazards to person and property which the true men of the country incur. There are various means of impairing our currency to which we intent to call attention in the future. It is very important that our circulating medium should be reduced, since an excess serves to derange our currency, and give a pretext to some evil disposed persons to discredit our money. In our opinion, Confederate money is better than any other we have, and is far preferable to the Treasury notes of the Lincoln Government, because, in no event where they are successful or not, can they ever hope to pay even the interest upon their immense and increasing debt?

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, October 2, 1862.




        25, Report on irresponsible method of recruiting Negroes for U. S. C. T. in Nashville


Nashville, September 25, 1863.


Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.:

SIR: I have at last obtained Governor Johnson's consent to the advertisement inclosed and have commenced recruiting with good prospects of success.

The impressment of colored men which is going on daily in an irresponsible way will help me as soon as I establish a camp and show them they are safe inside of it; they won't be likely to desert.

The colored men here are treated like brutes; any officer who wants them I am told, impresses on his own authority, and it is seldom they are paid. On Sunday a large number were impressed and one was shot; he died on Wednesday. I inclose the copy of a statement made to me one of them from Zenia, Ohio, taken down verbatim by my clerk. Governor Johnson disapproves of the impressment, so he told me, yet it goes on daily.

Gen. Meigs, Quartermaster-Gen., passed here yesterday on his way to the front. If you will order him on his return to investigate the impressment of men, for various purposes, I think you will get some light on the subject.


GEORGE L. STEARNS, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Commissioned for Organization U. S. Colored Troops.

[Inclosure No. 1.]


Nashville, Tenn.

Colored men in the Department of the Cumberland will be enlisted into the service of the United States as soldiers on the following terms:

First. All freemen who will volunteer.

Second. All slaves of rebel or disloyal masters who will volunteer to enlist will be free at the expiration of their term of service.

Third. All slaves of loyal citizens, with the consent of their owners, will be received into the service of the United States; such slaves will be free on the expiration of their term of service.

Fourth. Loyal masters will receive a certificate of the enlistment of their slaves, which will entitle them to payment of a sum not exceeding the bounty now provided by law for the enlistment of white recruits.

Fifth. Colored soldiers will receive clothing, rations, and $10 per month pay; $3 per month will be deducted for clothing.

Recruiting stations are established at Nashville, Galantine, and Murfreesborough. Other stations will be advertised when established.

GEORGE L. STEARNS, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Commissioner for Organization U. S. Colored Troops.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

Statement of Armstead Lewis, of Zenia, Ohio.

I went to the colored Methodist church at 11 o'clock a. m. on Sunday, September 20, 1863. After church, while on my way home, was stopped by a guard, who demanded my pass. I handed it to them; they retained possession of it. They ordered me to fall in among them and I was marched around from place to place till they collected all they could get. We were then marched to a camp about one mile and a half and delivered to some colored men, who were placed on guard over us. They counted us and found they had 180 men. All through the afternoon and evening they kept bringing in squads. They took the passes of the men and after examining them burned them before us.

At dark they put a double around, us and told us if we attempted to escape we would be shot down. We were left that way, out in the cold all night, without tents, blankets, or fire, and some of the men were bareheaded and some without coats.





JNO. H. COCHRANE, Military Secretary.

OR, Ser. III, Vol. 3, pt. II, pp., 840-841.




2, Skirmish near Columbia

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of Nathan Bedford Forrest on his North Alabama, Middle Tennessee Raid relating to skirmishing at Columbia, October 2, 1864.

* * * *

On the morning of the 2d I proceeded toward Columbia, eight miles distant from where I encamped the previous night. Six miles from town I ordered Col. Wheeler to advance and drive in the enemy's pickets. I followed close upon his rear with my whole command. Col. Bell's brigade was ordered to move upon the northern part of town, Gen. Lyon was ordered to throw his brigade on the west, but south of Mount Pleasant pike. The reasons that prevented my storming and capturing Pulaski now existed with redoubled force, for I had not a single piece of artillery, and only half of the troops I had with me at Pulaski. Not intending to make a formidable assault I did not press the enemy. My object in making this demonstration was to take observations for future operations. Satisfying myself of the strength and position of the forts and fortifications, I returned toward Mount Pleasant, at which place I camped during the night.

* * * *

Nathan Bedford Forrest, Major-General

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 547.


Excerpt from the Report of Col. William B. Sipes, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, commanding post of Columbia.

COLUMBIA, October 3, 1864--3.30 a. m.

SIR: Gen. Forrest with a force of 2,500 men crossed Duck River, on the Lewisburg pike, eight miles above Columbia, on Saturday [October 1] morning last. The same day [October 1] he attacked the railroad at Carter's Creek Station, destroyed the Government saw-mill and water-tank, and captured 3 block-houses, with their garrisons. Three brigades on Carter's Creek were destroyed. To-day [yesterday] [i.e. October 2] he recrossed Duck River south of this four miles, attacked several block-houses, without doing any injury, and struck the road near Culleoka, which has been damaged, to what extent is not known. He attacked the pickets near this post, and after several hours skirmishing retired....

* * * *

WM. B. SIPES, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 535-536.


[1] As cited in PQCW.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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