ca. 6, 1861 - "TRUE MEN OF THE SOUTH TO THE RESCUE;" Secessionist propaganda poster text in Memphis on the eve of the vote on secession
Whereas, Abraham Lincoln, President of the Northern States, has seen fit to make a call upon the States of the Union for 75,000 men, for the declared purpose of subjugating the States of the Southern Confederacy, and make them subservient to his will; and whereas such a call is repugnant to the feeling of the people of the border States, and must, therefore, be treated with contempt. And whereas, also, the Republicans of the North are heaping insult and injury upon friends of the South in their midst, and have forced them to leave their homes, in the north in consequence thereof;
We, loyal citizens of the South, who have pledged our lives, our property, and our sacred honors, in support of the Government of the Confederate States, deem it incumbent upon us to urge immediate arming of all our able-bodied men who are willing to resist the cohorts of the North; we also urge all friends of the South to be vigilant, and use their utmost efforts to preserve the honor and integrity of our United South. Our safety requires that those living in our midst, who do not wish to abandon their allegiance to Lincoln's Government, who are in favor of negro equality and the degradation of the white race, should leave this city as soon as possible. That a number of men from the North, who have made their homes in this city, are true to the South, there is no doubt; but there are others whom it will not do to trust.
They are men who, notwithstanding they have made all they are worth from Southern patronage, are recreant to the South, and in her hour of peril will prove themselves traitors. Those men must be compelled to leave here. We do not counsel force for this purpose, unless a refusal is gent to comply with such a demand.
Let the proprietors of business houses, machine, carpenter, and cabinet shops, foundries, printing-offices, paint and tailor ships, hotel and boarding houses, report immediately the names of all those who they know cannot be trusted as friends to the South. It is important that this be done -- the security of our property and the safety of our families demand it. Our gallant sons, who are anxious to march wherever the service of the South requires them, wish to carry with them the consoling though that they have not left behind them the lurking enemy, who, while lingering around their homes and firesides, would incite our negroes [sic] to insurrection, and bring the worst calamities upon our wives, our mothers, and our daughters.
"Those who are not with us are against us." Let every citizen remember that "Eternal vigilance is the price of Liberty."
Rebellion Record, Vol. 2, p. 58. 
6, 1862 - "The police will continue zealously to perform their functions." Preparing the citizenry of Memphis for the city's occupation on the day of the battle for Memphis
The Peace of the City.—At a time like the present it is necessary that our citizens hold themselves prepared to preserve the public peace, and to protect life and property, during a period in which we shall be under no other protection than that of our city government. We have no fears of the occurrence of those lawless scenes that were witnessed in New Orleans and elsewhere, in circumstances similar to those in which we are now placed; but disorders that have happened the last day or two show that, though there is no reason to dread wholesale violence, it will be necessary to be on our guard against stray deserters and other unknown intruders who are ready to seize opportunity to pillage and do mischief. We have the example of other cities to guide us, and we know that the disorders that have broken out there have been the doings of a few wild-minded persons. When at such a time as this a man talks of burning property, and of committing outrages upon individuals he may choose to consider on the wrong side in politics, that man requires watching. He will be found to be some worthless individual who has nothing to lose himself, and who would like to make something by a dishonest investment in the property of others. We are glad to learn from the Mayor that he has ample arrangements made for the crisis, and that he can quickly put down any tendency to disorder. The Home Guards are now patrolling the streets night and day, and will continue to do so until other authority introduces the regular operation of the laws. The police will continue zealously to perform their functions. It will be the duty of the good, order-loving citizen to hold himself in readiness to promptly give his aid and his countenance to those who are watching over the safety of the city, on any occasion in which any attempt at disorder may prevail. It is the law in some places, during times of public difficulty, to prevent the collection of crowds in the streets, by requiring any little knot of persons who congregate for conversation, to "move on," and arrest them if they refuse. This explanation of the preparations made, and the watchfulness exercised, will convince the helpless and the timid that their safety is cared for, and that they will be unremittingly and amply protected.
Memphis Daily Appeal, June 6, 1862.
