8, Tennessee Adjutant General implores Confederate government for more arms
Nashville, Tenn., January 8, 1862
Hon. J.P. BENJAMIN
Secretary of War, Richmond, VA.
I confess to some surprise in reading the favor of [Acting Assistant Adjutant-General] Captain [Virginius D.] Groner, acting assistant adjutant-general, addressed to myself of date 3d instant, in which it is stated that orders had been issued through Brigadier General Carroll to disband Colonel [James W.] Gillespie's regiment, if not armed, accompanied with instructions not to commission officers of any twelve-months' organization unless it is armed at the time of muster. It would seem that the Department is not acquainted with the state of affairs in Tennessee. I premise that the Governor of the State thoroughly understands that he is required to arm such troops and that he is endeavoring to do so, with promise of success, I take pleasure in adding. But the condition of affairs in Tennessee is as follows: Since September last General Johnston, in the discharge of his duties, has made repeated and urgent calls upon the Governor for troops, but since the order of the Department (made, as I learn, in October last), accompanied with the request that they should be armed by the Governor, and in November last, to wit, the 19th, such was the urgency and importance of the defense of his line that the general called for every man in the State that could be armed. In answer to which, and to discharge his duty, the Governor made his call and took instant and withal hazardous steps to possess the State of the arms of the private citizens-inferior weapons, to be sure-but yet such was the only resource of the State, which fact General Johnston well understood. Volunteer companies were ordered to rendezvous, and the arms of the State were ordered to different arsenals in order to be placed in shooting order preparatory to their delivery to the different regiments that might be organized. The account of guns received corresponds pretty well with the number of volunteers reported, but necessarily there must be some little delay in fixing off regiments; and to disband them because at the instant of muster they may not happen to be armed is to place obstacles in the way of speedy organization and will prove more disastrous. A concise statement is that the Governor intends, out of the means alluded to, to arm the twelve months' volunteers of the State now called for by General Johnston. He believe that it can be done speedily, and is himself unwilling to incur the expense as well as attendant confusion and dissatisfaction that would follow the disbanding of troops. My information is that the ordinary rifle and shotgun in sufficient numbers are not at Knoxville, simply awaiting repair, not only to arm Colonel [James W.] Gillespie's regiment but one or two others, and I was in the act of arranging measures for the more speedy repair of them when I was handed Captain Groner's letter. I do not suppose, because I have not sufficient facts to warrant the reflection, the General Carroll's brigade requires the arms intended for Colonel [James W.] Gillespie's regiment, since I believe it was reported as an unarmed brigade to you, but if General Carroll's brigade need any I undertake to say that the Governor will endeavor to supply his wants.
I beg to add further that in view of the invasion threatened and imminent to the State of Tennessee it would be well, not only well but highly important to the citizens of the State as also the Confederacy now and in the future, if the Secretary would receive the assurances given that the troops called for will be armed by the State, either at the time of muster or within a short time thereafter, the time being only that necessary to put guns in shooting order.
Conceiving the publication of the order of Captain Groner would work injuriously, I will withhold it until further communication from you. It is proper to state that the Governor is absent from the city at this writing, but knowing the plans adopted and being in part charged with their execution I have take the liberty of writing as I have done
J.C. Whitthorne, Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 253-254.
8, An excursion and flag presentation at Fort Donelson [see January 24, 1862,"Letter from Dover. The Flag Presentation" below]
On Wednesday, the 8th, a flag presentation came off at Fort Donelson, in accordance with previous notice. The beautiful steamer, Gen. Anderson, came down from Nashville with a crowd of ladies and gentlemen; and Jordan's string band; and taking on a large accession at this place -- ourself [sic] among the number-steamed down the river to the point of destination. The day was wet and gloomy and, of course, the pleasure of the excursion did not come up to expectation. The presentation took place on board the boat. The flag was presented by Miss Winchester, of Sumner, whose speech was beautiful and appropriate, and most gracefully delivered, and Lieut. Nichols, who received the flag replied in terms befitting the occasion. There were several other impromptu speeches made but time and space will not admit of our notice of them.
