10, "The New Pork Factory"
Yesterday we had the pleasure of visiting and examining the mammoth building now in [the] course of erection by Messrs. Cumming, Doyle & Co., Confederate Army Contractors, and designed by them as a pork and beef packing establishment. The building is so near completion that slaughtering can be commenced with the next coming of cool weather; the machinery, the hands and stock being there ready to commence operations. This is the largest and most complete packing establishments in the Southern Confederacy, and reflects much credit upon the liberality and enterprise of the proprietors. All the work is to be done upon the wholesale plan, and judging from the machinery to be employed in the hands of practical men and the other conveniences about the establishment, we...conclude...it will be neatly and properly done. The factory is situated on the bank of the Cumberland, a short distance from the city and will be an object of considerable interest....
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 10, 1861.
10 Report of Lieutenant Phelps, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Conestoga, giving information obtained during an expedition up the Cumberland River.
U. S. GUNBOAT CONESTOGA, Paducah, Ky., December 10, 1861.
SIR: On the night of the 8th instant I proceeded with this vessel up the Cumberland River to near the fortifications below Dover, Tenn. General Smith had received information that there were a number of Union people near Linton, Ky., just below the line of Tennessee, who wished to join the Union forces, or were refugees, driven from their homes by rebel marauders, and were unable to escape through the rebel lines. On arriving at Linton two signal guns were fired as requested by these people, and we afterwards returned to that place to remain overnight, and about sixty persons came in during the night from the back country in small parties and were taken on board and brought down either to Smithland or to this place. Previous to anchoring at Linton, I had dropped down to the lower end of [State] Line Island, intending to remain there, but learning in the evening that persons had collected about the woods with the intent of cutting off all parties attempting to escape, I moved up to Linton itself, where the people succeeded in reaching the vessel. Just before dark a negro [sic] ran down to the river bank, near the boat, chased by blood hounds in full cry after him, and begged to be taken on board. I sent a boat to his rescue, and learning by his statement, confirmed by Kentuckians on board, that he was being chased by rebel cavalry (he had run 18 miles), with the intent, of seizing him and taking him to Dover to work upon the fortifications at that point, I received him on board and brought him away. His master is a secessionist. The cavalry did not show themselves, and the hounds were taken from the track, but we saw three of them. No demonstration against us was anywhere made, and we could hear of no outrages being committed near the river, no doubt owing to the assurance we have given that the secessionists of the Cumberland will be held to answer for the security of their Union neighbors.
The greatest efforts are being made by the secessionists to fortify the Cumberland below Dover, and a panic prevails, they being confident that an attack on Nashville is preparing under the authority of Governor Johnson, elected governor of Kentucky by the secession convention held at Russellville, in that State. The rebels are calling out Kentucky troops and are drafting men, impressing them into the rebel service, and under the same authority are seizing the negroes [sic] of Kentuckians, carrying them to Dover to work upon the fortifications. Thus it happens that Union men and secessionists alike are telling their slaves to escape to the woods to avoid the rebel cavalry engaged in seizing them. I am informed that Union men have been seized and carried off to work in place of their escaped slaves. It appears that the sons of the owner of the negro taken on board this boat gave him warning to escape, notwithstanding these sons themselves had been active in assisting rebel troops to find Government arms, etc., in their neighborhood.
I was informed from various sources that epidemic diseases of virulent type prevail at Dover, and that the troops are dying in great numbers. One man told me that three days before 12 volunteers of his acquaintance had been buried at one time.
If any movement is contemplated up the Cumberland, I am confident it should not be delayed longer than is necessary. An additional battery of three guns (32s) is said to be completed upon a hill back from the river about half a mile, but commanding a stretch of the stream above and below, and making a cross fire with the water battery. I could not verify this report, as the afternoon was rainy and misty when we were there, and at any time it can not be examined without engaging it, as it can only be seen at a distance of 1 mile.
I again heard reports of two gunboats being constructed, one at Clarksville and the other at Nashville. It is also currently reported that the rebels have a heavy chain across the river at Dover, and are engaged in filling the channel with large stones.
On the Tennessee River three gunboats are reported to have come down below Fort Henry. I have employed a man to examine these craft and report their condition and armaments. I heard nothing of them from the inhabitants on the Tennessee, but there are none to be depended upon near the line. These boats are represented as having been plated, in whole or in part, and that this having proved a failure, compressed bales of cotton have been used to further secure the boats from the effects of shot. One of these is the Eastport, which, when new, was one of the fastest vessels running upon the Mississippi. It is 280 feet in length, and, if properly fitted up, could carry a most formidable battery. The others are much smaller vessels. Obstructions could be sunk so as to confine these boats, except in time of freshets, to the territory of Tennessee, but the head of the island in front of this town offers a place to locate a battery which would command the Tennessee and Ohio alike, and add very considerably to the defenses of the post landward. General Smith has made an examination of the island and will have one heavy gun placed there, not having, I believe, sufficient cannon to spare more for that point. I should feel little hesitation in running the fire of one gun, if there were an object in doing so, and a fast steamer would be exposed to the fire but a few minutes.
A good battery on the island would command the Tennessee and leave the river free for navigation by our gunboats.
Unlike the Ohio, the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers rarely freeze over. An old pilot informs me that in thirty-one years living upon its banks he has seen the Cumberland frozen over but four times, and steamers
at times have laid by several weeks, unable to pass up the Ohio on account of ice, while boats were daily plying upon the Cumberland and Tennessee. Nor does the Tennessee fall to low stage like the Ohio in midwinter.
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,
S. L. PHELPS, Lieutenant, Commanding, U. S. Navy.
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, pp. 457-458.
10, "Suicide of Henry Hite."
Yesterday Coroner Alexander was summoned to hold an inquest in view of the dead body of Henry Hite, and the investigation resulted in the verdict that [the] deceased came to his death from the effects of poison self-administered. About noon the deceased called at a store in Broad street, asked for a drink of water, sat down in the doorway, as if to rest, and soon seemed to fall asleep. In a few minutes afterwards it was ascertained a portion of the fatal drug, was found on his person, and also a letter alledging [sic] that the writer having grown tired of this life and its trials, resorted to this means of seeking rest in another state of existence.
