Thursday, January 8, 2015

1.2.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

January 2-April 28, 1862 correspondence relative to the expulsion of William G. "Parson" Brownlow and family from the Confederacy

[Without date. Entered "Received January 2, 1862".]

Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States of America:

The undersigned begs to lay before your excellency the following statement and accompanying documents:

He had for reasons that need not here be stated opposed the secession of Tennessee and was while the question was pending and undecided before the people of the State a zealous advocate of the Union; but after the ordinance of secession had been confirmed by the vote of the citizens of the State and the permanent constitution of the Confederate States had in like manner been adopted the undersigned with others who had become prominent by reason of their opposition to those measures voluntarily addressed a communication to Brig.-Gen. Zollicoffer in which they pledged themselves to use whatever influence they might possess to promote the peace of East Tennessee and obedience to the constituted authorities, State and Confederate, on the part of her people. That pledge was made with a sincere determination so far as the undersigned was concerned to fulfill it according to its letter and spirit, and he has done so. And while Gen. Zollicoffer remained at Knoxville with his command the undersigned and all other law-abiding citizens were protected; but after his departure he soon became convinced that the undersigned and his family were in danger of violence from the soldiers stationed at that place under the command of Col. William B. Wood. Certain of those soldiers were in the daily habit of coming to the residence of the undersigned, flourishing their knives, pointing their muskets at the windows and uttering threats to take his life. The undersigned firmly believes that the soldiers were incited to act in that manner by his bitter personal enemies who sought to make the military the instrument of their private revenge. However this may be he and his family believed that his life was in danger and that his presence at home imperiled instead of securing the safety of this wife and children. He therefore yielded to the entreaties of his friends to leave home for a time and he consented to do so the more readily as he had business in adjoining counties which needed his attention. He accordingly left his home and during his absence heard of the late burning of the bridges on the railroads in East Tennessee and also heard about the same time that he was charged with complicity in that crime and outrage. The undersigned knew that the most intense excitement prevailed in the country, that the passions of the citizens and soldiery were fully aroused; and his knowledge of the history of mankind in the past taught him that in such seasons of high excitement the innocent and the guilty would suffer together. Prudence therefore dictated that he should for a time-until the passions of men should have time to cool and reason to reassume her sway-conceal himself that no occasion should occur for violence to his person.

The undersigned asserts his entire innocence of the several charges which have been invented by his enemies. He has not since the date of the letter to Gen. Zollicoffer before referred to done aught inconsistent with the pledge it contains. He has not furnished guns to men in arms against the Confederate States as has been untruly charged by some of the newspapers in the country. He had no knowledge of the project to burn the bridges whatever and here declares that had such a design been communicated to him he would at once have given information of it to the proper parties. In a word he has done nothing which malice itself could strain into a crime against the laws of Tennessee or of the Confederate States. Nevertheless he did for the reason before stated secrete himself where he believes he was perfectly secure from discovery. While he was thus safely concealed he was informed that John Baxter, esq., who was on a visit to the city of Richmond applied to the War Department for permission to the undersigned to leave the territory of the Confederate States.

He is informed further that after an interview with your excellency and the Secretary of War a letter was written by the latter to Maj. Gen. George B. Crittenden a correct copy of which is submitted herewith marked A, and thereupon Gen. Crittenden directed a letter to be sent to the undersigned a correct copy of which marked B accompanies this statement. The undersigned relying upon the promise of a passport into Kentucky and the protection of a military escort which it contains and trusting to the good faith of your excellency, the Secretary of War and Gen. Crittenden immediately upon its reception left his place of concealment, returned to Knoxville and within the time appointed called at headquarters and obtained a renewal of the promise of the passport and escort. This occurred on the afternoon of the 5th instant. The morning of the 7th was fixed upon for the departure of the undersigned from Knoxville. Before that time arrived he was arrested upon a warrant for treason issued by R. B. Reynolds, commissioner, &c., a correct copy of which marked C is herewith submitted, and bail and an examination having been refused was confined in the common jail of the county.

