26, General Orders, No. 10 issued, Memphis, relative to spies, punishment, contraband
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10, HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., January 26, 1863.
I. It being a violation of the provisions of the Dix-Hill cartel to parole prisoners at any other points than those designated in said cartel except by agreement between the generals commanding the opposing forces no paroles hereafter given to Federal soldiers in violation of such provisions of said cartel will be respected.
II. Officers or soldiers who by straggling from their commands are captured and paroled will at once be arrested and brought to trial before a court-martial.
III. Guerrillas or Southern soldiers caught in the uniforms of Federal soldiers will not be treated as organized bodies of the enemy but will be closely confined and held for the action of the War Department. Those caught within the lines of the Federal Army in such uniforms or in citizen's dress will be treated as spies.
IV. Officers, soldiers and citizens are prohibited from purchasing horses, mules or military clothing from anyone connected with the Army without special authority. In order that improper and dishonest appropriation of captured property may be prevented commanding officers will exercise vigilance in enforcing this order and report every violation of it, to the end that offenders may be summarily punished.
V. Steam-boats are prohibited from carrying stock of any description North without permits granted by division or army corps commanders or the provost-marshal-general, and violations of this restriction will be punished at the discretion of a military commission.
By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant:
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, p. 216.
26, Special Orders, No. 26, relative to prohibition of alcoholic beverages and gambling by U. S. soldiers in Memphis
SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 26. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., January 26, 1863.
The bars on all boats in Government service in this department will be closed, and no spirituous, vinous, or malt liquors will be allowed to be sold on boats or in the camps. Card-playing and gaming is also strictly prohibited.
It is made the special duty of provost-marshals and of all commissioned officers, guards, and patrols to see that this order is enforced, and to arrest all parties found violating the same and deliver them over to the nearest commanding officer, by whom they will be punished at the discretion of court-martial or military commission. Boats violating this order will have their bar stores and turned over to the medical purveyor for the use of the army.
* * * *
By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24 pt. III, p. 15.
26, Confederate Engineer's plans for the fortification of Chattanooga
ENGINEER'S OFFICE, Chattanooga, January 26, 1863.
Gen. J. E. JOHNSON, Cmdg. Department No. 2, Chattanooga, Tenn.:
GEN.: According to your instructions I have the honor to submitting to you a small sketch in order to fortify Chattanooga. I shall not undertake to demonstrate the utility of fortifying that place. Every one can see at once in looking at the map of the country that it is one of the most strategical [sic] points of this department. Consequently I will proceed at once the explanation of the system of fortifications I respectfully propose to your approval. My first object in locating these fortifications has been to study the probable approaches by which the enemy can attack this point. I am arrived to the conclusion that Chattanooga can be approached only from three different points: First, by the Walden's Ridge road north of the river; second, by crossing the river some distance above and coming by the way of Harrison or Cleveland; third, by crossing the river below at Battle Creek, or at Kelley's Ferry, and coming through Lookout Mountain. I propose to defend the first approach (north of the river) with the works Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. Each of them is located on a commanding position, and are combined together in order to concentrate their fires on any points the enemy might take on the opposite bank of the river. A more efficient defense can be made by occupying the two points marked 13 and 14, and building a pontoon bridge over the river for communication. Such bridge might be very useful, too, for other purpose. The second approach (by crossing the river below) is to be defended by the works Nos. 4,5,6,7,8,9, and 10, all of which are located on commanding positions and arranged together in order to cross their fires. The third approach (through Lookout Mountain) is to be defended by the works Nos. 11 and 12, on the flank of Lookout Mountain, and in case of necessity assisted by the works Nos. 8, 9, and 10. All the works are to be provided with a magazine. Besides, I propose a central magazine for depot, to be put in the work No. 1. I shall speak of the armament of these works in a few days.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JAS. NOCQUET, Maj. and Chief Engineer, Department, No. 2.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 417.
26, Description of Germantown
Monday, 26th....This town is fifteen miles east of Memphis on the Memphis & Charleston Railway, and but a short distance from the Mississippi and Tennessee State Line. Like most southern towns it has suffered much from the War. Some houses have been burned, and others are deserted and are used as soldiers' barracks. The country around is the best I have seen in the south.
Pomeroy Diaries, January 26, 1863.
26, Skirmish at Flat Creek [see January 26-28, 1864, Operations about Dandridge below]
26, Skirmish at Muddy Creek [see January 26-28, 1864, Operations about Dandridge below]
26, Special Orders, No. 26, relative to assessment of Confederate sympathizers to support Union refugees in Giles County
SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 26. HDQRS. LEFT WING, 16TH ARMY CORPS, Pulaski, Tenn., January 26, 1864.
* * * *
IV. In compliance with General Orders, No. 4, current series, 1863, headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, the following-named citizens of Giles County, Tenn., will be assessed, and the amounts set opposite their names collected from them, respectively, for the support of Union refugees coming within the lines of this command:
Thomas Martin .............................................. $250
Dr. Battle ......................................................... 100
Charles Abernathy ........................................... 250
Robert Dickson ................................................ 250
J. H. Newbell ................................................... 100
J. M. Morris ..................................................... 100
David Reynolds ................................................ 250
B. Abernathy .................................................... 200
Thomas D. Bailey ............................................. 200
Col. J. B. Weaver, Second Regt. [sic] Iowa Infantry Volunteers, commanding post at Pulaski, Tenn., is hereby charged with the execution of this order.
By order of Brig. Gen. G. M. Dodge:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, pp. 228-229.
26, Skirmish at West Fork of Pigeon River
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Itinerary of First Cavalry Division, commanded by Colonel Edward M. McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, from January 1864 returns, relative to skirmish near Middle Fort of Pigeon River, January 26, 1864:
* * * *
January 26, at 5 p. m. enemy discovered advancing on Fair Garden road. Division was advanced beyond Sevierville to west of Middle Fork of Pigeon River, enemy opening on our line with artillery.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 34.
26, Skirmish near Knoxville
No circumstantial reports filed.
26, Skirmish at Sevierville
No circumstantial reports filed.
The account of Henry Campbell, Eli Lilly's 18th Indiana Battery.
Remained in camp until about 4 P. M. when we were hurriedly ordered out an moved up the river beyond Sevierville to where the 1st Brig. was camped where we went into camp also Wolford's Div. – which was camped 23 or three miles further out. – was supprised [sic] by a large force of rebels about 4 oclock [sic] and was thrown into confusion & the whole Div [sic] was disgracefully routed – they came rushing back on to the 1st Brig. of our Div. every man for himself, part of them throwing away their arms – so badly were they scared. The whole Div [sic] was a disgrace to the army anyhow. they [sic] never did accomplish anything. The enemy advanced and shelled the 1st Brig [sic] from the hills on the other side of the creek doing no damage as it was about dark. We had hardly got fixed when the when the 2d Brig [sic] with Becks [sic] Sec[tion] & Miller's gun was ordered back to Sevierville to protect our rear.-Rebels reported to be trying to cut off our retreat. We have learned since we have been here, that our forces have fallen back into Knoxville & gone into winter qrs. And the Rebels have followed them to within 6 miles of the place with their main body at Strawberry Plains. This throws us way out 30 miles from Knoxvill [sic] with only a river between us and the whole of Longstreets [sic] army. Should the rebels cross a force of infantry below us they could cut of [sic] our retreat to Knoxvill [sic] as there is only one road between the mountains and river that is passable this season of the year.
Campbell, Three Years in the Saddle, p. 145.
26, Correspondence between Lieutenant-General James Longstreet and Major-General J. G. Foster relative to Federal amnesty proclamation.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, East Tenn., January 26, 1864.
Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.:
GEN.: I have the honor to inclose copies of correspondence between Gen. Longstreet and myself upon the subject of the amnesty proclamation.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. G. FOSTER, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.
(Copies to Maj.-Gen. Grant same date.)
[Inclosure No. 1.]
HDQRS. CONFEDERATE FORCES EAST TENNESSEE, January 3, 1864.
COMDG. GEN. U. S. FORCES EAST TENNESSEE:
SIR: I find the proclamation of President Lincoln of the 8th of December last in circulation in handbills amongst our soldiers. The immediate object of this circulation appears to be induce our soldiers to quit our ranks and take the oath of allegiance to the United States Government. I presume, however, that the great object and end in view is to hasten the day of peace.
I respectfully suggest for your consideration the property of communicating any views that your Government may have upon this subject through me, rather than by handbills circulated amongst our soldiers.
The few men who may desert under the promise held out in the proclamation cannot be men of character or standing. If they desert their cause, they disgrace themselves in the eyes of God and of men. They can do your cause no good nor can they injure ours. As a great Nation you can accept none but an honorable peace; as a noble people you could have us accept nothing less.
I submit, therefore, whether the mode that I suggest would not be more likely to lead to an honorable end than such a circulation of a partial promise of pardon.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
J. LONGSTREET, Lieut.-Gen., Comdg.
[Inclosure No. 2.]
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, East Tenn., January 7, 1864.
Lieut. Gen. J. LONGSTREET, Comdg. Confederate Forces in East Tennessee:
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated January 3, 1864.