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 11, 1861
10-11, Documents relating to the execution of C. Alexander Haun imprisoned in Knoxville and condemned to die by Confederate authorities for the crime of bridge burning during the Rebellion in East Tennessee
Dec. 10, 1861
Dear Elizabeth Haun, children, Mother, Brothers and Sisters: Neighbors, and Friends:
I have had my trial but have not heard my sentence. I fear it will be bad-they may take my life and they may not. I cannot tell yet. When I hear my sentence I will write again. If I should not reach home soon I want you all to do the very best you can. Betsy, take care of your corn for bread, there is going to be hard times about bread and have that were finished off and get shoes and clothing and something to go on as you think best.
I may be sent to Nashville-if I am, when my time is out I may come home if it is the Lords [sic] will that I should live that long-the Lord only knows what is my doom. Be that as it may I feel that my soul is with God.
Children, be good to your Mother and to one another and serve god-He is your Father. Really my prayer is that you all will live for God so that of may meet me in peace forever where trouble and sorrow are unknown. If tears could do you any good you would be blessed.
I hear that my friends are in great distress-there is great distress too. I want you to have them [sic] writings registered and recorded-don't dare to sell it but rent it. I mean the writing between me and Nathan Haun about that copper mine. Take and rent it to some one who will carry it on right for you and have them pay your the rent as you need it and pay my debts out of it as fast as you can spare it. When Jacob becomes old enough let him manage it. If I should not return do this as time will admit of it-get Charlie Dickerson and V. H. Bolling to go and prove it. I will write more about matters and things if I have the chance. Get someone to write to me for I merely want to hear whether you are well or not. I do not want to hear of other men's troubles up there-give me your troubles-it is enough.
This the 10th day of December 1861. [sic] To Elizabeth Haun and children Mother and Friends. I want you to sing this song ballad [sic] I send to you-I would like Clark to sing it one time-Direct your letters to Robert Fox[,] the jailor at Knoxville, Tenn. and do it soon.
C. A. Haun
Dear Betsy, for I call you so
Farewell for a little season.
Dear Jacob, for I call you so
Farewell for a little season.
Dear Becky Jane, for I call you so
Farewell for a little season.
Dear Sarah, my daughter, for I call you so
Farewell for a little season.
Dear Martha, my daughter, for I call you so
Farewell for a little season.
Knoxville Jail, Dec. 10, 1861.
I want you to stay away from your mother and sister for they are not your friends or mine. I want you to move where we used to live on Arthur's place-where he can sorter [sic] see to you and the children and work for him in place of to and fro among strangers.
Make the children read the Testament every Sabbath that they are not at preaching-and every opportunity they have talk to them as you have heard me do and keep them away from all bad company. Do not suffer them to use bad words-nor quarrel with one another and learn them manners. It will be for their benefit. If anyone comes to your hungry turn them not away empty if you have it for them and the Lord will bless you more abundant. You had better keep your horse and let Jacob make you a crop of corn and still sow wheat and oats. Do about this as you and Arthur think best. If Arthur thinks it best to sell to him and for Jacob to work for him, do so. Let Arthur or someone relate your situation to Government Authorities and the Government will surely do liberally for you and the children in the way of support and education. I want you to get Arthur or some of my friends to have those writings between me and Nathan Haun registered and recorded and get them to carry on for you or rent it out for as much as you can get a year for it until Jacob can carry it on for you and the children. There was a person here since I have been there that told me he bossed at Ducktown some and he describes the ore exactly-according to his tale the ores are exactly alike. Don't neglect this-have it done without fail and when your wheat is ready to cut take care of it for your bread and seed for another year. In sowing your grain have it put in right and in time it will yield well.
Have Bohannan Hinshaw of Low to finish off that ware and do the best you can with it for your support. Pay Mr. Bohannon and let him see what I have written and I want all of my debts paid off if it can be done. When you get to sending off or maybe you can pay them. I am sorry to leave one dollar unpaid -- if you can sell my land for more than five hundred do so, all you can get over the remainder is yours. I also have three shares in the railroad and it is in Joseph Etter's hands-make him pay you and get you the certificate from the company for three shares. Lewis Bowen owes me ten dollars-make him pay that-all [sic] the balance will pay I think without making them pay. [sic] You can sell my shop-tools, lead, oven, glazing mill, clay mill and lathe and so on which will be some help to you and the children. James Bolling is to have one fourth of my part of the wheat. He is to help take care of it and you find a hand in my place and that will be all right. Do the best you can, this is a hard task, directing you with my death so near but I want to give the best advice I can while on earth and just think how a man feels in this situation knowing I must die in a few hours time.
Dear wife, here is the hard part, closing the last letter to you and my children forever on this earth.
Dear friend and all farewell.
C. A. Haun
I have the promise that my body will be sent home to you.
O live for heaven
Oh my bosom friend and children
Live for heaven, I pray.
My time is almost out, dear friends, farewell to this world-farewell to earth and earthly troubles.
C. A. Haun
Colonel Baxter, I have to die today at 12 o'clock. I beg of you have my body sent to Midway Post Office directed to Elizabeth Haun. This much I beg of you-this is the 11th day of December 1861.
C .A. Haun
According to my calculations I am this day 40 years old 3 months and 3 days.
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. I, pp. 38-42.
HDQRS. RIFLE BRIGADE, Knoxville, December 11, 1861.
Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.:
SIR: In pursuance of your instructions by telegraph of yesterday, the sentence of death pronounced by court-martial upon A. C. Haun, the bridge burner, was executed by hanging at 12 o'clock to-day. The court-martial is still in session, engaged in the trial of a number of others charged with complicity in the same crime. I am not advised of the nature or extent of the proof that can be brought against them, but should it be sufficient and the court find them guilty, the sentence, whatever it may be, will be promptly executed, unless otherwise directed by you. In addition to those suspected of burning the bridges I have now in confinement about 150 more prisoners, charged with taking up arms, giving aid and assistance to the enemy, inciting rebellion, &c. Those among them who have been proven guilty of the offenses alleged against them I shall send to Tuscaloosa, in accordance with your instructions by letter of November 23. I have already sent there 48, to be held as prisoners of war.