The undersigned has been always opposed in politics to your excellency; has resisted with his whole strength the revolution which your excellency is now conducting; but at no time has political prejudice or party feeling caused him to believe that you will sanction what he is compelled to denounce as a gross breach of faith. He has not permitted himself to believe that you would direct the military authorities to make a promise and after that promise had been accepted and acted upon would permit another set of authorities to violate it. He appeals to you as the executive of a Government representing twelve millions of people to protect the honor of that Government against so foul a stain. This application is the last resource left to the undersigned. Immediately after his arrest he addressed the note marked D to Gen. Crittenden and received in reply the note marked E.

It is unnecessary to add that the warrant issued by the commissioner contains no charge of treason. The publication of a newspaper however objectionable its matter might be cannot amount to treason. The undersigned has therefore no reason to fear the result of a judicial investigation of his conduct; but bail thought offered for any amount has been refused him. He has been subjected to close confinement in an uncomfortable jail while weak health and in fact suffering from hemorrhage of the lungs. Until very recently he has intended to continue a citizen of the Confederate States but the events of the last three weeks have convinced him that the laws can afford no protection to himself or family. He now desires to withdraw himself and family from the jurisdiction of those States. He makes this application not as a petitioner for any grace or favor but as a demand of right and with full confidence that the public faith will in the premises be observed.

Respectfully, &c.,


[Inclosure A.]

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, November 20, 1861.

Maj.-Gen. CRITTENDEN, Cumberland Gap.

DEAR SIR: I have been asked to grant passport for Mr. Brownlow to leave the State of Tennessee. He is said to have secreted himself fearing violence to his person and to be anxious to depart from the State. I cannot give him a formal passport though I would greatly prefer seeing him on the other side of our lines as an avowed enemy.

I wish however to say that I would be glad to learn that he has left Tennessee and have no objection to interpose to his leaving if you are willing to let him pass.

Yours, truly,

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

[Inclosure B.]

HDQRS., Knoxville, Tenn., December 4, 1861.


SIR: The major-general commanding directs me to say that upon calling at his headquarters within twenty-four hours you can get a passport to go into Kentucky accompanied by a military escort, the route to be designated by Gen. Crittenden.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. CUNNINGHAM, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

[Inclosure C.]

DECEMBER 6, 1861.



J. C. Ramsey, C. S. District attorney for said district, having made oath before me that he is informed and believes that William G. Brownlow, a citizen of said district and owing allegiance and fidelity to the Confederate States but being moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil and not having the fear of God before his eyes, did willfully, knowingly and with malice aforethought and feloniously commit the crime of treason against the Confederate States by then and there within said district and since the 8th day of June last publishing a weekly and tri-weekly paper know as Brownlow's Knoxville Whig; said paper had a large circulation in said district and also circulated in the United States and contained weekly divers of editorials written by the said Brownlow which said editorials were treasonable against the Confederate States of America, and did then and there commit treason and prompt others to commit treason; by speech as well as publication did as aforesaid commit treason and did give aid and comfort to the United States, both of said Governments being in a state of war with each other. You are therefore commanded to arrest the said Brownlow and bring him before me to be dealt with as the laws directs.

R. B. REYNOLDS, Commissioner, &c.

[Inclosure D.]

NOXVILLE, December 6, 1861.


I am now under an arrest upon a warrant signed by Messrs. Reynolds and Ramsey upon a charge of treason founded upon sundry articles published in the Knoxville Whig since June last. I am here upon your invitation and promise of passports; and claiming your protection as I do I shall await your early response.

Very respectfully,


[Inclosure E.]

KNOXVILLE, December 7, 1861.


SIR: Your note stating that you were under an arrest upon a war rant upon a charge of treason, &c., has been handed to Gen. Crittenden. He desires me to say in reply that in view of all the facts of the case (which need not be recapitulated here for you are familiar with them) he does not consider that you are here upon his invitation in such manner as to claim his protection from an investigation by the civil authorities of the charges against you which he clearly understood from yourself and your friends you would not seek to avoid.

