Saturday, December 6, 2014

12.06.2014 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        6, A letter from home, Frederick Bradford, in Davidson County, to his sons with the 20th Tennessee Regiment
We hear so many conflicting statements of our difficulties, it is difficult to know how this war will terminate, but as our cause is just, I have an abiding faith, with the help God, we will conquer.
Our country is in a powerful mess at this time on a count of the Governor having called for all of our private arms and one half of the militia Since the call a good many have volunteered and each militia company is credited with volunteers from it. Therefore, there was but seven to go from our company and several of them have volunteered since....All the rifles and double barrel shotguns have been sold or loaned to the government. I loaned the twin sisters[1] until the end of the war but I never expect to see her again.
I had no idea until the militia was called that we had so many afflicted persons in our community. The lame and the blind, the halt and the deaf, and indeed almost every disease the human family is heir to have presented themselves to the surgeons for certificates of exemption. I fear this calling of the militia is rather a bad move. I think three months' volunteers would have been preferable.
There is very little news, except war news and not much of that, that [sic] can be relied on.
The neighborhood is generally healthy. Crops are good and everything high. Corn is selling from 3.50 to 4.00 per bushel. Potatoes are 1.00 per bushel. Pork from 10 to 12 ½ cents per pound. Salt is selling $12.00 to $14.00 per sack, Barrel salt from #.50 to $4.00 per bushel, coffee $1.00 to $1.50 per pound and everything and everything else in proportion.
We are not using much coffee in this neighborhood, a good deal of wheat and rye are used in its stead. We have had a very wet fall. I have not gathered more than half of my corn. I expect to have four hundred barrels to sell. I have killed thirty hogs, which weighed 5470 pounds. I have twenty-seven shoats to kill which will weigh 100 [sic] apiece. If we could have an honorable peace, we could live well. Your uncle Skelt....will start his distillery soon.
Frederick Bradford Papers, TSL&A
        6, Report of a draft riot in Nashville [see December 12, 1861. "Report of negative reactions to the Confederate draft in Nashville ca. December 6, 1861" below]
"A riot occurred at Nashville, Tenn., Occasioned by the authorities resorting to drafting soldiers to supply the rebel army. The boxes used for this purpose [i.e., "draft lottery"] were broken up, and during the excitement two persons were killed and several wounded. Governor Harris was forced to keep his room, and was protected by a strong guard."
New York Times, December 8, 1861.
        6, "What is Needed."
The militia of Tennessee need drilling. They never did and never will need drafting. Soldiers and the sons of soldiers may be long continued devotion to the pursuits of peace grow rusty in the science of war. The same cause cannot however, impair their patriotism. The idea that they need the threat of compulsion to make them volunteers is new and novel, and he who entertains it is a slanderer. The Governor of the State makes the threat, thus degrading his position and seeking to disgrace the people who elevated him to it.
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 6, 1861.
        6, "Confederate Doctors."
We hear many complaints of the medical staff of our army. Some skillful and careful physicians have gone out with the regiments: of them we desire to speak with all respect. They are doing much for humanity and their country. If disease attacks camps and kills more soldiers than bullets, then doctors are as important as generals, who manoeuvre [sic] the soldiers in the face of an enemy.
But when the volunteers start for the wars, they are healthy and buoyant, and don't feel like they will ever need a physician. It is not thought of much consequence then who the surgeon is; and if some physician out of practice, and of no force beyond being a clever fellow, offers, he is elected. But when disease begins to prey on the ranks, then they often need a different man from the one who moves about them, with cap and lace. "No private soldier," said one of these wasted forms to us-"no private soldier can get any attention from the surgeons in half the regiments. Go to him when you are sick, he will curse round a while, and tell you go back to your tent and he will come and see you directly, and that is the last of it." A contemporary, who has had a look into camp, says:
"From what we are able to learn, some of the hospital are poorly managed; dirty and filthy enough to make a well man sick, and of course not a fit place at all for a sick man to regain his health.
"A humbug, mountebank doctor, who knows nothing, and who is good for nothing but to drink up the liquor provided for the sick, ought never to be allowed about a camp or hospital.
"It is said that an upstart surgeon, who goes about the camps with a stone-heart in his breast, is more dreaded by the soldiers after a battle than the enemy's weapons are before it. Men can't afford to lose an arm or a leg, and such members should be should not be amputated if there is any chance to restore them or heal the wound. The cutting and carving of flesh and bones is horrible, and a careful investigation should be made in every instance before the knife is resorted to."
Christian Advocate.
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 6, 1861.
        6, Poor Folks' Prices in Clarksville
Encouraging to Poor Folks.-Pork is selling at ten to twelve cents per pound; flour at ten dollars per bbl; bacon at twenty-seven cents; butter at forty cents; goods and groceries at just what a man has the face to ask--and other things in proportion. Truly the poor man, with a wife and children depending on him, has many incentives to join the volunteers and leave his family to the tender mercies of the community.-Clarksville (Tenn.) Chronicle, Nov. 29th.
Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Georgia], December 6, 1861[2]
        6, Memphis military school established
Military School.-Mr. W. H. Passmore has established a school for military instruction in Hardee's tactics. He opens this evening at 7 o'clock at the Gayoso Hall, on Main, between Gayoso and Beal streets. Those who compose the class will please to be punctual in attendance. Mr. Passmore is an experienced instructor and has been engaged in teaching tactics from the time the volunteers began mustering in this city.
Memphis Daily Appeal, December 6, 1861
        6, "They are possessed with the demon spirit, and controlled by the evil counsels of arch traitors, Johnson and Maynard." Newspaper report on the fight at Morristown[3]
Important from East Tennessee
The Insurrection Renewed!-The Traitors Attack our Troops!-The Confederates Repulsed!
We have information that on yesterday a large body of Unionists attacked an inferior force of Confederates at Morristown, East Tennessee, killing a number of the latter the balance being compelled to retire before the superior force of the enemy. There is intense excitement and it appears as the rebellion, which was supposed to be quelled, has broken out with increased virulence. Nothing but summary vengeance will repress the Lincoln incendiaries.
East Tennessee. They are possessed with the demon spirit, and controlled by the evil counsels of those arch traitors, Johnson and Maynard.
We have also information of the arrival of Maj. Gen. Geo. Crittenden, at Knoxville, to take command of the Confederate forces in East Tennessee and Southern Kentucky. His arrival at this juncture is most opportune. He was an officer high in rank and distinction in the old army. He has seen much active service, and is possessed of that indomitable vigor and courage, as well as thorough military knowledge and generalship, so necessary to cope with the formidable rebellion of the Lincolnites in East Tennessee . They will find in him an opponent who will drive them like chaff before the wind. We are truly fortunate in securing for important commands the best officers in the old Federal army. Gen. Crittenden is the oldest son of John J. Crittenden, but unlike his father and brother, is true to the cause of the South.-Memphis Avalanche, 2.
Macon Daily Telegraph, December 6, 1861.
        6, News from Pre-War Tennessee
Tennessee Intelligence
Maj. Gen. Geo. B. Crittenden, with his staff, arrived at Knoxville, on Saturday last (Dec. 1st), and assumed command of the troops in the eastern portion of Tennessee and Kentucky….
One hundred good country rifles, taken from the Union men of McMinn and Meigs counties, have been delivered to Col. McClung. Capt. Wright has also secured one hundred and sixty good guns from Monroe county.