Clarksville Chronicle, January 10, 1862.
8, Paper vs. Specie money; a lesson in a letter from Nashville
From the Charlotte N.C. Bulletin.
MONIES OF METAL AND PROMISES ON PAPER.
The gradually increasing differences in the marketable value of gold and silver, compared with paper monies of every description…may be explained…in a letter from Nashville, Tennessee, inserted in the Charleston Courier, of the 12th instant.
["]In consequence of the complete suspension of coinage, at all southern mints, with simultaneous interruption of foreign commerce, gold and silver have been hoarded by banks and by private individuals. Such valuables daily diminish among us, by smuggling to the North; because certain of urgent necessity, expensive drugs, for instance, can only be obtained by means of gold. Coin is demanded in the West for purchases of meats for Commissaries' stores, as well as for arms and ammunition in Europe. On the contrary, the uses of paper money are limited in extent by our own borders; while the amount in State or Confederate notes and bonds has largely increased, by imperative necessity, to carry on the war. There is plenty of paper money everywhere among us, with an obviously diminished supply of gold and silver coins. Larger sums, in paper money, must consequently be paid for gold and silver bya common law of trade, as we are entirely cut off from foreign coins, in exchange for produce.
During a period of fifteen years, according to official proof, the product of gold from Southern mines, in the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, Virginia, Tennessee and New Mexico, approached the sum of eighteen millions of dollars. The annual average supply of gold for that series of years being, consequently, equal to twelve hundred thousand dollars, some advantages might be felt in the Confederacy, at this time, by an exertion to coin native gold, to meet the great demand for its important, well appreciated uses.
A law has been drawn up by the Confederate Congress, to establish assay offices at the mints in North Carolina and Georgia, without privilege to coin; (a sovereign power claimed by the Confederacy, and not reserved by any State;) also without any permanent fund to provide prompt payment after assay, according to custom and utility. Hence this law seems to be a dead letter, for every practical purpose that suggested it enactment.
An adequate deposit, for immediate payment after assay, would at once bring an assay office into activity, and enable miners to engage profitably in their wonted industry, which could afford, under existing circumstances, to defray all necessary expenses of manufacture hitherto supplied by Government. Whereas, no one appears willing to assume the onerous responsibilities which devolve upon an assayer, under the new law.
The banks in mining districts retain large sums in bullion, which are not now available for domestic exchanges, not as currency, because it does not possess the form of coins; while the owners of gold bullion pay interest upon advances, made in paper upon such bullion. Banks with limited capital, or restricted charters, cannot continue to purchase, or make advances in notes, upon bullion, beyond a certain amount of their funds, which many have already reached. When our ports are opened to foreign commerce, some foreign coin may be anticipated, and bars of native bullion, the product of Southern mines, may be exported for foreign exchanges, with advantage over coin. But the people of this country, educated by the experience of a former revolution, prefer that the precious metal be, occasionally, intermingled with paper monies in the currency.
We have, certainly, no disposition to depreciate the value of Confederate, State of bank paper, but the facilities offered for extended issues of promisso-notes [sic], must have that effect in relation to coins. Paper monies prove extremely convenient in many operations of commerce and trade, as representative of values, so long a public confidence sustains them. Gold and silver coins serve the same general purpose, with this special additional advantage – that within themselves intrinsically, they possess the vary values the other promise to pay.
These two precious metals serve naturally, to proportion and rule the values of all commodities. Time immomorial, among commercial nations in the East, these metals have borne the same exact ratios to each other, in trade, which were careful guarded, when mints were established in the South, for the purpose of coinage.
It is prudent, during war, to sustain the arts of peace, particularly those which supply bullion and coin for our common currency, graduated by the precise values of the precious metals; especially if such purposes can be effected without serious expense to the Government of the Confederacy, as we believe they can.
Such measures would tend powerfully to sustain mercantile confidence in the bonds and notes of the Confederacy, and all responsible bank paper, throughout the States.
The Semi-Weekly Raleigh Register (Raleigh, NC). January 8, 1862.