Respectfully, yours, &c.,

HARRY I. THORNTON, Aide-de-Camp.


Resolved by the Gen. Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That the conduct and treasonable movements of Andrew Johnson, Horace Maynard, Emerson Etheridge and such others of our public men as have expatriated themselves from our State are regarded as alien enemies of our people and the infamy and turpitude of whose offenses win the sovereign contempt and prefect indignation of all good and loyal citizens, as well as the just punishment of the law in such cases made in provided.

--Found among W. G. Brownlow's papers.


WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., January 3, 1862.

Capt. G. H. MONSARRAT, Knoxville, Tenn.

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 29th ultimo the Secretary of War directs me to say that Brownlow is to be escorted out of the country by a military force sufficient to protect him from violence in accordance with the pledge given by Gen. Crittenden.

In relation to the abuses mentioned the Secretary expects you to be vigilant and energetic in suppressing them. Col. Leadbetter who commands on the line of the railroad and the adjacent country will give you particular instructions.


A. T. BLEDSOE, Chief Bureau of War.


KNOXVILLE, TENN., January 3, 1861.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond.

SIR: Mr. Attorney-Gen. Ramsey the other day in the Confederate court cited an article written and published in the Knoxville Whig before the State went out as the grounds of his arrest of Brownlow for treason. The attorney did it no doubt to justify his act of arrest under the peculiar circumstances, but it has startled the community with a new and gave question which should be understood at once.

It is the purpose of the Government to arrest and try for treason gentlemen who may have expressed hostility to the Southern cause before the State was formally voted out? You may rest assured if this is understood to be the policy it will be sure to involve us in renewed trouble. The reports of great excitement about the Brownlow affair are greatly exaggerated; indeed are almost wholly without foundation in fact. There is not a gentleman in or out of the army who after learning the facts of the case does not fully indorse your noble sentiment: "But that even the most dangerous enemy however criminal should escape than that the honor and good faith of the Government should be impugned or even suspected".

I may say with truth that all disinterested parties regard the arrest and imprisonment of the men under the circumstances as shameful and it has done more injury to the fair name of the Confederacy than a thousand Brownlows are worth. He is said to be now in a sick and dying condition. I pray you will telegraph and insist on a safe-conduct for him and his family at once across the lines and everybody else that desire to leave. It this were done it would be worth 10,000 men to the Southern cause.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


P. S. --I inclose the paper containing the original article of Brownlow; also two copies of the Attorney-Gen.'s organ referring to the matter.


[Inclosure No. 1.]


[From the Knoxville Register, December 7, 1861.]

William G. Brownlow was arrested yesterday upon a charge of treason on a warrant ordered by the C. S. commissioner and drawn up by the district attorney. He was committed to jail. His trial will come up in due course before the Confederate court-perhaps next week. The rumor of an order from the War Department for his safe conduct to the North in the last two days has created intense excitement throughout this country, especially among those who have friends and relatives now languishing in prison on account of his teachings.


[Inclosure No. 2.]


[From the Knoxville Register, December 13, 1861.]

Why is this ringleader of all the Toryism and devilment in East Tennessee dealt with so leniently and others not half so guilty punished extremely? We insist upon it that all who have been apprehended and are now in prison ought to be released without further trouble. They have only done what Brownlow, Johnson, Nelson, Maynard, Fleming, Trigg and others who were leaders in trying to ruin the country told them to do. And now why keep any others in custody? Why weary the troops in hunting them out and bringing them to justice? Justice should be meted out to all alike; and if the principal leader is not only released but furnished a safe escort it should so be exercised to others. We should invite Johnson and Maynard home and promise them safety while they may be disposed to remain among us and learn all the details of the Southern movement. The brave men who see that Brownlow gets safely out could certainly see that Johnson and Maynard came safely in.