You are correct in the supposition that the great object in view in the circulation of the President's proclamation is to induce those now in rebellion against the Government to lay aside their arms and return to their allegiance as citizens of the United States, thus securing the reunion of States now arrayed in hostility against one another and restoration of peace.
The immediate effect of the circulation may be to cause many men to leave your ranks to return home, or come within our lines, and, in view of this latter course, it has been thought proper to issue an order announcing the favorable terms on which deserters will be received. I accept, however, your suggestion that it would have been more courteous to have sent these documents to you for circulation, and I embrace, with pleasure, the opportunity thus afforded to inclose to you twenty copies of each of these documents, and rely upon your generosity and desire for peace to give publicity to the same among your officers and men.
I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. G. FOSTER, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.
[Inclosure No. 3.]
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, January 11, 1864.
Maj. Gen. J. G. FOSTER, Comdg. Department of the Ohio:
SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 7th of January, with its enclosures, & C.
The disingenuous manner in which you have misconstrued my letter of the 3d instant has disappointed me. The suggestion which you claim to have adopted is in words as follows, viz.,:
I presume, however, that the great object and end in view is to hasten the day of peace. I respectfully suggest for your consideration the propriety of communicating any views that your Government may have on that subject through me, rather than by handbills circulated amongst our soldiers.
This sentence repudiates, in its own terms, the construction which you have forced upon it. Let me remind you, too, that the spirit and tone of my letter were to meet honorable sentiments.
The absolute want of pretext for your construction of the letter induces me to admonish you against trifling over the events of this great war. You cannot pretend to have answered my letter in the spirit of frankness due to a soldier. And yet, it is hard to believe that an officer commanding an army of veteran soldiers, on whose shoulders rests, in no small part, the destiny of empires, could so far forget the height of this great argument at arms; could be so lost in levity, and so betray the dignity of his high station, as to fall into a contest of jests and jibes.
I have read your "order announcing the favorable terms on which deserters will be received." Step by step you have gone on in the violation of the rules of civilized warfare. Our farms have been destroyed, our women and children have been robbed, and our houses have been pillaged and burnt.
You have laid your plans and worked diligently to produce wholesale murder by servile insurrection. And now, the most ignoble of all, you propose to degrade the human race by inducing soldiers to dishonor and forswear themselves. Soldiers who have met your own upon so many honorable fields, who have breasted the storm of battle in defense of their honor, their families, and their homes for three long years, have a right to expect more of honor, even in their adversaries.
I beg leave to return the copies of the proclamation and your order.
I have the honor to renew to you the assurance of great respect.
Your most obedient servant,
L. LONGSTREET, Lieut.-Gen., Comdg.
[Inclosure No. 4.]
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 4. HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, Tenn., January 6, 1864.
I. To secure uniformity in the treatment of deserters from the Confederate armies, the following orders will be observed:
Hereafter when such deserters come within our lines they will at once be conducted to the nearest division or post commander, who on being satisfied that they honestly desire to quit the Confederate service, will forward them to the provost-marshal-general at Knoxville, who, upon being satisfied of the honesty of their intentions, will allow them to proceed to their homes, if within our lines, upon taking the following oath:
I, ___ ___, do solemnly swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Union of the States thereunder; and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the existing rebellion with reference to slaves, so long and so far as not repealed, modified, or held void by Congress, or by decision of the Supreme Court; and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all proclamations of the President made during the existing rebellion having reference to slaves, so long and so far as not modified or declared void by decision of the Supreme Court: So help me God.
II. Such deserters will be disarmed on surrender, and their arms turned over to the nearest ordnance officer, who will account for the same.
III. The quartermaster's, engineer, subsistence, and medical departments will give such deserters employment when practicable, upon the same terms as to other employes in the U. S. service.
IV. Such deserters will be exempt from the military service of the United States.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Foster:
HENRY CURTIS, JR., Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
[Inclosure No. 5.]
CIRCULAR, No. 9. OFFICE PROV. Mar. Gen. FOR EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., December 22, 1863.
The following proclamation by the President of the United States, together with explanatory remarks contained in the message accompanying said proclamation, is published for the information of all concerned:
NOTE 1.-With regard to that part of the oath referring to other proclamations of the President, the following remark occurs in the message:
It should be observed also that this part of the oath is subject to the modifying and abrogating power of legislation and supreme judicial decision.
NOTE 2.-In reference to the plan of reconstruction suggested in the proclamation, the following observations are also made:
Why shall A adopt the plan of B rather than B of A? If A and B should agree, how can they know that the Gen. Government here will respect their plan? By the proclamation a plan is presented which may be accepted by them as a rallying point, and which will not be rejected here. This may bring them to act sooner than they otherwise would. The objection to a premature presentation of a plan by the National Executive consists in the danger of committals in points which could be more safely left to further developments.
Care has been taken to so shape the document as to avoid embarrassment from this source. In saying that, on certain terms, certain classes will be pardoned, with their rights restored, it is not said that other classes, on other terms, will never be included. In saying that a reconstruction will be accepted, if presented in a specified way, it is not said that it will be accepted in no other way.
All persons interested are urged to accept the liberal terms offered by the President, in order that they may be restored to their former rights and privileges.
By command of Brig. Gen. S. P. Carter, provost-marshal-general of East Tennessee:
H. H. THOMAS, Capt. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
[Inclosure No. 6.]
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, Tenn., January 17, 1864.
Lieut. Gen. J. LONGSTREET, Comdg. Confederate Forces in East Tennessee:
GEN.: I have the honor to acknowledge the reception of your letter of the 11th instant.
The admonition which you give me against trifling over the events of this great war does not carry with it that weight of authority with which you seek to impress me. I am, nevertheless, ready to respond in plain terms to the suggestions conveyed in your first letter, and which you quote in your second dispatch, that I communicate through you any views which the United States Government may entertain, having for their object the speedy restoration of peace throughout the land.
These views, so far as they can be interpreted from the policy laid down by the Government and sustained by the people at their elections are as follows:
First. The restoration of the rights of citizenship to all those now in rebellion against the Government who may lay down their arms and return to their allegiance.
Second. The prosecution of the war until every attempt at armed resistance to the Government shall have been overcome.
I avail myself of this opportunity to forward an order publishing the proceedings, findings, and sentence in the case of Private E. S. Dodd, Eighth Texas Confederate Cavalry, who was tried, condemned, and executed as a spy.
I also inclose a copy of an order which I have found it necessary to issue, in regard to the wearing of the U. S. uniform by Confederate soldiers.
I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
J. G. FOSTER, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.
[Inclosure No. 8.]
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 7. HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, Tenn., January 8, 1864.
Our outposts and pickets posted in isolated places, having in many instances been overpowered and captured by the enemy's troops, disguised, as Federal soldiers, the commanding general is obliged to issue the following order for the protection of his command, and to prevent a continuance of this violation of the rules of warfare:
Corps commanders are hereby directed to cause to be shot dead all the rebel officers and soldiers (wearing the uniform of the U. S. Army) captured within our lines.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Foster:
HENRY CURTIS, JR., Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. III, Vol. 4, pp. 50-54.
26, "Big Raid by the Mackerel Brigade." A juvenile gang in Memphis
Some of the members of this celebrated gang of pilferers and thieves made a raid on Saturday and Sunday nights, on the store of S. P. C., Clark & Co., and D. O. Gibson, north side of the square. They broke the windows and took out good of considerable value. They broke the windows and took out goods. They levied quite a contribution on Clark's splendid stock of hats, abstracting goods to the value of one hundred dollars, besides putting him to considerable expense repairing the damage done to the windows. It is time that band of petty thieves was broken up.
Memphis Bulletin, January 26, 1864.
26, Collecting the Federal Dead
Head Quarters O.V.S.S
Chattanooga Jan. 26, 1864
My Very Dear Wife
I am again in camp and embrace the first opportunity to write you. I was gone the last two days went nine miles in front of our advanced lines and out post and over territory occupied by scouting parties of both armies. I had with me 100 Spencer rifles in the hands of good men and unless attacked by a large force could have defended ourselves. The object of the expedition as I wrote you was to obtain the body of a Lieutenant….The expedition was a success. We got the body and brought in a large supply of relics as many as the ambulance could carry consisting of various pieces of shells and broken guns, sabers & etc. We also buried the bodies of 28 of our soldiers which we found unburied. You can form no idea of the spectacle afforded by some portions of the field. Bodies were scattered in all directions some unburried [sic] and some with a little earth over them as the lay which had washed off in most cases so that the bones are bleaching by sun and rain. How sad to think that our brave men who had sacrificed their lives so nobly should meet such a fate. In most cases not a trace of identity can be found. Pockets were in all cases rifled and frequently clothes taken off. A whole brigade was sent out soon after the battle of Missionary Ridge to bring all our dead on the field of Chickamauga but they only went about three miles from our lines and left over half the field untouched. I have made report to Head Qrtrs. Setting forth the facts as I found them. I recommended that a sufficient force be sent but to give our dead [sic] a decent burial. We went to the famous Crawfish Springs [Georgia] and encamped for the night. I felt a little uneasy I will admit knowing that we were beyond any support from our Army and near the enemies [sic] lines and the inhabitants were…secesh.