6, 1862 - Battle for Memphis on the Mississippi River, and occupation of the city by Federal forces
Telegraphic of Report of C. H. Davis, Flag Officer, U. S. Navy, on the Battle of Memphis, June 6, 1862.
U. S. S. BENTON
Sir: I arrived here last evening at 9 o'clock, accompanied by the mortar fleet under Captain Maynadier, the ordnance steam storeships, etc., and anchored a mile and a half above the City. This morning I discovered the rebel fleet, which had been reinforced, and not consisted of eight rams and gunboats, lying at the levee.
The engagement which commenced at 5.30 a.m. and ended at 7, terminated in a running fight. I was ably supported by the ram fleet, under command of Colonel Ellet, who was conspicuous for his gallantry, and is seriously but not dangerously wounded.
The result of the action was the capture or destruction of seven vessels of the rebel fleet, as follows: General Beauregard, blown up and burned; General Sterling Price, one wheel carried away; Jeff Thompson, set on fire by shell, burned, and magazine blown up; [General] Sumter, badly cut up by shot, but will be repaired; Little Rebel, boiler exploded by shot and otherwise injured, but will be repaired. Besides this, one of the rebel boats was sunk in the beginning of the action: her name is not known. A boat, supposed to be the Van Dorn, escaped from the flotilla by her superior speed. Two rams are in pursuit. The officers and crews of the rebel boat endeavored to make the shore; many of their wounded and prisoners are now in our hands. The mayor surrendered the City to me after the engagement. Colonel Fitch came down at 11 o'clock and has taken military possession [of Memphis].
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pp. 118-119.
June 6, 1862. Confederate Gunboats.
1. General Van Dorn, escaped.
2. General Price, run down by rebel boat, wheel knocked off; sunk
3. Colonel Lovell, sunk by Queen of the West.
4. General Beauregard, sunk by Queen of the West.
5. General J. Thompson, captured by our fleet, and blew up.
6. General Bragg, captured by our fleet; prize
7. General Sumter, captured by our fleet; prize.
8. Little Rebel, captured by our fleet; prize.
"The number of prisoners taken ranges from 70 to 100, about 20 being officers. We can not get any details about the enemy's loss in killed, though enough is known to induce the belief that it was fearful." -- Memphis Daily Avalanche, June 9, 1862.
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, p. 123.
[The date of the memorandum, June 6, 1862, and the date of the newspaper citation, June 9, 1862, do not jibe. Perhaps it was an error in transcription and/or editing.]
The Little Rebel, the flagship of the Confederate Mississippi River Defense Force, was taken north to Cairo, Illinois, for repairs. Flag Officer C. H. Davis wrote to Captain Pennock, U. S. N., on June 16, 1862, concerning his wish to change the name of the Little Rebel to the General Pillow. Davis wanted to do so, he wrote, "in honor of that gigantic military genius. The only objection to the name is that the little thing is sound in her hull, which can't be said for General Pillow. However, she resembles the general in another particular; she has a great capacity for blowing and makes a noise altogether disproportionate to her dimensions."
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, p. 210.
Report of Brig. Gen. M. Jeff. Thompson, [C. S. A.] Missouri State Guard, relative to the Battle of Memphis.
GRENADA, MISS., June 7, 1862.
GEN.: I am under the painful necessity of reporting to you the almost entire destruction of the River Defense Fleet in the Mississippi River in front of Memphis. I regret that I have to state I think the misfortune was occasioned by a misapprehension of orders or misinformation as to the surrounding circumstances.
The evacuation of Fort Pillow was, from all accounts, well and orderly conducted, after once determined upon, by some means my men were sent to Memphis on a transport instead of being placed on the gunboats.
The circumstances which may have caused the evacuation of Fort Pillow did not surround Fort Randolph, and I am satisfied that, even with the few troops that were at Pillow, Randolph could have been held for several days, with a sure and safe retreat when necessary, if ever. Our fleet, for want of coal, as represented, fell back to Memphis on the 5th, with the intention of returning to Island No. 40. The arrangements for this purpose were being made, but before 10 o'clock p. m. on the 5th the tugs which were on picket above the city reported the enemy's tugs in sight. This was discredited, but our boats anchored in the channel of the river, prepared for a battle.
