7, "Recruits Wanted for the McCann Zouaves."
Thirty or forty Recruits are wanted to complete this company. The company is to be attached to Col. Anglade's Zouave Regiment, to be armed with the latest and most improved rifles, and will be drilled in the regular Zouave drill; to go into camp immediately.
Person wishing to enlist in this Company may do so by calling on the undersigned, on College street, two doors north of Broad street.
M. O. Brooks, Captain
Formerly of Col. Raines Reg[iment]. Tenn.
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 7, 1861.
7, Recruiting advertisement for the Confederate army
100 Recruits Wanted For the Confederate States Service!
Stout able-bodied men will be received to complete a Battery of Light Artillery to go immediately into active service. Uniforms and equipments furnished on enlistment. Apply to No. 62 Broad st., over Moulton & Reed's Store.
B. A. Terrett
Hu. T. Scott
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 7, 1861.
7, "Cheap Blankets."
Newspaper blankets are coming into vogue. They are no joke. A correspondent of one of our exchanges thus refers to the matter.
"I have recently heard much about the value of newspapers as a substitute for blankets, and have considered the statement to be apocryphal. But last evening I was induced to make the experiment. I took four full-sized newspapers and pasted them together by the edges, making one large sheet the size of a blanket. I then removed the blankets from my bed, and placed the newspaper sheet between the one remaining blanket, and the counterpane. The result was a comfortable night's sleep, without any feeling of cold. I pledge my word to you, gentlemen, that this is literally true; and my object in making the communication is, that through the medium of your paper, the fact may be generally circulated; for it is no trifling matter to the poor to know that for an outlay of a few pennies they can supply themselves with comfortable bed coverings [remainder illegible]."
Tennessee Baptist, December 7, 1861.
7, Winter fuel for the poor in Memphis
Wood for the Poor.—Sixty cords of the wood presented to the poor of the city were received yesterday, and a portion of it was distributed by the Mayor, who will attend to other cases of poverty. Application should be made to the policeman of the ward in which the person desiring wood resides.
Memphis Daily Appeal, December 7, 1861
7, J. G. M. Ramsey and W. H. Tibbs advise President Jefferson Davis against the release of William G. Brownlow
KNOXVILLE, TENN., December 7, 1861.
Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS,
President Confederate States of America.
SIR: The Confederate civil authorities here had Mr. Brownlow arrested last evening under a charge of treason. He is now in jail. It is understood that parties in this place are taking or perhaps have already taken measures to apply for executive clemency in his behalf and turn him at large or transfer him under a military escort to the enemy's lines in Kentucky. To this course we enter our most respectful but decided protest and remonstrance.
During the whole summer and fall the civil military power of your Government has arrested, tried, convicted and punished (in some cases capitally in others with more leniency) the poor and insignificant dupes of Brownlow's treasonable teachings and example. A carload of these ignorant tories was sent this morning to Tuscaloosa, Ala.; and now the proposition to release the prime mover and instigator of all this rebellion against the South and Tennessee and send him, an authorized emissary, to the headquarters of the enemy dignified with an escort of our Tennessee soldiery has started this community, embracing in the number citizens and most of the army here. The feeling of indignation at the bare effort his release is much intensified by the fact which as it may not be fully known at Richmond we take leave to bring to your attention, viz, that the prisoner shortly before the burning of our railroad bridges and other acts of incendiarism and disloyalty had left town and visited Blount and Sevier Counties, the residence of the malcontents who are know as the incendiaries, and the suspicion is widely entertained that he prompted and instigated that and other atrocities. This peregrination into the most disloyal and disaffected neighborhoods makes him the more familiar with the extent of the disaffection-their plans, purposes, &c.
A more dangerous and more capable emissary could not be found in the Southern Confederacy to stimulate invasion of Tennessee and advise and carry into effect every kind of mischief. His arrival in Kentucky and Lincoln generally would be hailed as a greater achievement that the capture of Zollicoffer and his brave troops.
We do not deem it necessary to enlarge further on the subject but we earnestly advise against the proposed release and transportation to Kentucky. Let the civil or military law take its course against the criminal leader in this atrocious rebellion as it has already done to his deluded and ignorant followers.
We have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. G. M. RAMSEY.
WM. H. TIBBS.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 906-907.
7, Observation by an L&N railroad agent on difficulties with raising troops in the Volunteer State
Mr. A. B. Barker, the well known railroad agent, arrived from Nashville, Tenn., last evening having left that place on Saturday, the 23d inst. He made his way to this city with much difficulty, as he was a well known Union man, and was unable to obtain a pass from the rebel authorities. Mr. Barker has resided in Nashville during the past two years, and as he was immediately connected with the Louisville and Nashville Railroad up to the time of his departure, enjoyed fine opportunity for observing the movements of the army in that quarter.
It will be remembered that Gov. Harris, of Tennessee, made a requisition a few month's ago for thirty thousand men and additional arms. The call met with no response whatever, and the authorities were compelled to resort to a draft in order to fill the requisition. The work of drafting commenced in Nashville the day of his departure.
He estimates the number of rebel troops between Nashville and Bowling Green at twenty eight thousand. He assures us that they are miserably fed and badly clothed, and that there is a great deficiency in the matter of arms. Many of them, too, are ill, and he thinks there are fully three thousand five hundred sick soldiers in Nashville alone.
No attention is given to the payment of the troops, and the soldiers have so accustomed to that sort of neglect, that they do not expect to receive remuneration for their services, being but to glad if they can obtain sufficient subsistence to keep their souls and bodies together. Alluding to the case of Harry Duvall, of this city, in this arms connection he says, he says that Harry arrived from Richmond a few days ago with sixteen dollars in his pocket, the remainder of seven hundred dollars which he carried with him from this city to the Confederacy. Harry has no command now and no employment.
Mr. Barker was familiar with many of the boys who left this city and joined the rebel army, and relates some amusing episodes in their histories down there. He says that Blanton Duncan has fallen into disgrace there, having given up the pursuit after military fame and adopted gambling as a profession.
Louisville Daily Journal, December 7, 1861. 
7, Action and victory at Hartsville due to providential intervention
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 155. HDQRS. DEPARTMENT No. 2.
Murfreesborough, Tenn., December 12, 1862.
With pride and pleasure, mingled with gratitude to the Supreme source of all our victories, the general commanding has the satisfaction of announcing to his troops the signal triumph of our arms at Hartsville, Tenn., on the 7th instant. This brilliant exploit was achieved by a portion of Morgan's cavalry brigade, together with detachments from the Second and Ninth Kentucky Regiments of Infantry, under Col. Hurt, the whole under Brig.-Gen. Morgan. After a remarkable march of more than 40 miles, through snow and ice, they forded the Cumberland under cover of darkness, and at daylight precipitated themselves upon the enemy. Our success was complete. With a force of not more than 1,200 men in action, we inflicted a loss upon the enemy of 500 killed and wounded, and captured 1,800 prisoners, with all their arms, munitions, and other stores. Our own loss was small compared with the result, not exceeding 125 in killed and wounded. The memory of the gallant men who fell to rise no more will be revered by their comrades, and forever honored by their country. To Brig.-Gen. Morgan and to Col. Hunt the general tenders his thanks, and assures them of the admiration of his army. The intelligence, zeal, and gallantry displayed by them will serve as an example and an incentive to still more honorable deeds. To the other brave officers and men composing the expedition the general tenders his cordial thanks and congratulations. He is proud of them, and hails the success achieved by their valor in the action will in future bear upon its colors the name of the memorable field.
By command of Gen. Bragg:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, p. 65.
Report of Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan, C. S. Army, commanding expedition.
MORGAN'S HDQRS., Cross-Roads, near Murfreesborough, Tenn., December 9, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to lay before you, for the information of the general commanding, a report of the expedition against the Federal force at Hartsville:
I left these headquarters at 10 a. m. on the 6th instant, with 1,400 men of my own command, under the orders of Col. Duke; the Second and Ninth Kentucky Infantry, commanded by Col. [T. H.] Hunt; Capt. [Robert] Cobb's battery of artillery, two small howitzers, and two rifled Ellsworth guns belonging to my own command. At Lebanon I received information that no change had been made in the number of the Federals at Hartsville, their number being still about 900 infantry and 400 cavalry, with two pieces of artillery. I found afterward that their force had been considerably underrated. I proceeded with the infantry and artillery to Purier's Ferry, on the Cumberland River, sending the cavalry, under the orders of Col. Duke, to pass at a ford some 7 miles below the point where we were to rendezvous. I passed my troops with great difficulty, there being but one boat, and about 5.30 on the morning of the 7th I arrived at Hager's Shop, 2 miles from the Federal camp. I found that Col. Duke, with his cavalry, had only just marched up, having crossed the ford with difficulty, and that one regiment of his command, 500 strong (Col. [R. M.] Gano's), had not yet reported. Maj. [R. G.] Stoner's battalion had been left on the other side of the Cumberland, with the two mountain howitzers, to prevent the escape of the enemy by the Lebanon road, and Col. [J. D.] Bennett's [Ninth Tennessee Cavalry] regiment had been ordered to proceed to Hartsville to picket the road leading to Gallatin, and to attack any of the Federals they might find in that town, to take possession of the Castalian Springs, Lafayette, and Carthage roads, so as to prevent the escape of the enemy. This reduced my force considerably, but I determined to attack, and that at once. There was no time to be lost; day was breaking, and the enemy might expect strong re-enforcements from Castalian Springs should my arrival be known. Advancing, therefore, with the cavalry, closely followed by the artillery and infantry, I approached the enemy's position. The pickets were found and shot down. The Yankee bivouac fires appeared to cover a long line of ground, and gave me to suppose that their numbers were much greater than I anticipated. On nearing their camp the alarm was sounded, and I could distinctly see and hear the officers ordering their men to fall in, preparing for resistance. Col. Duke then dismounted Col.'s Cluke's and Chenault's regiments (in all about 450 men), drawing them up in line in a large field in the front and a little to the right of the enemy's line, which was then forming, and seeing that the artillery and infantry were in position, he ordered his men to advance at the double [quick], and directed Col. Chenault, who was on the left, to oblique, so as to march on the enemy's flank. His men then pressed forward, driving the Federals for nearly half a mile, without a check, before them, until their right wing was forced back upon their own left wing and center. Col. Duke then ordered a halt until the infantry had commenced their attack on the Federal left wing, which caused a retreat of the whole line. At this juncture Lieut.-Col. [J. M.] Huffman and Maj. [Theophilus] Steele, of Gano's regiment, came up with about 100 men of that regiment, who had succeeded in crossing the ford, and threw their small force into the fight. My dismounted cavalry, under Col. Duke, had only been skirmishing previously to this for about twenty minutes; but seeing that Col. Hunt, with the infantry, was pressing hard upon the Federal left, he ordered an advance upon the right wing and flank of their new line. It gave way and ceased firing, and soon after surrendered.
Col. Duke reports that his men fought with a courage and coolness which could not be surpassed. Col.'s Cluke and Chenault led on their men with the most determined bravery, encouraging them by voice and example.
The timely arrival of Lieut.-Col. Huffman and Maj. Steele, and the gallant manner in which they threw themselves into the fight, had a very decided effect upon the battle at the point at which they entered.
The artillery under Capt. Cobb did most excellent service, and suffered severely from the enemy's battery, which fired with great precision, blowing up one of his caissons and inflicting a severe loss on that arm.
The infantry conducted themselves most gallantly, the Second Kentucky suffering most severely.
Col. Bennett's regiment, as I said before, was not in fight, having been sent on a special service, which was most efficiently performed, 450 prisoners having been taken by them and 12 Federals killed. Thus, sir, in one hour and a half the troops under my command, consisting of 500 cavalry (Col. Gano's and Col. Bennett's regiments and Maj. Stoner's command not participating in the fight), 700 infantry, with a battery of artillery (in all about 1,300 strong), defeated and captured three well-disciplined and well-formed regiments of infantry, with a regiment of cavalry, and took two rifled cannon-the whole encamped on their own ground and in a very strong position-taking about 1,800 prisoners, 1,800 stand of arms, a quantity of ammunition, clothing, quartermaster's stores, and 16 wagons.