8 –20, Entreaties for the release of prisoners jailed for uprising against the Confederacy in East Tennessee
CLEVELAND, TENN., January 8, 1862.
Col. CHARLES M. MCGHEE.
DEAR SIR: I have received your request to write you the facts about the arrest of James S. Bradford by Capt. W. L. Brown's command, and he was a few days after sent to Tuscaloosa. The nature of the charge against him I am ignorant of. I feel confident that his arrest and transportation from here must have been done under a misconception of his position as regards the rebellious feeling that has disturbed East Tennessee, and had an investigation been allowed him he would have been discharged without spot or blemish. It is true he was originally a Union man and at the beginning of the secession amongst us had considerable influence with the party but before the period at which our State linked her future with the Southern Confederacy he became a loyal Southern man and from that day exerted all his influence and power for peace and submission. I know that it told to such a degree that their numbers were greatly lessened amongst us.
When we learned an armed body of men had assembled at Clift's for the purpose of resistance-the people in the country being much alarmed-some of his original Southern personal friends desired he should go over there and use his influence to get them to disperse. He consented to do so and informed me of his intention but I opposed his going fearing it might bring him into trouble from the Union people. He replied that his neighbors were anxious for him to go and as he was reflected on to some extent for former Union sentiments he felt it his duty to do all in his power to arrest the evil. He remained only a few hours at Clift's, stayed over night at Col. C. D. Luttrell's and returned there the day he was at Clift's. Col. Luttrell who is an out-and-out original Southern man approved of and encouraged his mission to Clift's. He was there several days before the forces moved on Clift's camp and at home as they passed his house. So soon as he returned from the camp he informed me he could do nothing with them and I came into town and so informed my Southern friends. He even said it was dangerous to speak of peace to the motley crew.
I do not desire as you know to have any man released who in any way encouraged rebellion; but Bradford I know is an innocent man and is a good Southern man and so shown himself from date named and I would therefore be glad to see him released.
FRANCK W. LEA.
CLEVELAND, TENN., January 8, 1862.
[Col. CHARLES M. MCGHEE.]
DEAR SIR: James B. Bradford, of this county, was arrested some time since and sent to Tuscaloosa. Mr. Bradford was originally a Union man but I know of no other charge that has been brought against him. Since the separation of the State from the Federal Government he has consistently recommended submission to the will of the majority of the people of the State. This I have heard him frequently do in the presence of Union men and secessionists. Mr. Bradford neither attended nor encouraged any of the meetings held in East Tennessee of a hostile character and I am satisfied he disapproved of the whole of them. I do not believe he ought to have been arrested but such was the excitement here at that time that but little was said about it by Southern rights men.
Now that everything is calm and quiet it is believed by the original secessionists of whom I am one that Bradford ought to be released. You know that I would be the last one who would screen any one who had any connection with Toryism in East Tennessee. I am satisfied, however, that Bradford had nothing to do with it and was arrested simply because he had been a Union man. In view of these considerations I respectfully submit whether it would not be better for our cause and justice be more perfectly subserved to have Mr. Bradford released or brought back and tried? If he is guilty let him be punished. If he is innocent you will agree with me that he ought to be discharged. You have only inquired of me as to Mr. Bradford. I might perhaps give you the names of others who have been submitted to equally as great outrages by the petty personal prejudices of some of our recent converts who are now in brief authority.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
SAML. A. SMITH.
KNOXVILLE, TENN., January 20, 1862.
On the 19th day of November last I arrested and brought to this place Levi Trewhitt, esq., of Cleveland, Tenn. This arrest was made under an order from Col. W. B. Wood, commanding the Sixteenth Alabama Regt., who at that time was the commander of this post. The arrest was ordered because Mr. Trewhitt was suspected of a knowledge of the burning of the railroad bridges and the plans by which it was done. He was retained here for some weeks and then sent to Tuscaloosa by order of Gen. W. H. Carroll, who succeeded Col. Wood in command. There was no trial or investigation of the charges so far as I know or have understood.