At 12.30 a.m. on the 6th your telegram, giving Commodore Montgomery and myself the joint command of the river defense, was received. I immediately wrote a note to the commodore, inclosing your telegram, and asking what I should do to co-operate with him. He requested two companies of artillery to be sent aboard at daybreak. [All of my men were at the depot, awaiting transportation to Grenada.] I at once ordered the companies to hold themselves in readiness. At the dawn of day I was awakened with the information that the enemy were actually in sight of Memphis. I hurried on board to consult with Montgomery. He instructed me to hurry my men to Fort Pickering Landing, and sent a tug to bring them up to the gunboats, which were advancing to attack the enemy. I hastened my men to the place indicated, but before we reached it our boats had been either destroyed or driven below Fort Pickering, and I marched back to the depot to come to this place to await orders.
I saw a large portion of the engagement from the river banks, and am sorry to say that in my opinion many of our boats were handled badly or the plan of the battle was very faulty. The enemy's rams did most of the execution, and were handled more adroitly than ours-I think, however, entirely owing to the fact that the guns and sharpshooters of the enemy were constantly employed, while we were almost without either. The Col. Lovell was so injured that she sank in the middle of the river; her captain, James Delancy, and a number of others, swam to shore. The Beauregard and Price were running at the Monarch [Yankee] from opposite sides when the Monarch passed from between them, and the Beauregard ran into the Price, knocking off her wheel and entirely disabling her. Both were run to the Arkansas shore and abandoned. The Little Rebel, the commodore's flag-boat, was run ashore and abandoned after she had been completely riddled, and, I am satisfied, the commodore killed. The battle continued down the river out of sight of Memphis, and it is reported that only two of our boats, the Bragg and Van Dorn, escaped.
It is impossible now to report the casualties, as we were hurried in our retirement from Memphis, and none but those from the Lovell escaped on the Tennessee side of the river. So soon as more information can be collected I will report.
Yours, most respectfully,
M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brig.-Gen., Missouri State Guard.
Report of Brig. Gen. Daniel Ruggles, C. S. Army.
HDQRS., Grenada, June 6, 1862.
Memphis surrendered to the enemy at 10 o'clock yesterday morning. Six of Montgomery's gunboats were destroyed by the enemy in front of the city and two escaped.
I have just returned from Memphis. All public supplies were removed.
DANIEL RUGGLES, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 912-914.
Correspondence relating to the occupation of Memphis, Tenn.
UNITED STATES RAM SWITZERLAND, Opposite Memphis, June 7, 1862.
SIR: Yesterday, after the engagement with the rebel fleet had nearly terminated and the gunboats and one of my rams had passed below, I was informed that a white flag had been raised in the city. I immediately sent my son, Medical Cadet Charles R. Ellet, ashore with a flag of truce and the following note to the authorities:
OPPOSITE MEMPHIS, June 6, 1862.
To the Civil or Military Authorities of Memphis:
GENTLEMAN: I understand that the City of Memphis has surrendered. I therefore send my son, with two United States flags, with instructions to raise one upon the custom-house and the other upon the court-house, as evidence of the return of your City to the care and protection of the Constitution.
CHAS. ELLET, JR., Col., Cmdg.
The bearer of the flags and the above note was accompanied by Lieut. Crandall, of the Fifty-ninth Illinois Regt. [sic], and 2 men of the boat guard. The following is the reply of the mayor of the City:
MAYOR'S OFFICE, Memphis, Tenn., June 6, 1862.
Col. CHARLES ELLET, JR., Cmdg., &c.:
SIR: Your note of this date is received and contents noted. The civil authorities of this City are not advised of its surrender to the forces of the United States Government, and our reply to you is simply to state respectfully that we have no forces to oppose the raising of the flags you have directed to be raised over the custom-house and post-office.
JNO. PARK, Mayor.
On receiving this reply the small party proceeded to the post-office to raise the national flag, and were there joined by the mayor. It is proper to say that the conduct of the mayor and some of the citizens was unexceptionable, but the party was surrounded by an excited crowd, using angry and threatening language. They ascended to the top of the post-office and planted the flag, though fired upon several times and stoned by the mob below. Still, I believe that this conduct was reprobated by the people of standing in the place. Indeed, many evidences reach me of an extensive Union sentiment at Memphis.