The battle was now won. The result exceeded my own expectation, but still I felt that my position was a most perilous one, being within 4 miles in a direct line, and only 8 by the main Gallatin road, of an enemy's force of at least 8,000 men, consisting of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, who would naturally march to the aid of their comrades on hearing the report of our guns. I, therefore, with the assistance of my staff, got together all the empty wagons left by the enemy, loaded them with arms, ammunition, and stores, and directed them immediately to Hart's Ferry. There was no time to be lost. The pickets placed by my assistant adjutant-general on the Castalian Springs road sent to report the advance of a strong body of Federals, estimated at 5,000 men. I sent Col. Cluke's regiment to make a show of resistance, ordering Col. Gano's regiment, which had arrived, in support. In the mean time I pressed the passage of the ford to the utmost. This show of force caused a delay in the advance of the enemy, who had no idea of the number of my men, and probably greatly overrated my strength, and gave me time to pass the ford with infantry, artillery, and baggage-wagons, the horses of my cavalry being sent back from the other side of the Cumberland River to carry over the infantry regiments.
It was time to retreat. The enemy attacked our rear, but was kept at bay the two regiments before specified, aided by four guns I had previously ordered to be placed in position on the south side of the Cumberland, looking forward to what was now taking place. The banks of the river on both sides are precipitous, and the stream breast-deep, but our retreat was effected in excellent order. We lost not a man, except 3, badly wounded, that I was reluctantly forced to leave behind. Cavalry, infantry, guard, guns, and baggage-train safely crossed, with the exception of four wagons, which had been sent by another route, and which are still safely hidden in the woods, according to accounts received to-day...
* * * *
Three Federal regimental standards and five cavalry guidons fluttered over my brave column on their return from this expedition. With such troops, victory is enchained to our banners, and the issue of a contest with our Northern opponents, even when they are double our force, no longer doubtful!
I have the honor to be, sir, with the highest respect, your most obedient servant,
JOHN H. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, pp. 65-68.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, December 11, 1862.
Gen. BRAXTON BRAGG.
GEN.: Your letter inclosing list of prisoners captured at Hartsville and paroled by you has been received. It is reported to me that the flag of truce presented itself about dark and during a skirmish.
The officer who conducted them to our lines insisted upon our receiving them as I am informed upon the ground of humanity. We take care of your prisoners, feed them, make them as comfortable as we can and conduct them to the proper place of exchange. That is our idea of humanity. Our prisoners were sufficiently clad when taken and I think ought to have been similarly treated. Whether your idea of humanity consists in robbing them of their blankets and overcoats I know not, but such they assure me was the treatment they received from your troops.
Without entering further into that question, however, I must be permitted to observe that to send these prisoners to my lines without any previous agreement with me to receive them is a violation both of the letter and spirit of the cartel.
I regret to notice this act of injustice and discourtesy, which is aggravated by the fact of their not being sent to us at a proper hour of the day when all the business could have been transacted without inconvenience to either party.
Paroled prisoners will hereafter only be received by me in accordance with the terms of the cartel. Herewith you will please receive receipts for the prisoners taken at Hartsville conformed to the lists of them forwarded by you. Although purporting apparently to be originals these lists are evidently mere copies, not attested by the signature of any officer of either army. As regards the third list sent by you inasmuch as it contains the names of persons of whom I know nothing it is impossible for me to say or do anything.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Murfreesborough, December 11, 1862.
Maj. Gen. W. S. ROSECRANS, Cmdg. U. S. Forces, Nashville, Tenn.
GEN.: In your letter of the 4th instant you express your abhorrence of the system of harassing and arresting non-combatants. In a previous letter I have intimated my entire concurrence in these views and nothing shall swerve me from the faithful observance of a policy which is dictated by every proper sentiment. I am credibly informed, however, that on the very day on which your communication was written a number of citizens of Tennessee charged only with political offense or proclivities were arrested and imprisoned in the penitentiary of Nashville. It is of little moment to me whether this was done by your immediate order or by your subordinates for whose conduct you are responsible, and I hereby notify you that I shall enforce rigid and unyielding retaliation against the commissioned officers who fall into my hands until this violation of good faith be corrected in deeds as well as words.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
BRAXTON BRAGG, Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, p. 70.
7, Shortages, literary dreams and prospects for the future in Warren County, an excerpt from the War Journal of Lucy Virginia French "…and it will be as hard a task as Charlotte Bronte ever undertook--yet I want to make an effort."
* * * *
The bareness to which we are reduced would have seemed to me two years ago as incredible. We live on wheat coffee, pork, or goat meat, bread--(both corn and wheat,) and we have a few potatoes and turnips, and one cow. When that is said "voila tout," butter is 1.00 per lb. and eggs 1.50 per dozen. No sugar[,] no molasses, a little dried fruit, and some in cans, but nothing to sweeten it with. Understood Mrs. Julia Argo had gotten in some way two barrels of sugar,--I sent her an offering of 5 to 10 dollars for as many lbs., but she could not let anybody have a pound! Sent me word if she let anybody have it, it would be me, but she would not sell a bit of it. "Well," I thought, "had I two barrels of sugar, I could not deny a neighbor who wanted a few pounds." During the past week I have been busy sewing, knitting, etc., it being my wish to get all such work of that kind of[f] my hands by the New Year, when, "if we have any luck," I would like to commence my study and book-writing. Small advantages have I for this it is true--and it will be as hard a task as Charlotte Bronte ever undertook--yet I want to make an effort. I may fail, or the book may fail (which is more than probable.) yet I must try for two reasons. Darlin' will never be satisfied unless I do try, and as our circumstances may be poor indeed by the time this infernal war is over, I could not have an easy conscience unless I at least tried to do whatever is in my power to mend them. We have no pleasures to look forward to now--but only duties--henceforth we are not to enjoy, but to labor, and endure. We shall belong to that class of the world's drudges, who "work that they may eat and eat that they may be enabled to work." It is a cold and gloomy future--how different from that my imagination pictured two years ago!--yet it must be met, and met with stout hearts too, or we shall faint and fall by the wayside. May heaven help us and out children!
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.
7, A Union recruiter's tale
Bethel Station Tennessee
December 7th, 1862
Gov Andrew Johnson
Sir I have Been in the Recruiting Service ever since I left Nashville or at best the most of the Time[.] The Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers have fallen and the CeCesh [sic] gurellas [sic] having got in middle Tennessee it was Impossable [sic] for me to reach Nashvill [sic] so I was advised by Col Adams of Hamburgh, Tenn [sic] to Recruit for Col Hurst Reg[iment] at Berthel who was making up a Reg[iment] by your orders[.] so good many of my recruits are in his Regment [sic][.] I have nearly a company formed now and will have the company completed by christmast [sic] if I can but at the present time my hands are tied. During the time I was Recruiting I captured some negroes who had been throwing up breast works for the CeCesh [sic] and had been working on a cecesh [sic] gun-boat[.] I captured them and turned them over to the government authoraties [sic]. And a good many Horses a large amount of salt &c which enraged the cecesh [sic] against me Trememdeously [sic] so They put out Rewards for me from $500 to $1,000[.] So on [the] 2nd day of Nov. while alone on a reconnorting [sic] expeditions I was captured by a band of Guerellas [sic] on the Tenessee [sic] River[.] I then without mercy or Humanity was draged [sic] in irons to Columbia Jail where I was striped of my Clothing and hung up three times by the neck, Thence I was Draged [sic] to Murphyesborough [sic] in Thirty miles of Nashvill [sic] and thrust in a cell without any thing to protect myself from the severity of the weather[.] in that dismal cell I had to walk the floor all the times of nights to or I should have chilled to death[.] I thought my time was come[.] stripped naked of my warm clothing and shoes and had to die at last in Jail by the severity of wether [sic] Awful indeed[.] Inability seized my mortal frame[.] I was taken out of Jail and Brought before the provost martial to have the sentence of death pronounced against me[.] I was hailed by soldiers as [I] entered the court house as Thief a rober [sic] and Scoundrel[.] Shoot the damed [sic] Rascal says one, get out of the way many voices cries[.] Ile [sic] shoot Ile [sic] shoot[.] god dam [sic] his soul hes [sic] turned traitor to country and joined the yankees [sic][.] Kill, Kill him[.] They were tumultuous[.] The Excite was quelled by the officers but with great Difficulty[.] I was brought in the court house[.] The charges against me were made out by one Mr. Cox guerella [sic] Captain formerly of Lindon [sic] Tennessee a pettifogger lawyer; the charges were as follows. Dr. W. T. Belisle guilty Negro steeling Horse steeling and in fact a great enemy to the southren [sic] confederacy [sic] a[nd] verry [sic] Dangerous [sic] to the confedrate [sic] cause[.] therfore you will keep him well secured for he is as slick as an eel. but owing to my disablitly [sic] I was ordered back in Jail for Three days to be kept by the fire in warm room until I would Recruit a little under a strong guard which was done. I being Released [sic] from cell in prison I soon got acquainted with one Mr. Johnson also a prisoner for aiding you (he so informed me) to organize a Union Meeting in that vicinity. we had Joyful time of it[.] Ile [sic] assure you I was glad to see him[.] we [sic] conversed nearly all day[.] I found him to be a good union man and a verry [sic] enteligent [sic!] one; one that loved his country and appeared to sempathize [sic] with me verry [sic] much but they seeing such an intimacy existing Between us he was moved to Chattanooga and I was left alone to deplore my awful condition[.] But god would have it on the Second Night I was guared [sic] by some North Carolinians who were good Union men Conscriped [sic] in service who were Careless about me and who petted [pitied?] me very much and told me they Thought I would [be] Shot or hanged[.] I then Thought [sic] it was once or never for me to make my Escape so about 2'O Clock before day when Slumber had taken deep possession of all the guards but one I Broke out two nail above a window sash, Raised the sash and made my escape between the Camp fires into the cedar woods. Though I was barefoot and nearly Naked and the rain was pouring down on me I was happy to Happy to thinke [sic] I had escaped a mighty foe; one that sought to take my life because I loved my Country[.] Shivering with cold surrounded with an unfeeling enemy a dark and gloomy night I set out to try to find Nashville; I traveled till day and found my self in side and surrounded by the CeCesh [sic] pickets so I was compelled to lay up all day and being unaquainted [sic] with the country I traveled three nights trying to pass the picketts [sic] and get in to Nashvill [sic][.] Hunger and cold had nearly appointed my end so one morning early I found my self surrounded by the pickets who took me and brought me before Gen. Wheeler at lavern[.] I knew then I would have to do quick work or go up for ninety days so I told Gen. Wheeler that I belonged to that company I came to Nashville with[.] I told him I belonged to Comp C 1st Tennessee Cav and he believed me and perolled [sic] but would not let me report at Nashvill [sic] but put out of the lines withe [sic] orders if I was in his lines any more I was to be shot[.] This please me very much And Skedaddled for Bethel Knowing when they found out the trick the perole [sic] would do me no good[.] so got out of the way[.] So I have stated My Condition [sic] to you as it really is[.] I had to tell them that belonged to the army or else death would have been my portion[.] I soon found out Being in the Recruiting service would not release me[.] So you know I was only in the recruiting service as I received the authority from you on the 4th day of June last. So You see my condition at this time. And I wish you to write to me what to do so soon as this comes to hand and you will oblige your obediant [sic] Servent
W. T. Belisle MD
Direct you letter to Bethel Tennessee in Care of Provo Martial
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 89-90.