I marched into the little town at the Springs just at dark and immediately placed a guard around every house and a picket at every approach to the village and ordered that no person should leave and that all who came from the outside should be held in prison until morning. By that we wouldn't present the enemy getting knowledge that we was there and at daylight we left and the people were not the wiser as to where we came from or where we went. We took to prisoners from the reb [sic] army. I sent you today some specimens of moss and grass from the bottom of Crawfish Springs. If it don't dry so as to crumble before you get it, it will be pretty. The water is transparent….Our men enjoyed the trip very much.
The weather today and for several days past has been like April in Ohio. I have had no fire in my tent for two days. We are getting ready for the spring campaign which I think will open early orders here already been issued to get our transportation in good order. The roads are getting in good condition and if such weather last we can make a better campaign in February then to wait for March or April. I have received a pocket mirror marked from H.S. I guess you forgot you had sent me one before[,] they are both very nice. One I will give to a brother officer. Paper I think comes by regularly now and I think if you mail them I shall get them….
* * * *
26, Skirmishes at Flat Creek and Muddy Creek [see January 26-28, "Operations about Dandridge" below]
26, "…hungry men are difficult to control after fasting for five months on half and quarter rations." Complaints concerning Union depredations on the south side of Holston River
KNOXVILLE, January 26, 1864.
Complaints are made constantly by Union citizens on south side of Holston River of depredations by soldiers. Cannot something be done to check the outrages?
E. E. POTTER, Chief of Staff.
LOUDON, January 26, 1864.
Gen. POTTER, Chief of Staff, Knoxville:
I have issued the most stringent orders and done everything in my power to prevent marauding, but hungry men are difficult to control after fasting for five months on half and quarter rations. Nothing has pained me so much as being compelled to strip the country; friend and foe must fare alike, or the army must starve. The country does not afford the food and forage we require. I think any man caught plundering or foraging on his own hook should be summarily shot.
G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 218.
26, The 104th in Winter Camp in Knoxville
January 26th 1864
Knowing that you would feel anxious about me while we are so unsettled I thought I would write this morning to inform you that it is pretty certain that Knoxville will be our Hd. Qtrs. For several months at least. We were ordered away into winter quarters on the Clinton Road by Gen. Foster. But Col. Reilly & Gen. Hascal had the influence to keep us here (Our Co.). We had been on patrol in town since we came from the Plains until yesterday morning and we were ordered to camp to clean up and prepare for Dress parade last evening…
The old Col. was in a very good humor last evening. He says that we must plaster our shanties again & whitewash them inside & out, which will make them very nice. We have a good roof over ours but our bunks have all been torn down since we left. The 100th Regiment occupied our quarters while we were away & everything was out of order & awful dirty. We went right to work policing & now the camp is clean as ever.
(Jan. 28th) Today I rec'd 2 good long letters…I was considerably surprised to hear of the March in the neighborhood, give Sally my best respects when you see her. I often feel thankful that my gizzard is still in my possession, for I have seen enough of the disease commonly termed lovesickness since I have been soldiering. I know one or two cases in our own Co. when the boys have been in the hospital for weeks & afterwards confessed that nothing else ailed them….
26-28, Operations about Dandridge
JANUARY 26-28, 1864.-Operations about Dandridge, Tenn.
SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN TENNESSEE.
Jan. 26, 1864.-Skirmishes at Flat Creek and Muddy Creek.
27, 1864.-Skirmishers at Kelley's Ford and McNutt's Bridge.
27, 1864.-Engagement near Fair Garden.
28, 1864.-Skirmishes at Fain's Island, Indian Creek, Island Ford, Kelley's Ford, and Swann's Island.
No. 1.-Maj. Gen. John G. Foster, U. S. Army, commanding Army of the Ohio.
No. 2.-Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, U. S. Army, commanding Cavalry, Army of the Ohio.
No. 3.-Col. Edward m. McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Division, Army of the Cumberland.
No. 4.-Col. Archibald P. Campbell, Second Michigan Cavalry, commanding First Brigade.
No. 5.-Col. Oscar H. LaGrange, First Wisconsin Cavalry, commanding Second Brigade.
No. 6.-Capt. Eli Lilly, eighteenth Indiana Battery.
No. 7.-Col. Israel Garrard, Seventh Ohio Cavalry, commanding Second Cavalry Division, Army of the Ohio.
No. 8.-Maj. Edward G. Savage, Ninth Pennsylvania, Cavalry.
No. 9.-Lieut. Gen. James Longstreet, C. S. Army.
Reports of Maj. Gen. John G. Foster, U. S. Army, commanding Army of the Ohio.
KNOXVILLE, TENN., January 27, 1864.
The enemy's cavalry are pressing Gen. Sturgis quite vigorously between Sevierville and Newport, but he holds his ground his ground. Longstreet, with all his infantry, are at Morristown and Russellville in winter quarters. The re-enforcements received by him consist of Pickett's division of his corps. He has no apparent idea of advancing before spring. My own situation is secure, and the communication to the rear is well guarded. The supplies received from out depots at Chattanooga and Camp Burnside would be entirely inadequate were it not for the supplies gleaned from the country by out distributed parties. I am pushing work on Loudon bridge. Col. McCallum has arrived, and will also go to work on the road. With this road and the road via Decatur opened, supplies may be accumulated for trains for campaign in the spring. I am sending all broken-down animals to the rear for forage.
J. G. FOSTER, Maj.-Gen.
Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT.
NASHVILLE, TENN., January 29, 1864. (Received 10 p. m.)
Maj. Gen. J. G. Foster telegraphs from Knoxville, Tenn., under date 9 a. m. 28th, as follows:
I have the honor to report that the cavalry under Gen. Sturgis achieved a decided victory over the enemy's cavalry yesterday near Fair Garden, about 10 miles east of Sevierville. McCook's division drove the enemy about 2 miles, after a stubborn fight, lasting from daylight to 4 p. m., at which time the division charged with the saber and yell, and routed the enemy from the field, capturing 2 steel rifled-guns and over 100 prisoners. The enemy's loss was considerable, 65 of them being killed or wounded in the charge. Garrard's and Wolford's divisions came up, after a forced march, in time to be pushed in pursuit, although their horses were jaded. Gen. Sturgis hopes to be able to make the rout complete.
JNO. A. RAWLINS, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
KNOXVILLE, January 30, 1864--10 a. m. (Received February 1.) Gen. Sturgis pushed the pursuit of Morgan's rebel division until he broke it up entirely, but Armstrong's division took position and with infantry supports repulsed the attack of Wolford's division. In the mean time several brigades of infantry, having crossed the river below Dandridge, forced back McCook's and Garrard's divisions. Gen. Sturgis then withdrew his whole command toward Maryville. I have now sent him orders to move all his best mounted men (which I hope to make up to 1,500 or 2,000) to make a raid on Longstreet's rear, and to attempt Saltville. As he cannot go by the eastward he will move by the west, passing Cumberland Gap, Jonesville, &c. Otherwise, all is quiet as usual.
I have received no answer to my application for sick leave. My knee-joint is becoming more and more painful, and I am fearful that permanent lameness or loss of the limb may ensue if I do not have something done soon.
J. G. FOSTER, Maj.-Gen.
Reports of Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, U. S. Army, commanding Cavalry, Army of the Ohio.
SEVIERVILLE, TENN., January 26, 1864--8.30 p. m. GEN.: The enemy advanced this afternoon, from the direction of Fair Garden, two brigades with artillery. We checked him some 4 miles from this place, at Dickey's. Col. Wolford, however, who was posted in what is called the Flat Creek road, some 6 miles from here, at a place called Fowler's, was attacked by Armstrong's division and was driven back, when last heard from, some 2 miles.
Many of his men came into this place, and report that the enemy had infantry. Col. Garrard, who was stationed at Tom Evans', on the French Broad, guarding the fords, has been ordered down to Wolford's assistance. Wolford's division is so greatly reduced that it only numbers at most 900 men, and I think that is a large estimate.
I am sending an order to the footmen who left Knoxville this morning to march all night and get up if possible, but I fear they will not get up, as Colonel Butler says that the communication addressed to him from your office was opened by the officer in command, and that it is more than probable he halted soon after leaving Knoxville.
The enemy is evidently very strong, and exultant over their last few days' operations.
We will do the best we can, but I do not feel like promising much.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
S. D. STURGIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Cavalry.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, Dickey's House, January 27, 1864--12.45 p. m.
GEN.: Last evening Col. Wolford fell back to within 2 miles of Sevierville, and there remained. The force on the Fair Garden road was held in check by Col. Campbell's brigade, and I brought Col. LaGrange's brigade back to within 2 within 2 miles of Sevierville. Col. Garrard remained a Nichols' watching the river road, and I moved up the troops which were watching the fords below the Little Pigeon to Cannon's, on the Little Pigeon. Learning that the enemy had concentrated on this (Fair Garden) road, I directed Col. McCook to attack him at daybreak. The morning was very foggy, and not much could be done. We have driven the enemy, however, a couple of miles, and I have just sent LaGrange up the left-hand road from this place toward Fair Garden. Campbell is not the main road, and I am looking for Wolford to come in on the left. How affairs will turn out it is hard to say, but we hope to whip them. The guns are just opening good, and I will have to cease. I will inclose a rough sketch, so that you can follow the movements I have spoken of.