CHAS. ELLET, JR., Col., Cmdg. Ram Fleet.
Raising the Union Flag atop the Memphis Post Office and Customs House.
HDQRS. INDIANA BRIGADE, Memphis, June 7, 1862.
GEN.: A strong force patrolled the City last night, the populace having evinced a hostile disposition during the day and threatened to destroy certain public and private property.
The amount of the former is not yet known, but must be very considerable, including commissary stores, hospital furniture, and transports and ordnance.
On my arrival I was informed by Flag-Officer Davis that the following correspondence had taken place between himself and the mayor of the City:
U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Memphis, June 6, 1862.
To His Honor the MAYOR OF THE CITY OF MEMPHIS:
SIR: I have respectfully to request that you will surrender the City of Memphis to the authority of the United States, which I have the honor to represent.
I am, Mr. Mayor, with high respect, your most obedient servant,
C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Cmdg., &c.
To which the mayor replies:
MAYOR'S OFFICE, Memphis, June 6, 1826.
C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Cmdg., &c.:
SIR: Your note of this day is received and contents noted. In reply, I have only to say that as the civil authorities have no means of defense, by the force of circumstances the City is in your hands.
JNO. PARK, Mayor.
Subsequently the following correspondence took place:
U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Memphis, June 6, 1862.
To His Honor the MAYOR OF THE CITY OF MEMPHIS:
SIR: The undersigned, commanding the military and naval forces in front of Memphis, have the honor to say to the mayor of the city, that Col. Fitch, commanding the Indiana Brigade, will take military possession of the City immediately.
Col. Fitch will be happy to receive the co-operation of his honor the mayor and the City authorities in maintaining peace and order, and to this end he will be pleased to confer with his honor at the military headquarters at 3 o'clock this afternoon.
The undersigned have the honor to be, with high respect, your most obedient servant,
C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Cmdg. Afloat.
G. N. FITCH, Col., Cmdg. Indiana Brigade.
MAYOR'S OFFICE, June 6, 1862.
To Flag-Officer C. H. DAVIS and Col. G. N. FITCH.
SIRS: Your communication is received, and I shall be happy to co-operate with the colonel commanding in providing measures for maintaining peace and order in the City.
Your most obedient servant,
JNO. PARK, Mayor.
In accordance with the above, the mayor and common council called upon me at 3 o'clock p. m., and by mutual arrangement it was agreed that the municipal functions should continue, and the military to be used whenever and wherever necessary to aid the enforcement of the proper ordinances for the preservation of peace and protection of life and property and the maintenance of the supremacy of the laws and Constitution of the United States.
In addition to the threatening attitude of the mob, there is known to be a considerable body of cavalry 15 or 20 miles in the rear of the city, threatening a descent upon it.
In view of these facts, cannot a small re-enforcement, including a squadron of cavalry and a battery, be sent to this place?
G. N. FITCH, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 909-911.
6, "The Cyprians in Trouble;" concern expressed for the plight of Nashville prostitutes
On Thursday evening lower College street was thrown into a state of unusual excitement in consequence of an official notification received by some of the Cyprians to vacate their premises. The order required Captain H. C. Hodges, A. Q. M., to take possession of the houses occupied by Mary Combs, Mary Stratton, Lou Hulse, Maggie Seats, Jennie Rogers and two or three others, and directed the said occupants to vacate their several buildings before 12 M. on Monday, the 8th of June, 1863, and hand over the keys to Captain H. C. Hodges.