I have been greatly annoyed by the interference of the civil authorities with what I conceive the proper and faithful discharge of the duties incumbent upon me in my capacity of military commander of this portion of East Tennessee. Several attempts have been made to take offenders out of my hands by judicial process to be tried by the civil tribunals, which trials I am satisfied would in many instances have resulted in the release of those who are guilty and should be punished. In order to avoid these embarrassments, I felt myself justified in placing the city under martial law until such time as all the prisoners charged with military offenses now in my custody can be tried by a military tribunal. If after this is done any should remain whose offenses come legitimately under the jurisdiction of the civil courts, I will turn them over to the proper officers to be disposed of in that way. I have only been prompted to venture upon this stringent course by strong conviction that the public good imperatively demanded it.
The traitorous conspiracy recently so extensive and formidable in East Tennessee is, I think, well nigh broken up, as there is at present but little or no indication of another outbreak. I have small detachments of my force out in every direction, suppressing any rebellious spirit that may be manifested and arresting those who are known to have been in arms against the Government. I am daily receiving the most encouraging evidences that the people are beginning to return to a sense of duty and patriotism, as many of those who were heretofore unfriendly towards us are coming forward and giving every assurance of future fealty.
For a detailed account of the operations of my command since taking the field I respectfully invite your attention to my official report, this day forwarded to the Adjutant and Inspector Gen.
I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,
WM. H. CARROLL, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 759-760.
10, C. S. A. versus Estate of Andrew Johnson
[Knoxville], December 10, 1862
Confederate States of America
The Estate of Andrew Johnson
Petition 1st. Receiver District.
In this case appeared M.T. Haynes Receiver for the 1st District of East Tennessee, and moved that the said Andrew Johnson be declared an alien Enemy to the Confederate States of America, and the Court directed that the matter be submitted to a Jury—thereupon came the traverse jury, who had been summoned by the Marshal, and duly elected, empanelled and sworn to try all causes and matters civil and criminal in the Eastern District of Tennessee to be submitted to them during the present term of the Court to wit: Robert Cravens, James Montgomery, John Bise, Joel Bowling, John G. King, Carrick W. Crozier, Samuel P. Ivins, William S. Kennedy, William B. Smith, William Ray, E. W. Marsh and J. S. Blackwell, and the said jury having heard the testimony and the charge of the Court, upon their oaths do say, that the said Andrew Johnson is an alien Enemy to said Confederate States of America. It is therefore decreed by the Court that said Johnson is an alien enemy and all the property, rights and credits belonging to him either at law or in equity, are sequestrated under the acts of Congress, and the Receiver for said District is directed to proceed to dispose of the same as provided by law.
Court adjourned until tomorrow—morning at 10 o'clock.
W. J. Humphrey J.
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 95-96.
10, Federal false alarm; the long roll near South Tunnel, Sumner County; George F. Cram's letter home to his mother in Ohio
Camp of the 105th [Ohio], South Tunnel
You have doubtless heard long before this letter reaches you of the surprise and capture of a federal brigade from this place last Sunday morning [December 7]. It was a most disgraceful affair to our army.
Two Ohio regt's [sic] stacked arms and fled without firing a gun….That night (Sunday) we were ordered up at three and ordered to take three days rations and be ready to march any moment….Well we got our three days rations, went back to bed and lay in anxious suspense till morning [8th]. The sun rose bright and cleared and seemed to disperse some of the fears of our officers for no order for march was given. The day passed away quickly but yesterday [9th] a report was brought into camp that 2,000 rebels under Morgan were advancing to attack us. Our Col. examined out guns and we were obliged to wash them all out. In the afternoon we drilled to make ourselves more efficient and finally night came but brought no enemy.
I spent the evening in writing….and at the usual hour we retired for the night. About one o'clock woke up and the 102nd regt. [sic] (adjoining ours) was sounding the long roll. A minute more and our drums rolled out the alarm upon the still midnight air. In an instant all was noise and bustle in camp. Our coats were hastily donned and cartridge boxes and bayonets were quickly put on. I had just buckled on all the accouterments of war, picked up my gun and stepped out of the tent when the alarm was found to be false. It originated by a regt. [sic] of men sounding the call for their men to get up to work on the fortification. The call was mistaken but the 102nd Ill [sic], for the long roll and thus it was taken up by one regt. [sic] After another till the camp was fully aroused. Well we threw off our warlike apparel and went back to bed again like sensible men. I cannot speak for the other companies in our regiment but out company promptly responded to the call, turning out to a man. The boys were cool and self-possessed although none knew what scenes of bloodshed the next hour would bring forth. We are getting used, as much as can be, to this wild roving kind of a live and not being at all surprised or startles us now.
Our cavalry are still scouring the country by day and the fortifications are being rapidly completed. It is evident that our General does not intend being caught asleep.
* * * *
Our soldiers are fast losing confidence in their leaders. They have been fooled so many times that they are no longer have faith in them and unless our government puts down the rebellion this winter, my own opinion is that it never can do it, the army will lose all its energy and vigor and our movements after that time will be attended with defeat. The soldiers are not being used far more roughly than ever before during the war and many are giving way under it.
I still continue however to be hopeful and always look on the brightest side. I live now wholly for the future for there is certainly no enjoyment in a soldier's life. I do not however expect to resume my studies again should I live to come out of this struggle. My health will to permit of it. I shall endeavor to get into some business which I can raise myself up.
Letters of George F. Cram.
10-February 10, 1863, Concerning the Arrest of Judge A. J. Marchbanks, Van Buren County, Federal political prisoner
MURFREESBOROUGH, December 10, 1862.
SIR: Some months since Hon. A. J. Marchbanks, of Warren County, was arrested by the Federals and sent to Camp Chase, where he has been confined up to this time as a political prisoner. At the time of his arrest he was one of the circuit judges of the State, but his official term has expired since that time. He is a quiet and most excellent citizen, firm and unwavering in his devotion to the Confederate cause, but modest, quiet, and unobtrusive. About a month since Doctor Charlton (of the neighborhood of La Vergne), a Union man, was arrested by Gen. Forrest and sent to this place. At my instance the commandant of the post, Capt. O'Harra, and Doctor Charlton each wrote to the Federal authorities at Nashville proposing to exchange Charlton for Judge Marchbanks, but I have not been able to hear anything in answer to this proposition up to this time, and address you for the purpose of asking that you correspond with Gen. Rosecrans upon the subject and, if possible, secure the release of Judge Marchbanks.
ISHAM G. HARRIS.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT, No. 2, Murfreesborough, Tenn., December 14, 1862.