S. D. STURGIS, Brig.-Gen.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, Dickey's, January 27, 1864--6 p. m.
GEN.: After driving the whole cavalry force of the enemy steadily all day long, our troops went in about 4 o'clock with the saber and a yell and routed them, horse, foot, and dragoon, capturing over 100 prisoners, which I am sending down, and 2 pieces of artillery, 3-inch steel guns. Our troops are very much worn down with continuous fighting and little to eat, but they are a band of as patient and brave soldiers as I have ever seen thus far. Some 50 or 60 of the enemy were wounded and killed in the charge alone. In the whole day's fighting their loss must be very large. As Wolford and Garrard were brought from a long distance, they fell in as reserves, so that this glorious day's work was performed alone by the gallant men of LaGrange's and Campbell's brigades, of McCook's division.
Respectfully yours, &c.,
S. D. STURGIS, Brig.-Gen.
Brig. Gen. E. E. POTTER, Chief of Staff.
My gallant aide, Capt. Rawolle, charged with line and captured a horse. We will pursue them until we drive them out of the country, or are driven out ourselves. Garrard and Wolford have been marching hard all day and yesterday too; but I am pushing them up now, tired as they are, with the hope of making this rout complete.
S. D. S.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, January 29, 1864--9 a. m.
GEN.: In pursuance of my intentions, when I wrote last, we pursued the enemy very rapidly yesterday morning to the river at Swann's Island, above Dandridge. The rout of the enemy was complete and Morgan's division is utterly destroyed and Gen.'s Martin and Morgan both reported lost by the rebels.
On reaching the river I sent a reconnaissance to Fain's Island, below Dandridge, where we found three brigades of rebel infantry crossed to this side and still crossing, wading with knapsacks and overcoats strapped on. I determined at once that it was impossible for us to occupy this country any longer, as the men and animals were perfectly worn out from constant marching and fighting. Without any time for gathering anything, either for man or beast, we could not live here and fight Longstreet's infantry. I determined, however, to live here and fight Longstreet's infantry. I determined, however, to destroy Armstrong's division, if possible, before infantry would get destroy Armstrong's division, if possible, before the infantry would get up, as I had just learned from Palmer it was on the main (river) [sic] Newport road near Indian Creek, 3 or 4 miles up the river.
I put Wolford in at once, supported by LaGrange, and left Garrard and McCook to watch the infantry. Armstrong, however, was strongly posted on a heavily timbered bank of the creek on a hill and had fortified himself strongly. Was joined during the fight by three regiments of infantry. The battle lasted until sundown, when, finding the infantry in our rear advancing, I withdrew to this place by way of Fair Garden.
Our loss in this engagement is pretty severe; about 8 officers that I now know of, and a great many men I fear.
As soon as I determined to vacate the country I ordered everything away from Sevierville-the wagons, &c., to Maryville via Trundle's Cross-Roads; the footmen and captured artillery to Knoxville. I will go down by way of Trotter's Bridge and Wear's Cover for the sake of forage.
It is hard to leave these loyal people to the mercies of the enemy, but it can't be helped. If I had had a division of infantry at Sevierville, I could have annihilated both these divisions of rebel cavalry, for the rout was complete and the men scattered beyond all possible hope of organization in Morgan's division.
I am, general, very respectfully,
S. D. STURGIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
Gen. E. E. POTTER, Chief of Staff.
We will camp to-night in Wear's Cove and to-morrow night probably in Tuckaleechee Cove.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Maryville, E. Tenn., February 4, 1864.
GEN.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this command, consisting of Col. Wolford's and Garrard's cavalry divisions, Army of the Ohio, and Col. McCook's cavalry division, Army of the Cumberland, on the 26th, 27th, and 28th of January, 1864:
Having consumed almost all the forage and supplies on the south side of the French Broad River not absolutely necessary for the support of the Union families during the winter, and the enemy's cavalry having crossed the river at Swann's Island Ford, so that we were daily contesting with him for the little forage still remaining inside of his lines, I made the following dispositions of my command on the 26th ultimo: colonel Garrard with his division picketed all the fords and ferries below Tom Evans' Ford, on the French Broad River, with his reserve in position in rear of Flat Creek; Col. Wolford with his division was posted on the Flat Creek road near Tom Fowler's house, 6 miles from Sevierville, to be within supporting distance of Col. Garrard, and vice versa; Col. Campbell' cavalry brigade of Col. McCook's division, was in position on the main Sevierville and Newport road, 4 miles from the former place, and Col. LaGrange's brigade, of the same division, was held in readiness 1 ½ miles from Sevierville, on the main Newport road, to move either to the assistance of Col.'s Wolford or Campbell, as might be required by the developments of the enemy's intentions.
In these positions Col.'s Wolford and Campbell were attacked the enemy making no very determined assault. Finding that Col. Campbell had the rebel cavalry division of Gen. Morgan in his front, and that the force attacking Col. Wolford was part of the rebel cavalry division of Gen. Armstrong, I determined to strike first at the force in front of Col. Campbell (on the main Newport road), and destroy it if possible before the other division could come to its relief.
Early on the morning of the 27th, while a dense fog made it impossible to see but a short distance, Col. Campbell was ordered to charge a ridge occupied by the enemy on our left, beyond the bend of the Little Pigeon River, near Hodsden's house, which was the key point to the rebel position. Then opening with rifled guns of Capt. Lilly's battery, his brigade charged the entire line of the enemy, driving him more than half a mile.
The enemy taking up a new position in rear of the creak crossed by McNutt's Bridge, I now advanced Col. LaGrange's brigade unobserved over a by-road turning off at Dickey's house, 4 miles east of Sevierville on our left, and running nearly parallel with the main Newport road, which it again enters at Jim Walker's, 2 ½ miles west of Fair Garden. The enemy discovering this flank movement too late to oppose it fell back rapidly. At the same time I ordered Col.'s Wolford and Garrard with their commands (except sufficient force to watch the lower fords and to picket the line from Tom Evans' to Jim Newman's on the Flat Creek road, 4 miles from Sevierville) to hold the position occupied by Col. McCook's division, to prevent the rebel division of Armstrong from re-enforcing by any of the by-roads leading in the direction of Fair Garden. The enemy, commanded by Gen.'s Martin and Morgan, were now pushed back to the intersection of the by-road taken by Col. LaGrange on our left flank and the main Newport road.
At 4 p. m. Col. Campbell's brigade charged dismounted, while Col. LaGrange advanced his line to within pistol-shot of the enemy, the enemy using canister at this time, but soon ceased firing and prepared to move his pieces from the field, when Col. LaGrange, with the Fourth Indiana Cavalry, charged him with the saber at a gallop, capturing about 150 prisoners (including the commanding officers of three regiments), 2 rifled 10-pounder guns, 1 caisson, 1 ambulance, 4 flags, arms and horses, besides many of his wounded, the pursuit being kept up until after dark.
The enemy was on this occasion entirely routed, his men hiding and escaping in every direction. Throwing away their arms and equipments they presented the appearance of a panic-stricken mob as they were running through the mountains, according to the statement of citizens, who reported their passing until late after midnight. In the pursuit Lieut.-Col. Brownlow encountered the advance of the other rebel division. Firing a volley into it, the direction of the column was changed toward the French Broad River. Col.'s Wolford and Garrard arrived at Fair Garden too late to take part in the pursuit, their commands being completely exhausted from excessive fatigue and want of forage and supplies.
On the morning of the 28th I moved my whole command toward the French Broad River, on the direct road from Fair Garden to Dandridge, with the view of engaging the enemy's cavalry wherever it might be found. Col. Palmer, commanding the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, was ordered to take a plantation road (5 miles from Dandridge) leading to Indian Creek and entering the river road 5 miles above Dandridge. The advance soon discovered the enemy's pickets about 3½ miles from Fain's Island Ford, who were driven to their main line near the creek. Finding that the rebel division of Armstrong and the fragment of the division scattered the previous day had remained on the south side of the river, I immediately ordered Col. Wolford's division and Col. LaGrange's brigade, of Col. McCook's division, to the attack. At this moment (4 p. m.) I received information from Col. Garrard, who was protecting the road in Wolford's and LaGrange's rear in connection with Campbell's brigade of McCook's division, that the enemy was crossing infantry at Fain's Island Ford, and that an officer of his command had watched them wading the stream for more than an hour, estimating the force at three brigades.
The enemy being thus re-enforced and threatening to cut us off by the only road to Fair Garden (he having already advanced in that direction), I moved Col. Wolford's division forward rapidly on both sides of the river road, supported by Col. LaGrange's brigade. The enemy was here driven from a strong position on a ridge, running at right angles with the river near Indian Creek, and compelling him to fall back behind breast-works and rifle-pits he had constructed. Col. Wolford succeeded in forcing him from the on our extreme left. The enemy having now re-enforcements to the extent of three regiments of infantry already engaged, so that he was superior in numbers, besides holding a strong position, and receiving reports that he was also crossing troops at Evans' Ford, 6 miles below Dandridge, and advancing on Cannon's, 3 miles from Sevierville on the Knoxville road, where I had a small force of dismounted men commanded by Lieut.-Col. Butler, and having already pushed forward another force to within 1 mile of the cross-roads to withdraw his division at dark, to be followed by Col. LaGrange's brigade, Col. McCook bringing up the rear with Garrard and Campbell, he having opposed the enemy's infantry advance from Fain's Island to the last moment. I then moved my command by the way of Fair Garden, Trotter's Bridge, and Wear's Cove to Maryville, camping one division in Miller's Cove to picket the country 20 miles east of Maryville, there not being sufficient forage for the whole command, which it now became necessary to haul from the bottoms of the Little Tennessee River.