7, "… i [sic] know that they have raised large hills and stuck four cannons on them so that it overlooks the city…."Andrew Slagg to his brother Arnold from the Memphis environs
Mr Arnold Slagg the wood chopper
Camp Near Memphis December 7th 1862
Dear brother i [sic] thought it would not do to pass by and not give you a few lines about what i [sic] have seen since i [sic] have been a soldier Dear Brother i [sic] hope that these few lines will find you and hannah [sic] and the boy well as leaves me now at present Joe has got a little pain in his right knee but i [sic] think it wont amount to much[.] ezra [sic] has got the panders but he is better then he was. give my best respects to Mr Bartin and all the rest of folks tell Alice that i [sic] expect to hear of a wedding before long i [sic] herd that gardener Bentty had got his discharge and got home if he has Dear Brother give him my best respects tell him i [sic] am glad he has escaped as well has he has for i [sic] hear that he has had a narrow escape from death tell Thomas barton [sic] i [sic] am glad to hear that he is getting better i [sic] expect he has had a hard time of it at least margaret [sic] wrote so. Dear Brother i [sic] hope that you are getting along so that in a few years you will have a good big farm for you and Francis Marrion to work and not have to split wood for marsdon [sic] at fifty cents a cord and be froze at that i [sic] should like to know if you have took that farm of good lads or not i [sic] herd you was thinking of taking it i [sic] guess it is a prity [sic] good place but its a mighty rough country around it but the same sun shines their as on the prarie [sic] you will be pritty [sic] close to old neighbors and good neighbors at that i [sic] pritty inquisitive about your business but you know news is news in camp Dear Brother i [sic] should like to know your crops turned on the prairie i [sic] think you would do pritty well if the crops turned out a well as they looked and if prices keeps up good and that i [sic] hope they will for your sake and Thomas Bartins tell Mr Wells that I send him my best respects. and that i [sic] calculate to write to him as quick as i [sic] have time Dear Brother we are now camped before a breast work and if we was rebels i [sic] guess they would give us Jessy they fire of [sic] a gun every night to let them know that the countersign is out and that no body can pass the lines in nor out without the countersign[.] it shakes the very camp when it goes off our camp is about a mile off [.] they say that they will kill six miles of [sic][.] i [sic] dont know about that but i [sic] they are big fellows i [sic] know that they have raised large hills and stuck four cannons on them so that it overlooks the city and for a long way further they have cut down the timber for about two miles so that if the enemy was to come they would have a fair sweep at them[.] there was one rebel [sic] came in and gave himself up he said that the rebel oficers [sic] said that they did not ever expect to get memphis [sic] back he said that they had no tents in arkansas[sic][.] Peter Binkert is very sick to night in the hospital the Doctors [sic] says that he is the sickest Boy [sic] in the hospital Dear Brother i [sic] must close it is just going dark a very fine night give my Best respects to All[.] bicknell [sic] sends his best respects to All
7, "TERRIFIC DOG FIGHT."
"I know that the world – that great big world,
From the Peasant to the King –
Has a different tale from the tale I tell
And a different song to sing.
But its all the same, if others may claim
That the uppermost dog is right.
I'll sing my song, whether right or wrong,
For the bottom dog in the fight."
[by] Ker Chunk [sic]
The most terrific canine encounter, it has ever been our chance to witness, transpired yesterday in front of the Rebel office. A big shaggy coated white dog and a stump-tall black-and-tan bull-terrier of the color of tobacco juice, got into a dispute (possibly concerning the removal of Burnsides,) when "high barks" ensued which soon "come to blows," resulting in a series of acrobatic canine tussles of a most alarming character. The black-tan immediately took a position upon the back of the white dog, and forcing him violently to the earth, proceeded to devour him in a most "inhuman" manner. The white "dorg," suddenly "changed his base," and by a well executed flank movement made a chassez to the left, letting his competitor "flop over," when he immediately regained his feet, and "too the position" for the
By this time business in the city was entirely suspended and the inhabitants flocked to the scene of combat. White dog rushed on black-tan with impetuosity, and seizing him by the nape of the neck, threw him over a lamp-post and caught him coming down, and was in the act of swallowing him, when by-standers interfered, amid repeated cries of "foul play."
During this round public excitement on the outside raged with unabated fury, and bets were freely offered and taken on the "bottom dog" against the "wooly purp," on top. White dog seized the stump of the black-tan's tail between his teeth, and bit it off so close, he couldn't wag it. With a howl of despair, black-tan repaired to the point where his rear was attacked, and "covered the retreat" of the "main body" with his nose.
The combatants come up freshly to the encounter, white dog manouvering skillfully in a circle, and black-tan, throwing out an occasional "snipper" at his legs to "feel the enemy." White dog, contemplating a "reconnoissance in force" rushed on black-tan like a young hurricane, and the belligerents disapeared [sic] in a cloud of dust, [when the] owner of black-tan appeared in the [illegible] with a whip-lash which was administered across the backs of both animals, with a view to an "armed interference." Master of white dog then seized that animal by his [canine?] appendage and proceeded with him down the street – white dog by means of his master, accomplishing that much talked of feat in military science, called a "master retreat," and so the fight ended, and the city resumed it wonted quiet, and waited patiently for another battle.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, December 7, 1862.
7, Increase in number of inebriated soldiers in Nashville
We have seen more drunken men on our streets during the past week than for three months previous. Yesterday was especially marked for the unusually large number of drunken men—mostly soldiers—seen in the principal thoroughfares of the city. All the liquor saloons were closed several months ago by order of the provost marshal, but it is painfully evident that there is but little difficulty experienced of late in getting any quantity and at any time parties may desire. The evidence of this may be seen almost every hour in the day in boisterous men, civilians and soldiers, reeling through the streets. We trust Col. Gillem will turn another screw upon those places where liquor is being clandestinely sold, for the double reason that such action will prevent demoralization in the army, and at the same time afford protection to citizens against the lawlessness of drunken men.
Nashville Dispatch, December 7, 1862.
ca. 7-9, Combined Navy/Army reconnaissances on Tennessee River, from Fort Henry to Duck River and scouts in Fort Henry environs
FORT HENRY, December 10, 1862
Gen. W. S. ROSECRANS:
Your dispatch of 4.45 p. m. yesterday just received 3.30 p. m. Hear nothing yet of the approach of the enemy, though I have scouts out in every direction, in some instances as much as 25 miles. Have made a reconnaissance up the Tennessee River with gunboat as far as Duck River, and yesterday sent a scouting party to within 12 miles of Waverly. Killed 1 rebel picket and captured another. Force at Fort Donelson is Eighty-third Illinois Infantry, tolerably strong; one light battery, four pieces, and one company of my regiment, Fifth Iowa Cavalry. I have everything else ready to move at a moment's warning, and have been so for two days. A line of scouts is established between Donelson and Henry, by which I can communicate readily in case telegraph should be cut. By this I have just received a message through in fifty-eight minutes. What few troops I have are in grand fighting trim, and everything that can be done has been done. You shall have a good account of us if attacked. The quantity of stores at Donelson is very small. I keep the bulk at Fort Henry.
W. W. LOWE, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. II, pp. 151-152.
7, Skirmish at Eagleville
No circumstantial reports filed.
7, Skirmish near Rutledge
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, Junction of Rutledge and Powder Spring road, December 8, 1863--11 a. m.
GEN.: I have just reached this place. Gen.'s Martin and Armstrong were between this and Blain's Cross-Roads, and on the river road last night. They commenced leaving last night about midnight, the last of them leaving at 8 o'clock this morning. Jones' command was out the Powder Spring road and came in to the Rutledge road this morning at this point, and went on up the road. I heard from Col. Foster this morning. Graham's brigade was to have been at Blain's Cross-Roads by 10 or 11 o'clock. Garrard's brigade was to cross the mountain at one of the gaps to-day. I think when I get the corps together, with the artillery, I will be enabled to do the enemy some damage. The enemy's infantry finished passing here late Sunday evening, since which time I have heard nothing of them.
I am, general, very truly, yours,
J. M. SHACKELFORD, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, pp. 410-411.
7, Cavalry skirmishing near Clinch River
TAZEWELL, December 7, 1863--9 p. m.
I have returned from the Clinch River where I expected to join a brigade of infantry and drive the enemy from the summit of Clinch Mountain, so as to play on the flanks of the retreating enemy with artillery; but the troops were so weakened by the one-quarter rations that they have had for some months that they did not get to the position in time. The cavalry have skirmished with the enemy all day. Upon my return here I find a dispatch from Gen. Burnside desiring me to join him with my whole force. This I shall do, as my force is too small to do much by itself. Gen. Burnside thinks Longstreet is not defeated, but is merely falling back to avoid Sherman.
J. G. FOSTER, Maj.-Gen.
(Same to Gen. Halleck.)
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 351.
7, Operation of flour mills in Knoxville environs by U. S. Army
HDQRS. FOURTH ARMY CORPS, Knoxville, Tennessee, December 7, 1863.
Gen.'s SHERIDAN and WOOD:
You will move on to this point at daylight to-morrow morning with your command, leaving a sufficient number to run the mills now being engaged in your neighborhood; also wagons to bring in what flour and meal may be ground there to-morrow and next day. It is designed that we occupy this point as a garrison while Gen. Burnside's troops pursue the retreating enemy.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Granger:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 354.
7, Federal anticipation of a raid by Nathan Bedford Forrest into West Tennessee
MEMPHIS, December 7, 1863.
Brig. Gen. A. J. SMITH, Columbus:
It is certain that Forrest is calling in all guerrilla parties; concentrating them at Jackson and Trenton. The addition to your force will come most opportunely for a vigorous movement upon the rebels, when concentrated. Forrest has, so far as I can learn, only three pieces of artillery. I regret exceedingly that I have no battery to send you, and request you to telegraph to Gen. Grant, requesting one to be sent. I have fifty-four guns with Steele, and cannot get them back. Advise me when you will probably be ready to move, and I will cause Grierson to move at the same time from this line.
I desire to make thorough work of these trespassers.
In relation to the cotton seized by you, all that belongs to unquestionable Union men will be delivered to them, the rest turned over to the Treasury Department.
I am, general, your obedient servant,
S. A. HURLBUT, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 355.
7, Admittance of cotton trade on railroad to Memphis, with possible military tax [see December 1, 1863, Major-General U. S. Grant and U. S. Treasury Department agree upon new enumerated list for sales of cotton goods, inspection of steam ships and responsibility for guerrilla outrages above]
HDQRS. SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS Memphis, Tennessee, December 7, 1863.
Brig. Gen. J. M. TUTTLE, LaGrange, Tennessee:
You can admit cotton to come over railroad to Memphis. Five dollars per bale may be imposed for secret-service fund.
S. A. HURLBUT, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 355.
7, Conditions in White County, an excerpt from the journal of Amanda McDowell of the Cherry Creek community
I have been out all day amongst the patrons of my school. Some of them promised me corn if I could get it home, but that is it, everyone is afraid of the Yankees, who persist in coming out from Sparta and committing "depredations on peaceable citizens" despite the oath which some of them have taken. Indeed the country is in a dreadful state. No worse yet, as I know of, than it has been before with "our own men," as we have all learned to say. (I have but little part in them and wish I had less.)...Fayette...had to leave from Hughs to go to Bragg's war and he intended to go if there was any possible chance of getting there, for he is dreadfully opposed to their way of fighting here, and said a long time [ago] he would not go, but, when the Col. [Hughs, i.e.] called for him he had to go. Very few men can do as they like these days.
Diary of Amanda McDowell.
7, "Merchant's Home Guard."
The soldierly bearing and correct execution of evolutions, in obedience to orders, by the "Merchants' Home Guards," on the occasion of their mustering in, on Monday the 7th instant, in the presence of General Veatch, was deserving of much praise. When the order was given, "Prepare to open Ranks"--"To the Rear--Open Order"--"Front," the promptness and precision of compliance to the word of command elicited the warm approval and admiration of all who were present. Much credit is due the commissioned officers, Captain Harvey S. De Young, First Lieutenant, J. C. Cohen, Second Lieutenant, David C. Loewenstine. Their first dress parade will take place on New Year's day."
Memphis Bulletin, December 9, 1863.
7, Cavalry ordered to guard the Memphis to Charleston railroad from La Grange to Corinth and to press draft animals
HDQRS. CAVALRY DIVISION, SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tennessee, December 7, 1863
Col. J. K. MIZNER, Cmdg. First Cavalry Brigade:
COL.: You will dispose your command to the best advantage in order to guard the railroad from La Grange to Corinth, making in your headquarters for the present at Grand Junction. You will patrol the country both north and south of the railroad, and report all information by telegraph to these headquarters.