Referred to Maj. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, who will no doubt promptly secure the release of this citizen under our recent agreement.
BRAXTON BRAGG, Gen., Cmdg.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, December 16, 1862.
Respectfully referred to His Excellency Governor Johnson, who may know something about this case.
By command of Gen. Rosecrans:
J. P. GARESCHE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Chief of Staff.
EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., December 16, 1862.
There has been no correspondence with this office on the subject of an exchange of Judge Marchbanks for Doctor Charlton. On the 5th instant Rev. C. D. Elliott, a political prisoner, was paroled for twenty days from that date to effect an exchange for Dr. James Charlton, of La Vergne, a political prisoner held by the Confederates, as set forth in the pass beyond our lines furnished Mr. E by the provost-marshal-general. I have not as yet been advised as to the result of Mr. Elliott's efforts to effect said exchange.
Judge Marchbanks is held as political prisoner at Camp Chase, as stated within.
ANDREW JOHNSON, Military Governor.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, December 17, 1862.
Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant-Gen.
W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg. Department.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 57-58.
HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Murfreesborough, Tenn., December 22, 1862.
Maj. Gen. W. S. ROSECRANS, Commanding U. S. Forces, Nashville, Tenn.
GEN.: A. J. Marchbanks, a citizen of Warren County, Tenn., fifty-six years of age, was arrested in Van Buren County, of this State, by order of Gen. Dumont on the 14th day of June. He is now confined at Camp Chase, Ohio. The charge preferred against him was his loyalty to the Confederate Government. I desire to call your attention to this case and respectfully claim the return of Mr. Marchbanks to my lines according to the agreement existing between us.
I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully,
BRAXTON BRAGG, Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, p. 107.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, February 10, 1863.
Col. EWELL, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
I inclose you a document from Brig.-Gen. Marshall, which has arrived since I assumed command of this department. I respectfully ask that it be forwarded to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, for his consideration and instructions in the matter. Having just entered on my duties, and having no knowledge of the causes inducing the order, I have not thought proper to take action until properly advised.
I would further state respectfully, for the information of the general commanding, that, as far as my investigations have gone, I find the army here in the worst possible condition, on the score of discipline and efficient military government; no returns made, no reports of brigades, &c., giving data upon which reliable returns can be made and forwarded to headquarters; great complaint in getting the necessary forage. The disloyal spirit of East Tennessee seems not to have been improved by the lenient course hitherto pursued. I am of the opinion more stringent measures should be adopted. I would advise that a reliable force be at once placed in the field, and conscript all persons of the proper age, and the disaffected disloyal portion be sent to our army in the extreme south, and their places supplied by troops from the south. In this way you rid East Tennessee of a population that always has and will give aid and comfort to our enemies. I would advise, further, that some of the prominent leaders be arrested, put in prison, and held as hostages to such men as Judge Marchbanks, of Middle Tennessee. The suggestions are furnished for the consideration of Gen. Johnston, and such action taken as his better judgment may suggest.
D. S. DONELSON, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Department.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 631.
10, Scout from Memphis
DECEMBER 10, 1863.-Scout from Memphis, Tenn.
Report of Capt. Lucius B. Skinner, Sixth Illinois Cavalry.
HDQRS. THIRD BATT., SIXTH ILLINOIS CAVALRY, Memphis, Tenn., December 10, 1863.
Capt.: In pursuance with orders from Gen. Grierson, received this morning, I sent Lieut. Cover, of Company M, with 25 men, out east of the City to Mrs. Governor Jones', where they learned that 2 guerrillas had been in that neighborhood, and between there and White's Station, for several days. About 1½ miles east of Buntyn Station, found 2 men just getting on their horses after cutting the telegraph wires. They immediately gave chase and, after a ride of 5 miles, pursued them across Nonconnah. They were obliged to give it up, losing their track in the bottom. They gave them a very close chase, capturing the old musket I send you, also a pair saddle bags, but did not get near enough to shoot with any accuracy.
They could hear of no others in that vicinity.
Hoping the above will be satisfactory, I remain, your obedient servant,
L. B. SKINNER, Capt., Cmdg. Battalion.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, pp. 602-603.
10, Skirmish at Gatlinsburg [sic]
The skirmish at Gatlinburg was part of the Knoxville, Tennessee Campaign. It was most likely the only time in which Indians, most likely Cherokee, fought United States troops in Tennessee during the war.
Reports of Col. William J. Palmer, Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.
HDQRS. ANDERSON CAVALRY, Trotter's Bridge, December 11, 1863.
GEN.: I have the honor to report that on yesterday morning a little after daybreak I reached Gatlinburg, 15 miles from Sevierville, on the Smoky Mountain road, with 150 men, having approached from a point on the same road 3 miles in the rear of Gatlinburg, which point I reached by a circuitous and almost impassable trail from Wear's Cove.
At the same time Lieut. Col. C. B. Lamborn, with about 50 men, reached Gatlinburg from the north by the Sevierville road, which he intersected at Trotter's Bridge, 7 miles north of Gatlinburg, by a road leading from Wear's Cove, where our forces divided.
Capt. H. McAllester, with the remainder of our force, consisting chiefly of men whose horses were unshod or unfit to travel over the rough mountain trails, had been sent the previous afternoon to Sevierville from Chandler's, 18 miles from Knoxville, where I turned off to go to Wear's Cove. His instructions were to pickets the roads out of Sevierville, preventing any one from leaving the place, in order that information of our movements might not reach the enemy.
Lieut.-Col. Lamborn and myself reached Gatlinburg from opposite directions at about the same moment, both finding pickets posted, who immediately fired, thereby alarming the enemy's camp, which we found situated on a steep wooded ridge, commanding both roads and intercepting communication between us.
It being impossible to make a dash upon them, we were obliged to dismount our men and deploy them [as] skirmishers. We drove them from their position, which was a strong one, in about an hour, but, unfortunately, the steep wooded ridge on which they had their camp jutted on to the mountain on the east, and it was impracticable to prevent the rebels on retreating from taking up this mountain where we could not reach them, and where they continued firing from behind the thick cover for several hours. They finally retreated, scattering over the ridges to the Great Smoky Mountain.
From all the information I could get, I estimate their force at about 200, of which 150 were Indians and the remainder white men, the whole under the command of Col. Thomas, an old Indian agent.