JAS. W. GILLESPIE, Col. Forty-third Regt. Tennessee Volunteers. -----
His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States of America:
Your petitioners, the undersigned citizens of Bradley County, Tenn., humbly represent and show unto your excellency that Levi Trewhitt, who is now as they understand confined in Mobile as a prisoner of war, is one of the old, influential citizens of Bradley County, Tenn.; that he is about sixty-five years of age and has been for the past few years afflicted with paralysis and as they now understand is sick and in the hospital at Mobile. They further state that said Trewhitt was a very useful man at home. We therefore pray that said Levi Trewhitt be released from said confinement upon his becoming a loyal citizen and taking an oath to support the constitution of the Confederate States of America; and as in duty bound will ever pray, &c.
T. L. HOYL.
JNO. B. HOYL.
[And 31 others.]
We, the undersigned officers in the Confederate service, fully concur with the above petitioners.
D. M. KEY, Lieut.-Col.
[JAMES W.] GILLESPIE, Col. Regt. Tennessee Volunteers.
[And 16 others.]
STATE OF TENNESSEE, Bradley County:
Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, an acting justice of the peace and duly authorized to administer oaths within and for the county and State aforesaid, John Blackburn, a man of undoubted truth and veracity and entitled to credit when on oath, and made oath in due for of law that at and about the time the rebellion in East Tennessee took place and about the time that it was understood that Clift was encamped with a regiment of men for the purpose of going to the State of Kentucky there was some disquietude in the settlement in which he resided, and in consequence thereof a meeting of divers of the citizens was held for the purpose of taking steps in relation to the condition of the country, some talking of going and joining Clift in his rebellion, and at said meeting Levi Trewhitt, who as he now understands in confined at Tuscaloosa or Mobile as a prisoner of war, was present and opposed all and everything that had any tendency toward rebellion and advised them to go on with their ordinary business and keep out of all rebellion and to keep away from Clift, and by the exertion and influence of said Trewhitt said settlement became quieted down and the citizens went on with their ordinary business he all the time opposing any rebellion whatever, and none of said neighbors and citizens went to Clift or into the rebellion to the knowledge of affiant.
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 16th day of January, 1862, and I certify that the said John Blackburn is a man of Undoubted truth and veracity.
J. B. HUMPHREYS, Justice of the Peace for Bradley County, Tenn.
STATE OF TENNESSEE, Bradley County:
Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, an acting justice of the peace and duly authorized to administer oaths within and for the said county of Bradley and State of Tennessee, Edmund Ramsey, a man of undoubted truth and veracity and entitled to credit when on oath, and made oath in due form of law that, in the summer of 1861, there was a company of men organized in the settlement where he resided who called themselves as home guards, furnishing their own arms, &c., and after Gen. Zollicoffer issued a proclamation requesting said companies to stop drilling, Levi Trewhitt, whom he now understands to be confined in Tuscaloosa or Mobile as a prisoner of war, used his exertions and influence to get said company to cease drilling and by the aid of his exertions and influence said company was procured to cease drilling and obey said proclamation; and further states that at or about the time it was understood that Clift was encamped with a regiment of men in Hamilton County about forty miles distant on the north side of Tennessee River there was some disquietude among the citizens in the settlement where he resided and a meeting of some of the citizens for the purpose of taking steps, and a different meeting from the one in the settlement of G. R. and Benjamin Hambright as to going and joining the said Clift, and at said meeting said Levi Trewhitt opposed everything that had any tendency toward a rebellion, and advised the persons there assembled to keep out of said rebellion and not to join or go to Clift but to go on with their ordinary business, and by the aid of said Trewhitt's exertions and influence said disquietude was suppressed and said persons procured to go on with their business, and no person to affiant's knowledge went to said Clift or into the rebellion in may manner.
Sworn to and subscribed before me the 16th day of January, 1862, and I certify that the said Edmund Ramsey is a man of undoubted truth and veracity.