I cannot give our exact loss in these engagements, but do not think it will exceed 100. [emphasis added.] Among the number killed were many valuable officers, such as Col. [Maj.] Lesslie, of the Fourth Indiana Cavalry, who fell pierced by a bullet while gallantly leading the charge of a battalion of his regiment. The enemy's loss was very severe, and I do not think will fall short of 400. As soon as the reports of division commanders are received a correct list will be forwarded.
While in Tuckaleechee Cove I received information that the force of Indians and whites commanded by the rebel Thomas (formerly U. S. Indian agent for the Cherokee Nation) was near the forks of Little Tennessee and Tuckaseegee Rivers in North Carolina, who had become a terror to the Union people of East Tennessee and the borders of North Carolina from the atrocities they were daily perpetrating. I ordered Maj. Davidson with hid regiment (the Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry) to pursue this force and to destroy it.
I am just in receipt of dispatches announcing the surprise of the Indians on the 2d instant near Quallatown. The enemy were 250 strong. Of these, 22 Indians and 32 whites were captured, including some officers. It is reported that less than 50 made their escape, the remainder being either killed or wounded, so that this nest of Indians may be considered as entirely destroyed, nearly 200 of them having been killed. [emphases added] In this affair Lieut. Capron, a gallant young officer of the Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry, was severely and perhaps mortally wounded while charging the enemy. This was an enterprise of great difficulty, through a rugged, mountainous country destitute of supplies of any kind, and Maj. Davidson is deserving of great credit for the manner in shish he executed his instructions.
I will avail myself of this occasion to call the attention of the commanding general to the fact that for nearly two months my command has been almost daily engaged with the enemy and compelled to live mainly on parched corn, most of which has been gathered at a distance of from 6 to 15 miles. The weather at times has been intensely cold and the suffering very great, most of them being without shelter of any kind; yet they have fought well and been successful in almost every instance, and have borne their hardships with the fortitude of true soldiers, sustained by a sense of the justice of their cause.
Col. McCook, colonel LaGrange, colonel Campbell, colonel Garrard, Col. Wolford, Lieut.-colonel Miner, Lieut.-colonel Bond, and Lieut.-Col. Adams, commanders of divisions and brigades, and Col. Palmer, commanding Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, are deserving of great credit for the handsome manner in which they handled their commands, in this last, as well as the many previous actions since I assumed command. There are many officers of less rank whose names should be recorded here for their gallantry, but it would render this report too long and I will have to refer you to the sub-reports, where justice I hope may be rendered them. I take great pleasure in calling attention of the general commanding to the intelligence, courage, and energy displayed by Capt. William C. Rawolle, my aide-de-camp, on this last as well as all previous occasions.
I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
S. D. STURGIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Cav. Corps, Dept. Ohio.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, January 28, 1864--10 a. m.
Brig. Gen. S. D. STURGIS, Cmdg. Cavalry Corps.
GEN.: Your dispatch of 6 p. m. 27th is received. The commanding general congratulates you upon your handsome success, and desires you to thank, in his name, colonels McCook, LaGrange, and Campbell for their gallantry in the affair. The report of Longstreet moving toward Kentucky had proved to be unfounded. Gen. Garrard sends word that the enemy attacked Tazewell on the morning of the 24th instant with a force of about 600, but were repulsed.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
EDWARD E. POTTER, Chief of Staff.
Reports of Col. Edward M. McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Division, Army of the Cumberland.
HDQRS. FIRST CAVALRY DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Maryville, Tenn., February 2, 1864.
CAPT.: I have the honor to present the following report of the operations of my division in its engagement with the enemy near Fair Garden, Tenn., on the 27th ultimo: The enemy's cavalry, commanded by Gen. Martin, and consisting of two divisions, under Gen.'s John T. Morgan and Armstrong, had on the afternoon of the 26th advanced to a position on the fair Garden road, between Little East and Middle Forks of Pigeon River and west of McNutt's house.
Col. Campbell's (First) brigade was advanced to near Dickey's house late in the afternoon, the enemy opening upon his line with artillery. The Second Brigade and battery were in position about dark, but this brigade, with three pieces of artillery, was subsequently retired to a point near Sevierville, where it was in communication with Col. Wolford, whose division had been engaged on the Flat Creek road.
At daylight of the 27th, Col. Campbell's brigade, with two pieces of artillery, advanced from their position across Middle Fork of Pigeon, and charging the enemy's position, which was a strong one, took it without difficulty. The enemy were now discovered in a strong position east of McNutt's house, occupying a commanding wooded eminence.
Col. Campbell's line, from the paucity of numbers in his brigade, was exceedingly weak, and form the extent of the enemy's line and the nature of his position was necessarily thin and extended. Upon advancing the First Brigade across the Little East Fork of Pigeon the enemy's first line was broken, but they were massed in heavy numbers behind barricades, and the Second Michigan Cavalry were obliged to fall back across the fork to the timber west of McNutt's. The retiring of the Second Michigan Cavalry necessitated the withdrawal of the entire brigade from the east side of the fork.
Col. LaGrange's (Second) brigade had been sent on the Stafford road to the left of the Fair Garden road and intersecting the latter, about 2 miles from Fair Garden. His advance encountered the enemy's pickets about three-quarters of a mile from the rear of the left flank of Col. Campbell's line and drove them in upon the main body, three regiments of which he discovered in position upon arriving at a point on the Stafford road opposite to and about a mile from the left flank of Col. Campbell's skirmishers. I now ordered an advance of my entire line, Col. Campbell's brigade again advancing on the right across the bridge and stream at McNutt's, meeting the enemy in a new position in the timber, about three-quarters of a mile from the stream, where they made a stubborn resistance, opening with artillery. They were steadily driven, however, from the several positions that they attempted to hold, and near Fair Garden became involved in the confusion that overtaken their right under the dashing advance of Col. LaGrange upon our left.
Col. LaGrange, advancing upon the Stafford road, encountered the enemy in very heavy force, far exceeding his own, but the persistent courage and determination of his officers and men enabled him to force them steadily back till an open field was reached on the right of the Stafford road, near its intersection with the Fair Garden road, which was enfiladed by the enemy's battery. The dismounted men, however, advanced across the field, pressing the enemy's right and obtaining a flank fire upon the heavy force which was engaging Col. Campbell upon our right. The enemy was thrown into confusion and rout, and Col. LaGrange, with detachments of Second and Fourth Indiana Cavalry, by a magnificent and gallant saber charge upon the Fair Garden road, captured two pieces of artillery, sabered the cannoneers and supports, and captured a large number of prisoners. At the same time Lieut.-Col. [Maj.] Lesslie, Fourth Indiana Cavalry, with a part of his regiment, charged with sabers the enemy's line upon the left of the road, driving them after a desperate hand-to-hand fight, and capturing about 50 of them together with Gen. Morgan's battle-flag and part of his escort.
In this charge Lieut.-Col. [Maj.] Lesslie, Fourth Indiana Cavalry, fell mortally wounded while gallantly leading his men. He was an able, brave, and dashing officer, and his regiment, the cause, and the country can illy [sic] afford his loss.
The number of our forces that had reached the battery from the rapid gallop that had been made was necessarily small, and some of the enemy, emboldened by this fact, attempted to form and retake their guns; but four companies of the Fourth Indiana Cavalry arriving upon the spot, charging this line of the enemy, gave them barely time to remove some of their wounded, and the last attempt of any part of Morgan's division to preserve their organization upon the field was abandoned.[emphasis added]
It was now nearly dark, Morgan's division was thoroughly and disgracefully routed and broken, our men were worn out by an advance over a hotly contested and difficult ground, our supply of ammunition was in a great measure exhausted, and I therefore, after occupying the position taken, sent out detachments of the First East Tennessee and First Wisconsin Cavalry-these detachments comprising the only men that had not been actively engaged in pursuit. They overtook the enemy at Flat Creek and captured quite a number of prisoners. They attacked the rear and flanks of Armstrong's division, and soon forced them into nearly the same rapid and confused retreat that had before overtaken Morgan's division.
We captured 2 3-inch rifled guns, with their horses; about 800 small-arms, which we destroyed; 112 prisoners (9 of them commissioned officers, 2 of the latter being regimental commanders), Gen. Morgan's battle-flag and his body servant, Gen. Morgan himself narrowly escaping, being in the immediate vicinity of the battery when it was taken. We also recaptured the regimental colors of the Thirty-first Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and one other regimental color (a silk American flag), which was in the possession of the rebels, and a battery guidon. Many of their killed and wounded fell into our hands, and I estimate their loss in killed and wounded, exclusive of the prisoners taken, at upwards of 200.