Mrs. Leonidas Polk acknowledges the receipt of five hundred dollars from Mr. Valcour Aime, of the Parish of St. James, La., forwarded for the benefit of the Tennessee Hospital Association. Since November 7th more than fifteen hundred patients have been received, of which number three thousand have resumed their duties at Bowling green, while may have been taken to private hospitals near Nashville, leaving at this date one thousand in the Hospital.
Nashville was favored with a sprinkling of snow on the 2d inst.
The Gazette states that J. E. Bailey, Esq., until lately connected with the state Military Board, has, within the past four days, raised a volunteer company of 100 men and $3,000 to equip them.[4] The company has been mustered in.
A large body of volunteers from Wilson county marched into Nashville on the 2d. The Gazette says: ["] The procession was made up of stages, carriages, buggies, carts, wagons, etc., which were crowded with the yeomanry of that good old county. They are like all the men who hail from that section-soldier-like in appearance, and will sustain the reputation Wilson county has always had for fighting stock.["]
A general review of the troops at Knoxville took place on the 4th by Gen. Crittenden.
Col. Leadbetter, whose headquarters are at Unionville, has issued and address to the people of East Tennessee. After exhorting them to allegiance to the government, he closes with the following paragraph:
["]So long as you are up in arms against these States can you look for anything but the invasion of your houses and the wasting of your substance! The condition of things must be ended. The government commands the peace, and sends troops to enforce the order. I proclaim that every man who comes in promptly and delivers up his arms will be paroled on taking the oath of allegiance. All men taken in arms against the government will be transported to the military prison at Tuscaloosa, and be confined during the war. Bridge burners and destroyers of railroad tracks are excepted from among those pardonable. They will be tried by drum head court martial and to be hung on the spot.["]
The Register says that Garret Hall, formerly of Morgan county, Tennessee, but who for some months has been here with the East Tennessee Lincolnite troops in Kentucky, was arrested in that county of Monday night last [November 30th], and brought to Knoxville by Confederate troops. When arrested, he was acting in the capacity of a recruiting officer for Lincoln's army in Kentucky. He is represented as a despotic man and in making the arrest he was shot by one of the Confederate party, but we learn, not severely wounded.
The Jonesboro Union says that in Carter county, a large number of those more or less implicated in the later rebellion voluntarily came forward and delivered up their arms and took the oath of allegiance to the Confederate States of America. The principal ringleaders, however, have fled up to Johnson county, or elsewhere. Some of the bridge-burners have been taken.
Three volunteer companies are organized in Clarksville, next week.
The Nashville Gazette of the 4th announces the presence of an agent in that city, from headquarters, conferring with the owners of several first class steamers, with a view of having them put in gunboat trim.
Memphis Daily Appeal, December 6, 1861.[5]
        6, Sam Tate's Advice Concerning the Memphis Safety Committee; An Excerpt from His Report to General L. Polk.
NEW ORLEANS, December 6, 1861.
Gen. L. POLK, Columbus, Ky.:
DEAR SIR: ….There are more spies in the country than I ever saw. Try and stop all communication with the North is the best remedy, and then hang such as get over here as spies. Don't turn any more men over to Memphis Safety Committee unless you want them turned loose.
Your friend,
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 230-231.
        6, Reported Chaos in Nashville
Persons who have passed through Nashville, Tenn., on the 6th of Dec., found the city in the midst of a revolution. An effort to impress some citizens into the rebel army was resisted by the people who rose in large numbers, and a general riot ensued. The police, who endeavored to subdue the multitude, were fiercely opposed, and four of them killed. The people then rushed towards the Capitol, to take vengeance of the rebel Governor on the rebel Governor Harris, but that functionary fled to Memphis. This fact in itself is suggestive of a general reactionary movement in the South.
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, December 28, 1861. [6]
        6-11, Failure by Confederates to construct defenses for Nashville
C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 6, 1861.
HUGH McKREW, Esq., Nashville, Tenn.:
SIR: I would impress on you the urgent necessity of procuring immediately laborers for constructing defenses in the vicinity of Nashville. As yet there have been but 7 reported for duty on Cockrill's Hill, and we need at least 300, as with less than that number the work cannot go on with that expedition desired and expected. I would therefore direct that you use every exertion, you having been authorized and appointed by the Governor of Tennessee, to procure forthwith all the laboring force possible to report at Cockrill's Hill Monday morning, December 9, 1861, or as soon thereafter as practicable. You will also direct that laborers living at great distances from the works (Cockrill's Hill) bring with them bed-clothing, eating and cooking utensils. You will direct those living near (Cockrill's Hill), whose masters and owners prefer their returning home at night, to bring their dinners, until preparations can be made for their eating at or near the work. We will want all and every laborer that can be had.
Your obedient servant,
G. O. WATTS, Acting Assistant Engineer.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, p. 740.

C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 7, 1861.
Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Adjutant-Gen., Hdqrs. West. Dept., Bowling Green, Ky.:
SIR: For the information of the commanding general I have to report that the agents employed under the sanction of Governor Harris to engage the services of negroes [sic] from their masters to work on the intrenchments for defending the city of Nashville against land approach have failed to procure a force at all adequate to the magnitude of the work contemplated. In fact, the number of hands is insignificant, and the agents report that it will be impracticable to procure them at this time, as the negroes [sic] in the vicinity of this city are hired out until the end of this year and [are] not now under the control of their masters. It is not probable, therefore, that any material progress can be made in the construction of the proposed defenses during the present month unless other labor can be applied. It is to be feared, too, that the call for military service has taken so large a proportion of the laboring classes from this community that it will be difficult, if at all possible, to procure white laborers at any price that will be reasonable.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. F. GILMER, Maj., and Chief Engineer Western Department.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, p. 741.

C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 9, 1861.
Lieut. Col. W. W. MACKALL, Adjutant-Gen., Western Department, Bowling Green, Ky.:
SIR: On the question of constructing a gunboat for the defense of the Cumberland River, as proposed by Messrs. Shaw & Lawson, and referred to me by indorsement on the letter of Governor Harris, Gov. Neil S. Brown, and Gen. W. G. Harding, I have the honor to report as follows:
If it were practicable to build a gunboat of proper description in the Cumberland it would aid much in the defense of the river, but I much fear that a common steamboat cannot be converted into an efficient one. The boilers and machinery can be but partially protected from shot, and the large side-wheels, having diameters varying from 30 to 34 feet, not at all. One shot striking the partially-protected machinery or the shaft or the large wheels might render such a gunboat totally helpless and place her at the mercy of the enemy, with crew, armament, and supplies.
It is probable the hull of a well-built river boat (and such a one is now laid up at this city) can be made in a measure shot-proof to a line below the water surface by covering her with false timber sides and bulwarks clad with thick iron. Railroad or other bars would have to be used for the purpose, as there is not plate iron in the whole Confederacy sufficient to protect the hundredth part of the surface of one boat. This market will not furnish the requisite heavy timber for strengthening the sides of the boat or for constructing the inclined barricades or bulwarks, as proposed by Messrs. Shaw & Lawson. In course of many weeks it could be obtained, I presume, from forest and saw-mills of the surrounding country. The heavy additions of timber and iron would give the boat a draught too great for navigating the river except during the winter season and early spring.