J. B. HUMPHREYS, Justice of the Peace for Bradley County, Tenn.
STATE OF TENNESSEE, Bradley County:
Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, an acting justice of the peace and duly authorized to administer oaths within and for the county and State aforesaid, G. R. Hambright and Benjamin Hambright, men of undoubted truth and veracity and entitled to credit when on oath, and made oath in due form of law that at and about the time the rebellion was taking place in East Tennessee there was some disquietude in the settlement in which they resided in said county, and that there was some talk among the neighbors as to what they should do relative thereto and as to going and joining Clift who they understood was encamped for the purpose of going to Kentucky and consequently a meeting of divers of the citizens for the purpose of taking steps in the premises, and affiants learning that fact went to the residence of Levi Trewhitt whom they understand now to be confined at Tuscaloosa or Mobile as a prisoner of war and procured him to go and be where these said persons were to assemble, who did go to said place and there opposed every thing or movement that had any tendency to a rebellion in East Tennessee and through his influence and exertions the people in said settlement were quieted and all tendency to rebel in said settlement was put down by his advising them against rebellion and to go on with their ordinary business and let Clift and his rebellion alone and keep themselves out of rebellion, and thereby the citizens went on with their ordinary business and none went into the rebellion to the knowledge of affiants.
G. R. HAMBRIGHT.
Sworn to and subscribed before me the 16th day of January, 1862, and I certify that the said G. R. Hambright and Benjamin Hambright are both men of undoubted truth and veracity.
J. B. HUMPHREYS, Justice of the Peace for Bradley County, Tenn.
STATE OF TENNESSEE, Bradley County:
Personally appeared before me, Joseph H. Davis, an acting justice of the peace and duly authorized to administer oaths within and for the county and State aforesaid, Welcome Beard and made oath in due form of law that about the time that he understood that there was a rebellion in East Tennessee and that about the time he understood that Clift was encamped with a regiment of men in Hamilton County on the north side of the Tennessee River about twenty-three miles from the settlement of affiant for the purpose of going to the State of Kentucky there was some disquietude in the settlement of affiant and a meeting of divers persons near to affiant for the purpose of taking steps in relation to the rebellion, and affiant saw Levi Trewhitt whom he now understands in confined at Tuscaloosa or Mobile as a prisoner of war and held a private conversation with him who stated that he was opposed to all rebellion, and when they went where the crowd was affiant proposed that the said Levi Trewhitt make a speech to the crowd relative to what they had best do, and then the said Trewhitt gave them a talk in which he advised them all to keep out of all rebellion and go on with their ordinary business and by the aid and influence of said Trewhitt every person there assembled was procured and did agree to keep out of all rebellion and keep away from Clift and his rebellion and go on with their ordinary business, and the said Trewhitt especially advised them to keep out of Clift's rebellion.
Sworn to and subscribed before me the 17th day of January, 1862, and I certify that the said Welcome Beard is a man of undoubted truth and veracity.
JOS. H. DAVIS, Justice of the Peace for Bradley County, Tenn.
STATE OF TENNESSEE, Bradley County:
Personally appeared before me, Joseph H. Davis, an acting justice of the peace for the county of Bradley and duly authorized to administer oaths within and for the county and State aforesaid, Alexander A. Clingan and made oath in due form of law that at or about the time of the rebellion in East Tennessee and at the time he understood that Clift was encamped in Hamilton County on the north side of Tennessee River about twenty-four miles from the residence of affiant Levi Trewhitt, whom affiant now understands to be confined at Tuscaloosa or Mobile as a prisoner of war, came by where affiant was and procured affiant to go with him to where some persons were to assemble for the purpose of talking steps as to what they should to and to assist him in suppressing anything that might occur tending to a rebellion and affiant did go. At said meeting the said Trewhitt made a speech or talk to the persons there assembled and advised them to keep out of all rebellion and especially to keep out of the Clift rebellion and to go on with their ordinary business and by the aid and assistance of the said Trewhitt said persons all agreed and promised to keep out of all rebellion and go on with their ordinary business.
A. A. CLINGAN.
Sworn to and subscribed before me the 17th day of January, 1862, and I certify that the said Alexander A. Clingan is a man of undoubted truth and veracity.