In accordance with the third section, Paragraph III, of General Orders, No. 2 headquarters Department of the Tennessee, of date October 25, 1863, and with instructions from Maj.-Gen. Hurlbut, commanding Sixteenth Army Corps, you will take all horses and mules which may be found in the country, and place you command in the best possible order. Animals thus taken will be receipted for be a commissioned officer, receipts not transferable and payable at the end of the war on proof of loyalty.
These receipts will be taken up and vouchers given for them by chief quartermaster of the Sixteenth Army Corps.
It is especially enjoined that you prepare your command for active service at the earliest possible moment. Forrest is north of the railroad in the vicinity of Jackson, Tennessee His force is reported to be 2,000 strong, with two pieces light artillery.
B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 355.
7, Funding the secret service fund with receipts from cotton transportation
HDQRS. SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS
Memphis, Tennessee, December 7, 1863.
Brig. Gen. J. M. TUTTLE, La Grange, Tennessee,:
You can admit cotton to come over railroad to Memphis. Five dollars per bale may be imposed for secret-service fund.
S. A. HURLBUT, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 355.
7, "Some puked and heaved at an awful rate." Sick wheat flour in the 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry in the Madisonville environs
Dec. 7th 1863, 5 ms [sic] South of Madisonville, Monday 7th Munrow [sic] Co. Maddisonville [sic] Co Seat
A little after day light orders came for our company to report to our regt and be ready to march at 9 o'clock A. M. when ariveing [sic] at camp we found that some wheat flour has been issued but our company had no time to cook it so we had to carry it along all day with the exceptions of a pint of rather thin mush we have not eat [sic] any thing [sic] today the other companys [sic] of our regt cooked and eat brackfast [sic] off the flower they drawed [sic] and all that eat of it was less or more sick some puked and heaved at an awful rate [sic] the thought at first [was] that it was poisoned but afterwards found out that it was what they call sick wheat the officers advised us not to use ours but throw it away, but we could be advised we were bound to eat it if we died in 10 minutes. So after getting into camp I devided [sic] it out to each man his share some made it in little cakes, placed them on a peice [sic] of board or rail, and sort of dried or tosted [sic] it by the fiar [sic] and some mixted [sic] it up in tin cups and scratched out a little hole in the ashes, poured it in and covered it up with hot ashes and let it cook after the manner of rosting [sic] pitatos [sic] Brother James had a tin plate which him [sic] and myself [sic] used to bake our on some of the boys became very sick and more then heaved but I was not effected [sic] so bad although I felt sick of the stomic [sic]
We marched 15 miles today and camped 5 miles South of Maddisinville [sic] a little town better looken [sic] then most of towns [sic] of the same size. Some 300 rebs cleared out as we advanced.
John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.
7, Confederates take the oath in Columbia
I went to Town….a great many soldiers coming in & taking the oath.
Diary of Nimrod Porter, December 7, 1863.
7, Reconnaissance and engagement, Wilkinson's pike near Murfreesborough, a.k.a., "Battle of the Cedars" - Forrest Defeated
Report of Major-General LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU, on activities December 5-8, 1864.
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF TENNESSEE, Murfreesborough, December 12, 1864.
Dispatches from Gen. Thomas of the 5th and 8th instant received last night. Railroad train to Stevenson for supplies will take this dispatch to be forwarded. Wires down between this and Stevenson. On the 8th instant I dispatched by courier by way of Gallatin reporting operations her on the 4th instant. The enemy attacked the block-house at Overall's Creek, fired seventy-four shots, doing no damage. I sent three regiments, under Gen. Milroy, to its relief. The enemy (Bates' division) were routed and driven off. We took some prisoners, near thirty, but no guns. Loss of the enemy unknown, as night closed in before the fight was over. Our troops, new and old, behaved admirably. We withdrew at night. The next evening [6th] Bate returned, skirmished with and drove in our pickets, and threatened the fortress; pretty heavy skirmishing till the 7th, when the enemy moved around on the Wilkinson pike, northwest of the fortress. He was re-enforced by Forrest with 2,500 cavalry and two division of infantry. On the evening of the 6th he made a breast-work of logs and rails on Wilkinson's pike, from which he was driven on the 7th by Gen. Milroy with seven regiments of the garrison here; a pretty severe engagement, lasting perhaps three-quarters of an hour. The rout was complete, infantry and cavalry running in every direction. The fight was well conducted by Maj.-Gen. Milroy, and the troops behaved most gallantly. We took 207 prisoners, including 18 commissioned officers, 2 pieces (12-pounder Napoleons) of artillery, which were at once placed in position in the fortifications, and 1 stand of colors belonging to the First and Third Florida. Our loss in the fight at Overall's Creek was 5 killed and 49 wounded, and on Wilkinson's pike more fully in my dispatch of the 8th, which may not have reached you. I am subsisting off the country, which I think I can do. Before the fight on the Wilkinson pike, Buford's division of cavalry took possession of about one-half of the town of Murfreesborough, shelling it vigorously and destroying many of the houses. [emphasis added] With a section of artillery and a small force of infantry, I drove them, wounding and killing 30 and taking 25 prisoners. A captain of artillery left his boots, letters, sponges, staff buckets, on the ground. We lost one man wounded. The enemy's cavalry all around, but I think in small bodies. We forage without molestation. No enemy near here that I know of. Cheatham reported coming this way through Triune. All right here, and will endeavor to keep it so.
LOVELL H. ROUSSEAU, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 614-615.
Report of Major-General R. H. MILROY, relative to the engagement at Wilkinson's Pike, or the "Battle of the Cedars," or, "Second Battle of Murfreesborough," December 7, 1864.
FORTRESS ROSECRANS, Murfreesborough, Tenn., December 10, 1864.
GEN.: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to your order, I proceeded on the 7th instant to make a reconnaissance and feel the enemy in the vicinity of this post. I took with me, by your direction, seven regiments of infantry and a six-gun battery, under the command of Captain Bundy, of the Thirteenth New York Artillery, and a small detachment of the Fifth Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry. One hundred and seventy-seventh, One hundred and seventy-fourth, One hundred and seventy-seventh, One hundred and seventy-eight, first Illinois volunteer Infantry, Eighth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, and Twelfth Indiana Volunteer Cavalry (dismounted). For convenience, I divided these regiments into two brigades (pro tempore), as follows: First Brigade, Col. Thomas, of the eighth Minnesota, commanding, consisted of a six-gun battery, eighth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, Sixty-first Illinois Volunteer Infantry, One hundred and seventy-fourth and One hundred and eighty-first Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 1,973 strong. The Second Brigade consisted of the One hundred and seventy-seventh, and One hundred and seventy-eight Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and Twelfth Indiana Volunteer Cavalry, 1,326 strong. Total strength of my infantry, artillery, and cavalry combined, 3, 325. I started on the Salem pike about 10 a. m., and threw out the detachment of the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry in advance, who struck the rebel vedette in less than half a mile after passing our pickets. The rebel cavalry fell back rapidly before my advance. I threw out a portion of the sixty-first Illinois Volunteer Infantry as skirmishers, to assist the cavalry in driving them. Upon arriving at Stone's River, two miles out, a body of about 300 rebel cavalry were discovered across the river. I brought up a section of Capt. Bundy's battery and shelled them a few minutes, when they retreated rapidly, and I crossed the bridge and continued my march. Upon arriving at Mr. Spence's fine residence, for miles out, I learned from his accomplished lady that there were two brigades of rebel cavalry, under Gen.'s Jackson and Armstrong, at Salem a mile farther out, and that Gen.'s Forrest and Bate, with a large force of infantry, artillery, and cavalry, were north of me, on the Wilkinson pike, three miles from Fortress Rosecrans. I deemed it best to turn my attention in that direction, but before doing so I detailed a company and sent them back with a drove of sixty fine, fat hogs, belonging to Mr. Spence, [emphasis added] that would have fallen into the hands of the rebels if left. I proceeded north till within half a mile of the Wilkinson pike. My skirmish line encountered that of the enemy, and in a few minutes afterward they opened on me with much rapidity from a six-gun battery stationed in the edge of a wood on the opposite side of a field in my front. I at once ordered forward Capt. Bundy's battery, which artillery ammunition that could be carried in the limbers of the guns, the shell and solid shot of my supply was exhausted in about thirty minutes. Finding that the enemy would not come across the field to attack me, and not being able to ascertain his strength, and the left of his line, extending parallel with the Wilkinson pike, was as near Fortress Rosecrans as my right I deemed it prudent not to engage them with my infantry without having the fortress in my rear, and accordingly fell back through the forest until out of sight of the enemy, and then moved by the right flank in a northeasterly direction until my lines were partly across the Wilkinson pike, where I formed them to the front in two lines of battle, Col. Thomas' brigade forming the front line and Col. Anderson's the second line. The Sixty-first Illinois was deployed as skirmishers in front of the first line. In this order I advanced upon the enemy, through the brush, cedars, rocks, and logs, under a heavy fire of artillery. I had sent my artillery back to the fortress for ammunition before commencing my last advance, and consequently had no artillery. I had sent my artillery back to the fortress for ammunition before commencing my last advance, and consequently had no artillery to reply to that of the enemy. Skirmishing with small-arms began very soon after commencing my advance, but my skirmish line advanced rapidly, bravely, and in splendid order, considering the nature of the ground, driving the rebels before them for about one mile, when coming to a cotton-field I found the enemy strongly posted in a wood on the other side behind a line of works constructed of rails and logs. The enemy's fire of small-arms here became so strong that my skirmishers withdrew to the flanks of my line of battle, opened on the enemy a terrible fire, while it still advanced in good order to the middle of the field, when the line halted and the fire from both sides was most furious and destructive for about ten minutes, when I ordered an advance, and the front line moved forward into the edge of the wood, where for a few minutes the roar and fire of musketry was like the thunder of a volcano, and the line wavered as if moving against a hurricane. Fearing that my front line would fall back, I ordered the One hundred and seventy-eight Ohio Volunteer Infantry to move on the double-quick from the left of the front line, and the balance of the rear line to advance to support and relieve the front line, and he balance of the rear line to advance to support and relieve the front line; but before this could be fully executed the gallant regiments composing the first line, seeing themselves supported, advanced with a yell and darted over the enemy's works, capturing many prisoners and putting the enemy to a hasty flight. A rapid pursuit of half a mile resulted in the capturing of many more prisoners, one battle-flag, and two fine pieces of artillery (12-pounder Napoleons), with their caissons. The ammunition of some of the regiments being exhausted, I ordered them to halt and replenish from the ammunition wagon that overtook us at that point.
While this was going on, I received your dispatch, general, admonishing me of the report of a large rebel infantry force from the north, and directing me to return to the fortress, if I could do so with safety. My artillery, which I had sent back for ammunition, arrived at this time, and a large body of the enemy's cavalry being in plain view I directed the artillery to open on them rapidly for a few minutes, when they rapidly disappear out of sight.
I cannot speak too highly of the bravery exhibited by my troops especial by those in the front regiments, under the gallant Col. Thomas. Never did troops fight better for the time they were engaged. Every officer and man performed his duty with the most unflinching bravery and promptness. The conduct of the Second Brigade, under Col. Anderson, also deserves much praise; for, though the regiments of the brigade did not take much part in the firing, yet their coolness and promptness in supporting the first line added greatly to its confidence and morale, and did much to discourage the enemy by the appearance of two lines of battle moving on them. I regret deeply the death of the brave men killed, and added their country. Particularly among the killed do I regret the death of Maj. Reed, of the One hundred and seventy-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, who fell while gallantry leading on his regiment to victory. The history of his services and adversities in the present war is stranger than fiction.
My total loss in killed and wounded amounts (as per inclosed reports) to 208, of whom 22 were killed. I have no means of arriving at a knowledge of the loss of the enemy, but from the number of dead and wounded observed on the field it must have been greater than mine. Among their dead on the field were observed two lieutenant-colonels. We captured and brought in 1197 prisoners, among whom 21 were commissioned officers. Forty-three different regiments are represented by the prisoners. The enemy were commanded by Gen. Forrest and Bate, and about 5,000 strong.