Considering all the objections that exist to such a gunboat as proposed, the period of time that must elapse before one could be gotten ready for service, and the probable armament of guns we may hope to command, I am forced to the opinion that the best reliance for defense will be batteries ashore, in combination with such obstructions as may be devised in the channel under the guns of the works. I return the letters of Governors Harris and Brown and Gen. Harding.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. F. GILMER, Maj., and Chief Engineer Western Department.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 748-749.

C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 11, 1861.
His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of the State of Tennessee, Nashville:
SIR: The agents heretofore employed to procure a laboring force for building fortifications for defending the approaches to this city have failed to get any more than a few negroes [sic]; a number quite insignificant when compared with the works to be undertaken. With a hope that a large force of negroes [sic] may yet be obtained by an appeal to the citizens of the vicinity and neighboring counties, I have prepared the form for the call upon them, which I submit for your indorsement. Having your indorsement, I have thought it might be advisable to have a number of copies printed and placed in the hands of some officers, say sheriffs and constables, with instructions to apply to every citizen within reach, and urge the necessity of a prompt compliance with the call.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. F. GILMER, Maj., and Chief Engineer Western Department.
C. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 11, 1861.
It has been decided by the general commanding the Western Department to fortify the approaches to the city of Nashville, the better to protect your capital and State against the contingency of invasion by our relentless enemy. To this end a call is now made upon all citizens to contribute a part of the labor which they control to aid in the erection of the necessary works. It is necessary that each negro [sic] sent from a distance be furnished by his master with blankets or other bed-clothing sufficient to make him comfortable; also with cooking and messing utensils. It is essential that the number be assembled with the least practicable delay at Cockrill's Hill and Foster's Hill, near and north of the town of Edgefield, on the Goodlettsville turnpike. The force employed will be lodged at night either in tents or frame thus in the vicinity of the work, and as a care more satisfactory to the owners may be secured to their hands by placing them under the charge of some person or persons known in the neighborhood or county from which the negroes [sic] are sent, it is desired that this plan, by agreement among the citizens, be adopted. If subsistence be furnished by the owner, $1 per day for each hand will be paid by the Confederate States; if supplies by the Government, then 70 cents per day. Nothing but a great necessity causes this additional call upon the patriotism of the citizens, and a prompt response will the better insure protection to your property and your homes.
By direction and authority of Gen. A. S. Johnston, commanding the Western Department:
J. F. GILMER, Maj., and Chief Engineer Western Department.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, p.757.
        6, Skirmish at Kimbrough's Mill, at Mill Creek
DECEMBER 6, 1862.-Skirmish near Kimbrough's Mill, Mill Creek, Tenn.
No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Joshua W. Sill, U. S. Army.
No. 2.-Col. Harvey M. Buckley, Fifth Kentucky Infantry, commanding brigade.
No. 3.-Col. Charles Anderson, Ninety-third Ohio Infantry.
No. 4.-Lieut. Col. Milton Barnes, Ninety-seventh Ohio Infantry.
No. 5.-Capt. T. R. Palmer, inspector First Division, Twenty-first Army Corps.
No. 1.
Report of Brig. Gen. Joshua W. Sill, U. S. Army.
CAMP MILL CREEK, December 6, 1862--7 p. m.
GEN.: Our forage train was attacked by cavalry and artillery to-day. I presume it was Wheeler's command. We had 1 man killed and 2 wounded. The enemy captured 8 of the wagons of Hascall's division, which were out on the same road. Will send you written report to-morrow morning.
J. W. SILL, Brig.-Gen.
No. 2.
Report of Col. Harvey M. Buckley, Fifth Kentucky Infantry, commanding brigade.
HDQRS. FOURTH BRIGADE, December 7, 1862.
CAPT.: The following is a brief statement of the skirmish on yesterday [6th], between the enemy and the guard of forage train:
I left camp in command of the First Ohio, Ninety-third Ohio, and Fifth Kentucky, and two sections of Battery H. Arrived at the point indicated by forage-master to fill the train about noon of yesterday, which place is about 7 miles from this camp. We discovered the enemy about one-half mile in front of us, numbering about 15 or 20 mounted men. Lieut. Ludlow, of battery, brought his gun to bear upon them, and fired two shots, after which they disappeared. I then ordered the First Ohio to the front and right to protect the wagons, which were gathering forage near Kimbrough's Mill. The Fifth Kentucky was thrown to the front, and left to protect the wagons foraging near Ham's house. The Third Indiana Cavalry, of two companies, under Capt. Vanosdol, were ordered to the front, and here I would say that no men could have behaved better than those two companies, nor could any one have maneuvered them to better advantage than the captain in command.
We had arrived upon the ground but a very short time before we were Col. Barnes' report, forwarded herewith. Having filled as many wagons as we could without bringing the traininto camp, I ordered the two sections of artillery in advance of the train, and the First Ohio immediately in advance of the artillery. Hearing at this time pretty heavy firing of cannon in front, the Fifth Kentucky was ordered forward in rear of the First Ohio and the artillery, and Ninety-third Ohio having been left in the rear to protect the train, as well as the Ninety-seventh Ohio and Capt. Vanosdol's cavalry. We had proceeded but a short distance toward camp before we discovered the enemy drawn up in pretty strong force before us. I ordered up one piece of artillery, and opened fire upon them. We were answered by artillery, but they soon gave way, upon which we proceeded on to camp, arriving there near sundown.
As to what happened in our rear about the time of our leaving for camp, I refer you to Col. Anderson's report, who had command of the rear guard. As to the part taken by the First Ohio, I would refer you to report of Maj. Stafford, filed herewith. One of my escort is missing; another had his horse wounded.
The conduct of the men and officers engaged would have satisfied the most exacting. I am indebted to my side, Lieut. Harman, of the Ninety-third Ohio, for his energy and promptness in carrying all orders.
The only loss from the train of this division is one wagon of the battery, which was destroyed by ourselves, the mules having become unruly and broken the tongue.
H. M. BUCKLEY, Col., Cmdg. Fourth Brigade.
No. 3.
Report of Col. Charles Anderson, Ninety-third Ohio Infantry.
CAMP NEAR NASHVILLE, December 6, 1862.
SIR: In obedience to your order to take charge of the defense of the rear of the forage train, I halted my command this evening at about 3 o'clock parallel with, and close to, its rear. Whilst waiting in this position for the trains to move on, upon the top of the hill, a little west of the Franklin and Lebanon road, and southwest from the house of Mr. Ham, and above that of --, I saw a number of the enemy, on foot, and led by three horsemen, rushing down the valley which lies to the north of my position, in a westerly direction. They made great clamor by shouting, and their purpose evidently was to intercept the train in its march homeward upon the slope of the hill, and at the bend of the road as it enters into the valley. I immediately ordered my regiment march in double-quick time through certain gaps and gates upon the eastern side of, and close to, the road, which was then filled with our wagons. My purpose was, having slight advantage in distance as well as in the declivities of the hill, to make the same point before them, and to cut them off from any attack on my charge. In this effort I succeeded, but not in sufficient time to prevent them spreading themselves in most favorable ground and shelter before my regiment could ensconce itself behind the fence with I desired as a cover. After a volley from Company F, Company A having been detached in support of a battery in advance, a rapid and irregular fire now ensued throughout both bodies of combatants. This lasted until, apparently, being satisfied that the Ninety-third Regt. [sic] could not be moved from its position, and, consequently, that they could not succeed in the purpose of their ambuscade and assault, they fled precipitately and universally as far up the valley as we could see.