But seriously we have no desire to see any man-not ever Mr. Brownlow--pull Tennessee hemp or that of Missouri, nor yet that of Kentucky. But we do think that the least punishment that should be inflicted ought to be a residence at Tuscaloosa until the war closes; and then the enviable gentleman can go over by himself and see Abe Lincoln and abide with him forever. Can it be that any officer or soldier will be pleased to carry out such a tormenter as Brownlow--conduct him safely out who has all time been seeking the ruin of every secessionist and the whole Southern Confederacy, who would "rather be in hell than with such a bogus government?" Can it be that those brave men who have left all that is dear to them to defend the country will feel themselves honored by safely conveying their most inveterate enemy over to Lincoln to do them still more damage, or will they not rather feel like they have lost more than half they have fighting for in this State? East Tennessee has been a heavy expense to the State and to the Confederate Government in consequence of the teaching and leading of Brownlow and others; and now to let him go in peace seems to be the height of folly or we cannot see right. It will cool the ardor of many a soldier and cause the community to lose confidence in the hope that they entertained of the speedy independence of the South.

We have nothing to controvert with those at the helm of affairs but we think that we can safely say that our friends at Nashville and Richmond have been led astray and badly hoodwinked by those from East Tennessee who are better friends to Unionism or Toryism than to the Southern interests. It has been said in the ears of authority that Brownlow was so secreted that he could not be found. But no true Southern man believes a word of that in this part of the country. He could have been picked up in three days at any time during his absence by a deputation of ten soldiers. The only wonder is that it was not done. It may be well said that enemies with fair faces have dictated and have been heard and listened to instead of those who have been faithful to the cause of the South through thick and thin. The enmity and trouble amongst Union men in East Tennessee is not rooted out, it is only covered up; while the heat with some honorable exceptions is increasing and waiting and hoping for Lincoln to send over his army, and they will "pitch in".


[Inclosure No. 3.]


[From the Knoxville Register.]

We do not desire to be understood as attaching an undue or extravagant importance to the discharge of Brownlow from the custody of the Confederate authorities. The writer of this has known this individual for years. He is in few words a diplomat of the first water. Brownlow rarely undertakes anything unless he sees his way entirely through the millstone. He covers over his really profound knowledge of human nature with an appearance of eccentricity and extravagance. If any of our readers indulge the idea that Brownlow is not smart in the full acceptation of the term they should abolish the delusion at once and forever. Crafty, cunning, generous to his particular friends, benevolent and charitable to their faults, ungrateful and implacable to his enemies-we cannot refrain from saying that he is the best judge of human nature within the bounds of the Southern Confederacy.

In procuring from the Confederate authorities a safe-conduct to a point within the Hessian lines he has exhibit the most consummate skill. Absenting himself from the immediate vicinity of Knoxville--hiding at a point where he was concealed from the observation of any one save his particular friends, within easy communication with the military commanders at the Knoxville post--he succeeded in foiling the Confederate authority at every point. By a hypocritical appeal to Southern generosity against what he chose to term "mob law" he succeeded in concealing his real whereabouts just long enough to accomplish his real purposes. Time was all he wanted. Cajoling the authorities here with the idea that "he was doing nothing" his emissaries were dispatched to Richmond. By a species of diplomacy and legerdemain Secretary Benjamin is induced to believe that Brownlow forsooth is quite a harmless individual. The move was made, the blow was struck and the shackles fall from the person of Brownlow. Brownlow was triumphant and Benjamin outwitted. In fact we do not know whether to laugh or get mad with the manner in which Brownlow has wound the Confederate Government around his thumb. That Brownlow is now laughing like the king's fool in his sleeve we doubt not for a moment.