I am much indebted to the gentleman of my staff for their prompt, gallant, and efficient assistance throughout the day; and I avail myself of this opportunity to tender to the major-general commanding kindness in affording me the two late opportunities of wiping out to some extent the foul and mortifying stigma of a most infamously unjust arrest, by which I have for near eighteen months been thrown out of the ring of active, honorable, and desirable service.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
R. H. MILROY, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 617-619.
I skirmished around within two or three miles of the Fortress for several hours, when I struck their main force under the Comd of Gens. Forrest and Bates. Forrest being the senior officer had the Comd. They opened on me with a full battery at short range. My battery replied nearly an hour when my artillery was exhausted. Finding that the enemy were strongly posted and fortified and near double my strength I concluded to shift my position around and got between them and the Fort. I did this and attacked them with great rapidity and the fighting for near an hour was most terrific, but I rolled them on and drove them in confusion capturing 220 prisoners including 2 majors and 28 other Comd. officers, killing a large number among whom were two Cols. and taking 2 pieces of artillery, I drove them over two miles and returned to the Fortress after dark, bringing in all my killed and wounded. I only had 25 men killed and 187 wounded. The Rebs [sic] got more reinforcements and still kept around the country mostly in sight until the 16th when they left....
Papers of General Milroy, p. 400. 
Excerpt from the Report of Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest, C. S. Army, commanding cavalry, of Operations November 16, 1864-January 24, 1865, relative to the engagement at Wilkinson's pike (a.k.a. "Battle of the Cedars") and the shelling of Murfreesborough on December 7, 1864. General Forrest's description of Buford's actions vary considerably with the remarks of Union commanders.
* * * *
On the morning of the 7th I discovered from the position occupied by Col. Palmer the enemy moving out in strong force on the Salem pike with infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Being fully satisfied that his object was to make battle, I withdrew my forces to the Wilkinson pike, and formed a new line on a more favorable position. The enemy moved boldly forward, driving in my pickets, when the infantry, with the exception of Smith's brigade, from some cause which I cannot explain, made a shameful retreat, losing two pieces of artillery. I seized the colors of the retreating troops and endeavored to rally them, but they could not be moved by any entreaty or appeal to their patriotism. Maj.-Gen. Bate did the same thing, but was equally as unsuccessful as myself. I hurriedly sent Maj. Strange, of my staff, to Brig.-Gen.'s Armstrong and Ross, of Jackson's division, with orders to say to them that everything depended on their cavalry. They proved themselves equal to the emergency by charging on the enemy, thereby checking his farther advance. I ordered the infantry to retire to Stewart's Creek, while my cavalry encamped during the night at Overall's Creek. The enemy returning to Murfreesborough, I ordered my cavalry to resume its former position.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 755.
7, Blockade of Cumberland River by Confederate Cavalry [see also November 17-December 28, 1864, Operations of Confederate Cavalry in Middle Tennessee above]
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Report of Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army, commanding Cavalry Division, of operations November 17-December 29, 1864, covering operations, December 1- December 17, 1864.
* * * *
On the 1st of December we moved across to the Hillsborough pike, fording Harpeth River below Franklin, and up that road to a point opposite to Brentwood, where we crossed over to the Franklin pike, expecting to be able to intercept a part of the enemy's force on their retreat from Franklin; but finding that they had passed, we moved up the pike to within four miles of Nashville, where we encamped for the night. On the 2d Col. Biffle's brigade was sent to cover the Hardin and Hillsborough pikes on the left of the infantry, and on the 3d Rucker's brigade was moved in the same direction, so that my division covered the Hillsborough, Hardin, and Charlotte pikes. On the same day Lieut.-Col. Kelly was sent with a detachment of 3d Rucker's brigade was moved in the same direction, so that my division covered the Hillsborough, Hardin, and Charlotte pikes. On the same day Lieut.-Col. Kelly was sent with a detachment of 300 men and two pieces of artillery to blockade the Cumberland River at a point twelve miles below Nashville, and on the same day he captured two transports going down the river laden with horses and mule belonging to the United States Government. Some of the enemy's gun-boats coming down to the rescue recaptured the transports and a part of the freight, which had been removed from them to the shore, but Col. Kelley succeeded in securing the bringing off 56 prisoners and 197 horses and mules.
On the 5th our line remained unchanged, and we had some slight skirmishing with the enemy. On the 6th, an infantry force having been sent to relieve Col. Rucker on the Hillsborough pike, his whole brigade, with two additional pieces of artillery, was moved to the Charlotte pike and the blockade of the Cumberland was effected. On the 7th a monitor appeared in front of our batteries and attempted to force the passage of the river, but was badly damaged and driven back, and on several subsequent occasions fleets of gun-boats repeated the attempt without success. All remained unchanged until the 12th, when Biffle's brigade was ordered by Gen. Hood to the right wing of the army, leaving me with Rucker's brigade alone. I wrote to Gen. Hood, showing the strength of my command and the length of the line which was expected to hold, and that it would be impossible for me to maintain my position if attacked unless supported. On the 14th Ector's brigade of infantry was sent to relieve my force on the Hardin pike, and my line then extended from the left of that pike across the Charlotte pike to the river, a distance of about four miles, to defend which and to support the batteries on the river I had a force of 900 aggregate present, the Seventh Alabama Cavalry being between Ector's brigade and the left of the main line of infantry.
On the morning of the 15th the enemy made a general attack along the whole line, and Ector's brigade, being forced back by the force in front of it, swing around to rejoin the infantry on its right without giving me any notice of their movement. The Hardin pike being thus left open the enemy moved down it, and the first intelligence I had of their presence on that pike they were already two miles in my rear on it. The wagons of my headquarters and division ordnance train had for greater security been left on the Hardin pike in rear of the infantry, and the commanding officer of the infantry having failed to give any notice of the approach of the enemy or of his intended movement, they were overtaken and captured before they could be removed. The attack on Rucker's brigade commenced in the morning by the gunboats on the river, which were repulsed, and was followed by an attack in front along the Charlotte pike by Johnson's division of cavalry, supported by a force of infantry. We held our position until I learned that the enemy were two miles in our rear on the Hardin pike, when we fell back two miles to a cross-road leading from that pike, where we remained until night, when I ordered Colonel Rucker to move across to the Hillsborough pike, leaving the Seventh Alabama Cavalry to hold the position on the Charlotte pike until daylight, which was done. I had attempted several times during the day to communicate with Gen. Hood, but my couriers were either killed or captured and failed to reach him. Before daylight on the morning of the 16th I received an order from him to put myself in communication with his left wing and to hold the Hillsborough pike, which order I had already given. Before daylight I had taken position on that pike, with Rucker's brigade at the point where the road leading from Brentwood intersects it, and was soon engaged in skirmishing with the enemy. The force opposed to me was Hatch's division of cavalry, and their object was evidently to move down the cross-road to Brentwood, which would have placed them entirely in rear of our army, and put them in possession of the road by which it afterward retreated. Finding some hindrance in their way on this line of march, a brigade was sent rapidly across to the Granny White pike to move down it. I moved across the latter pike with my escort and Twenty-sixth (Forrest's) Regt. [sic] of Cavalry, and placing them in strong position, held the enemy in check for more than three hours and saved Cheatham's ambulances. In the maintain Johnson's division of the enemy's cavalry had moved across from the Charlotte pike, following our path, and attacked Col. Rucker in the flank, while the remainder of Hatch's division engaged him in front. Col. Kelley having been forced back from his position, Col. Rucker was withdrawn from the Hillsborough pike as soon as possible to support him, and the whole brigade (excepting the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry) was formed in front of Brentwood, to prefect the wagons and ambulances which were collected there. The Seventh Tennessee was sent down the Hillsborough pike (by Gen. Hood's order) to report at Franklin and aid in guarding the wagon trains at that place. About 4.30 p. m. I received an order from Gen. Hood directing me to "hold the Granny White pike at all hazards," and Rucker's brigade was moved back upon it and placed in position in rear of that from which Col. Kelley had been driven. It was attacked at once, front and flank, by Hatch's and Johnson's divisions, and, after a sharp struggle, was forced back in some disorder. By this time it was so dark that it was impossible to reform the men, or indeed to distinguish friend from foe, so closely were they mingled together, but an irregular firing was kept up for some time until we were compelled to retreat toward the Franklin pike. After we had retreated for some distance, Col. Rucker having moved with his regiment to Brentwood, [Lieut. Col.] R. R. White, Fourteenth Tennessee Cavalry, the senior officers present, collected and reformed as many of the men as possible, and leaving the Fourteenth Tennessee on picket in front of the enemy, moved with the remainder to the Franklin pike, where they were halted until the infantry and artillery column had passed, and encamped for the night with the rear guard of the army, when were joined by Col. Biffle and his brigade, which had come up from the right in rear of the infantry. The enemy's cavalry encamped on the field where we had last fought them, and made no attempt to follow us, though our picket fires were within sight of them during the night.
In the engagements of these two days this division lost many valuable officers and men, the first of whom was Col. Rucker, who was wounded and captured in the last fight while fighting hand to hand with the enemy. Many others were killed or captured at the same time, and others availed themselves of the opportunity to desert and scatter through the country; some of these have now returned to their commands, but no accurate report can yet be made of our loss.
On the morning of the 17th we moved to Franklin, when, in obedience to orders from Gen. Hood, I was placed in command of the cavalry, and reported to Lieut.-Gen. Lee for duty in assisting to protect the rear of the army, consisting of this and Gen. Buford's division. During the day we were almost constantly engaged with the enemy, who followed us vigorously with a strong force, often in close encounters, and held them in check until nearly night-fall, when by a series of bold charges they broke the lines of our infantry and cavalry, but were severely punished and driven back by the second line of infantry. On the 18th, Brig.-Gen. Armstrong having come up with his brigade, and Gen. Cheatham's corps having taken the place of Gen. Lee's as the rear guard of the army, we moved down the turnpike from Spring Hill toward Columbia and crossed Rutherford's Creek, the infantry being on the pike and the cavalry in the rear and on the lands. The enemy did not press us, and we had not fighting beyond a little skirmishing. On the 19th, Maj.-Gen. Forrest having come up, I resumed command of my division, which was posted on the left of Cheatham's corps to guard the crossings on Rutherford's Creek. During the day we had some skirmishing with the enemy, but held our position until 4 p. m., when, they having succeeded in crossing a force in front of our infantry pickets, our whole force was withdrawn to the south side of Duck River. On the 22d, the enemy having effected a crossing of Duck River, and the rear guard, under Maj.-Gen. Forrest, having commenced its retreat, this division (which had been consolidated into a brigade) moved down the Campbellsville pike, on the left flank of the infantry, and on the following day moved still farther down that pike without molestation from the enemy. On the 24th we moved back toward Columbia, so as to occupy a position on the left flank of our infantry, which had moved back as far as Lynnville. While here we were attacked by a superior force of the enemy and forced back to the main body on the turnpike, when we crossed Richland Creek and moved on to Pulaski. After this we moved on the right flank of the infantry until we reached the Tennessee River, which we crossed on the evening of the 27th, without having been again engaged with the enemy.
During the engagements on the march to Nashville, and until after the fight on the Granny White pike on the evening of the 16th of December, the officers and men of this division behaved with great gallantry; but after that time, while there were many who continued to exhibit the same courage and constancy, I retreat to say that there were some who so far forgot their duty as to desert their comrades and seek an ignominious safety in flight; some of these have since returned to their colors, but others are still absent.
Under these circumstances it given me great pleasure to render deserved honor to all those who remained faithful to their duty. The Seventh Alabama Cavalry having, when it was ordered to this division, rested under some imputation of a lack of courage, I am gratified to say that since it has been under my command...
* * * *
James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army, Brigadier-General
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 764-767.