Our loss in this action was but 1 killed and 3 wounded. Considering the closeness of the range, the deliberateness and duration of the enemy's fire, and the almost rash exposure of several of my companies, these casualties are strangely small in number. What injury was inflicted upon the enemy I cannot undertake to say, and will not guess. Neither will I, in my inexperience in such matters, profess to estimate his numbers. They certainly seemed to be largely in excess of our own, and the whole command of the expedition was, in my opinion, surrounded on all sides by large numbers of our foes. It greatly delights me to speak in high and earnest praise of the gallantry and firmness of this new regiment in this its first fight. Every officer and man seemed resolved to do his best, and where all have so well succeeded in that noble effort it might be invidious to distinguish by name particular persons. Notwithstanding my disposition to regard that restraint upon special praises, I feel myself compelled to specify two instances of marked courage and pertinacious bravery. The one was that of William Gosshorn, fourth corporal in Company F, and the other that of William C. Stewart, private Company C, acting color-bearer. The former, after being painfully wounded in the thigh by one of the first rounds of the engagement, deliberately went into line and loaded and fired at the enemy seven or eight times. The latter, in this his first battle, stood out in front of his company, and of the regiment, with his tall figure and ever-glorious banner elevated to their highest reach, nor could he be persuaded to bend his person, nor to lower his colors.
In conclusion, perhaps overrating the merits of my regiment and the importance of its conduct, I feel free to say, in justice to its men and officers, that I think any less merit than that shown in this fight would have probably lost us our entire train, and it seems to me, now, that this attack, at this time and place, was preconcerted, together with various feints elsewhere, to accomplish that special object. Vanity or undue partiality to my own men may mislead me in this opinion; if so, I can only offer the apology that the error is as natural as it is frank.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
No. 4.
Report of Lieut. Col. Milton Barnes, Ninety-seventh Ohio Infantry.
COL.: In compliance with your order to report the part taken by the Ninety-seventh Regt. [sic] as escort for the forage train in our encounter with the enemy this day, and the result, I have the honor to report the following, viz.,:
Under your instructions, I proceeded with the regiment, in charge of the Twenty-first Brigade train, to the outposts of Gen. Sill's division, where I found a train on the route from that division with an escort of three regiments, commanded by Col. Buckley. He informed me that it would not be safe to venture out beyond with one regiment only, and suggested that I should accompany him, and unite our forces, which I did, and reported to him for orders. I proceeded, following in the rear of his train to a point about 2 miles beyond a brick church, on the railroad. Here the whole train had halted. I had previously thrown three companies to the rear of our own brigade train, and the quartermaster in charge had reported the train all right. I then went forward, after heavy firing in the advance, and met Col. Buckley, who immediately ordered me forward, with five companies of my command, to support the Louisville Legion, which I did, taking with me the remaining two also. I formed in order of battle in the rear of that regiment, and deployed one company (Company E, Capt. Egan) to the left. This company advanced as skirmishers until they reached the brow of the hill on the left, bearing to the front through a piece of woods into an open field, where they discovered the enemy in force, mounted. Several rounds were fired by them and several from the enemy, which, overreaching them, took effect in the battle-line of the regiment, resulting in the death of 1 man and the slight wounding of another. I then moved across the ravine through the woods to the support of my skirmishers, and gained a position under the brow of the hill, and discovered there a large body of rebel cavalry, retreating and bearing around to the right, at a distance beyond the range of musketry. Considerable firing was now heard on our right and in our rear, and I saw the Louisville Legion retreating back the road toward the train. I awaited orders, but receiving none, I moved slowly back to where I had first left the train, which still remained there, but Col. Buckley had gone back some distance toward the railroad, with a portion of his forces and battery, and I suppose was engaging a rebel battery which I learned had been planted in our rear, and was attempting to cut off our retreat. By this time it became evident that we were almost, if not quite, surrounded, and would have to cut our way through. The train I found was moving rapidly to the rear. In the mean time I had received no orders what to do. I agreed with Col. Anderson, of the Ninety-third Ohio Volunteers, to take the left and he the right of the road again.
While doing so, a furious charge was made upon the train from the right by a regiment of rebel infantry and of cavalry from the woods on the opposite side of the hill, but Col. Anderson coming up promptly, they gave way. I was moving rapidly in that direction, when I received an order from Col. Buckley to form in order of battle on the right of the road, and move to the front to support the battery, which I did, the train still moving on it that direction.
When I came in sight of the enemy, they were retreating in all directions, and we passed safely through. My loss in men was 1 killed and 1 wounded. The Twenty-first Brigade train, the only one I was authorized to guard, came safely into camp. Several teams belonging to the Sixth Division, variously estimated at 6, 12, and 14, were reported as having been captured while out foraging on their own account without a guard, but I know nothing of this officially. The loss to the train was only 2 mules shot.
I have the honor to remain, colonel, your obedient servant,
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, pp. 34-37.
        6, Andrew Slagg's letter home to his brother Thomas describing camp life and the attitude of Confederate soldiers
Camp Near Memphis, December 6th 1862 Thomas Henry Slagg
Dear Brother i [sic] take up my pen to write a few lines to you hoping they will find you well as it leaves me. at present Joe complains of a pain in his right knee but i [sic] think he will get over that Soon i [sic] guess it is a touch of the rheumatism. Ezra is getting better his happetite [sic] is better then it was but his eyes Looks rather yellow yet he has been out on drill to day. Joe and me is on guard to day. it is a nice warm day. their was some white stuff Last night and on the fourth their was a snow about one inch but it melted away about ten o'clock. the [sic] old settlers say that it is about as cold now as it generaly [sic] is through the winter. If thats [sic] so i [sic] think we can stand it pritty [sic] well. Joe and me was Picket and Edward Palmiter from Albion Centre. we [sic] stood between Two [sic] houses and at four road ends we took one days rations with us We [sic] cooked our coffee in our tins and fried our pork on pointed sticks. it [sic] was pritty [sic] a cold night but we built a larger fire Wich [sic] made it pritty coffatable [sic]. [sic] Their was a paroled soldier from the rebel army and I tell you he stood up for the south like the old harry he was. in [sic] the battle of Shiloh he said the south had the most men the first day by nine thousand. he [sic] said That [sic] the northerners was [sic] just eating breakfast when they pitched On [sic] them but he said they fought like the very devil. well [sic] i [sic] Could [sic] tell you a pile but i [sic] have not got time so i [sic] must Turn to other things. Peter Binkert [sic] is in the hospital And [sic] Edward Palmiter is in too and he has been crazy for two nights. it [sic] takes three men to hold him. he [sic] catched [sic] cold the Night [sic] we was [sic] on picket and it settled in his brain. Henry Foot is in too. he [sic] is from Albion Centre. Peter Binkert is worse Today [sic]. Joe Mcmonagal has been very Sick [sic] but he is better now well Dear brother we haven't received any wages since we left Madison. i [sic] think we shall have some before long. i [sic] think them Centre [sic] fellows is a going but us through the small sive [sic] about the bounty but if they dont [sic] pay up to the handle if i [sic] ever come home i [sic] dont [sic] think i [sic] can stand it very well. thomas [sic] if billy [sic] north can pay that note off draw it and use it. Bicknel sends his best respects to you. They have lost two out of their company. i [sic] went to the funeral and i [sic] tell you it was a fine graveyard. Your affectionate brother
Alexander Slagg
Slagg Correspondence.[7]
        6, Prisoner exchange and smuggling
A flag of truce was sent out yesterday by order of Gen. Rosecrans, to convey a number of ladies to the Confederate lines who desired to go South; also, the Rev. C. D. Elliott, who goes South for the purpose of effecting an exchange of Dr. Charlton, of this county, arrested some time since and paroled by the Confederates, for himself. If he succeeds in effecting the exchange, we understand he will remain in the South.