The pledge to convey Brownlow within the Hessian lines has been made by the head of the War Department of the Confederate States; and even if this promise was procured by fraud and misrepresentation as we have heard intimated yet it must be fulfilled to the exact letter. In giving Brownlow the promise the Confederate authorities have committed in our opinion what has been so often characterized as worse than a crime--a blunder. That all the authorities in this case acted in good faith we do not and will not doubt; that they have been outwitted and overreached diplomatically we can affirm with equal truth. Brownlow!--God forbid that we should unnecessarily magnify the importance of this name; but there are facts connected with the character of the man which a just and discriminating public would condemn in us did we not give them due notice. In brief Brownlow has preached at every church and school-house and made stump-speeches at every cross-road and knows every man, woman and child and their fathers and grandfathers before them in East Tennessee. As a Methodist circuit-rider, a political stump-speaker, a temperance orator and the editor of a newspaper he has been equally successful in our division of the State. Let him but once reach the confines of Kentucky with his knowledge of the geography and the population of East Tennessee and or section will soon feel the effect of his hard blows. From among his old partisan and religious sectarian parasites he will find men who will obey him with the fanatical alacrity of those who followed Peter the Hermit in the first crusade. We repeat again let us not underrate Brownlow.



[Knoxville, Tenn.,] February 15, 1862.


I am glad to learn that you are in command of this post and I hope you may be continued while it is my lot to remain here under guard in prison. As you are no doubt aware I have not able to write for several days; and this hasty letter I indite while propped up in bed. But I write to give you an account of my treatment by those associated with you and preceding you.

I think I may venture to say by way preliminary that I am not prone to utter complaints but usually exercise a good degree of patience. For the first five weeks of the last seven that a guard has been placed around and in my room I have voluntarily given them three meals in each day, seating them at my table with my family, considering it no hardship as I knew most of them to be Union men forced into the service. When even a different class of men were selected who took possession of my library and office where my two sons sleep; when I say this was seized upon and turned into a guard-house, rocking-chairs broken to pieces, carpet ruined and books damaged; when my coal and wood were taken and consumed though dear and difficult to procure; and when I have furnished their guard-house candles all the time though none are to be had in the market I have not complained. When your predecessor, Col. Leadbetter, has refused my son John the privilege of collecting debts due me from the clerks and sheriffs of surrounding counties which they are ready and anxious to pay me and which in my broken-down condition I really need to live on I have uttered no words of complaint. When for several days past out of a family of thirteen in number only my wife, my son John and two negroes were off the sick list; when both the mumps and measles were introduced by armed sentinels standing day and night in my room and at my doors I have not uttered even a single word of complaint. When my house and especially my passage and front portico have been shamefully abused by these sentinels disfigured with mud and tobacco I have submitted in silence though conscious of the bad treatment given me. When we have all been kept from sleep by the walking, talking, singing and swearing and by a change of these guards every two hours; when they have rudely rushed into my bedchamber as they said to get warm I have submitted without one word of complaint. I have felt that there is a better day coming for me and my family if I am not assassinated which is threatened me on every hand. I have and I still have confidence in the final success of the principles for which I am to suffer these cruel indignities; and hence I have been silent.

But last night when my wife attempted to close and fasten a back door by which my bedroom is entered and it the only fastening to my room in the rear of the building she was insultingly notified by the sentinel, a drunken secessionist, that it must stand open all night and that such were his orders from Capt. Cook to whose company he was attached. She told him that it could not and should not stand open; that there were three other sick persons in the room besides me and one of them a little daughter with fever; and she accordingly closed it upon him and locked it expecting him to break it down.

Of this treatment, Col. Vance, I do complain and especially as threats are made that the door shall be kept open to-night. My appeal for relief is to you. To your predecessor, Leadbetter, I can make no appeal for he never had a gentlemanly emotion of soul in his life; and if he were capable of such feelings he is the willing and malicious instrument of a villainous clique here of most corrupt, vindicate and despicable scoundrels-of whom John H. Crozier, J. C. Ramsey and W. G. Swan are chief.