7, Bombardment of Murfreesborough by Confederate artillery [see also December 7, 1864, Reconnaissance, engagement Wilkinson's Pike near Murfreesborough, a.k.a. "Battle of the Cedars" above]
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Reports of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Cumberland, relative to the bombardment of Murfreesborough by Confederate forces on December 7, 1864.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Eastport, Miss., January 20, 1865
* * * *
The enemy showing an unwillingness to make a direct assault, Gen. Milroy, with seven regiments of infantry, was sent out on the 8th [7th] to engage him. He was found a short distance from the place on the Wilkinson pike, posted behind rail breast-works, was attacked and routed, our troops capturing 207 prisoners and two guns, with a loss of 30 killed and 175 wounded. On the same day Buford's cavalry entered the town of Murfreesborough after having shelled it vigorously, but he was speedily driven out by a regiment of infantry and a section of artillery.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 36.
Excerpt from Report of Major-General Lovell H. Rousseau U. S. Army, commanding District of Tennessee of operations December 4-12, 1864, relative to the engagement at Wilkinson's pike (a.k.a. "Battle of the Cedars") and bombardment of Murfreesborough by Confederate force on December 7, 1864.
* * * *
Just before Gen. Milroy fell upon the enemy Buford's division of cavalry attacked Murfreesborough and entered the town, shelling it fiercely, knocking the houses to pieces. With a regiment of infantry and a section of artillery I drove the enemy out of the town, and I have not heard any more of them in my direction since. All is perfectly quiet here to-day, which doubtless resulted from the fact that the enemy was badly whipped. In these fights the troops have behaved with exceeding courage and I am glad to say that the new troops have not been at all behind the old in the exhibition of steadiness and courage.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 613.
A detachment of confederates [sic] make their appearance on the east and south east of town, coming within the [city] limits, planting some pieces of artillery and commenced a vigerous [sic] shelling of the place. It was said to be a Missippi [sic] regiment. They threw some forty or fifty shots in town in different directions, doing but little damage more than striking a fiew [sic] houses. Two shots striking the court house. One or two striking Lawing Cabinet Shop. One near the Methodist church. Several others in this vicinity. None of the shells bursting. No one killed by these shots. The firing lasted in this direction for some time. This was a wanton piece of destruction. Nothing to be gained by the confederates [sic] in thus shelling the town. The federal troops were all at the forts. Nothing remaining in town but citizens and many of them at the forts guarding property.
In the mean time [sic] Gen. Rousseau came from the fort with a detachment of artillery. During the shelling of the confederates, advancing up College Street. Planting his cannon [he] commenced returning the fire. In a short time the confederate battery was silenced, having one of the gun carriages disabled.
* * * *
Excerpt from the Report of Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest, relative to the shelling of Murfreesborough on December 7, 1864.
* * * *
It is proper to state here that I ordered Brig.-Gen. Buford to protect my left flank, but he was so remote the order never reached him. While the fight was going on, however, he made a demonstration on Murfreesborough, and succeeded in reaching the center of town, but was soon compelled to retire.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 755-756.
7, Skirmish near Greeneville, Confederate foraging party attacked near Greeneville
GREENEVILLE, TENN., December 7, 1864---7 p. m.
Yours of the 6th instant has just reached me. In regard to sending Gen. Duke's command north of the Holston River as soon as I can spare them, that time will not come as long as the forces remain in East Tennessee that were in our front when you left us, and now there is a force that came from Cumberland Gap of from 2,000 to 4,000 men, so all my scouts and citizens report. But is my intention to send Gen. Duke's command to Hawkins County to-morrow or next day, if everything is quiet. My scouts were at Noah's Ferry of Ford, yesterday p. m., and the enemy were still encamped in the vicinity of Bean's Station, with pickets at all the fords on the Holston near there. This county is full of parties from the Federal Army bush whacking. Gen. Duke's men were attacked to-day, while foraging, within four or five miles of Greeneville, and two of his men captured. The forces of Col. Palmer do us no good. The enemy have foraged none above the Strawberry Plains since you left south of the Holston River. Gen. Carter and I agreed to exchange all citizen prisoners, except a few who are indicted for treason. I have sent a copy of the agreement to the Secretary of War. Whether they will agree to it or not is to be seen. I did what I thought was best for our friends. The railroad is repaired only abound half way to Greeneville at this time. To send Cosby's and Giltner's brigades into Hawkins or Hancock Counties, in Tennessee, or Lee Country, Va., would threaten Cumberland Gap and cause the force at Bean's Station to fall back. There is [sic] plenty of supplies of all kinds in either of those counties.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN C. VAUGHN, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. II, p. 664.
7, Reconnaissance to and action at Overall Creek
Report of Col. Edward Anderson, Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, commanding Second Brigade, Fourth Division, Twentieth Army Corps, of operations December 7, 1864.
HDQRS. SECOND Brig., FOURTH DIV., 20TH ARMY CORPS, Murfreesborough, Tenn., December 8, 1864.
MAJ.: I have the honor to report that the brigade under my command was ordered to march on the reconnaissance of yesterday under Maj. Gen. R. H. Milroy.
This brigade consists of the One hundred and seventy-seventh and One hundred and seventy-eight Ohio Volunteer Inf., Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, Fourth and Fifth Tennessee Cavalry, and Thirteenth New York Independent Battery. En route for the field of action I was informed that the Thirteenth New York Battery was attached to the First Brigade, in the rear of which I was ordered to march. The Fourth and Fifth Tennessee Cavalry Regt.'s, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Clift, were ordered to report to Col. G. M. L. Johnson, Thirteenth Indiana Cavalry, commanding cavalry. Thus I had under my immediate command troops as follows, viz.,: Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, Lieut. Col. Alfred Reed commanding, numbering 16 officers and 352 men (368); One hundred and seventy-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Col. A. T. Wilcox commanding, numbering 18 officers and 496 men (514); One hundred and seventy-eight Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Col. J. A. Stafford commanding, numbering 17 officers and 427 men (444); making a total of 51 officers and 1,275 men-1, 326 men.
At Overall's Creek, where the enemy opened an artillery fire upon us, I was ordered to form my brigade in the rear of the First Brigade, and in undertaking to do so I found the one hundred and seventy-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, which was on the right of my command and now for the first time brought under fire, exposed to at terrible succession of shots from the enemy's battery. The officers of the regiment and my own staff officers joined in an endeavor to keep them in column, but knowing that the whole future of the regiment probably depended on preventing their breaking to the rear, I ordered Col. Wilcox to have them lie down. Through all the artillery duel that ensued they remained in that position, of course so remote from the enemy, in their position as reserves, that they could do nothing but endure. I was glad, in occupying a position where I could watch the regiment, to notice that none appeared to flinch under this heavy fire and in a position more exposed than often comes to a regiment. After the battery had ceased firing I was ordered to march my brigade by the right flank till the right of the column should rest on the Wilkinson pike; there I again formed line of battle and undertook to march to the support of the First Brigade, which was engaging the enemy in the front. Owing to the extreme roughness of the ground, rocks, jagged and detached, being covered at intervals by brush and logs, I was forced to march very slowly, and for a distance by right of companies, to the front. When we had nearly approached the position I was ordered to occupy in rear of the First Brigade, and at about 200 yards distance, I was ordered to throw the One hundred and seventy-seventy Ohio Volunteer Infantry to the right, forming its line perpendicular to the line already formed, in order to prevent a flanking movement on the part of the enemy, who were evidently intending to get into our rear. This regiment threw out two companies to deploy along its front as skirmishers. Sharp firing along the line showed that the general had not been mistaken in supposing it necessary to protect the right flank. Maj.-Gen. Milroy took the One hundred and seventy-eight Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and, marching it left in front, led it to the extreme left and conducted it personally into battle. Of the action of this regiment I am unable to speak thereafter, but have no question as to its gallantry, as the almost reckless daring of the general cannot be other than infectious. The Twelfth Indiana Cavalry was pushed forward on the right of the pike over a cotton-field, where it lay under a hot musketry fire till it was ordered forward into the woods as the enemy retired. At this juncture I ordered forward the One hundred and seventy-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, the firing having ceased on the right flank. I formed it in line parallel to the lines in front, and received orders to hold it there while the Twelfth Indiana Cavalry was ordered to the extreme front, though too late to participate in actual conflict there, the enemy having retired. On our return to the fortress the Twelfth Indiana Cavalry brought up the rear.
The casualties in my command were happily few, as it was held almost entirely in reserve. I take pleasure in testifying to the bravery of these troops, nearly all brought in this engagement for the first time under the enemy's fire, and here, in a position most trying to any soldier, obliged to take the enemy's shots and unable to enjoy either the satisfaction or the excitement of returning their fire. No one, however, would be surprised that troops would stand gallantly under fire, as they could all the time see the general they loved in the fore front of battle, where the bullets were flying most thickly. These troops would follow Gen. Milroy wherever he might lead. Where nearly every officer was brave it would be useless to attempt allusion to individual instances. My confidence in officers and men is unbounded.
I report the following casualties in the three regiments under my immediate command and the other troops that report through me: Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, killed, 1 private; wounded, 1 officer (Capt. Sherwood, Company E, severely in the leg), 10 privates. One hundred and seventy-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, wounded, 4 privates. One hundred and seventy-eight Ohio Volunteer Infantry, wounded, 2 privates. Fifth Tennessee Cavalry (Col. W. J. Clift), wounded, 2 privates. Thirteenth New York Battery (Capt. Henry Bundy), wounded, 4 privates. Total, killed, 1 private; wounded, 1 officer and 22 enlisted men.
I have the honor to respectfully submit the foregoing.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
EDWARD ANDERSON, Col., Cmdg. Second Brigade.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 610-611.
7, "…and then began a scene which I shudder to recall:" depredations at the Washington tobacco plantation "Wessington," in the Springfield environs; Mrs. Jane Smith Washington's letter to her son, a student in Toronto, Canada
Springfield, December 18, 1864
My dear son,
I suppose you have received Mr. Anderson's letter containing an account of the occurrences at home last Wednesday and Thursday week. Friday morning (the 9th) was bitter cold and in coming up very early in the buggy with Dr. Dunn my fingers were frost bitten and I was not able to hold a pen or even dress myself for nearly a week, and so asked Mr. A. to write to you, which he very kindly did. I will try to give you a faithful history of a scent which God willing I hope never to witness again – But first to give a clear insight into the causes which prompted the act – I must review some occurrences which took place in our immediate neighborhood only two days previously.
On Monday the 5th, four men, dressed partly in federal [sic] uniform had robbed in open day [the] Troughles, Red burns, Squire Hyres, Jim Morrow and several others. Dr. Dun called by that afternoon and to us of it [sic]. The next day those same men robbed old Strous [?] Bucke Darden, and took Ian Polk's horse.
That night about 9 o'clock, Dr. Dunn again stopped at the gate and told us to look out – that those men were in the neighborhood, and would pay us a visit.
The next morning [6th] old Dick reported that they had been seen in the Vanhhook field. All these things naturally put us on the qui-vive [sic] and we were looking every moment for the robbers.
We and not a neighbor in five miles had even hard that there was a hors presser in the country, we were all expecting robbers, but had no idea there was a federal in the country.
Your Father had been at the Tobacco barn all day and about half past three he came to the house with Joe and eat [sic] his dinner. He had just risen from the table when Joe and Irene came rushing in saying two robbers were at the stable trying to steal Ball. Your Father seized his gun and rushed out – saw one of the men leading Ball off from the stable door and fired upon him instantly – so rapidly did this thing transpire that before I could run to the walk, the shot was fired and the mans [sic] companion was galloping with all his might down towards the mill – Your Father and Granville mounted to go in pursuit of the fellow, who had jumped the Orchard fences and was making rapidly for the Chestnut Colt. Granville went through the Peach Orchard your Pa started round by the pond, and at the granary came in sight of a squad who fired on him several times. He at once returned to the house, had Granville called in and prepared for defence expecting every moment to be attacked by the gang of robbers as we thought them to be. In the meantime the gang rode off in the direction of Cedar Hill. [They] were gone nearly an hour, when they returned[,] rode to the stable where had the man locked up, and then turned and again went towards Cedar Hill. I had the stable door locked when the man staggered into it, because I thought he was only wounded and perhaps someone might be able to identify him and thus discover who composed the gang. He had on Federal pants his other clothes were those of a citizen. While the men were still around the place, I wrote to Dr. Dunn to get some friends, and come to our assistance and sent to Col [sic] Downey for a guard. In less than an hour after Foster returned from Turnersville [?], Dr. Dunn came over with a co [sic] from the 7th Ohio. Col Garrard, the whole command 160 men encamped there that night, and saw the man, and heard the circumstances, and the Col remarked that your Pa was doing good border service that he saw no evidence of the fellow having belonged to either army, and applauded your Father for his act. Col [sic] Downey sent down a squad but finding us amply guarded by Col Garrard's forces they returned to Springfield.