Our casualties...were 4 killed, 24 wounded, and 3 missing. I can only account for our small loss by the rapidity of our movements and the consternation produced by the saber charges.
I do not deem it improper to say that no other forces were engaged in this affair except my division.
I have not mentioned in the body of this report the operations of the artillery, which were important. The Eighteenth Indiana Battery was, by sections, assigned to various positions in the several movements made, and in each the admirable practice of captain Lilly and his subordinates materially aided in dislodging the enemy from his positions and covering our advances. The several regiments and battery did their whole duty, and in a manner worthy of all commendation. The opportunity of the day, however, was presented to the Second and Fourth Indiana Cavalry, and led by Col. LaGrange, their brigade commander, they gladly availed themselves of it.
To Col. Campbell, Second Michigan Cavalry, commanding the First Brigade, I have to tender my thanks for the able manner in which he managed his brigade, weak in numbers, ahead an enemy in his front strongly posted and far exceeding his own. Col. O H. LaGrange, First Wisconsin Cavalry, commanding the Second Brigade, disposed and maneuvered his command in a masterly manner, and by the effect of his personal example in leading the magnificent charge by which the enemy were finally routed and dispersed, in a great measure accomplished the crowning success of the day.
The several regimental commanders executed all orders and made the several advances with promptitude and precision and by them and to the discipline, bravery, and determination of their officers and men a signal success over the enemy was obtained.
The various members of the division staff, Capt.'s Pratt, assistant adjutant-general; Porter, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry, acting assistant inspector-general; Mitchell, Second Indiana Cavalry, acting aide-de-camp; and Lieut.'s Gannett, Seventh Kansas Cavalry, ordnance officer, and Cunningham, Fourth Indiana Cavalry, commanding escort, were, as usual, prompt and efficient in the discharge of their duties, and I have to thank them for the assistance rendered me. I inclose herewith copies of reports of brigade and battery commanders.
I have the honor to be, captain, your very obedient servant,
EDWARD M. McCOOK, Col. Second Indiana Cavalry; Cmdg. Division.
HDQRS. FIRST CAVALRY DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Maryville, E. Tenn., February 7, 1864.
CAPT.: I have the honor herewith to transmit copy of report of Col. H. LaGrange, First Wisconsin Cavalry, commanding the Second Brigade, of engagement near Swann's Island, Tenn., on the 28th ultimo.
With the exception of two companies of the Second Michigan Cavalry, who were skirmishing with the enemy's infantry, who crossed the French Broad River below Swann's Island, no part of the division but the Second Brigade was engaged.
I should state that "our men," of which Col. LaGrange speaks in connection ahead the killing of Lieut. Stover, were not troops of this division.
I am, captain, your very obedient servant,
E. M. McCOOK, Col., Cmdg. Division.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Maryville, Tenn., February 2, 1864.
E. M. McCOOK, Cmdg. First Cav. Div., Dept. of the Cumberland:
COL.: Brig.-Gen. Sturgis, commanding cavalry, directs me to inform you that it gives him great pleasure to thank you in the name of Maj. Gen. J. G. Foster, commanding the department, for your gallantry in the engagement of the 27th instant, when your division scattered and dispersed the rebel cavalry commanded by Maj.-Gen.'s Martin and Morgan.
I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. C. RAWOLLE, Capt., A. A. D. C., U. S. Army, and A. A. A. Gen.
Report of Col. Archibald P. Campbell, Second Michigan Cavalry, commanding First Brigade.
HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST CAVALRY DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Wear's Cove, Tenn., January 30, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to report the following as the operations of this brigade in the action of January 27, 1864:
In accordance with orders from the colonel commanding, I took position on the hills near Dickey's house at daylight [with] the Second Michigan and Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry, dismounted, and First Tennessee Cavalry, mounted, the Second Michigan took the center on the Fair Garden road, the Ninth Pennsylvania on the left and First Tennessee Cavalry on the right of the line, with one company mounted on the left of Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry as flankers. The enemy were in very strong position on the hills beyond, and their lines extended along my whole front. I ordered the Second Michigan to advance to Pigeon River and the Ninth Pennsylvania to advance skirmishers on the left of my line.
The enemy's skirmishers opened fire on the line with small-arms. I ordered the Second Michigan to cross the river and advance, which they did through the valley, and charging the enemy's position on the hills with a yell, supported by a section of Lilly's Eighteenth Indiana Battery, firing over their heads into the enemy's lines. The Ninth Pennsylvania advanced and gained the hills to the left. A section of Capt. Lilly's Eighteenth Indiana Battery was then brought forward, and my command lay under cover while he shelled the enemy in position across the East Fork, Pigeon River. I was ordered to advance my brigade at 11 a. m., with instructions that the Seventh Kentucky Cavalry would move forward on my right flank and protect it. I ordered the Second Michigan Cavalry forward and across the river at McNutt's Mill in the face of the enemy's fire; also the Ninth Pennsylvania crossed on the left, and First Tennessee advanced to the river on the right. The Second Michigan Cavalry rushed forward rapidly, charged the enemy with a yell, driving him with a very inferior force, when the enemy charged both in line and column, repulsing the Second Michigan and driving them back across the river. They charged to the river and driving them back across the river. They charged to the river and through the bridge, and drove the First Tennessee back from the river, but were repulsed by the Second Michigan near the bridge and driven. The Ninth Pennsylvania advanced on the left, but as the center and right had fallen back, and the enemy formed to charge them hit superior force, they retired to the cover of the woods a short distance.
Soon after I advanced my lines and moved forward rapidly, dismounted, 2 miles without resistance, when I met the enemy's skirmishers and drove them 1 mile, when I was joined by the right flank of the Second Brigade, which was fighting on my left.
I advanced by the right flank under cover of the woods to within easy musket-range of the enemy's artillery, which was strongly supported. I asked Lieut. Miller, Eighteenth Indiana Battery, if he could get his gun in position there. He answered, "Yes, before the enemy can load." I then order my line to charge the enemy and dislodge him from his position, and, with the assistance of one piece of artillery, compelled him to abandon his position, and he fled in utter confusion, when the fourth Indiana Cavalry charged and captured the enemy's artillery. Lieut. Miller did the best of execution with his gun. I then advanced at a double-quick with my whole command. The enemy were utterly routed; many prisoners captured. Col. Brownlow was ordered forward with this regiment (the First Tennessee Cavalry), and charged down the road, taking several prisoners, and, returning, routed and scattered the advance guard of Gen. Armstrong's division.
My thanks are given to officers and men of my command for their gallantry and endurance during the day.
My loss is 20 killed, wounded, and missing; 7 prisoners captured.
Very respectfully submitted.
Your most obedient servant,
A. P. CAMPBELL, Col., Cmdg.
Reports of Col. Oscar H. LaGrange, First Wisconsin Cavalry, commanding Second Brigade.
HDQRS. SECOND Brig., FIRST CAVALRY DIVISION, ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND, Sevierville, Tenn., January 28, 1864. CAPT.: I have the honor to report that at 11 a. m. on the 27th the Second Brigade moved by order on the left-hand road from
Dickey's to Fair Garden. The enemy's picket was met within three-fourths of a mile, and fell back half a mile when a force of three regiments was displayed, which was driven by our skirmishers to the cross-road leading to McNutt's Bridge, where a determined stand was made. A battalion of the Second Indiana and one of the First Wisconsin were now sent to make a demonstration on the right of the force opposed to the First Brigade, and attack, if their assistance should be needed or any advantage offer. At this point our artillery was put into position and the enemy now having the advantage in position, and the two battalions sent to the right having returned without engaging, our dismounted men were relieved by a fresh detail. The Second Indiana, two companies of the Fourth, and one of the First Wisconsin advanced cautiously through the woods, and were enabled to deliver a telling fire at short range upon the enemy, whose shots flew high above them.
Our mounted column was discovered by the enemy, who opened upon it with two pieces. Fortunately but one shell of the first discharge exploded, killing 2 horses and wounding 2 men of the Fourth Indiana. Before the discharge could be repeated the column was sheltered in a hollow to the left of the road. The First Brigade was driving a superior force on our right, and as our dismounted men had broken the enemy's extreme right; two companies on our right halted and poured a steady flank fire at half range upon he force opposed to the First Brigade, and the remainder of our dismounted men advanced to within 150 yards of the enemy's battery, which opened a rapid but ineffective fire of canister upon their shelter in the woods. Six companies of the Fourth Indiana were now ordered up at a gallop, and charged in column of fours. Just as the battery was moving to the rear the supports parted right and left, and our dismounted men rushed forward with wild cheers.
Finding that the enemy's mounted supports more than doubled our column, and fearing they would close in behind it, the two first companies were sent forward after the battery, and the other four wheeled into line and charged to the left, where the enemy had planted his battle-flag and was seeking to rally his broken lines. In this charge Lieut.-Col. [Maj.] Lesslie lost his life. No nobler soldier or truer patriot has fallen in this war. The battery was overtaken, the riders sabered, and the teams stopped in a deep cut within a quarter of a mile.
Seeing our force so small, a battalion of the enemy formed and advanced to retake the guns. A horse in each wheel team was hot to hinder his moving them, and he had barely time to carry off his wounded when the remaining four companies of the Fourth Indiana arrived and drove him precipitately across the field.