On Friday morning [5th], nearly all the hacks in town were brought in requisition, and Post Headquarters, the Capitol, and other places, were besieged, with the hope of having the order countermanded. At length it was whispered around that the house could be retained if the proprietors would dismiss all their girls, and not allow soldiers to visit the places. This made matters worse for when all expected to be turned out of doors, there was a consolation in all going together; but for each girl to look out for a home for herself, to be cast among strangers, perhaps be compelled to wander all night in the streets, was more than they could bear, and the wailings and lamentations of the unfortunate creatures were pitiable in the extreme. Like other human beings [sic], these poor [sic] girls have their loves and ties of kindred, of home, and of friends; many of them are as helpless as children, and totally unfit to take care of themselves; and there are none to give them a helping hand to reform, none to give them a helping hand to reform, none to give then shelter in time of need, none to say "daughter, you are forgiven; sin no more."
These facts were represented to the proper authorities during yesterday, and we learn that the order has been suspended for the present, but requiring all of them to hold themselves in readiness to vacate when called upon, and holding the proprietors responsible for any disorderly conduct in their homes, until further orders.
While upon this subject, we may as well allude to the indelicate practice of soldiers riding in open carriages with these girls through the street in broad day; and would suggest that the Provost Marshal make an endeavor to put a stop to it. The girls are not to blame. The neither pay for the carriages nor induce men to ride in them. The fault lies with the men, and to them alone the military and civil authorities ought to direct their attention in suppressing this practice.
Nashville Dispatch, June 6, 1863.
6, 1863 - "The Anniversary Celebration."
Grand Procession of Loyal Men.
* * * *
Yesterday morning, June 6th, the anniversary of the battle of Memphis, the era when the Federal Government overthrew usurped authority, and once more assumed its just sway over the city, was welcomed by every loyal heart. The morning was cloudy, but as the crowds wended along the streets in the direction of the gathering place of the masses, the veil that hid the blue sky parted, and the vaulted heavens and beaming sun looked down auspicious on the hundred[s] of flags and streamers that moved in graceful folds from as many windows. The rain of the previous day or two had laid the dust, and the streets were in favorable condition for the ceremonies of the day.
At the appointed hour, Second street, in the neighborhood of Court Square, was thronged with a large multitude, which watched with intense interest while the marshals of the day ranked the proceedings into order. At length the moment of starting arrived. Then, music in stirring strains broke on the morning air; national airs, breathing joy to every loyal bosom, resounded in the echoing streets. The vast train set off on its appointed way, and a glorious display it was, of "beauteous ladies and of gallant men." On foot and on horseback, in cars and carriages, with flags and banners displayed, and with hurrahs of joy, on it went.
The procession was a beautiful one. The number of persons on horseback and carriage was unusually large. The flags and banners were numerous, and on an immense and beautifully ornamental car stood thirty-four young ladies in white, showing the Union colors. They represented thirty-four States of the Union. Several ladies also appeared in the procession on horseback. Three cars bore immense paintings, illustrative of the battle of Memphis and the events of taking possession of the city. A very large number of banners, bearing appropriate mottoes, were carried among the long train of footmen in the procession.
The streets named in the programme were passed through, and all along the route the Stripes and Stars waving from numerous windows, showed how many of the citizens sympathized with the pleasing ceremonies of the day.
The procession was arranged in the following order:
Grand Marshal of the Day, G. P. Ware, Esq., and Assistant Marshals on horseback.
Carriage containing the President of the Memphis Union Club, the Chairman of the Committee on Invitations, and the Orator of the Day. The carriage was decked with a beautiful flag.
Officers of the United States Army, on horseback.
Splendid Temple of Liberty, with interior dome; a magnificent structure of the National red, white and blue, drawn by twelve horses. Within the temple were thirty-four young ladies arrayed in white and wearing circlets of flours upon their heads. Beneath the dome a tall young lady, (Miss LELIA BURBANK,) appeared as the Goddess of Liberty. Her robe was the stripes of the national flag; on her forehead was a golden circlet and she bore on her head a staff surmounted with the cap of liberty. Her supporters, right and left, were Miss Lizzie Johnson and Miss Louisa Miller.
Large silk flag, presented to the Washington Club by the ladies of Memphis.
Band of the Hundred and Nineteenth Illinois regiment.
Members of the Memphis Union Club, wearing their badges and carrying banners with mottoes.
Three cars with emblematic paintings of large size, in colors. The following are the subjects of the pictures:
"The fight on the river in front of Memphis on the morning of June 6th, 1862.