We understand a hack containing two of the ladies was brought back after having got out several miles, it having been discovered that a small box containing contraband articles was concealed under the seat. The driver—a colored man—subsequently admitted that he was the one who endeavored to smuggle the box through, and he was sent to the penitentiary to await further action in his case. The authorities having become satisfied that the ladies were innocent of any participation in this attempt to smuggle through contraband articles, sent them forward again under a flag of truce, so that the whole party is probably now in Dixie.
Nashville Dispatch, December 7, 1862.
        6, Capture of Unionist Bushwhackers in Anderson County
Captures in Tennessee.
Knoxville, December 6.-Three notorious leaders of bushwhackers of Cliff's renegade band, have been captured in Anderson county, and were lodge in jail here yesterday. One of the number, named Vance, has been the terror of the mountains for years.
Thirty-four Abolitionists and four negroes, in Yankee uniform, were captured by Col. Palmer at Big Cree Gap, and sent here.
The Daily Dispatch, December 8, 1862. [8]
        6, Affair near Fayetteville
DECEMBER 6, 1863.-Affair near Fayetteville, Tenn.
Report of Brig. Gen. Joseph F. Knipe U. S. Army, commanding First Brigade, First Division, Twelfth Army Corps.
DECHERD, TENN., December 9, 1863.
COL.: I have the honor to submit the following report:
The detail furnished from this post, in obedience to orders from headquarters Army of the Cumberland, as guard to working party taking up railroad iron on Fayetteville railroad, was attacked on the 6th instant, in the neighborhood of Fayetteville, and 1 man wounded and 4 taken prisoners. A small bridge [at] Salem was destroyed on the night of the 6th instant. I have sent forward hands to rebuild this structure will have it completed by this time, I think. I apprehend some difficulty in the removal of these rails with the force employed.
I have just learned that the contractor uses the troops furnished as guard to secure contrabands in the neighborhood to do the work, and that while so employed the 4 men were captured by a party calling themselves First Tennessee Battalion. The men captured have returned to this post with inclosed parole paper. I have returned the men to duty, regarding the parole as of no account.
I would respectfully suggest that the company of mounted infantry under command of Capt. Brixey, stationed at Tracy City, could be advantageously used on this work and would ask permission to so use them.
JOS. F. KNIPE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Post.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, p. 602.
        6, Skirmish at Clinch Mountain
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
        6, Pursuit of Confederate wagon train and skirmish near Maryville
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpts from the Itinerary of the Second Brigade, Second Cavalry Division (Army of the Cumberland), Col. Eli Long commanding, relative to events in East Tennessee from December 1-28, 1863.
* * * *
On the night of the 6th...brigade marched to Maryville, and from here started in pursuit of a rebel wagon train, and followed it across the mountains into North Carolina, encountering no resistance, except from a small force of rebel cavalry at Murphy, N. C.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, p. 435.
        6, "The Field of Chickamauga-Rebel Brutality and Barbarism."
The splendid victories of Gen. Grant at Chattanooga have given us possession of the battle field of Chicamauga [sic]. [sic] This is fortunate; for it appears that the brave Union soldiers who fell on those bloody days of the 19th and the 20th of September last, have been left unburied by the brutal soldiery of people who claim to belong to a higher species of civilization than the North. Gen. Rosecrans, under a flag of truce, asked the privilege of taking charge of our gallant dead, but the cold blooded despot, Bragg, refused it, and even denied them the rites of sepulture The Indian savage who first roamed at large amid the primeval forests of Georgia and Tennessee, had nobler ideas of humanity, than this leader of "the chivalry," and his hordes of ignorant and debased troops.
But not only were our dead left unburied for upwards of two months; the barbarians amused themselves by cutting heads from the bodies of their unconscious victims, and setting some up on stumps and sticking other up on poles! This is a horrible picture to contemplate, but the exhibition is reported to have been witnessed by Gen. [Charles] Cruft, and it vouched for as true by others. It has been the custom of the blatant stump orators of the South to declaim furiously about the horrors of the St. Domingo massacre, and to relate the story of a child impaled upon a pike and carried about the streets at the head of a mob of infuriated negroes [sic]. How much less brutal and barbarous are Bragg and his men? In what respect does their conduct elevate the above the negroes [sic]? If there be any difference in the degree of their crimes it is in favor of the blacks, who galled by chains and slavery, and maddened by the lash and the bludgeon, turned upon their oppressors. But these Southern barbarians profess to be civilized and enlightened, to be moral and religious to be the especial favorites of Heaven! They have no excuse of slavery or oppression or heat of blood, to palliate their offence against humanity. Their crime was perpetrated deliberately and coolly, in the very wantonness and wickedness. Such depravity is a disgrace in the age and should bring down upon the Southern leaders and their followers the denunciations and contempt of the world.
Brutality of similar character was practiced after the first battle of Bull Run, when drinking cups were made of skulls and trinkets of finger bones. Not less infamous has been the treatment of Union prisoners at Richmond, where hundreds of them have been with malice and forethought starved to death.
These things all go to show the debasing character of the rebellion, which was begun and has been prosecuted without a cause; and, as if conceived in hell has made devils of those engaged in it.
Nashville Daily Union, December 6, 1863. [9]
        6, Report on movement and intentions of Confederate cavalry near Bolivar
LA GRANGE, December 6, 1863.
Maj.-Gen. HURLBUT:
Scouts just in from Bolivar report that Forrest, Neely, and Richardson crossed the Hatchie at Bolivar with 2,000 men and two small pieces of artillery Thursday evening. They said they were going to Jackson to make a stand and hold West Tennessee; were armed with Mississippi rifles and poorly clad.
J. M. TUTTLE, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 349.
        6, Brigadier-General Nathan Bedford Forrest's situation report to General Joseph E. Johnston from Jackson, Tennessee
Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Cmdg. Department:
GEN.: I have the honor to report the safe arrival of my command at this place; also to state that I am highly pleased with the prospect before me. I have never seen a more healthy spirit manifested anywhere than is shown by the people here. I have already about 5,000 men, and if I am unmolested until the 1st day of January will, I think, have 8,000 effective troops in the field.
The Federals are and have been conscripting in Southern Kentucky, and of 130 conscripted at Columbus over 100 have escaped and joined my command. They are coming in daily at the rate of 50 to 100 per day, and as soon as it becomes known that my command is here large numbers will leave the Federal lines to join us.