We captured their camp with 1 prisoner, 16 horses, 18 muskets, 2 boxes of ammunition, several bushels of salt, meal, dried fruit, &c., and a large quantity of blankets, old clothing, &c. A number of squaws had reached them the previous evening, and they had evidently intended remaining at Gatlinburg for the winter, as their declarations to the citizens in the vicinity proved.
We destroyed the log huts and frame buildings composing their camp, and have returned most of the horses to their loyal owners. Col. Thomas was evidently taken by surprise, as he had not time to get his hat from his quarters at the foot of the ridge, which one of our men captured.
I regret to report that two of my officers and a sergeant were wounded in the skirmish, Capt. Clark seriously in the knee. Capt. Betts received a painful flesh wound in the arm. The sergeant's wound was trivial. The loss of the enemy is not known. If any were killed they carried them off when they retreated.
Col. Thomas has most probably taken his men back to Quallatown, in North Carolina, but I have sent a scouting party out this morning to ascertain.
I very much regret that we were not more successful. We rode all night over a foot path that many of the citizens considered impracticable; and while I cannot see that we could have done better under the circumstances than we did, yet I can now see from my knowledge of the ground (which was entirely unknown to us before) how I might have captured most of the party by making certain dispositions before reaching Gatlinburg.
I start this morning for Evan's Ford, on French Broad, 9 miles from Sevierville, and between that place and Dandridge, where I learn 100 rebel cavalry crossed last night.
I am, general, yours, respectfully,
WM. J. PALMER, Col.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, pp. 438-439.
10, Skirmish at Morristown
RUTLEDGE, December 10, 1863--11.45 a. m.
GEN.: Your dispatch of 3 p. m. yesterday only just received. I forwarded one to you at daylight this morning; since then have heard from Shackelford that Col. Ward had a severe skirmish with enemy yesterday p. m. on Morristown road, and drove him across river. This morning he (Shackelford) has sent a brigade on each of the roads in his front to Morristown and Rogersville. I have directed him to hold Bean's Station in force, and make no advance unless further orders or developments require it. Small parties of the enemy are hovering on other side of river, even to Strawberry Plains. Very glad to hear that you are better, and out. Maj. Cutting has pressed on to communicate with Gen. Shackelford.
JNO. G. PARKE, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
RUTLEDGE, December 10, 1863--4.30 p. m.
GEN.: Maj. Cutting reports from Bean's Station at 2 p. m. that a portion of the brigade sent toward Morristown took the Russellville branch, and met the enemy at the river; found them in too great force to dislodge, and remains facing the enemy at Moore's Ferry, about 10 miles from Bean's Station, guarding wagon trains….One hundred of the enemy's cavalry have attacked a company of ours on river 6 miles from here…. A number of small parties are reported on other side river. Gen. Shackelford is in communication with Willcox, at Tazewell; the road had not been obstructed by the enemy. Willcox is about forwarding supplies and repairing the telegraph.
JNO. G. PARKE, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, p. 327.
10, Affair at Russellville [see December 9-13, 1863, "Skirmishes at Bean's Station" above]
10, Action at Bean's Station
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
10, Skirmish at flour mill at Rutledge, Confederate still near Clinch River and surrender of Confederates at Knoxville
No circumstantial reports filed.
Rutledge, December 10, 1863--6.15 p. m.
GEN.: The story as to the rebels at the mill was considerably exaggerated. My men have been grinding there all day, are still there, and have orders to continue grinding till morning. Only some 40 or 50 of the enemy showed themselves. Lieut. Fletcher only had half a dozen orderlies, and a party of the enemy crossed to try and get them. As soon as the company of infantry came up he drove them off, only 2 or 3 getting across the river; the rest took up for the Morristown road, except 3 or 4 who were run into the woods. A small party has since shown across the river, but made no attempt to disturb the party at the mill. As I found Ferrero's regiment had started, I thought it as well to cut through, as there might possibly be some attempt on the mill party. If the enemy had any spare force across the river, their remaining so long thereabouts is explained by the fact that they are running a still about 1½ miles back from the river. Marsh reports that Strong and Anderson, of Gen. Foster's staff, were in Knoxville yesterday. The other brigade he met on the road with Mott's was composed of Tennessee troops, and I suppose was Spears', and Marsh says between 300 and 400 prisoners came into Knoxville yesterday, picked up in squads on the French Broad.
ROBERT B. POTTER, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 369-370.
10, Federal situation report, Columbus environs
HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS,
Columbus, Tennessee, December 10, 1863--7 a. m.
Maj.-Gen. HOWARD, Cmdg. Eleventh Corps, Athens, Tennessee:
GEN.: Your communication from Athens, dated last night, arrived at 12.30 this morning.
I arrived here day before yesterday at dark, and have until the arrival of your dispatch been anxiously waiting to hear from Gen. Sherman.
About 3,000 rebel cavalry left this vicinity at our approach. No other force can be heard of nearer than the neighborhood of Dalton.
Report says the rebel cavalry have burned the bridge at Calhoun and Charleston. I hope you will find the report untrue. I am awaiting further orders from Gen. Sherman, and in the mean time am building bridges and running the mills with good success.
Plenty of grain and meat can be procured here. I expect Gen. Sherman here to-day from Tellico, and them will know what I am to do next.
I have no cavalry, and can get along but illy [sic] without it.
The guerrillas are very impudent around me.
I am, very respectfully,
JEF. C. DAVIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 371-372.
10, Complaints of depredations by Federal soldiers
OFFICE PROVOST-MARSHALL-GEN. OF EAST TENNESSEE,
Knoxville, Tennessee, December 10, 1863.
Lieut.-Col. SELFRIDGE, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Fourth Army Corps:
COL.: I have the honor to call the attention of the major-general commanding the Fourth Corps to the frequent complaints which are made at this office by citizens residing on the south side of the river of depredations committed by soldiers of his command. These citizens are almost unanimously devoted to the interests of the Government, and I respectfully request that measures be taken to remove all grounds for complaints on the part of loyal citizens.
Very respectfully, &c.
S. P. CARTER, Brig.-Gen. and P. M. G. of East Tennessee.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 372.
The gas-works, having exhausted the supply of coal in the city, Nashville last night was without a solitary gas jet. The gas-works have suspended operations and our city will be in a state of darkness until a supply of coal reaches us. In the meantime our denizens will have to go back to first principles and use candles and lamp-oil.