JOSEPH H. DAVIS, Justice of the Peace for Bradley County, Tenn.
CANNON'S STORE, January 20, 1862.
His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of the Confederate States of America:
We, the undersigned petitioners, humbly request that E. Hodges and W. E. Hodges, citizens of Sevier County, Tenn., and who were sent to the military prison at Tuscaloosa and are as we understand now at Mobile, Ala., be released from prison and set at liberty by their giving full assurances of their loyalty to the State of Tennessee and the Confederate States. We also believe that the said Hodges have fully atoned for the crimes they have committed and that justice if fully satisfied in their cases. We, your petitioners, would further represent that men more guilty than they have been released and nolle prosequi entered in their cases merely by their giving bond for their good behavior; and we would represent to you that the Hodges are men whose families are in straitened circumstances and those to whom clemency has been shown are in quite affluent circumstances.
We, the undersigned petitioners, would also represent to you that we are men that have in no way favored the late attempt at rebellion in Eastern Tennessee but have been contending and laboring for the cause of the South both before and since the difficulties have been upon our country, and we would further state that we ask not for their release upon any personal grounds but merely that even-handed justice be meted out to all alike. And your humble petitioners will ever pray, &c.
JAMES W. CHAMBERS.
W. H. CANNON.
D. O. MCCROSKY.
E. L. MULLENDORE.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 871-877.
8, Skirmish at Knob Creek, near Ripley, Tennessee
No circumstantial reports filed.
8, Federal soldiers ordered to cease depredations against civilian property
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 9. HDQRS. SECOND DIV., LEFT WING, DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Near Murfreesborough, January 8, 1863.
The general commanding takes occasion to express his disapprobation of the conduct of officers who permit their men to kill stock, burn rails, and seize forage, either on or at the end of a march, or while the troops are in camp. Such conduct is disgraceful and demoralizing, and must cease; and officers who permit it will be severely punished. At the end of a march, and each day while in camp, wood parties will be sent out under the command of an officer, unless wood can be found on the ground occupied by the troops. The general commanding the division expects to be with his command in camp and on the march, and to give his attention to their comfort; and will be ready always to take the responsibility of all seizures of property necessary, and will allow none to be taken under other circumstances.
By order of Brig.-Gen. [John M.] Palmer:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. II, p. 309.
8, Tow-boat Wild Cat set afire at by guerrillas above Memphis
Important from Above.
A Steamboat Captured and Burned.
Movements of Guerrillas.
The city was much excited last evening over a report that a steamboat had been captured and burned only a short distance above the city. Various conjectures were indulged as to the name of the boat captured and the circumstances under which it transpired. As near as we can get the facts they are as follows:
About noon yesterday, the tow-boat Wild Cat, with empty barges, started for Cairo. On reaching a point above the island, about sixteen miles above town, where the channel runs close to shore, and near Bradley's landing, it was discovered that a steamboat had been run into a bend or mouth of a creek, and burned to the water's edge. On the Arkansas bank, in the immediate vicinity, about forty or fifty Confederate cavalry were observed, already mounted, and the circumstance were of such a dubious character, that the captain of the Wild Cat concluded to stoop and prospect the land. While thus occupied, the Confederate cavalry started down the river bank toward the boat at full speed, and as the object was clearly to be divined, the captain concluded to take the back-track, and accordingly made his way to Memphis, where the report spread like wild-fire! Nothing was known as to the boat burned, except that it was a small stern-wheeler, and that it had the appearance of having been run ashore and then set on fire. Whether it was a cotton-grading boat captured by the guerrillas which prowl between Hopefield and White river, or whether it was some of our regular passenger packets is entirely a matter of conjecture, as the Wild Cat did not get nearer than six hundred yards of her.
We learn that at a late hour last night, an order was issued from the proper authorities, detaining all the steamers then in port till this morning. When further orders would be given. Whether this unusual order was issued in consequence of the above detailed affair, or to meet some other contingency, remains to be seen.
Memphis Bulletin, January 9, 1863.
8, Private assistance for Federal wounded at Murfreesboro
Aid for the Wounded at Murfreesboro.