The next morning [7th], not fifteen minutes after Col G. left the house, about twenty men of the 8th Michigan under Lieut. Crowley came dashing up to the house like demons and in an instant were swarming all over it – calling for your Father with the most blasphemous oaths and abusive epithets threatening to shoot him on sight. I took Lieut. Crowley to the room where your Father was, he accused him for everything under the sun, but your Father never answered him a word except that he was not conscious of having done wrong but that before a proper tribunal he would answer any questions. His calmness only enraged them more. I was they would murder him if they took him from the house, and I and your Grandmother in tears and on our knees besought that man to send him under guard to Springfield, he scoffed at our prayers and drove us from him with oaths. They finally took your Father and started off with him but had not got to the top of Jimney's [?] Hill before they were overtaken by a squad of the 14th Illinois under Lieut. Evans and your Father was brought back again, Crowley's command returned also, and then began a scene which I shudder to recall. I stood by your Father all the time, feeling that his safety was even for a moment depended on me. The officers insited [sic] the men to greater fury than even then possessed them, and after talking in a way to rouse their bad passions even higher, left them without control to rent their fury at will. Four two mortal hours, threats, curses, jeers and taunts as to his fate were heaped upon him and I. Pistols were snapped in his face, and shaken over his head, my prayers and tears were made a scoff and jest -–a band of Indians could not have taken more devilish delight in tormenting a prisoner. Your Father stood confronting them calmly and fearlessly, steadily looking into their eyes, and they quailed before the steady gaze of an unarmed prisoner like cowards as they were.
I felt the end was drawing near, and taking my arms from around him, I started to seek an officer having the three little girls standing round his feet. I had not left him a second when I heard a shot and turning saw your Father staggering from the shock, but in one instant he recovered himself and was grappling with the fellow's pistol with both hands. I rushed in between them and clasping my darling round the neck placed my body between him and the man, who cocking his pistol would have shot again through me had not a comrade caught his hand with the remark "you have done enough." I shrieked ["]murder[!"] with all my power, your Father stood as calmly defiant as ever, the children screaming round our knees, and those demons gloating over our misery. In twenty minutes of longer, Lieut. Doyle of [the] 8th Michigan came to us and through his influence we were allowed to go to the house, where he helped me bind up the wound until the arrival of Dr. Dunn. One of the men who had most strongly threatened your Father's life, came with us to the house, our self-appointed guard and remained in the room with his gunk all the time. While this had been transpiring the house had been pillaged from garrat [sic] to cellar, trunks broken, open[ed] & rifled, furniture chopped to pieces with axes, doors burst down, and your Grandma cursed and told if she did not give them 500 dollars they would burn the house over her d__n [sic] old head. They robbed Granville of everything he had.
Now let me tell you how wonderfully God worked for our salvation, while those scenes were being enacted here, a man who had gone to Springfield to get a receipt for his horse, overheard the threats of those men, and going to Col Downey told him to go down and see us if he could. Boyd heard the same rumors, Col Shirley [?] Woodard also heard them & reported them to the Col who at their suggestion and from the noble instincts of his own heart, jumped into the saddle and with Boyd and an escort of 12 men, came under his whip and spur through the near way to our rescue. Not one moment too early did he come, their plundering almost done, the next act would have been murder and fire as was proved by their firing the straw in the cellar just after Col Downey came.
We saw the Lieut. And I do not know how he accomplished it, but by asserting his authority as commandant of this post, to hold prisoners charged with any crime he got your Father out of their hands and into his, then I felt his life was measurably safe but Col Downey had but 12 men while they were 50 strong, and we feared that after night they might over power his guard and still work their will.
To guard against any difficulty the Col sent back to Springfield for reinforcements and after their arrival left us a guard of fifteen men and with the others brought your Father here. While Col Downey was waiting for his reinforcements, the men of Crowley's & Evans' command began to burn the outbuildings. Col D had only men enough to guard the house and we had to let them burn. The Woods [sic] barn with the whole Tobacco crop was first consumed, then the shuck pens and corn cribs then the large barn where the hay was kept. (You remember the barn and stable below the house) that set some of the negro cabins on fire but they were extinguished, then they burned the Rocky barn in which was stored wagons, farming implements, threshing machine, shingles enough to cover the hose [sic] and many other valuable things. The fencing caught from this fire and but for the prompt exertions of Sergeant Jackson (a negro) the whole place would have been consumed.
I can never forget Col Downey and His men, all from the kind and noble Col himself, to the privates in the ranks, deserve our warmest gratitude, you are indebted to them, through God's good providence for your Father's life. My children shall remember Col Downey as their greatest benefactor.
The case has been laid before Gen Rousseau, and Gen Thomas, and they approve Col D's conduct throughout. We are staying with Gen Garner and his excellent wife and all his family vie each with each other in kindness.
Your Father is held subject further orders, none of our friends anticipate any trouble, most probably when the excitement subsides about Nashville his case will receive attention.
The bullet passed entirely through his arms above the elbow but missed the bone, it is healing as well as we could desire.
Boyd remained with your Grandma until day before yesterday, he will return there again. When our future movements have been determined on I will write you fully for the next few weeks we remain in Springfield either here or at Aunt Susan's. Grandma and the children are well. I hear from them every day, I wonder she did not die under this great distress, but God has upheld her as He has done us all. Blessed be the His name for evermore, my heart says Amen, in the feelings of gratitude to Him and the instruments he used to show his power.
Your devoted mother,
[P.S.] Do not think of coming home, unless I write for you, you could do us no good here, your presence would only add to our cares. All our friends are as kind as they can be and I hope in a few weeks to be able to tell you that everything is satisfactorily arranged. Till them be hopeful and cheerful and study as hard as you can. Your letters of the 5th and 10th have been received.
Good bye, God bless you, my dear boy.
TSL&A, Civil War Collection
7, "Fire Plugs Needed."
The fire on Wednesday night [7th] proved conclusively that absolute necessity of more fire plugs in that neighbored. The government engine Donelson had out more than two thousand feet of hose, before she could reach the fire from the nearest plug. The recommendation of Chief Engineer Freeman, made some months ago, to have cisterns cut on the high parts of the city, ought to be attended to at once, before a terrible conflagration teaches our city fathers the evils of procrastination.
Nashville Dispatch, December 9, 1864.
7, "Fireman Stabbed."
One of the military firemen, Mr. Ring, was badly injured on Wednesday night, while engaged at the fire on Church street. It appears that some soldiers were "running" the firemen on their incapacity, saying that the Cincinnati firemen would have extinguished the fire before the Government men got to work. Some few words passed between them, when the soldier drew a knife and cut Rigby twice in the breast, and once in the forehead. The wounds, though painful, are not considered dangerous.
Nashville Dispatch, December 9, 1864.
7, News from the East Tennessee Front
The Bristol Register, on the 7th states that the most reliable information from the front indicates a state of alarm and uncertainty among the Federals.
Our scouting parties report no Yankees this side of Bean's Station, in Grainger county. They were told by citizens that those Federals who came to that place, from Cumberland Gap, were ordered in a double quick towards Knoxville.
In consequence of the appearance of Federal troops at Bean's Station presenting the attitude of a flank movement, our forces were induced to fall back some distance having important wagon trains to protect. But on Tuesday morning, Gen. Vaughn commenced an advance movement, being determined to find our the force in front of him, We shall not be surprised to hear of his turning up close to Knoxville. The Register says that Burnsides' apparent flank movement was maid to keep the three Tennessee (Federal) regiments from deserting, in consequence of the recent order to evacuate that country.
Philadelphia Inquirer, December 15, 1864.
7, Report on Retreat from Johnsonville
A Disorderly Retreat.-Gen. Cooper's Command Safe.-Prior to its evacuation, Johnsonville, on the Tennessee river, was garrisoned by a brigade of colored troops. It appears that the retreat from that place was hasty and somewhat disorderly. A large amount of Government property was destroyed by our troops, and the march from the Tennessee river to Clarksville, on the Cumberland, was marked with great demoralization. The wagon train was loaded down with stores, plunder not worth the hauling, and negro women and children. The officers placed no restraint upon the actions of their m en, and they were allowed to straggle, pillage, burn and destroy. We are informed that every house standing near the line of march was fired and burned to the ground. A guerilla [sic] force hovered upon the rear and flanks of the brigade, and proved a great annoyance in the retreat. About forty of the black soldiers were killed and wounded by these partisan rangers. The officers took no precautions to keep off the enemy. In the confused straggle, the soldiers were bushwhacked by the wary enemy with the greatest ease. The brigade consisted of five regiments, and yet the troops were unable to protect their train. A number of the wagons were captured and burned by the guerillas [sic]. Our officers ordered the destruction of a proton of the train to prevent it from falling into the hands of the bushwhackers. It is estimated that the destruction of private and Government property on the retreat will exceed a million dollars. If the facts are as they were related to us, the officer in command of the colored brigade should be held to a strict responsibility for the conduct of his men. There was no necessity for a panic-stricken, disorderly retreat, for, after leaving the Tennessee river, no enemy followed in pursuit, except a handful of mounted guerillas [sic] Gen Cooper's brigade of white troops, which was cut off from the main army when Gen. Thomas retreated from Franklin, has also arrived at Clarksville. For several days great fears were entertained for the safety of Gen. Cooper and his command. Both brigades were at Clarksville yesterday morning, making preparations to move up and join the main army at Nashville.
Louisville Daily Journal, December 7, 1864.
7-January 15, 1865, Operations of U. S. C. T.
Report of Col. Charles R. Thompson, Twelfth U. S. Colored Troops, commanding Second Colored Brigade, of operations December 7, 1864--January 15, 1865.
HDQRS. TROOPS ON NASHVILLE AND NORTHWESTERN R. R., Kingston Springs, Tenn., February 24, 1865.
MAJ.: I have the honor to transmit the following report of the action of my command during the past campaign:
On the 7th day of December I reported to Maj.-Gen. Steedman, in accordance with verbal orders received from department headquarters, and by his directions placed my brigade in line near the City graveyard, the right resting on College street, and the left on the right of Col. Harrison's brigade, where we threw up two lines of rifle-pits. On the 11th of December made a reconnaissance, by order of the general commanding, to see if the enemy were still in our front. Two hundred men, under command of Col. John. A. Hottenstein, pressed the enemy's picket-line and reserve to their main line of works, where they were found to be in force. The object of the reconnaissance having been accomplished we retired to our position in line by the direction of the major-general commanding. This was the first time that any of my troops had skirmished with an enemy, and their conduct was entirely satisfactory. On the 13th of December, by order of the general commanding, I reported to Col. Malloy, commanding brigade, Provisional Division, District of the Etowah, to make a reconnaissance on the east side of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, to see if the enemy was still in force in that vicinity. The Thirteenth Regt. [sic] U. S. Colored Infantry was deployed as skirmishers, and the Twelfth and One hundred Regt. [sic]'s U. S. Colored Infantry were held in reserve in line. We advanced from the Murfreesborough pike, with the skirmishers of Col. Malloy's brigade connecting with my left, and drove the enemy's picket and reserves to their main line, after a somewhat stubborn resistance, on the grounds of Mr. Rains. The enemy were there in full force, and sharp firing was kept up as long as we remained there, which was until nearly dark. We retired to our position in line, but not without loss. Capt. Robert Headen, of Company E, Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, was mortally wounded while on the skirmish line pushing his company forward under a heavy fire from the enemy's earth-works; several men, also, were killed and wounded.