There is no call for this double guard around me. It is done to oppress me and my family. My wife and children are treated as prisoners; and all marketing is excluded from the house by a military order not to allow any persons to my door or yard. I hope for the honor of the Southern character that no other private family within the eleven seceded States is subjected to such an ordeal. Certain I am that such tyranny and oppression, such outrages and insults, will never diminish my esteem for the old United States Government or increase my respect for the Southern Confederacy. Feeble as I am ready and anxious to go beyond your lines as it will relieve my family of this oppression. If I cannot be removed in accordance with the pledge of your War Department I am willing nay desirous to go back to jail if that will secure the repose of an afflicted, insulted and outraged family.

I am, very truly, &c.,



KNOXVILLE, February 27, 1862.


Satisfied upon reliable information that my personal safety forbids my going out of this Confederacy by way or Richmond I ask the justice to allow Maj. Monsarrat to send me through the lines either over Cumberland Mountains or via Nashville. I prefer the latter as I am not yet well enough to undergo the fatigues of traveling on horseback.

Very respectfully, &c.,



RICHMOND, VA., March 1, 1862.

Maj. MONSARRAT, Knoxville:

You are authorized to send Brownlow out of Tennessee by the Cumberland Mountains or any safe road.

J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.


HDQRS., Knoxville, March 3, 1862.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War.

SIR: Your telegraphic order [of 1st instant] to transmit Doctor Brownlow out of Tennessee by "Cumberland Mountains or any safe road" was received on Saturday. This morning I sent Doctor Brownlow in charge of Col. [H. Casey] Young of Gen. Carroll's staff with a guard of ten men to Nashville and thence to Kentucky. I did not deem it safe to send by any of the mountain passes.

With great respect, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

G. H. MONSARRAT, Capt., Cmdg. Post.


HDQRS. WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Huntsville, March 7, 1862.

Lieut. O'BRIEN, Third Tennessee Regt. [sic]

SIR: Gen. Johnston having just learned that you have brought Doctor Brownlow to Wartrace as a prisoner expects you to return him to his home or release whim where he now is as he may elect.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.



In obedience to the others of the Secretary of War of the Confederate States the officers in charge of W. G. Brownlow will conduct him under a flag of truce to the most convenient and practicable point of the lines of the enemy and deliver him over to the Federal authorities.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Crittenden:

POLLOK B. LEE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


Mrs. W. G. BROWNLOW, Knoxville.

MADAM: By Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith I am directed most respectfully to inform you that you and your children are not held as hostages for the good behavior of your husband as represented by him in a speech at Cincinnati recently, and that yourself and family will be required to pass beyond the C. S. line on thirty-six hours from this date.

Passports will be granted you from this office.

Very respectfully,

W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.


KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 21, 1862.

Col. W. M. CHURCHWELL, Provost-Marshal.

SIR: Your official note as provost-marshal for East Tennessee ordering myself and family to remove beyond the limits of the Confederate States within the next thirty-six hours is just received and I hasten to reply to it. My husband as you are aware is not here to afford me his protection and counsel; and being well nigh in the evening of life with a family of dependent children I have to request as a matter of indulgence that you extend the time for my exile a few days longer as to leave within the time prescribed by your mandate would result in the total sacrifice of my private interests.

I have to request the further information what guarantee of safety your passport will afford myself and family.

Yours, &c.,



HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April 22, 1862.

Gen. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

I have directed Brownlow's and Maynard's families to leave East Tennessee. I wish them to go via Norfolk. Can they pass that way?

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.




MADAM: At your request the time for your leaving to join your husband is extended until Thursday morning next. The route will be via Kingston and Sparta. Your safety will be the soldiers sent along for your protection to the lines of the enemy.

Very respectfully,

W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.



Maj. H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

SIR: Names of the following persons to go to Norfolk: Mrs. Eliza Brownlow and three children, Miss Mary Brownlow, Mrs. Sue C. Sawyers and child, John B. Brownlow. This office has had no communication with Mrs. Maynard since notifying her but understand she leaves this morning. No application has been made for passport. No officer has yet reported to go to Norfolk. Will be sent to Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith's headquarters for instructions as soon as he reports here.


[W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.]



Lieut. JOSEPH H. SPEED, Twentieth Regt. [sic] Alabama Volunteers.