The severe battle just fought will make large demands in behalf of our gallant suffering soldiers. The Sanitary Commission has sent forward about two hundred boxes to Nashville within three days, but the number of wounded men is so great that large additions must yet be made to the supplies. Our fellow citizens are earnestly requested to send to the Sanitary Rooms, on Fifth street, between Main and Market, Monday morning, any contributions in their power to make, especially of stimulants and nourishing articles.
The Cleveland Society has done nobly, having in response to the call of Dr. Newberry, sent one hundred and sixty boxes in a single shipment.
It is but a few days since a hundred boxes were received from the same society and forwarded to Memphis. Thus constantly is it working, and most effectually, in the great cause.—Lou. Journal, 5th inst.
Nashville Daily Union, January 8, 1863.
8, Report of feminine neglect for wounded Confederate soldiers in Knoxville
Disgraceful.-The Knoxville Register complains that a few days since, when many of the wounded of our army in Virginia passed through that city, on their way to the Southern homes, and stopped for a time at the railroad depot, not a woman of Knoxville make her appearance at the depot. The editors says"
Our army Surgeons did their whole duty, but there was no woman of Knoxville alleviating the sufferings of the soldiers; there was none ministering to their wants, not one whose smile and soft words of heartfelt sympathy often remind the dying of the welcome of Angels that awaits [sic] them at the gateway of perfect beatitude beyond the grave. A few days ago a body of Abolition prisoners were brought this city-of those cut throats who have come amongst us as agents of that relentless despotism which would evoke the horrors of servile insurrection from the womb of revolution.-These prisoners of war were cared for by our military authorities just as they do for our own soldiers, and ye the fair daughters of Knoxville have been seen in their midst dispensing delicacies and smiles.
The editor thinks that the women of Knoxville might have betrayed as kind a spirit to our own wounded solders as to the negroes (?) whom Morgan captured at Hartsville-the misguided wretches, who sell themselves to the most damnable despotism that exists, to do its bloody work in the South.
Macon Daily Telegraph, January 8, 1863.
8-9, "I am not dead, wounded, or sick, but, on the contrary, never felt better in my life." Albert Potter's letters home after the Battle of Stones River.
January 8th 1863
Dear Father, Mother, and Amelia
I am not dead, wounded, or sick, but, on the contrary, never felt better in my life. Have since I left Nashville. I can say that I have had an active part in as hard a battle as has been fought during the war.
A general move of the army was made on the 26th Ult. The fighting commenced about 10 miles from Nashville the same day and lasted nine days. When the rebels were driven from Murfreesboro. The 4th Michigan has won at least a name and place. On Saturday 27th four companies under Captain Mix were sent out and came upon a strong body of rebel cavalry. There was about 150 of us we charged upon 200 of them, drove them about 2 miles shot 5 of their men, a no. [sic] of horses and took 8 prisoners. One of our corporals was wounded in the side.
We have been busy today arranging our tent. We have got a sesesh [sic] stove, Table and Bunk, taken from one of their camps.
Our Company was engaged in Wednesday's fight. We made two charges upon rebel cavalry. Capt Mix had a splendid horse shot from under him, our quartermaster Sgt was wounded. I have had 3 or 4 narrow escapes, have been where the cannon ball and shells were flying close around me and I must be lucky. I did not think of getting killed at all but I expected to be wounded. We entered Murfreesboro on Monday. The rebs [sic] left Saturday night. Out right was driven back on Wednesday with great slaughter on both sides. I passed over the field Monday. The rebels had carried nearly all of their dead, ours were lying in rows as they had been carried to bury. Horses dead and guns and artillery filled the ground. I can't tell you anything of the sight.