The landing of the U. S. gunboats at the foot of the bluffs after the battle, with officers on board to take possession of the city.
The scene of chopping down the staff on the bluff on the summit of which was hoisted the Confederate colors.
The scene of hoisting the United States flag on the Postoffice [sic] Building.
A locomotive and cars dashing along a railroad. One of the cars bears the inscription, "Appeal, for Dixie."
Emblematic painting of the Union. The Union typified by a beautiful woman with sword in hand, and bearing a shield on which is displayed the Stripes and Stars, and word "Union." She is attacking a couple of hideous copperhead snakes, one of which proclaims himself in favor of "A vigorous prosecution of peace." To which she replies; "not in your way." On the same painting, to the right, appears an earnest radical Unionist, who is slinging an axe with which he is cutting down a dead tree. On the remaining braches of the tree a few withered leaves still linger. The trunk of the tree bears the word "slavery." Among the branches a shrinking, terrified slaveholder is clinging with the death grip. Radical Unionist is exclaiming: "Now, if you don't' come down, I'll cut the tree from under you."
Band of music – Citizens carrying flags and banners.
Citizens on horseback. This part of the procession presented an imposing appearance, which was hightened [sic] by the graceful addition of some ladies appearing in the cavalcade.
The procession closed with a large number of carriages, ornamented with flags. Many ladies were among the citizens in the carriages.
Among the mottoes displayed on the banners were the following:
"The old flag, with not a single star erased."
"Andrew Johnson, Tennessee's noblest son."
"The legacy of our fathers shall be transmitted to our children."
"The 6th of June, a bright day in the history of our navy."
"The last ditch. Let it be the Gulf of Mexico."
"The reign of terror of the Safety Committee has passed away for ever."
"The United States has one Constitution, one history – let her have one destiny."
"The preservation of the Federal Government, in its whole constitutional vigor as the sheet anchor of our peace at home and safety abroad."
"Washington Union Club (a splendid portrait of Washington on the reverse side.")
"[illegible] (Liberty, and with a brotherly love.") [sic]
"Ussers aremee and flotte, (One army and navy.") [sic]
"Be true to our country, and fear not."
"The Federal Union must be preserved."
"Omnipotence is with us, who shall be against us?"
"Our voice is for peace, but with the Union."
"Give us still the Government of our fathers."
"Our Government as it is, uniting republican freedom with National strength."
"The Mississippi can never secede from the Ohio."
"The thirty-four States, their number may be increased, but never diminished."
"The President of the United States, he must be sustained."
"This unholy rebellion, may it speedily be put down."
"The Star Spangled Banner! Oh, long may it wave!"
"England encourages disunion from base motives."
"Union is prosperity and happiness, Secession is ruin."
"Tennessee's star shall never be blotted from the old flag."
"Liberty and Union, one and inseparable."
"Tennessee was forced out; she will return willingly."
"If Kentucky – and who will doubt my love for her – unfurls the banner of resistance, I will not fight under it." (Clay)
"A house divided against itself cannot stand."
"Emerson Etheridge, Tennessee's faithful champion."
"The army and the navy, they have covered themselves with glory."
The temple containing the young ladies was escorted by the National Union Memphis Guard. They were fully armed and equipped, and made a good appearance in their neat uniform. Of this company M. T. Ryder is captain, D. S. Ouden First Lieutenant, Joseph Tagg, Second Lieutenant.
When the procession reached the northern portion of the city, it was welcomed with the loud booming of cannon, fired at the navy yard by direction of the Commandant, whose residence on the promenade was beautifully ornamented with flags. Suspended from a cord extended across the promenade, was a splendid full-length portrait of Washington. The route on the programme was so far departed from as to pass down the promenade for the purpose of resting opposite the Commandant's house, where the band performed some beautiful music, and the order of route was resumed and continued until Court Square was reached.
EXERCISES AT COURT SQUARE.
Within Court Square, immediately north of the enclosure containing JACKSON'S monument, was the stand for the speakers.