The First Wisconsin now reported a brigade of the enemy advancing on the Dandridge road, and while our lines were reforming that regiment was sent to relieve a battalion of the First Tennessee, which had been cut off by the enemy's column. They charged the enemy in rear, opened the road, and the battalion returned in safety.
Our loss was 1 killed, Col. [Maj.] Lesslie, and 7 wounded. Twelve of the enemy's dead, and 10 severely wounded, were left on the field where our brigade fought.
We captured 105 prisoners, including 7 taken by the Seventh Kentucky in the morning, of whom 9 were commissioned officers, besides 2 pieces of artillery (3-inch Rodman's), 1 caisson, an ambulance, and a division battle-flag.
Lieut.'s Jackson, of the Fourth, and Hill, of the Second, also Sergeant Winkler, of the Fourth, distinguished themselves in the charge. Major Presdee, of the Second, Maj. Purdy, of the Fourth, and Adjutant Anderson of the Fourth, behaved in a most gallant manner.
The command shares with myself renewed obligations to Lieut. D. S. Moulton, acting adjutant, for his gallantry and efficiency.
O. H. LA. GRANGE, Col. First Wisconsin, Cmdg. Second Brigade.
HDQRS. SECOND Brig., FIRST CAVALRY DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Sevierville, Tenn., January 29, 1864.
I have the honor to report that at 4 p. m. on the 28th the Second Brigade was ordered to support Col. Wolford's command, then engaged with the enemy near Rainwater's house, 2 miles from Fain's Ford.
Finding the enemy had checked his advance, the Fourth Indiana and one company of the Second were dismounted and moved up on our left past Col. Wolford's lines, while the Seventh Kentucky was sent in column to our right to flank and if possible to drive the enemy from the strong position he held immediately in Col. Wolford's front. This regiment advanced in fine order to within 200 yards of the enemy, and was the first to discover the breastworks of logs and rails which were masked by the dense woods, and from which the enemy, and was the first to discover the breastworks of logs and rails which were masked by the dense woods, and from which the enemy poured a destructive fire, remaining himself in comparative security. As soon as the discovery was made our line was halted and a reconnaissance made on the enemy's right flank, where a similar beast-work was found.
At this time an order was received to fall back, and the First Wisconsin and Seventh Kentucky covered the retrograde movement. Our loss was 1 killed and 4 wounded.
Lieut. Stover, of the Second Indiana, was killed within 60 yards of the enemy's breastworks, where he had led his company, and it is believed was shot accidentally by some of our own men in his rear. Thousands of rounds were fired in this skirmish by men who did not see the enemy. The habit of allowing cowards to fire over the heads of their own party from a safe distance in the rear is one of the most reprehensible, and officers who cannot prevent it ought to be shot themselves.
Lieut. Stover had taken part in every engagement of his regiment, and had been twice wounded. The entire command laments his loss.
O. H. LA. GRANGE, Col. First Wisconsin, Cmdg. Second Brigade.
Report of Capt. Eli Lilly, eighteenth Indiana Battery.
HDQRS. 18TH INDIANA BATTERY, 1ST DIVISION CAVALRY, Maryville, Tenn., January 31, 1864.
CAPT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command in the action of January 27, 1864, near Fair Garden, Tenn.:
At daylight of the above day, I took position in the lines of the First Brigade of this division to the right of the Sevierville and Newport road, and immediately west of the Middle Fork of pigeon River, with three guns, the opposite bank being occupied by the enemy.
About 8 a. m. the First Brigade advanced, driving the enemy from the stream. In the endeavor to gain the first range of hills east we met with sharp resistance, when I opened with shell, and our troops moving under cover of my fire took the ridge, the enemy retreating across the East Fork of Pigeon to the dense timber lying on either side of the Newport road. I now advanced my guns, placing a section under Lieut. Rippetoe, on the ridge just taken, at a point half a mile east of Hodsden's house, which commanded the open ground, to the timber across East Fork; the other piece, under Lieut. Miller, quarter of a mile to the right and front of this, covering the bridge at McNutt's Mill, which point had been taken by the Second Michigan Cavalry. I directed the woods to be shelled while the troops crossed the stream to occupy them which was accomplished; but the enemy having massed a heavy force on this road, drove our lines back to the creek, when I gave him canister from the piece at the ridge and shell from the other pieces to the edge of the woods, preventing his farther progress.
Two guns under Lieut. Beck, which early in the morning had been sent with the Second Brigade, now reached a position with that command to the right-rear of the rebels at McNutt's Mills, and opened a brisk and very accurate fire on their mounted lines, dispersing them in great disorder. Here we received a reply from two rifled guns, which were soon silenced and driven from the ground. During this fire the Second Brigade advanced and took the rebel position, which was near the intersection of the roads, and the enemy at McNutt's Mill, finding their line of retreat threatened, beat a hasty march to keep communication with their right, followed closely by the First Brigade, with which I also advanced my three pieces, to the open ground within 600 yards of the junction of the roads, near which the enemy had posted his artillery. Seeing the Fourth Indiana Cavalry in column of fours in the road to the left, ready to charge with the saber, I brought my guns into position at the gallop to within 500 yards of the rebel battery and opened furiously. They fired a few shots and left the field, when I paid attention to their dismounted lines, which were soon in disorder. The Fourth Indiana now charged, I maintaining a rapid fire across their front until they reached the main road, when I ceased in this direction and worked with two guns to the right over the First Brigade, now going forward at the double quick. One gun (supported by the First East Tennessee) was moved at the gallop to support the charging party, which had captured two rifled guns. Arriving on the ground, I found our men in undisputed possession and the enemy flying in all directions. The main column on the road presenting a good target, we practiced on it with lively effect till out of range. One shot from my left section killed 1 man, a mule, and 3 horses; a second took off a gun-wheel, and cut in two a sponge-staff in the cannoneer's hands; a third went through a caisson. From my guns on the right one shot killed 1 and wounded 3 at the rebel guns.
My loss is as follows: Private Samuel Mills, detailed from Fourth Indiana Cavalry, killed by a gunshot wound in the head.
Ammunition expended, 150 rounds.
I have the honor to be, captain, your most obedient servant,
ELI LILLY, Capt., Cmdg.
Report of Col. Israel Garrard, Seventh Ohio Cavalry, commanding Second Cavalry Division, Army of Ohio.
HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, CAVALRY CORPS, Ellejoy Creek, E. Tenn., February 4, 1864.
CAPT.: I have the honor to report that, on the morning of the 27th, I was in position near Nichols' house on the road from Cannon's on Little Pigeon, to Tom Evans' Ford and other points on the river above, when I received orders to over by way of Cannon's and Sevierville to Dr. Hodsden's, on the East Fork of Pigeon. Having reached that point, I halted to feed and await orders.
About 9 p. m., in obedience to orders to move to the front and attack the enemy at daylight in concert ahead Col. Wolford, I moved to the vicinity of Fair Garden, and went I not camp with Col. Wolford's command.
During the night I was ordered to delay my movements until the command of Col. McCook came up within supporting distance. This occurred about 8 a. m., and, in obedience to orders, and under the immediate personal direction of yourself, I moved rapidly to the vicinity of the fords at Fain's and Swann's Islands, just above and below Dandridge. The picket (rebel) at the intersection of the main road near Rainwater's house was driven in, and 1 of them captured by the advance under command of Lieut. Capron, Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry.
No rebel force was found on this side of the river, but both fords were found to be picketed by the enemy. A short time after we reached the fords a movement of rebel infantry was made to both of them at Swann's Island, evidently with the intention of resisting our attempt to cross. At Fain's Island the character of the movement was entirely different; the force was a large one. It was moved rapidly, and on reaching the river dashed in without hesitation and crossed on to the island and moved toward the other crossing to our side of the river. This was done so quickly that they gained a position on this side before the picket, sent to that ford under Lieut. Capron, Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry, could be sufficiently strengthened to prevent it. These facts were reported by me to the general in person. I did not consider that his orders required me to move my command to Fain's Island and enter on the heavy engagement, which the reported strength of the enemy would have caused. A scout sent out ascertained that they had advanced their pickets on this side about 1 mile from the ford. I therefore made use of the discretion left with me by the general, and withdrew my command from the vicinity of the river. I sent one regiment down toward Fain's ford to check their advance while moving my two guns back to the main road, and, in obedience to my orders, I returned to camp near Fair Garden. I moved 2 miles toward Sevierville, owing to the report sent to the general by Lieut.-Col. Butler, commanding at Cannon's, which had come into my hands on its way to him, that the enemy were crossing at the lower fords and threatening Cannon's and Sevierville.
About 11 p. m. I received orders that my command would remain in camp until morning and would from the rear guard. I remained in camp until 9 a. m., when I moved to Trotter's Bridge, on the West Fork of Pigeon. I reached that point just after the column, moving by the other road, had passed. I went into camp in Little Cove.
The next morning I moved out at a late hour and marched about 8 miles through Wear's Cove, into Tuckaleechee Cove, and camped until next day. At this point, in obedience to the general's order, I detached the Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry, under Maj. Davidson, on an expedition over the mountains into North Carolina, against the Indians and rebels in camp near the Forks of the Tuckaseegee and Little Tennessee Rivers. From there I moved into Miller's Cove, and finally to this point, just outside of the Chilhowee [sic] range of mountains.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
ISRAEL GARRARD, Col., Cmdg. Second Division.