The enemy is strengthening his works and increasing his force at Fort Pillow, Hickman, Paducah, and Columbus, and report says preparing for a raid in this direction, but if Gen. Lee will keep engaged the attention of the force guarding the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, I think we can whip any force they can send from above. I hope therefore that Gen. Lee may be kept operating on that road and keep the enemy from moving on me from that direction, as it is of the utmost importance that the country be held until arms can be procured and organization of troops completed.
I am exceedingly anxious to get the arms, &c., promised me by the President, and for which requisitions have been made. I also venture a suggestion which will no doubt meet the approval of Gen. Lee and yourself, provided there are no movements on the part of the enemy to prevent it. It is this: That Gen. Lee, with all the cavalry that can be spared, move up into West Tennessee, bringing with him all the arms and ammunition for my command, and returning with my force to assist him, and the co-operation of Gen. Roddey east of Corinth, we could effectually destroy the Memphis and Charleston Railroad and drive out from here from 4,000 to 6,000 head of good beef-castle for the use of the army.
Provisions and army supplies are abundant, except where railroad and other thoroughfares have been in continual use or occupancy by the enemy or by our own troops. If Gen. Lee should come, and will advise me, I will build a pontoon bridge across the Hatchie and send out men to gather up the cattle, and make every other arrangement to co-operate. I would be glad also that he would bring with him the section of artillery and all the transportation I have in camp near Okolona and in charge of my quartermaster, Maj. C. S. Severson.
To enable me to succeed in raising troops, getting out absentees and deserters from the army, and army supplies and provisions for the army, two articles are indispensably necessary-they are arms and money; and I hope, general, that you will be able to supply me with both. I have had to advance to my quartermaster and commissary $20,000 of my private funds to subsist the command thus far; have written to Maj. Severson to make an estimate for $100,000 quartermaster funds and at least $150,000 pay funds. I am compelled to have the former for the purchase of transportation, artillery horses, forage, &c.; the latter is needed to pay off the troops, many of whom have received nothing for a long time, and if we could pay them the bounty [all entitled to it] they could get along for a few months.
I have a small battery at Selma which, when repaired, will be sent to Meridian, with 200 rounds of ammunition to the piece; if it can be done, would be glad if Gen. Lee could bring them. I am satisfied that I can procure horses for them if the guns can be gotten here.
I send a duplicate of this across the railroad and this through via Tuscumbia, with strict instructions to effectually destroy where there is the least probability of capture.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
N. B. FORREST, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 789-790.
        6, Correcting depredations, advance and withdraw, hunger and cold; an entry from the diary of John Hill Fergusson, 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry
we had orders to march at early daylight our regt to go in advance but were delayed some half hour by Gen Morgan comeing up through the brigade to exemin [sic] who they were or what  regt it was that had pulled down and carried off a blacksmith shop on examination [sic] he found fragments of it in our regt and even some of it in our company but it mostly had went to the 10th micagan [sic] he reppramanded [sic] the officers in command and the soldiers also particulery [sic] the colonel of the 10th  Michigan
he said he did not know what this army was going to turn to that Officers and all were robbers and as for a punishment to our regt and the 10th Michigan we were ordered to march in the rear of the brigade that day.
So we started out and marched about 5 miles further when we halted in a peice [sic] of woods and stacked arms we were told to make fiar [sic] as we would probably stay there an houre [sic] or two some little while after rails were gathered and fiar [sic] maid [sic] they boys were running and gathering corn and parching to eat as it was all our dependence [sic] But all at once the boys seemed to be electrified by the appearance of our bieutiful [sic] flag, born along by an escort of young ladys [sic] the flag was a new and bieutiful [sic] one
Bearing the inscription 27th Tennessee Malata [sic] Loud and herty [sic] were the cheers that rent the air, as it floated to the breeze
Soon we had orders to fall in and understood by this time that Longstret had gon [sic]  into N. Carolina but had left his waggons [sic] and artilery [sic] so as to his escape more sertin [sic]. Sour our orders were to about face and [we] marched back [to] the road we came towards Morgantown [sic] as each regt molved out from where we had stacked arms, we were marched along by where the young lady still held the flag the one who held the flag stove [sic] was a young and very hansom lady about 19 years of age and as we passed along under its fold she waved it jently [sic] in the breeze and brought it gently sweeping are [sic] our heads it is our wish and our prayr [sic] that Loyal east Tennessee may never again be paluted [sic] even by a shadow of hir [sic] enemys [sic] hir [sic] enemys [sic] are now for the first time swept cleen [sic] from hir [sic] border and the people seem greatly to rejoyce [sic] and welcome us gladly as there [sic] deliverers
We marched back crossed the bridge at Morgantown [sic] and camped near the same place we camped on Friday night. arms stacked all were tiared [sic] and fituged [sic] by the long and continued marching and suffering with hunger and haressed [sic] with cold, as none of the boys has there [sic] over coats [sic] along and there [sic] light blouses and pants are nearly torn to peices [sic]  since they left camp and only one woolen blanket to cover them from the falling storms and the cold farezing [sic] winds of these frosty nights. Tiared [sic] as we are necesseity [sic] compels us to go about one mile after rails to burn as all that were with reach and burned while here before there is plenty of timber but with or load of rails some little while after dark we soon lerned [sic] that our company was to report for picket right away this is trying on our rations, yet we have to eat and still we must go and set up all night After reporting to brigade head quarters [sic] we went out about one mile from camp on the Chattanooga road we had not been out over an houre, when a little corn meal was sent out to us. Although it was but a little it maid [sic] every heart regoice [sic]  and every long and sullen faces [sic] look up in a cheering manner after the meal was issued out to ech [sic] mess I devided [sic] mess It was put in two parts so as to have a little for brackfast [sic] and had one part of it made into mush each one had one pint for supper, which there [sic] hunger
John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.
       6, Second Action at Bell's Mill, Cumberland River, U.S.N. [10]
The second battle of Bell's Bend was fought 18 nautical miles below Nashville between Confederate infantry and artillery and the U. S. Navy. While guiding a convoy of supply ships and when nearly opposite Bell's Mill on the north side of Bell's Bend, Lt. Commander Le Roy Fitch, commanding the ironclad U. S. S. Neosho, discovered a large rebel force which directly opened upon the ships with a heavy volley of rifle fire and some 14 pieces of artillery. The enemy was above, beside, and below the Neosho, and a direct threat to the convoy. Other less heavily armed and armored warships (i.e., "tin-clads") included the Fair Play, Silver Lake, and Moose. With the Neosho in the lead, and less heavily protected ships to the rear Fitch ordered the pilots to slow and returned fire.
According to an excerpt from the December 17, 1864 Report of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, on the second engagement at Bell's Mills, and operations near Nashville to December 16, 1864:
We then went down abreast of the lower battery, stopped, rounded to, and came back till abreast of the middle battery and nearly midway between their upper and their lower guns; here I stopped and used grape and canister against the enemy, and at the same time was receiving a concentrated fire from all their guns, but this was the best position I could get to use the canister. I could not hurt them from above nor from below, owing to the shape of the river and the natural protection they had chosen behind the spurs of hills. I had also great faith in the endurance of the Neosho and therefore chose this position as the most favorable one to test her strength and at the same time use canister and grape at from 20 to 30 yards range. Our fire was slow and deliberate, but soon had the effect to scatter the enemy's sharpshooters and infantry, but owing to the elevated position of the batteries, we could do but little injury. The enemy's fire was terrific, and in a very few minutes everything perishable on our decks was completely demolished. I lay in this position about two and a half hours, and finding that the enemy's shot and shell were cutting away the summer pilot house and letting it down so as to hide the fighting pilot house, and obstruct our sight, I steamed on up the river again, and met the fleet under convoy. Seeing that it would be impossible to get the transports below the batteries with losing several [of them], I sent them back to Nashville...I then cleared...the...deck and went down the second time, taking the Carondolet. I had her made fast to the bank above with instructions not to open till I went down and drew the enemy's fire, which would show their position....We passed against just after dark, but were saluted with two guns as we passed and them could get no more responses.