The speakers and officers of the day mounted the stand, also the young ladies personating the States. The President of the Union Club, W. H. Fitch, Jr., took the chair and announced the order of the exercises, after which he proposed the following resolutions"
We, the loyal citizens of Memphis and vicinity in mass-meeting assembled, to commemorate the anniversary of the overthrow of Confederate misrule and despotism in our midst, do unanimously declare:
1. That we believe the existing rebellion is causeless, unjustifiable and infamous; that its suppression is a sacred duty, imposed through the Providence of Almighty God upon our generation, and that the whole moral and physical force of the Nations should be concentrated in the hand of the Government to accomplish that duty.'
2. We cordially and emphatically endorse the action of Congress and the President in each and all the measures to crush the insurrection and cripple its supporters.
3. While in theory we recognize a distinction between the Government and the men constitutionally appointed to administer it, yet, practically, every denunciation hurled at the Administration now, [sic] is a stab in the Nation's life.
4. Men who profess loyalty to the Union, but unceasingly denounce the Administration and its war policy, are dangerous hypocrites, at heart false to the country, unworthy to be called Americans, and should be rigorously death with by the arm they seek to paralyze.
5. We are unequivocally and irrevocably, now and forever, opposed to all compromises and concessions to rebels in arms, and we believe that no permanent, honorable peace is attainable except upon the basis of full and complete submission throughout every seceded State to the authority and laws of the United States.
6. We heartily approve of General Hurlbut's Order No. 65, and earnestly hope that it will be rigidly enforced. People should not seek ease, comfort and protection away from their starving friends under a flag they openly ignore and inwardly detest.
When the resolutions approving the order of Gen. Hurlbut, which requires all citizens to enroll themselves, and the loyal ones to take the oath, were read, there were cries of "Good! Good!!" and loud applause.
The Chairman put the resolutions to the meeting when they were adopted with vociferous applause. On calling for the nays, a voice exclaimed: "They're not here!" a remark received with applause and laughter.
Memphis Bulletin, June 7, 1863.
6, The travails of the exiled Shelby County Edmondson family
June, Monday 6, 1864
After all of our agreements &c about an early start, we did not get off until 8 o'clock, a terible [sic], terible [sic] day we have had. Cold Water almost out of it's [sic] banks, and still rising-the slews swiming [sic]-Mr. Wilson picked the way or we never would have gotten through. Arrived at Cold Water in time to eat our dinner and feed. Met with a Negro man, coming to Senatobia, gave him part of our baggage, had to go twenty miles out of the way, by Luxahoma to cross Hickey Hayley-We missed the road to Mrs. Wren's home, had to travel until 8 o'clock, through Senatobia bottom after night, oh, how terible [sic] to think of. We never would have reached here had it not been for Mr. Wilson's kindness-found old Mrs. Arnold ready to receive is, where we are all now ensconsed, [sic] Mrs. Wren fast asleep-Hal taking Chloroform. I beged [sic] her not to, but to no availe [sic]-I am all alone. Mr. Wilson and John both retired. We have glorious news from Va. Gen. Lee has repulsed Grant, with heavy loss. God grant it may be so. Traveled two days and only 30 miles from home. God bless my poor old Father, and his household.
Diary of Belle Edmondson
6, "Grand Colored Demonstration."
Yesterday, being the anniversary of the arrival of the Federal forces at this place, our colored population thought it proper to commemorate the event by a Pic-nic [sic] which came off at Odd Fellows' Hall. We supposed at one time, when looking out upon the streets, that there had been an eclipse of the sun, (or some other strange phenomenon,) which by some miscalculation of the astronomers had been set at a wrong date, but as the black mass neared the spot where we were standing, we discovered our error, as it turned to be a procession of the "culled persuasion." [sic]
Memphis Bulletin, June 7, 1864.
 The article had the following paragraph: "The process of marking [sic] the Union men on the day of the election [i.e., the plebiscite on Tennessee's secession on June 8] was by writing the name of each voter, as it was entered upon the poll book, upon the back of the ticket, with the corresponding number entered on both; so that after the vote was counted the Union tickets could easily be selected, and voters attended to. This design was known before the elections, and, of course, deterred Union men form voting at all, or compelled them to vote for secession." Rebellion Record, Vol. 2, p. 58.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456