Saturday, March 7, 2015

3.06.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        6, Federal army regulations for renewed commerce on the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 57, HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE MISSOURI, Saint Louis, March 6, 1862.

Surveyors and other custom-house officers and agents in this department, as well as those on the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers or elsewhere, are expected to respect permits issued by the surveyor of either of the ports on the Ohio River and bearing his official signature and seal. Military officers commanding posts or encampments where there are no such custom-house officers or agents, or acting temporarily in concert with such officers or agents, will in like manner respect those permits. Sealed baggage, while the seals remain unbroken, will also be respected by both classes of officers.

II. Goods, wares, or merchandise in transit, thus covered by permits and baggage thus sealed, will be allowed to go forward to their respective places of destination without further examination, unless there is good and satisfactory reason for their detention, founded on local information obtained from reliable sources. And when, for such reason, any detention takes place, the fact should be immediately communicated to the surveyor's whose permit covers the merchandise or whose seal is affixed to the baggage so arrested, and also to the special agent of the Treasury Department in this city.

III. Until further orders the transportation of this department is not open to munitions of war, except under special regulations with the military authorities. And whisky, for the time being, is prohibited in the resumed commerce of the Cumberland and the Tennessee.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Halleck

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, pp. 594-595.

        6, the narrative of J. Milt. Moore's broken vow upon the fall of Nashville

….J. Milt. Moore, formerly a  celebrated steamboat baker [copy torn] [left Kentucky because he feared his] "rights" were seriously threatened so put off for Nashville where in his former occupation of bread baking for the Confederates, he for some time officiated as telegraphic correspondent for the Louisville Courier, and until that concern was suppressed.  When it was rumored that the Federal army was approaching Nashville, Milt. declared he wouldn't leave; he would stay and fight to the last, even if everyone else left the city. Well, when Gen. Buell's army had reached Edgefield, Milt. was seen with carpet rack in hand, wending his way rapidly as a lame man could do so toward the Chattanooga depot. When asked by a sesesh friend, who had heard his boasts, what it meant, he replied that others might do as they pleased, but as for him he was bound for Atlanta, on the first train. Milt. was one of the first to leave instead of the last.

Louisville Daily Journal, March 6, 1862.

        6, Skirmish at Christiana [see March 6-7, 1863, Reconnaissance from Murfreesborough, including skirmishes near Christiana and at Middleton, Tennessee, below]

        6, Skirmish at Woodbury [see March 3-8, 1863 Expedition from Murfreesborough to Woodbury above]

No circumstantial reports filed

        6, Skirmish at Middleton [see March 6-7, 1863, Reconnaissance from Murfreesborough, including skirmishes near Christiana and at Middleton, Tennessee, below]

No circumstantial reports filed.


Brig.-Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

Have just heard from Jones, who took possession of Middleton at 3 o'clock, after a sharp skirmishing, in which he had several men wounded. Col. Jones awaits further orders.


A. McD. McCOOK, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 114.

        6, Skirmish at Methodist (a.k.a. Brick) Church, Shelbyville Pike [see March 6-7, 1863, Reconnaissance from Murfreesborough, including skirmishes near Christiana and at Middleton, Tennessee, below]

        6, Federal foraging and arrests of Confederate citizens in Rome and Carthage environs

No circumstantial reports filed.

HDQRS. WHEELER'S CAVALRY DIVISION, McMinnville, March 7, 1863.

Capt. K. FALCONER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

CAPT.: The enemy at Carthage came out to Rome yesterday, arresting citizens and foraging....

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 668.

        6, Slave owners in Maury, Giles, Lincoln, Lawrence and Franklin counties, Tennessee, ordered to surrender slaves to Confederate forces for use as teamsters to increase strength of Army of Tennessee by Brigadier-General Gideon J. Pillow



Your position is much endangered by the raids of the enemy's cavalry. Wherever they go they seize all the negroes [sic] they can find. Our army has 2,000 veteran soldiers driving teams. We want to hire negro teamsters to relieve these soldiers and restore them to the ranks, thus greatly strengthening the army. All the negroes [sic] you hire to the army will be thus saved to their owners, while at the same time the army is more able to defend and protect the country. I have made a like requirement of the slave owners of Maury, Giles, and Lincoln Counties, Tenn., and of Madison, Limestone, and Morgan Counties, Ala., and I now call upon you. The above counties have responded with patriotic promptitude. In meeting this want of the army and Government you are performing a patriotic duty, and advancing your own interest by preserving your property and aiding the army to protect the homes and property of the owner. If owners shall fail or refuse to comply with this request, they need not complain of the Government if they should be robbed of their negro property. I send Capt. McIver, assistant quartermaster, with contracts signed and complete to carry out this order. His official acts will be binding upon the Government. The terms of the contract, you will see, are liberal, and in everything protect your rights.