* * * *
...I desire to bring to your favorable notice John Ditzenback, quartermaster on the Neosho. During the engagement of the forenoon of the 6th instant all our flag and signal staffs on the Neosho were shot away and the flag lay over the wheelhouse. As soon as we had passed the upper battery, and while yet under fire of the enemy's artillery and musketry, Pilot John H. Ferrel, of this vessel, who was with me on the Neosho, and John Ditzenback, quartermaster on board of that vessel, went out of the pilot house and, taking the flag from where it lay, tied it up to the stump of the main signal staff, which was the highest mast we had remaining.
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 26, pp. 649-652.
        6, Changes in the Nashville environs as a consequence of the approach of Hood's army; an entry from the Journal of Maggie Lindsley
Alas! Alas! That I must chronicle it after all! The Forrest panic yesterday was unfounded it seems, but still the soldiers are here, and still destruction at least goes bravely on! Barns, stables, fences all gone now, and the sound of the cutting and falling of our glorious forest trees heard from morn till night! Beautiful Edgefield no longer! Her beauty and her pride laid low in these her superb forest trees! For from the river to the Springside here is not a grove left! The bareness and the bleakness are simply intolerable, and make me sick. Whenever I go out on the balcony from my room, I just break down at seeing all those ugly stumps where were out beautiful "woods," with its wonderful sycamores, and its wealth of wild grape vine; where we swung, and climbed and played under a veritable bower of green until we reached the river banks! What shall we do without our "Woods" when the summer comes again? And the children! What a loss to the older ones, who have been accustomed to live the long summers there, and to the baby tots never to have know that Paradise! What will Springside be without its "Woods!" O! But I am tired of devastation, devastation and nothing but devastation! It is difficult for me even now to recall Edgefield as it was four years ago – when I spent so much time cantering throughout the lanes and groves on horseback – where will I ever find shady roads now when the summer sun comes in all its intensity!
General Webster rode out this morning – in high spirits, and is sure of Hood's retreat or capture. Pray Heaven it may be the last, and we may be rid of this unsettled, horrible life. Colonel Mussey rode out, dined with us, and after dinner I rode with him – on Nap – down to Mr. Hobson's where we had a fine view of the whole (Union) army – our fortifications and the rebel lines. Nap was gentle, stood quite still-and behaved as if he were as inured to all his surroundings as they Colonel's horse,-while I viewed the whole scene leisurely through the Colonel's fine glasses. And what a grand sight it was! Forts Negley, Casino, and Camp Webster, great lines and masses of troops drawn up in battle array in every direction, flags flying, bands playing, bugles sounding, at intervals the cannon roaring, belching forth fire and smoke at every roar – very grand the scene! Colonel Stewart was at the head of his regiment, but I did not see Colonel Johnson. (Two years ago about, I saw General Rosecranz [sic] review 30,000 troops from this hill, and then in our enthusiasm and pride, we thought the war must surely be near its close, and yet today we seem no nearer than then!)
The Rebel works are just behind Mr. Rains's, in front of dear old Belmont, and they occupy Mr. Vauly's house. Mr. Edmundson's house is General Chatham's Headquarters – some other General is at Mrs. A. V. Brown's.
*  *  *  *
Dr. de Graw and Lieutenant Novel were here an hour this afternoon. They had learned that Mr. Gale's house had been burned.
Journal of Maggie Lindsley.
        6- January 15, 1865, Lyon's Raid from Paris, Tennessee, to Hopkinsville Kentucky, with skirmishes
Report of Brig. Gen. Hylan B. Lyon, C. S. Army, commanding Department of Western Kentucky.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF WESTERN KENTUCKY, Aberdeen, Miss., January 3, 1865.
I have the honor to respectfully submit the following report of the expedition just completed by my command through the State of Kentucky, Tennessee, and the northern part of Alabama:
On the 21st of November, 1864, while I was at Corinth, Miss., securing arms for my command, which was then being organized at Paris, Tenn., I received orders from Gen. Hood, commanding Army of Tennessee, and approved by Gen. Beauregard, commanding the Division of the West, to proceed with my command across the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers west of Clarksville, Tenn., to move up the north bank of Cumberland River, capture Clarksville, if practicable, tear up and destroy the railroad and telegraph lines running into Nashville, and to put all the mills in running order throughout that entire section for the use of the Government.
My command at this time consisted of 800 men, undisciplined and but poorly organized, and two pieces of artillery (12-pounder howitzers).
None of my command had been in the service exceeding four months, and a majority of them but a few days. I organized it into two brigades of 400 men each-the First Brigade commanded by Col. J. J. Turner, Thirtieth Tennessee Infantry; the Second Brigade by Col. J. Q. Chenoweth, of Chenoweth's regiment. My command was poorly equipped, except in arms, 100 of my men were dismounted, but few had blankets or overcoats, and many were destitute of shoes or clothing sufficient to make a respectable appearance.
The command moved from Paris on the 6th of December to Danville, on the Tennessee River, at which place I had previously ordered boats to be constructed to cross the river. This was successfully accomplished on the 8th of December.
On the 9th I took possession of Cumberland City, thirty miles below Clarksville and ten above Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River, at which point, by means of our of our artillery, command by Lieut. R. B. Matthew, of Gracey's battery, we succeeded in capturing a large steamer loaded with forage and provisions, which I converted into a ferry boat, and by means of which I crossed my command over the Cumberland. During the evening of the 9th I succeeded in capturing 2 other steamers and 4 barges, all of which I anchored in the channel and consigned to the flames; 50 prisoners, of whom one was a lieutenant-colonel, were captured on those boats. The property destroyed, including the steam-boats, is estimated at $1,000,000.
The weather was intensely cold; many of the soldier were already frosted, and it was with the greatest difficulty that they could be made to move from the fires built along the road.
I found Clarksville too strongly fortified and garrisoned to attack, and ordered Lieut.-Col. Cunningham, commanding Chenoweth's regiment, to destroy the railroad and telegraph lines from the Red River bridge, four miles from Clarksville, to the Junction or intersection of the Nashville and Clarksville road with the road running from Clarksville to Russellville, Ky., which was successfully accomplished without the loss of a man. I, in the meantime, had moved with the remainder of my command in the direction of Hopkinsville, Ky., twenty-five miles north of Clarksville, Tenn., and found on arriving near that place that the enemy, 400 strong, had evacuated the place and retired to Russellville, Ky., on the Nashville and Louisiana Railroad. I succeeded in securing clothes and shoes for about one half of my command at this place, and deterring that I would leave 400 men and one piece of artillery, under Col. Chenoweth, as a garrison at Hopkinsville, and proceed with the remainder of my command to Cadiz, Princeton, and Eddyville, garrisoned towns (200 negro troops in each place, and, if possible, to capture the garrison, and in any event to destroy these barracks and supply my men with clothing, &c. The garrisons all abandoned these posts and fled to Smithland and Fort Donelson, and I destroyed the count-house at Hopkinsville, Cadiz, and Princeton, as they were occupied as barracks and used as fortifications by the negroes [sic]. I also destroyed a corral, or a place of rendezvous for negroes [sic], at Eddyville, Ky.