SIR: The major-general commanding directs that you proceed from this place to-morrow morning in charge of the following-named persons: Mrs. Eliza Brownlow and three children, Miss Mary Brownlow, Mrs. Sue C. Sawyers and child, John B. Brownlow, Mrs. Maynard and three children, whom you will take to Norfolk, Va., to be transported thence to the enemy's lines. You will show them all proper attention on the way thither and protect them against offensive intrusion. After arriving at Norfolk you will report to the commanding officer and request that just prior to their embarkation a careful examination be made of their luggage and persons for letters or papers of a treasonable character. If any such should be discovered you will detain Mr. Brownlow and bring him with you upon return to Knoxville when you will report to these headquarters.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.



Knoxville, April 25, 1862.

The following-named persons are allowed (in charge of Lieut. Joseph H. Speed) to pass out of the Confederate States Government by way of Norfolk, Va.: Mrs. Eliza Brownlow and three children, Miss Mary Brownlow, Mrs. Sue C. Sawyers and child, John B. Brownlow.

W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.



Just received. The persons are here. Lieut. Speed reports this order is from Gen. Kirby Smith. I will detain the party here. Please telegraph me if I shall send them to Fort Monroe.



RICHMOND, April 28, 1862.

Maj. Gen. BENJAMIN HUGER, Norfolk, Va.:

The Brownlow family which has been sent to Norfolk by the commanding general of the Department of East Tennessee for the purpose of being transported to the enemy's line will be sent by you to Fortress Monroe.

By order of the Secretary of War:

A.T. BLEDSOE, Assistant Secretary of War.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 919-931.

        2, Forrest's command withdraws and recrosses the Tennessee River, Clifton [see January 3, 1863, Skirmish at Clifton below]

        2, Skirmish near Fort Donelson

JANUARY 2, 1863.-Skirmish near Fort Donelson, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Thomas A. Davies, U. S. Army.

JANUARY 3, 1863.

Col. Lowe reports that a train going from Fort Donelson to Fort Henry was attacked by Spaulding's band of guerrillas. A fight ensued. Spaulding was killed and several other, with some prisoners, and routing the remainder.

Our loss, 3 killed and 3 taken prisoners.

THOS. A. DAVIES, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. I, p. 698.

        2, One Federal officer's impressions at the end of the second day of the Battle of Stones River; an excerpt from the diary of Colonel John Beatty

* * * *

The hungry soldiers cut steaks from the slain horses, and, with the scanty supplies which have come forward, gather around the fires to prepare supper, and talk over the incidents of the day. The prospect seems brighter. We have held the ground, and in this last encounter have whipped the enemy. There is more cheerful conversation among the men. They discuss the battle, the officers, and each other, and give us now and then a snatch of a song. Officer come over from adjoining brigades, hoping to find a little whisky, but learn, with apparent resignation land well-feigned composure, that the canteens have been long empty; that even the private flasks, which officer carry with the photographs of their sweethearts, in a side pocked next to their hearts, are destitute of even the flavor of this article of prime necessity. My much-esteemed colleague of the court martial, Colonel Hobart, stumbles up in the thick darkness to pay his respects. The sentinel, mistaking him for a private, tells him, with an oath, that this is not time nor place for stragglers, and orders him back to his regiment; and so the night wears on, and fifty thousand men lay upon their guns again.

Beatty, Citizen Soldier, pp. 207-208.

        2, Federal activity in the Lafayette environs, an entry from the diary of Cyrus F. Boyd, 15th Iowa Infantry

The great train of wagons from Memphis commenced unloading at the Depot and Warehouse last night. There was so much noise no one could sleep[.] The men detailed to unload the wagons had their regular rations of whiskey every two hours and some of them got a little too lose before morning[.] The[y] bursted open barrels and boxes all over the platform and tore thing up generally [sic] [.] The teamsters were about all tight [sic] and several of them let their teams run away and such halooing [sic] and shouting and swearing I never heard.