GID. J. PILLOW, Brig.-Gen., C. S. Army, and Chief of Bureau.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 2, p. 421.

        6, "Colored Church and Ball-Rooms."

A few days ago we devoted a paragraph to the colored population, in which we stated that the churches have of late become sadly neglected. Various reasons are assigned for this, one of which is, that the boys and girls [sic] are afraid to turn out on Sunday, because many of them have been pressed into Government service in their Sunday clothes and compelled to work in them. This might be obviated by procuring passes exempting those attending church from being pressed on Sunday. Such passes would readily be given by the Commander of the Post. But that is not the reason; there are others more cogent: namely, the bad example of negroes [sic] from the free States, and contrabands. Hundreds of these may be seen upon the streets all day Sunday, when the weather is fine; and when rainy they may be found congregated in the various lodging places, devoting the day to dissipation, debauchery, gaming, etc. A heavy responsibility rests upon our colored preachers at this time; they might and ought to be materially aided by the military, if the latter feel disposed to consider that the morals of the negro [sic] are worth preserving, and believe that religion has precisely the same effect upon them as upon white people, viz.,: in making and keeping them honest, sobers, industrious, and well conducted in all respects.

The being religious [sic] and regularly attending church does not necessarily deprive them of innocent amusements-indeed, it adds to their ability to enjoy rationally the social gatherings they so much delight in-their balls and parties, which were formerly conducted in the most unobjectionable manner by our Nashville boys, [sic] but many of which have the past winter degenerated into places of assignation, drunkenness and general disorderly conduct. So low, indeed, had they become, as we are credibly informed, that few of our Nashville girls and boys [sic] would attend them

On Wednesday last [4th] we were informed that the colored gentlemen of Nashville were to give a ball on that night at the City Hotel, to which no "disreputable" contrabands of soldiers were to be admitted, and we determined at once to be there to see how things went on. The following is a copy of the neatly printed ticket:-"Cotillion Party, to be given at the City Hotel, on Wednesday, March 4th, 1863. James Thomas and K. Douglas, Managers. Music by Bill Porter's String Band. No Ladies admitted without a Gentleman. Admission, $1."

The bell had just tolled the hour of 9 p. m. as we wended our way across the Square, and in fifteen minutes thereafter we introduced ourselves to Mr. Thomas, whom we found guarding the entrance. Bill Porter had just seated himself upon his elevated seat, and while tuning his violin (a valuable one, by the way,) was informing an impatient youth that no fashionable ball commences before 9 or 10 o'clock. Bill had two assistants-a second and base, and discoursed music sweet, eloquent, and spirited, and all being in readiness for the dance Bill called out-

"Gents will please take of dar has, and put 'em in dar pockets, or somewhar else. Better put 'em in yer pockets; I see some white gentlemen here. [Bill has considerable native humor in him, which he occasionally dispenses gratuitously.]

The sets were formed, and all stood looking at Bill with eager anxiety, waiting for the command-"First four right, and left-Back to your places-Bal an ce [sic]-Turn your partners -Swing corners and do it good-Ladies chain-Half promenade," etc. to the end of the chapter, when Bill told them to "Promenade all," but before he had well got them in motion, he called out-"Swap partners, an' get better ones," adding, "You mustn't dance all night with one lady bekas shes putty. [sic]