The rebels captured and burnt a part of our [wagon] train and among the rest our company wagon were stolen excepting what I had on. The likenesses and the books are gone. The captains and lieutenants clothes were all gone. Such are the fortunes of war. John Gilbert was not with us thru the fighting was not very tough and had a fractious horse he staid with the train. Charley Smith is without doubt dead, he died with the black jaundice as we were informed. Herman Lounsbury is very sick. I am afraid he will have a hard time of it if he ever gets well. Charley Starkweather is isolated with a lame back. Alf Shepard and Norman Smith are well. We shall be very busy for a week now making out our payrolls….I am liking soldiering as well as ever, if only I keep well and I never felt better--
8, Automatic death sentence for Confederates wearing Federal uniforms in the Knoxville environs
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 7. HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, Tenn., January 8, 1864.
Our outposts and pickets posted in isolated places, having in many instances been overpowered and captured by the enemy's troops, disguised, as Federal soldiers, the commanding general is obliged to issue the following order for the protection of his command, and to prevent a continuance of this violation of the rules of warfare:
Corps commanders are hereby directed to cause to be shot dead all the rebel officers and soldiers (wearing the uniform of the U. S. Army) captured within our lines.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Foster:
HENRY CURTIS, JR., Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. III, Vol. 4, p. 54.
8, Rich and Poor take the Oath of Allegiance to the Uniion in Chattanooga
A letter from Chattanooga to the New York World gives the following account of the progress of the President's reconstructive scheme in Tennessee:
"A number of citizens have already taken the oath of allegiance, and are availing themselves of the President's Proclamation of amnesty. Among these is young Whitesides, whose father perished in the rebel army, and who was himself in that service eighteen months. He is extremely wealthy, being a partner in the grounds known as the Etna coal mines, which some years ago were leased to a New York company for nine hundred and ninety nine years, the proprietors of the soil receiving as rent a stipulated price per bushed of the yield. His mother is the proprietor of a portion of Lookout mountain, and has very wisely concluded not to see it sequestrated, if swearing will save it. And already she, too, has given in her adhesion the required oath. Whether or not those who accept this proclamation of amnesty really entertain any improved feelings toward the old government in general or the Yankees in particular, of course it is not for me to decide; but one thing is certain, and that is, they are thoroughly subdued-humbled; and if ever they are restored to their civil rights in full, they will never again use their privilege to encourage rebellion. It will be their last, and not first, remedy for lost rights in [the] future. The poorer classes are flocking in and subscribing to the oath-with their mark-little knowing or caring what it contains, so that they obtain bread for their families and immunity from rebel conscription or federal punishment by the process. They usually immediately enter the service of the government as teamsters, bridge-builders, road makers &c., and generally some enlist in the army."
Vermont Watchman and State Journal, January 8, 1864. 
8, Changing social atmosphere in Memphis
Our city is becoming a model city, almost like a settlement of Quakers, so serene is everything and so passive [is] everybody....There were two or three drunken fights, but they are everyday occurrences, and it would seem strange if they were not....
Memphis Bulletin, January 8, 1865.
8, Scout for bushwhackers ,Winchester to Tullahoma
No comprehensive reports filed.
HDQRS. DEFENSES NASHVILLE AND CHATTANOOGA R. R., Tullahoma, January 8, 1865.
Lieut. Col. W. J. CLIFT, Cmdg. Fifth Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry:
COL.: Send messengers across the country toward Fayetteville to Maj. Armstrong, and advise him that Lyon's cavalry has crossed the mountains and gone toward Bellefonte, and that it is unnecessary for him to proceed farther in pursuit, but order him to go on in vicinity of Hazel Green, and then scout the country for bushwhackers east to Winchester, and from there to this place. You will move southeast and strike the road between Salem and Winchester, pass south of the latter place, go through Decherd, take all of Couch's mounted men with you, and go in vicinity of Pelham, and east of or through Hillsborough, and try to intercept Hays, who was at latter place yesterday p. m. These latter intercept Hays, who was at latter place yesterday p. m. These latter instructions are not imperative, and you will act upon the best information you can get, after reaching Pelham, as the course to pursue best calculated to accomplish the interception and destruction of Hays, After reaching the road between Salem and Winchester, if you find Hays has crossed through that country, which is possible, you will give pursuit from that point, of course, instead of following instructions, which are only general.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Milroy:
J O. CRAVENS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. II, p. 549.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456