An Engine [sic] came up from Moscow and found the track clear to this point Genl [sic] McArthur was on the Engine. Soon some cars came down with a lot of Engineers and workmen[.] They run west to repair a bridge about two miles[.] But just as they got to work about 20 guerrillas attacked them[.] The guard a Company of Wis [sic] troops all ran back here without making a fight[.] Instantly there was an alarm and the 'long roll" beat and we fell into line [.] The 13th [Iowa] with our Regt was hurried northward and gone about half a day. We captured 75 head of hogs and 30 head cattle that would not take the oath of allegiance to the United States [sic] [.]

A train of cars left this afternoon for Corinth loaded with provisions[.] Today 2 guerrillas were captured and brought in. One of them had 40 Negroes [sic] hid out and they too came in and went into a little frame house. Such a lot of pagans I never saw[.] They are almost naked and as ignorant as beasts from Old grand mother down to suckling child[.] Their Master had them hid out with a lot of mules[,] horses and hogs and our men drove [sic] them all in together [sic] [.] The aristocracy goes with the field hands[.] "The tail goes with the hide" in this new order of things[.]

This evening our boys being on guard at the Depot discovered a barrel of white sugar among a lot of barrels of salt and they rolled it under the Depot and after dark brought it to camp and we shall have syrup and taffy [sic] for some time[.]

Boyd Diary.

        2, Report on the murder of "Poor Waggoner." [see April 14- 17, 1863, "The Waggoner murder trial. An example of civil justice in Civil War Nashville" below]

Office Chief Police [Nashville]

Jany. 2/63

To His Excellency

Gov. Johnson

Sir [sic] The case of Samuels[1] has not came [sic] into office[.] I understood [sic] He Had been arrested charged with the Murder of Poor Waggoner[.] We Have arrested a good many Persons on suspicion of being Parties to the murder[.] I have as yet found but to Identified [sic] by Mrs Waggoner, as Parties to the Murder. Samuels I understood from the Mayor, was suspected as one of the Parties. The [sic] Case is in the Hands of the City Authorities.

Yours respectfully Wm. Truesdail

Chief Police

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 107.

        2, Negro servants decide not to leave employment situations in Nashville

We have heard of several negro women who had notified their mistresses that they would have to supply their places by yesterday, as they intended on that day to go to housekeeping themselves, and some of these negroes had gone so far as to make preparations for the anticipated change in their relations. Some few negro men had also expressed themselves in a similar manner. But the first of January has come and gone and they have not yet got their freedom, and appearances begin to indicate that they are not to be included in the proclamation of emancipation which it was expected the President would issue on that day and this fact has caused a wonderful change in the manners of the comparatively few who have been looking forward to the first of January with a lively anxiety. They now feel that the old regime is to continue, and are quietly going to work as usual. That is sensible in them.

Nashville Dispatch, January 2, 1863.

        2, Skirmish at LaGrange

No circumstantial reports filed.

        2, "All we can do is to sit round the fire, laugh, talk and try to keep warm." Partisan support in one Shelby County Rebel household

January, Saturday 2, 1864

Bettie and Uncle Elum went in town this morning horse-back. I sent $50 to Mr. Armstrong to get Eddie's suite of clothes and other articles which he needs. Poor Soldiers, this bitter cold weather I wish I had money to buy every thing they need-

Lieut. Spotswood went with two of Henderson's Scouts over Nonconnah to Mr. Deadrick's to get them to bring him every thing he needs out-they promised to do so. It has been sleeting all day-three of the Bluff City's called this evening, got their dinner, warmed and went on over Nonconnah. Cousin Frazor came this evening, and we have a house full-they are all Rebels, and we always have room for them if a hundred would come. All we can do is to sit round the fire, laugh, talk and try to keep warm. Bettie and Uncle Elum have not returned yet. I feel very uneasy, as she is to smuggle Eddie's clothes. Tate is out of humor, Eddie is troubled, but I think it will all be right-yet suspense is terrible-

Diary of Belle Edmondson


[1] Not identified.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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