Nashville Daily Press, December 10, 1863.
10, Skirmish at Long['s] Ford
No circumstantial reports filed.
10, 14 William Follet's letters his friends in Illinois relating his experiences in Knoxville during November 1863; "We have skirmished with the enemy every day Since [sic] I can remember."
Beans Station Dec 10th 1863
Dear Friends at home
This is the first opportunity that I have had for a long time to write to you &consequently I eagerly embrace it. The last letter that I rec' [sic] from home was written Just after Father had started for Murfreesboro Since which time I have heard nothing from any of you or Mell either. I hope that He got through Safe and Succeeded in finding Mell and getting him home. We have had and are Still having pretty hard times as the Rebs [sic] have been moving around here very briskly Ever Since the Sixteenth of last month So that our provisions trains had to Stop running over the mountains. The infernal fools were impudent enough to besiege the City of Knoxville where we fell back to according to orders from Grant as he intended to Send [sic] a force in their rear & trap them, but the reinforcements were slow in getting here[.] We could have whipped the Rebs [sic] easy enough[.] In fact did do it two or three times but we had to keep Still [sic] unless we were attacked. They kept us for twenty days in Knoxville[.] When the force under Sherman arrived & the Rebs [sic] raised [sic] the siege [sic] & decamped without further ceremony[.] Since which time we have been chasing the buggers [sic] Picked(?) up straglers [sic] any amount of them. We just slaughtered them in two of their attempts to take K-[noxville] and thank God Most [sic] of our men came out Safe and sound. Lho'(?) Nowers(?) (cousin of Lou's) was shot dead on the field Henry Morris had his arm shot off. He used to live where Cavel did. I think the girls may possibly know him. Our capt got a wound on one side of his head that Sent [sic] him to the hospital for several days. Today we are laying Still [sic] for Some [sic] reason which I do not know. The General officers seem to be rejoicing over Some [sic] Piece [sic] of important news and have Sent [sic] for the 112th Ill Silver Cornet Band to play for them. I shall probably learn its import in due Season [sic] & will if Possible forward to you. Our Reg[iment] is considered as good as any other Illinois regiment which is saying enough. We [sic] have been complimented three of four times for our [sic] bravery by Gen Burnside. I understand that the 42nd is with Shermans [sic] force but have not Seen [sic] any of that force as they are on the other side of the Holston river nine or ten miles from us trying to cut off the rebs [sic] while we follow in their rear. We have travelled for the last three days in a valley laying between two ranges of mountains not more than a mile from us on either side I have not heard from Soph for some time but I Suppose [sic] that I Shall [sic] get here when I get yours in a few days. There comes an order to get ready for inspection & I Shall [sic] have to close for this time Tell me about John and Mell every time you write. I Remain as ever your Son & Bro
Monday 14th 1863
We have skirmished with the enemy every day Since [sic] I can remember. Since the 15th of last month. Yesterday the rebs [sic] drove a Scouting Party in almost to camp when we made a charge on the & drove them back four miles from where they came to. This morning there were 100 men Picked from our Reg[iment] to go down to the Rebel lines to see what they were doing I was one of that 100 We started at three, in the heaviest kind of a rain and got back at day light….
good [sic] to get a letter once more. You want to know what brigade Div & C that I belong to. I hardly know my Self [sic] We [sic] have been changed around So [sic] often[.] We used to belong to the 23rd Army Corps[.] But now I think tis 2nd Brigade 1st Division Cavalry Corps. Department of the Ohio. Gen Sturgiss commands the corps. Wofford the Division & either Col L I Henderson the Brigade most of the time Col Byrd did command our Brigade but he was good for nothing Henderson is first rate[.] He is our old Col. Our Lieut. Col Bond has had command of the Brigade for Some [sic] time as Col H has been home on furlough & been Sick [sic] Since[sic]. Bond is a damned coward As [sic] ever lived & if he ever gets out will be pounded(?) by some of the boys who All [sic] hate him very much….
The Follett Collection.
10, Predicament of black and white refugees in the Murfreesboro environs, excerpt from a letter by Major-General R. H. Milroy to his wife in Rensselaer, Indiana
January 1, 1865
My Dear Mary,
* * * *
It rained snowed sleeted [sic] till on the 10th when the whole country was a glare of ice....There were thousands of poor negroes [sic] and their families who had been living and working on the R.R. cutting wood-taking care of horses-cattle etc [sic] and there were about 2000 refugees-mostly white men who had run away from the Reb [sic] conscription in the surrounding counties. All these were deprived of the means of substance [sic]. Several hundred of these refugees had come in on good horses for which they would obtain no feed. I got Rousseau to issue an order authorizing my Qr Master to purchase all these horses for Cavalry and artillary [sic] horses that were fit, which helped them along very much. But the poor darkies [sic] suffered very much for both fire wood and food. The Rebs [sic] were so near our own pickets that it was unsafe to go out for wood and all the stumps, logs, fences, and shade trees inside the pickets were mostly used up-and everything in the way of provisions became very scarce and could hardly be had for any price. I frequently seen [sic] the poor darkies greedily grabbing the entrails of hogs and beef cattle that our butchers had killed for food-There is a fine steam mill in the town that kept us from starving. We sent out our forage trains to the country for corn. All our cavalry with a brigade of Inf. and a section of Artillery accompanied each train and though they had skirmishing with the Reb [sic] Cav [sic] they always succeeded in bringing in a train loaded with corn. Part of this corn was taken to the Mill, shelled and ground, and the meal issued to all of us for bread, which was all the kind we had for ten days....
Papers of General Milroy, pp. 477-478.
10, The Plight of Refugees in Nashville
There are large numbers of indigent refugees remaining in our city, and many destitute citizens, who have before them the gloomy prospect of intense suffering, if they remain here this winter. The prices of clothing, provisions, fuel, and everything else necessary for the support of human life, have attained an altitude which renders it impossible for those, in what might have heretofore been esteemed easy circumstances, to maintain their families, without the most pinching economy. With every disposition to extend the hand of assistance to the needy, they find themselves unable to render material aid. It is upon this great middle class that the expense of all our public and private charities have principally fallen heretofore. The wealthy, wrapped up in their conceit and self importance, and regarding the poor as not fit to breathe the air they do, have never done much, and never will, unless from the vainglorious motive of having their alms published to the world. During the present winter, therefore, it will be as much as the really benevolent can do to take care of themselves. It would, then be better for all those who have not the means of subsistence to avail themselves of the notification of the Mayor of Nashville, published this morning, and go north where there is peace and plenty. Our city is too full; and we fear if the number of non-producers is not greatly lessened, they will pay dearly before the blossoms of another Spring gladden our vision.