In the meantime McCook's division of Federal cavalry, consisting of three brigades, 1,000 in each, moved down from Nashville and attacked Col. Chenoweth at Hopkinsville, driving him from the place and capturing the piece of artillery left with him. I met the enemy on my return to Hopkinsville about twelve miles from that place, and drove them back into the town, killing and wounding 10 and capturing 20. Finding the enemy greatly outnumbered my command I withdrew to a place sixteen miles district from Hopkinsville and encamped. During the night Col. Chenoweth joined me with this command. I then moved through Charlestown and Madisonville, burning the courthouse at the letter place, to Ashbysburg, on Green River, where I safely effected a crossing, although pursued by the enemy in strong force.
When my command had all crossed except about fifty of my men and myself, Gen. McCook demanded the surrender of myself and all the forces on the south bank of Green River, and on my refusal to do so without a fight, withdrew two miles, and I crossed with the remainder of my command in safety. I moved from Green River to Hartford, captured and paroled the garrison, consisting of 2 commissioned and 46 non-commissioned officers and privates, and burned the court-house.
From Hartford I moved through Litchfield, deterring to strike the Louisiana railroad near Elizabethtown. I ordered a detachment of fifty men to Elizabeth to capture and destroy the depot, courthouse, stockades, and trestle, which was successfully done, while I moved with the main body on Nolin Station. I captured at the station a train of cars loaded with Federal soldiers, which I paroled, also a strong block-house commanding the railroad bridge across Nolin River. I effectually destroyed both block-house and brigade and cars. At this place I learned of Gen. Hood's defeat and retreat from Tennessee, which had a very demoralizing effect upon my command (which were all new recruits), and within two days after it was ascertained that the Confederate army had left Tennessee 500 of my men deserted and returned to their homes.
The depot which was destroyed at Elizabethtown was filled with valuable army stores, and estimated at $500,000. From this point I moved through Hodgensville to Campbellsville, burning the court-house at the letter place; from thence to Columbia and Burkesville, destroying the brigade over Green River at the former and the court-house at the latter place. I succeeded in crossing the Cumberland at this place without difficulty, and moved south through Livingston, Sparta McMinnville, and Winchester, Tenn.; from thence to Gunter's Landing, on the Tennessee River. I had up to this time been followed closely by the enemy, but had preserved my piece of artillery. The Tennessee River was very high, several gun-boats were patrolling the river, and a large force of infantry and cavalry moving down from Huntsville to capture us, while the gun-boas would keep us from crossing, but during the night I crossed my command over with canoes (the piece and Carriage was dismounted and carried over fragment at a time), except about fifty men, who had straggled from the main body. I moved from Gunter's Landing to Red Hill, at which point I was attacked by an overwhelming force of Federal cavalry from Decatur, Ala., which force succeeded in capturing sixty of my officers and men and my remaining piece of artillery. I moved through Blountsville and Elyton to Tuscaloosa, Ala., where I ordered a halt for the purpose of resting and recruiting my horses and men, who are in a very jaded condition. My command is encamped near that place.
Up to the time of Gen. McCook's move on Hopkinsville I had enforced the draft or conscript law, and mustered into the service about 400 men, 100 of whom Capt. Gracey succeeded in bringing to Paris, Tenn. This movement of McCook prevented my carrying out to the letter the order received from Gen. Hood, though I accomplished all I was ordered to do except putting the mills in running order near Clarksville, Tenn. I took from the bank at Hopkinsville, Ky., a small sum of Federal money, which I have turned over to the quartermaster, to be used in defraying the expenses of the expedition, and for which he will render a proper account.
When all things are considered pertaining to this expedition, it was a success beyond my most sanguine expectations. The men were all new recruits, but poorly organized, and armed for the first time only the day before they crossed the Tennessee. They captured 3 valuable steamers; burned 8 fortified court-horses, several important railroad brigades, depots, stockades, and block-houses; captured and paroled 250 prisoners; and caused to be withdrawn from Nashville McCook's entire division of cavalry, consisting of 3,000 veteran soldiers, and detained at and near Louisville Wilder's brigade of cavalry, about 1,500 strong, thus causing a diversion in favor Gen. Hood in his retreat from Nashville of 4,500 men.
Great credit is due to Capt. F. P. Gracey for his untiring energy in constructing boats, and for the management of the boats on the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers while crossing my command.
My thanks are due to Col. Chenoweth and Lieut.-Col. Cunningham; also, to the members of my staff-Capt. W. D. McKay, acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieut. John Couch, assistant adjutant-general; Capt. P. Echols, acting assistant inspector-general; Lieut. Hubert Keon, acting assistant inspector-general; and Lieut. William Winston, aide-de-camp-for the uniform promptness with which they performed every duty required of them.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. B. LYON, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Department.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 803-806.[11]

[1] His double barreled shot gun.
[2] As cited in:
[3] There is nothing to indicate a combat incident at Morristown in the OR or Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee. See: ca. 1, Unionist attack at Morristown above. See also: Nashville Daily Gazette, December 4, 1861
[4] It was unlikely that Mr. J. E. Bailey joined the company himself. No doubt he was much too busy at the time.
[5] As cited in PQCW.
[7] As cited in: Ed. by Jon S. Berndt.
[8] As cited in PQCW.
[9] Certainly this newspaper editorial is, at best, more Federal propaganda than truth, although there may have been some fact to the matter. Take for example the following excerpts from the OR.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, November 30, 1863--9 a.m.
GEN.:..It is reported, on what seems good authority, that some of our dead lie unburied on the battle-field of Chickamauga. Order a detail from the command of Gen. [Charles] Cruft, or the whole command if necessary, to return via Chickamauga and bury them.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. J. REYNOLDS, Maj.-Gen., and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. II, pp. 124-125.
HDQRS. ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH CORPS, Lookout Valley, Tennessee, December 1, 1863--3 p. m.
Maj.-Gen. REYNOLDS, Chief of Staff, Chattanooga:
* * * *
One brigade of Cruft's division was ordered to the field of Chickamauga to bury the dead, and are now engaged on that duty....Before leaving Ringold Gen. Geary buried 51 of the rebel dead, which the enemy had left behind him in this retreat.
Very respectfully,
JOSEPH HOOKER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 294-295.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, January 15, 1864.
GEN.: I have the honor to report the operations of my command from December 1 to 31, 1863, as follows:
December 1, Gen. Hooker returned to Chattanooga from Ringold with Geary's division, of the Twelfth Corps, and Osterhaus' division, of the Fifteenth Corps. Cruft's two brigades, of the First Division, Fourth Corps, were ordered to proceed to Chickamauga battle-field and bury such of our dead as still remained unburied by the rebels. This duty finished, they were to return to their former positions on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, between Whiteside's and Bridgeport...
* * * *
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. II, pp. 124-127.
[10] Defined as a skirmish in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
[11] See also OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 797-801.

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
(615)-532-1549  FAX

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