Report of Maj. Edward G. Savage, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry.
HDQRS. NINTH PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY, January 29, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to report that, on the morning of the 27th instant, at 5.30, the regiment formed line in front of camp at daylight, ordered to form a line of battle on the ground occupied the previous afternoon. The regiment marched out of camp to the ground, and dismounted the men. Horses were sent back to the camp. The line of skirmish being formed, with Second Michigan on the right, advanced to a corn-field, and, passing thought, took a position near the east branch of Pigeon Creek, when we met the enemy's pickets and skirmished a short time with them, charging the hill they occupied and drove them from their position; here the line halted until reinforcements arrived. Col. LaGrange taking position on the left of the regiment at 12 m., the line of skirmishers was ordered to move forward. Second Michigan and a portion of this regiment, under command of Maj. Kimmel, advanced, charging across an open field to a wood. Here that portion of the command halted (the enemy being in strong force in the woods) and received a cross-fire from the Second Michigan Cavalry, the charge being made before I could form a junction with Maj. Kimmel. As soon as I moved with the Third Battalion a new line was formed, when we advanced to and through the woods, driving the enemy across a branch of Pigeon Creek to Fair Garden. Here the skirmishers withdrew from the woods to the road, marching in column a distance of nearly 2 miles, and coming up with the enemy I deployed to the left, passing through the woods to an open field, where the enemy opened with artillery, shelling the open ground and woods occupied by our skirmishers. The line now advanced, driving the enemy and capturing their artillery. The regiment, during the engagement, was dismounted from daylight until dark.
The casualties during the engagement were 3 wounded, viz.,: Private Michael Smith, Company A, wounded in the hip; Private Sam. Low, Company M, wounded in wrist; Private Oliver B. Ball, Company M, slightly wounded in the face, caused by fragment of a shell.
The line of skirmishers of the Second Michigan had been moved by the right flank across the Fair Garden [road] before I received orders to move. The horses coming up at dark, the regiment was mounted and marched back to the woods near McNutt's house and encamped.
At 7 a. m., January 28, regiment marched out on road running to Newport, a distance of about 5 miles, turning to the left, taking the road leading to Evans' Ford. When about 2 miles from the ford the regiment formed line of battle across the road, remaining in line a short time. Company C sent out as picket on road to Wilson's Ford. Companies A, E, and K sent out to re-enforce Company C. At dusk regiment ordered back to guard roads until pack-mules, &c., had passed out. Called in two companies Second Michigan Cavalry and battalion of the regiment. Marched back to camp near McNutt's house, arriving there about 3 a. m. January 29.
E. G. SAVAGE, Maj., Cmdg. Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry.
Reports of Lieut. Gen. James Longstreet, C. S. Army.[Emphasis added]
MORRISTOWN, January 29, 1864.
Gen. Martin had a severe cavalry fight on the 27th. He was driven back 4 miles, with a loss of 200 killed, wounded, and missing, and 2 pieces of artillery. The enemy's cavalry has been greatly increased by the cavalry from Chattanooga. Most of the cavalry force from that place is now here. The men, about half that should be in our regiments here, are, I understand, in the camps about Dalton. I hope they may be sent here, or there sent there. We can do but little while this superior cavalry force is here to operate on our flank and rear. Do send me a chief of cavalry.
J. LONGSTREET, Lieut.-Gen.
MORRISTOWN, February 1, 1864.
GEN.: Brig.-Gen. Armstrong's cavalry had a successful fight with the enemy's cavalry on the south side of the French Broad on the 28th. The enemy retreated during the night and the following day and is now at Maryville. Our forces occupy Sevierville. The enemy abandoned Tazewell on the 26th ultimo. Maj. Day took possession on the next day, and got 8 wagons without teams and some artillery ammunition.
J. LONGSTREET, Lieut.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 130-150.
26, Federal denial of prisoner of war mistreatment in Knoxville
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Louisville, Ky., January 26, 1865.
Maj. Gen. JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE:
SIR: Your communication of the 12th instant, addressed to the commanding officer U. S. forces, Knoxville, Tenn., has been referred to these headquarters. In this communication you state that during the recent raid under Maj.-Gen. Stoneman a number of officers and men were captured and paroled to report at Knoxville at a future day and that they were recaptured by the occupation of the Confederate forces, and were released from the operation of the parole given. If any men "not officers of the Confederate Army were paroled to report at Knoxville they were paroled contrary to my orders." Applications were made to permit hospital stewards and other men not commissioned officers to go to Knoxville on parole, but in all cases the applications were refused. The officers were captured with others at Bristol, principally.
By their own request they were permitted to go by a prescribed route to Knoxville, East Tenn., on parole. It was a privilege granted them in order that they might be enable to procure some means of transportation for themselves and baggage, they having no horses, instead of being compelled to go at once and on foot with the other prisoners, who were sent to Knoxville under a strong guard.
The time allowed them to reach Knoxville was limited, unless they were physically unable to report at its expiration, in which case they were to report as soon as they were able so to do; they were all told explicitly by myself that they were not paroled as a matter of expediency, inasmuch as several hundred prisoners would be sent under guard the next morning to Knoxville (which was done), and they could all be sent together, but that it was to be understood that this was done by their own request and as a special favor to them, for which they expressed themselves as under many obligation. The officers you named, in violation of their word of honor, which in the language of the written instrument, signed by each in duplicate, was given "without any evasion or mental reservation whatsoever," remained at Bristol until long after the time had expired in which they were allowed to report at Knoxville, and it cannot be admitted that they were "recapture" or that they can claim exemption from the responsibilities attached to a violation of the word of honor of an officers and a gentleman.
If they are justified by their Government in the course they have thought fit to pursue, it will serve hereafter as a warning to myself and others who may be inclined to show favors to Confederate officers prisoners of war.
I am very glad to learn that Medical Director Ramsey and other surgeons captured at Bristol will be sent through by flag, and that we are to get Surgeon Carrick and other surgeons. You will find by reference to the agreement made between Brig.-Gen. Vaughn and the representative of the U. S. authorities "that there were some conditions attached to that agreement exempting citizens from arrest which must be complied with, amongst which are these, that the citizen must belong to Tennessee, must be at his own home, and must not be engaged in any occupation in violation of law and military regulations, or be in the employ of either Government."
Mr. Sperry, the only person you name as having been arrested, and now held contrary to this agreement, and whose release is requested is a citizen of Knoxville and not of Bristol; he was not at his own home and was engaged in publishing a Knoxville paper at the time of his arrest, and if not in the employ of the Confederate Government, was doing all in his power against the United States Government through the medium of his press, violation of both law and military regulations; he is now in the hands of the civil authorities and not subject to military control.
In this connection permit me to inform you that since the agreement you speak of was entered into, twenty-one persons, citizens of Monroe County, Tenn., have been arrested by the Confederate authorities, so I am informed by the U. S. provost--marshal -general of East Tennessee, and also that orders were given by me last month directing that all citizens of Tennessee who came within the terms of the agreement alluded to, and all citizens of Virginia not in the employ of the Confederate Government, should be released and sent to their homes and I am informed that my instructions have been complied with.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEORGE STONEMAN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 8, pp. 134-135.
26, Railroad Safety Issues on the Nashville to Chattanooga Line
RAILROAD SMASH UP.
I have heard many an old soldier say that he would rather go into a big battle than to make the round trip between Nashville and Chattanooga by rail. The risk of life and limb is certainly not much greater. It is considered a remarkable exception when a train makes the trip between the two places without running off the track at least half a dozen times. On Sunday night, the 15th, a "caboose" and car ran off the track near the depot here, and were made a perfect wreck. Five persons were injured, two or three of them quite seriously. The conductor had on leg smashed to a jelly….
Daily Cleveland Herald, January 26, 1865.
26-February 11, Expedition from Memphis into Southeast Arkansas and Northeast Louisiana
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 48, pt. I, p. 68.
 In this case "contraband" did not mean Negroes, but items on a contraband list of goods such as Confederate uniforms. laudanum, opium, weapons, etc..
 Not found.
 See OR, Ser. II, Vol. VI, p.680.
 See December 8, 1863, OR, Ser. II, Vol. VI, p. 680.
 Inclosure No. 7 (here omitted) contains General Orders, No. 3, Department of the Ohio, January 5, 1864, promulgating charges, findings, and sentence to death in the case of E. S. Dodd, Eighth Texas Cavalry, arrested and tried as a spy.
 The "Mackerels" were a gang of juvenile delinquents. Whether or not they were war orphans or actually belonged to families will probably never be known. This article suggests that the gang had been a source of annoyance in the city for some time during the war, probably arising after Federal occupation. While not popularly considered to be the same thing as guerrillas or bushwhackers, probably because they were not, most likely, armed, it is tempting to think of their actions as "juvenile-urban bushwhacking." It would seem their activities had no political aspect and their thievery was conducted as a matter of survival, there being a shortage of asylums for orphans in Memphis.
 Whether the depot was near Nashville or Chattanooga is not specified.
 All action took place out of state..
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 115