On the 15th of December, by directions received from the major-general commanding, I moved my command at 6 a. m. to assault the enemy's works between the railroad and the Nolensville pike. So that movement might be made more rapidly I moved the two regiments, which were to be in the first line (the Thirteenth and One hundredth U. S. Colored Infantry), under cover of the railroad bank, and placed them in column of company, side by side, and awaited the opening of the battle, which was to be done by Col. Morgan, on the left. As soon as his guns were heard I moved across the railroad, the reserve regiment (the Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry) passing in the rear through a culvert and wheeling into line charged and took the works in our front. The enemy were evidently expecting us to move to the left of the railroad, as their artillery was moved to meet us there and was not opened on us until we had gained the works and were comparatively well protected. My orders being to await there the orders of the general commanding, my command was kept in the same position during the day, except making slight changes in the direction of the line to protect the men from an enfilading fire. Sharp firing was kept up between the skirmishers, and considerable artillery ammunition expended. The section of the Twentieth Indiana Battery, commanded by Lieut. York, who was wounded, and afterward by Lieut. Stevenson, did excellent execution, and drove the enemy's battery opposing it from their positions which it took to operate against us. During the night we strengthened our rifle-pits and threw up an earth-works for the protection of the artillery, which had been much exposed during the day to the fire of the enemy's sharpshooters.
At daylight on the morning of December 16, indications that the enemy had left our front being apparent, I sent my skirmishers forward, and found the rifle-pits occupied by the enemy's sharpshooters vacant. By direction of the general commanding I then sent the skirmish line to the hill south and about one mile from the one we had taken the day previous. Finding no enemy there the whole command was ordered forward. We marched about one mile and a half toward the south, and then moved in a westerly direction, my left connecting with the right of Col. Morgan's brigade. We halted on the hill east of the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad until the general commanding could communicate with the right of the army. When this was done I was ordered to move to the east of the Franklin pike and connect with the left of Gen. Wood's (Fourth) corps. This was done without material damage, though the enemy opened on us from two batteries on Overton Hill. Immediately upon getting my command into position I reported the fact to Gen. Wood, who said he was about to make a charge, and desired me to support his left. At about 3 p. m. his command started, and after they had proceeded about forty yards I moved. The left regiment (the Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry) was obliged to move about eighty yards in column, as there was a dense briar thicket on the left, which it could not penetrate. After passing this thicket it was my intention to halt the command until I could see what was on Gen. Wood's left and how it would be best to charge the works. The deploying of the Twelfth Regt. [sic] at double-quick caused the other regiments to think that a charge had been ordered, and they immediately started at double-quick. Being under a heavy fire at the time, I thought it would cause much confusion to rectify this, so I ordered the whole line to charge. The One hundredth Regt. [sic] was somewhat broken by trees, which had been felled. The Twelfth Regt. [sic] U. S. Colored Infantry and the left wing of the One hundredth Regt. [sic] U. S. Colored Infantry passed to the left of the enemy's works, they making a sharp angle there. This gave the enemy an enfilading and rear fire on this portion of the command. It being impossible to change front under the withering fire, and there being no works in front of them, I gave orders for that portion of the command to move by the left flank to the shelter of a small hill a short distance off, there to reorganize. The right wing of the One hundredth Regt. [sic] moved forward with the left of the Fourth Corps, and was repulsed with them. The Thirteenth U. S. Colored Infantry, which was the second line of my command, pushed forward of the whole line, and some of the men mounted the parapet, but, having no support on the right, were forced to retire. These troops were here for the first time under such a fire as veterans dread, and yet, side by side with the veterans of Stone's River, Missionary Ridge, and Atlanta, they assaulted probably the strongest works on the entire line, and though not successful, they vied with the old warriors in bravery, tenacity, and deeds of noble daring. The loss in the brigade was over twenty-five per cent. of the number engaged, and the loss was sustained in less than thirty minutes. While reorganizing my command the troops on the right had broken the enemy's line, which caused them to retreat from Overton Hill. The enemy on Overton Hill was considerably re-enforced during the attack, on account of the firmness of the assault, and which naturally weakened the enemy's left and made it easier for our troops to break their line at that point. Under orders from the general commanding we moved down the Franklin pike, and bivouacked on the left of the army.
December 17, we marched to the north bank of the Harpeth River, opposite Franklin, in pursuit of the enemy. December 18, marched about three miles south of Franklin, where orders reached us to return to Franklin and from there to move to Murfreesborough. We arrived in Murfreesborough on the 20th of December, at about noon, the men completely worn down, having accomplished by far the hardest march that I ever experienced. The rain had fallen almost constantly, and every brook had overflown [sic] its banks and assumed the proportions of a river. The mud was ankle deep, and when we arrived at Murfreesborough over fifty per cent. of the command were in need of shoes. On the 23d of December, 1864, moved from Murfreesborough by rail, and on the 26th of December disembarked from the cars about nine miles east of Decatur, Ala., and moved within a mile of the Tennessee River, near the mouth of Flint River.
* * * *
….On the 5th moved to within four miles of Decatur, where I received orders to move with my old command (the Second Brigade Colored Troops) to Nashville, Tenn. On the 6th of January moved of the terminus of the railroad opposite Decatur and waited transportation. On the 7th sent the Twelfth Regt. [sic] off, on the 8th started, for Nashville with the Thirteenth and One hundredth Regt. [sic]'s. On arriving at Larkinsville found that the rebel Gen. Lyon had cut the road, and was sent in pursuit of him by Gen. Cruft, who was at Larkinsville. Moved to Scottsborough on the morning of the 9th, and found that Lyon had gone toward the Tennessee River. In conjunction with Col. Malloy's brigade started in pursuit on the Guntersville road. On the 10th overtook Mitchell's brigade and marched to Law's Landing, where, by order of Gen. Cruft, I took post. On the 11th I received orders to return to Larkinsville, as Lyon had escaped across the Tennessee River. Arrived at Larkinsville on the evening of the 12th, and loaded troops the next evening (13th) and started for Nashville, at which place we arrived at 4 p. m. on the 15th day of January, 1865.
The conduct of the troops during the whole campaign was most soldierly and praiseworthy. Before making the assault on the enemy's works the knapsacks of the troops comprising the Second Brigade were laid aside, and after the works were taken, being ordered to go in pursuit, these were left, and without blankets or any extra clothing, and more than one-half the time without fifty good shoes in the whole brigade, this whole campaign was made with a most cheerful spirit existing. For six days rations were not issued, yet vigorous pursuit was made after the rebel Gen. Lyon.
* * * *
Of the officers of my staff-Capt. Henry A. Norton, Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, acting assistant inspector general; Lieut. George W. Fitch, Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, acting assistant quartermaster, wounded by the enemy after having been taken prisoner while taking stores to the command; Lieut. William H. Wildey, Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, ordnance officer; Lieut. John D. Reily, Thirteenth U. S. Colored Infantry, acting aide-de-camp; Lieut. Thomas L. Sexton, Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, acting assistant adjutant-general; Lieut. D. A. Grosvenor, One hundredth U. S. Colored Infantry, acting aide-de-camp, who, after having been wounded in three places, took the colors of his regiment from close to the enemy's earth-works, the color-bearer having been killed; and Lieut. R. G. Sylvester, Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, commissary of subsistence of the brigade-I cannot speak too highly; uniting in the performance of their several duties, and on the field anxious to do the cause service in the most dangerous places, they richly deserve the thanks of the country.
To the glorious dead we drop a tear, and while we cannot but deeply regret the great loss, not only we, their companions, but the country has sustained, we could not wish them more honorable graves. The conscientious, brave, and high-minded Capt. Robert Headen, the gallant Lieut. Dennis Dease, the gentle, but firm and untiring Lieut. D. Grant Cooke, of the Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, the two former receiving their death wounds while leading their men against their country's and freedom's foe, the latter butchered by the savage enemy while performing his duties as regimental quartermaster taking supplies to his command, we can never forget as friends, and their positions can hardly be refilled.
In the deaths of Lieut. John M. Wooddruff, Lieut. George Taylor, Lieut. L. L. Parks, and Lieut. James A. Isom, of the Thirteenth U. S. Colored Infantry, the service has lost brave and efficient officers, the country patriots, and humanity friends; they all fell close to the enemy's works, leading their brave men.
The loss of the brigade is as follows:
Officers Enlisted men Aggregate.
Killed................................7 73 80
Wounded.........................12 376 388
Missing....................... 1 1
Total...............................20 450 469
All of which is respectfully submitted.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
CHAS. R. THOMPSON, Col. Twelfth U. S. Colored Infantry, Cmdg. Brigade.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 543-546.
 As cited in http://www.uttyl.edu.
 William H. Tibbs (1816-1906) served in the 30th General Assembly, representing Bradley County; a member of the Whig party. He was elected to represent the 3rd Congressional district on November 6, 1861. He likewise was elected as a Representative to the First Permanent Confederate Congress; he failed re-election in 1863. While he migrated to Mississippi in the 1830s, he returned in the 1840s and settled in Cleveland, Bradley county and where he established a merchandizing business. He moved to Georgia after the war and died there. See: Biographical Directory of the Tennessee General Assembly, Vol. 1, pp., 723-724.
 Identity unknown.
 Identity unknown
 As cited in PQCW.
 The colors of the One hundred and fourth Illinois were captured by Private William H. Carson, Second Kentucky (Confederate) Infantry, and the regimental colors by Corp. Augustus Reynand, Ninth Kentucky (Confederate) Infantry.
 The incident at Hartsville resulted in the taking and exchange of prisoners, and charges by Major-General Rosecrans that the Federal prisoners had been robbed by Confederates. Rosecrans and General BraGALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN corresponded on the matter on December 11.
 According to the editors of Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, West T. Belisle, or Belile, was a Stewart County farmer who had enlisted in Co. F, 10th Tennessee Infantry, U. S. A. He may have deserted two days after Johnson had authorized him to recruit for Union Tennessee Regiments. See p.90, fn 1.
 As cited in :http://www.hal-pc.org/~jsb/page17.html. [Hereinafter cited as SlaGALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN Correspondence.]
 See also pp. 469-477, Papers of General Milroy, for another rather gasconading account from his letter to his wife of January 1, 1865.
 There has never been mention of a monitor-class fighting vessel on the Cumberland River during the Civil War in any of the secondary literature about the Battle of Nashville. Lieutenant-Commander Le Roy Fitch in his report of December 17, 1864, mentions that none of his sailors were killed during the Battle of Nashville, although: "Some six or eight men in the turret of the Neosho were somewhat bruised and scratched turret...." [See below, December 14-15, 1864, Third Naval Engagement at Bell's Mill Bend, Cumberland River.] Since only monitor class ships had turrets it follows then that General Lyon was right. According to Tony Gibbons, the U. S. S. Neosho was one of only three riverine monitor class warships, of which the U. S. S. Osage was the first, built for the U. S. Navy during the Civil War. The Neosho and Osage and Ozark were built in Missouri, and when launched they drew but three feet of water, and so an extra half-inch of iron plating was added to the deck. The turret, which was mounted "right forward, was a modified Ericson type which had a 300-degree field of fire." The single turret carried 8-inch armor, while the stern wheel was fully armored. Its top speed was 7.5 knots and it carried two 11-inch Dahlgren smoothbore cannon. See Tony Gibbons, Warships and Naval Battles of the Civil War, (NY: Gallery Books, 1989}, p. 57. Gibbons fails to place the Neosho on the Cumberland River in December, 1864. See also Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 27, between pages 48 and 49 for a picture of the Osage, Neosho's sister ship; and Richard Pratt, The Civil War on Western Waters, pp. 129-132, 190-191.
 Probably Col. Thomas J. Downey, in command of the 15th U. S. C. T. See: OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. II, p. 458 and; December 15, 1863, "U. S. C. T. recruiting difficulties in Middle Tennessee," above.
 Jackson must have been from a U. S. C. T. unit involved in garrison duty at the Springfield post and was there on the orders of Colonel Downey.
 The battle of Nashville. December 15-16, 1864.
 Address on envelope: Wm. L. Washington, Box 185, Toronto, Canada. Often the wealthy would send their children out of the country to continue their schooling and to protect them from having to serve in either of the armies.
 TSL&A, Civil War Collection, Correspondence by Jane Smith Washington, Letter, December 18, 1864.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 115