Nashville Daily Union, December 10, 1864.
10, Gillem's command starts from Knoxville [see December 10-29, 1864 Expedition from East Tennessee to SWVA]
10, "Provost Order No. 254;" enforcing the price of flour as established in Provost Order 252 [see November 26, 1864, "Provost Order No. 246;" price fixing in Nashville by the U. S. Army above]
Headquarters Post of Nashville
Office of Provost Marshal
Nashville, Tennessee, December 10, 1864
* * * *
II. It having been represented to the general Commanding the Post that flour dealers in the city are attempting to evade or defy Provost Order No. 252, by hiding their flour, or openly refusing to sell it at schedule rates ($15 per barrel); it is hereby ordered, that all flour dealers either merchants or consignees, selling on commission, shall report to this office what amount of flour they have on hand, and what disposition they either have made or intend to make thereof. This report must be made by 12 o'clock on Monday, Dec. 12 1864.
All persons who fail to comply with this order will be liable to arrest and their goods liable to confiscation for the use of [the] Government.
By Command of Brig. Gen. J. F. Miller
Hunter Brooke, Capt. and Provost Marshall
Nashville Dispatch, December 12 1864.
An extraordinary skedaddle took place at the office of the Provost Marshal yesterday morning, when all the clerks rushed helter skelter out of the office and into the hall as if Old Nick had been after them. Consternation was depicted in the countenances of some of the guards, but, like veterans, they stood firm at their post, while our local seized his hat and cane, preparatory to jumping out the windows; he was prevented from doing so, however, by a kind-hearted gentleman, who informed him that the supper bell was the innocent case of all the excitement.
Nashville Dispatch, December 11, 1864.
10, Willis Hansford's letter home from Nashville on the whereabouts of his father after the battle of Franklin
December the 10th, 1864
I seat myself this morning to answer your letter (that) I received last evening, dated Dec. the 3rd, which gives me great satisfaction to hear that you are all well. This letter leaves me well and I hope these few lines will find you the same. I told you (in) the other letter about Pap getting wounded, but don't know whether you got the letter or not. He was wounded. I havent [sic] heard from him. I packed him off the field. It was in the night. I could not tell how bad he was wounded. I don't think it went to the holer. (?) I wanted to stay but I could not get to stay, but I think he will get well. The Rebs [sic] is payrolling (paroling) all the (Federal) wounded fast as they get so (well enough) they can travel. I got his money and started you one hundred dollars by William Marcum and I will send you some more as soon as I get the chance. I don't know when I will get to come home, but I will come as soon as I can. You do the best you can till I get to come, and get some body to get wood for you. So I will close for this time, but remain your son till death.
From Willis Hansford
To Mary Hansford
Willis Hansford Correspondence.
10-29, Expedition from East Tennessee into Southeestern Virginia 
DECEMBER 10-29, 1864.-Expedition from East Tennessee into Southeestern Virginia.
SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN TENNESSEE.
December 10, 1864.-Gillem's command starts from Knoxville, Tenn.
12, 1864.-Stoneman's command (Burbridge's and Gillem's forces) advances from Bean's Station, Tenn.
12, 1864.-Skirmish at Brig Creek, near Rogersville, Tenn.
13, 1864.-Action at Kingsport, Tenn.
14, 1864.-Affair at Bristol, Tenn.
29, 1864.-Gillem's command reaches Knoxville, Tenn.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 806.
Report of Brig. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, U. S. Army to Brig. Gen. ANDREW JOHNSON, Military Governor of Tennessee, relative to the Expedition into Southeastern Virginia and East Tennessee, December 10-29, 1864.
HDQRS. BRIGADE GOVERNOR'S GUARDS, Camp near Knoxville, Tenn., December 30, 1864.
GEN.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this command the 10th to the 19th instant:
In accordance with an agreement between Maj.-Gen. Stoneman and myself that the forces under my command should co-operate in a movement against the rebel forces in East Tennessee and Southeastern Virginia, I marched from this place on the 10th instant with 1,500 picked men and horses, unencumbered with transportation, except a limited number of ambulances (seven), and encamped that night eight miles beyond Blain's Cross-Roads on the main road leading to Kingsport. The 11th instant we marched twenty-five miles, and that night drew seven days' rations from the depot at Bean's Station. Left camp at daylight on the 12th, and when ten miles this side of Rogersville came upon the enemy's pickets, which were driven back until we reached Big Creek, four miles east of Rogersville, where we came upon the enemy (which afterward proved to be Duke's brigade), occupying a strong position which commanded the brigade over the creek. Seeing that it would be impossible to attack this position in front without considerable loss of life, I ordered Maj. Wagner, with one battalion of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, to proceed down the creek and turn the enemy' left flank by a ford, whilst the Eighth Tennessee Cavalry made a demonstration of crossing above the bridge. These movements had the desisted effect, and the enemy abandoned their position. So soon as I perceived them falling back the remaining two battalions of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry were ordered to charge them in front, major Wagner's battalion having crossed the creek in time to join in the charge. The enemy were driven in confusion in the direction of Kingsport. They were pursued until 8 p. m., when my command was halted ten miles east of Rogersville to rest and feed. At 12 p. m., after four hours' rest, I resumed the pursuit, and at daylight reached the bank of the North Fork, opposite Kingsport, having marched forty-four miles in the previous twenty-four hours. The enemy were found strongly posted in a cedar thicket on a bluff commanding the ford, and also in the village of Kingsport. After consultation with Maj.-Gen. Stoneman, the Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry was ordered to proceed up the river and cross at Kyle's Ford, two miles and a half above, and turn the enemy's right flank, whilst I, with two battalions of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, under Lieut.-Col. Stacy, and the Ninth Tennessee Cavalry, under Maj. Hornsby, should cross the river and attack them in front. To cover our crossing Maj. Wagner, with the Third Battalion of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, was ordered to take a position in the shrubbery and behind the fences near the river on the west bank. At my request Maj.-Gen. Burbridge ordered a regiment to support Maj. Wagner, and also one to cross the river at the same ford by which the Eighth Tennessee passed, but this regiment did not reach Kingsport in time to participate in the engagement. So soon as the Eight Tennessee Cavalry its appearance on the enemy's right flank, the Thirteenth and Ninth Regt. [sic]'s, with the exception of Wagner's battalion, charged across the river and attacked them in front. This movement completely surprised them, and after a feeble resistance, considering the advantage of their position, they fled in confusion, and were pursued for seven miles. The pursuit only ended when the enemy, loosing all semblance of organization, scattered through the woods for safety. The enemy's loss in this charge was 18 killed, 84 prisoners, including Col. R. C. Morgan, commanding brigade. Their subsistence and ammunition train of 14 wagons and 4 ambulances fell into our hands. That night we encamped three miles east of Kingsport. At 4 o'clock in the morning of the 14th I marched for Bristol, via Blountville, arriving at the former place...at 1 p. m....
* * * *
Since the occupation of East Tennessee by the Federal forces, upper East Tennessee has been constantly harassed by raids from Southeastern Virginia. It was my aim to prevent a repetition of these raids, and so thorough were my orders executed that I am convinced that any force invading East Tennessee from that direction before the ripening of the crops of the ensuing year will be compelled to bring its supplies of forage and subsistence from beyond Wytheville. I regretted the necessity of giving orders that may cause suffering from beyond Wytheville. I regretted the necessity of giving orders that may cause suffering to non-combatants, but regard this as the most effectual means of protection the people of East Tennessee, whose welfare had been entrusted to me, and who had already suffered, as the penalty of their loyalty, the loss of everything but life, and I unhesitatingly gave the order to desolate the route of the invader. During the expedition many of our horses gave out and were abandoned, with the exception of about forty, these were replaced by others taken from the country, and which were branded "U. S." on my return to this place. All the horses are much reduced and require rest.
* * * *
I must beg leave to call your especial attention to the dashing gallantry of Lieut.-Col. Stacy and Capt. Dyer, of the Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, Lieut.'s Northern, Sam. Bell, and Layman (who lost an arm), Ninth Tennessee Cavalry, and Sergt. John H. Brown, Eight Tennessee Cavalry, who bore his regimental colors far in advance of his command and planted them on a piece of the enemy's artillery in the action of the 16th.
* * * *
I am, Governor, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. C. GILLEM, Brig. Gen., U. S. Vols., Cmdg. Brigade Governor's Guards.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 819-824.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Pulaski, December 27, 1864--10 p. m.
Maj. Gen. GEORGE STONEMAN, Knoxville, Tenn.:
I have received the report of this date of your operations in East Tennessee and Southeastern Virginia, and most cordially congratulate you and the officers and men of your command of your complete and splendid success, and for which you richly deserve, and I have earnestly recommended you receive, the thanks of the War Department. Whilst you were driving Breckinridge from East Tennessee this army gave Hood a very genteel whipping, capturing from him all of sixty-eight pieces of artillery, large numbers of small-arms, and several thousand prisoners. His army is new thoroughly demoralized and retreating as rapidly as the roads will permit across the Tennessee. Gen. Sherman has also made a triumphant march through Georgia to Savannah, which place he captured on the 21st instant, with quantities of stores, arms, and ammunition, and 150 locomotives. The garrison, under Hardee, made its escape by the Union Causeway toward Charleston.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 814-815.
The Confederate forces believed they had salvaged more from the loss than they had at first expected, especially meat:
HDQRS. VAUGHN'S BRIGADE, Bristol, December 28, 1864.
GEN.: On my arrived here I find things in better state than expected. All beef-cattle are safe and here now; will also get up about 650 out of the 700 hogs which were here. The telegraph will also get up about to this place; have also the operator from Jonesborough, Tenn., here, but no instrument; would like to have one forwarded at the earliest convince. There is one engine here belonging to the Tennessee railroad to have the road repaired as far as the brigade, one mile this side of Abingdon, and run the engine there with one flat car, which was left here undisturbed. The Tennessee railroad has been damaged but very little. The Federal attempted to chop down some uprights at the bridge at Zollicoffer [Bluff City], but were prevented by the home guards. I will have the hands of the Tennessee railroad help to repair the Virginia railroad as far up as the Seven-Mile Ford, which I think can be repaired to both points in a few days.
J. C. VAUGHN.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 836.
 It isn't known if it was up or down stream from the city, or on what bank.
 Haun was among four potters who were hanged as bridge burners. His work is considerably valued. See: Donahue Bible, Broken Vessels: The Story of the Hanging of the "Pottertown" Bridge-Burners, November-December, 1861, Mohawk, Tenn.: Dodson Creek Publishers, 1996. There is an image of Haun in this booklet.
 Tennessee, Records of East Tennessee, Civil War Records, Volume I, Prepared by the Historical Records Survey Transcription Unit, Division of Women's and Professional Projects Works Progress Administration, Mrs. John Trotwood Moore, State Librarian and Archivist, Sponsor, T. Marshall Jones, State Director, Mrs. Penelope Johnson Allen, State Supervisor, Mrs. Margaret H. Richardson, District Supervisor, Nashville, Tennessee, The Historical Records Survey, June 1, 1939, pp. 38-42. [Hereinafter cited as: W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol._ __, p. ____, etc.]
 See also: OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 853-855.
 Hereinafter: PAJ, Vol. 6.
 Jennifer Cain Bohrnstedt, ed, intro. Orville Vernon Burton, Soldiering With Sherman: Civil War Letters of George F. Cram, (DeKalb, Ill.; Northern Illinois University Press, 2000), pp. 25-26. [Hereinafter cited as: Letters of George F. Cram.]
 His case continued to be a matter of some importance to Tennessee Confederates who believed that hostages could be taken to gain his release. By early February 1863 Marchbanks had not been released.
 Jackson County seat.
 Columbus was located in Polk County, Tennessee. It no longer exists.
 As cited in: www.ehistory.com.
 White, not black, refugees.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 As cited in: http://www.franklin-stfb.org.
 There are 16 reports relative to this expedition.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456