During the dance and afterward, we had an opportunity of seeing and observing nearly all in the room. There were nearly one hundred present, male and female being about equally represented; all, or nearly all, were dressed in their best, and all [sic] were clean. The boys [sic] were generally neatly attired; only one being clad in that extravagant style so universally adopted by negro representatives upon the stage; the one alluded to had on a neat black suit, with a full bosom ruffled shirt of the largest dimensions, extending out in front several inches, and flapping upon the right of his breast, on the left lappel [sic] of his coat he wore a white satin ribbon, of large dimensions, not less that sixteen inches in diameter. The girls [sic] wore dresses of every conceivable variety, but white skirts prevailed, with bodies (or waists [sic], or whatever they may be called) of all shades, from drab to black, and generally of silk. Some two or three wore their hats, and one wore a wreath of artificial flowers....the best dancer was Lizzie Beach; she was dressed in white muslin, without any ornaments but a neat pin, she is tall, graceful, and danced an infinite variety of steps-enough to astonish an Elsaler, but all in good time, and modestly executed. She had for a partner a boy [sic] in military overcoat, who seemed well up in the Terpsichorean art, but was scarcely a match for Lizzie, we would like to see them with the floor to themselves, and would expect a rich treat.

Time wore on, and several steles were danced, when Bill requested the boys [sic] to "Treat your partners, all you boys that's got money; and you that hasn't, run you face [sic] Them that hain't got no money, nor a good face, can try if there's a lady that'll have pity on 'em, and dance the next [sic] quadrille. The aristocracy then retired to supper, and the remainder kept up the dance.

The refreshment table was extremely neat, and well filled with all the delicacies the market affords, and up to the hour our leaving, there was naught but incessant mirth prevailing, echoed by the "had-had, ha-a-a-hui!" [sic]

Nashville Dispatch, March 6, 1863.


From our Special Correspondent, "Mint Julep"

TULLAHOMA, TENN., March 4, 1863.

I still have no news of material importance to report [to] you. Reports have been chasing each other over the country that our cavalry made a dash into Franklin on the 22d ultimo, and drove the abolitionists from the town. The entire story was decidedly refreshing for the peculiar felicity with which the details were given, yet it proved to be the variest nothing. Early on the morning of the 22d, the abolitionists conceived the extremely happy and ludicrous face of celebrating Washington's birth-day, and artillery was called into requisition to fire a salute. As the salvos pealed over the country [of Middle Tennessee], conjecture caught the notes, strapped the seven-leagued boots, and jumped to the conclusion that our irregular horse were giving the Yankees fits. Thus was broken a phasing illusion.

The spirit of extortion has grown so morbidly fierce in this section that the prices of the commonest commodities climb during one night, with the speed and agility of the fabled gourd. The striped sticks of candy that used to kindle such a bright smile upon our dirty faces when we were little fellows, we could fill our pockets with, for half a dime, and then the sale yielded the retailer a profit of one hundred per cent. They now sell very readily for twenty five cents This is rather small text, but it sufficiently illustrates the gaping insatiable spirit of the vultures who are greedily devouring the very vitals of our government. Six months hence, what will be the fate of the soldier's wife and child, utterly dependent upon the poor pittance he receives, and her own feeble exertions, for the means of subsistence? The prospect is a cheerless and bitter one. But the hearts of these blood suckers are so steeled with selfishness that they are deaf even to [a] hungry babe's prattling pleas for bread. But the heartless policy of these Shilocks [sic] will recoil with a crushing force. An individual case will illustrate a general principle. Suppose one of your neighbors have one hundred dollars in Confederate money, the staple currency of the country, and good worth in ordinary times fifty dollars. Impatient to become wealthy, he sells these good for one hundred dollars, thus depreciating the currency half its value. But whilst thus depreciating the currency, and doubling the price of his goods, the hundred dollars in his pocket have suffered a like depreciation, and in his indecent haste to become rich, he awakes from his golden dream and finds that his goods are gone, and he has only one hundred dollars in his pocket, according to the value he has fixed to the currency. He over reaches himself and finds his profits like the fabled bag of gold at the end of the rainbow. There is a very suggestive lesson connected with the settlement of a very interesting little village in Maury county popularly known as Kinderhook. There was for a long while only one piece of property in the settlement, and that was an old blind bridle, but the characteristic spirit of thriftiness, broke through all restraint for they stole from each other until they were all rich.

 "I cannot say how true it may be

I say you the tale as it 'twas told to me"

Spring is again with us, and a bright soft spell of sunshine tell of buds and flowers not far distant. Just two years ago to-day, Mr. Lincoln assumed the reins of executive authority. Perhaps his driveling soul shrinks abashed at the ruin, the desolation, the new grave hills of his half spent term. Like the mischievous boy, who turned the sluice upon the mill in reckless experiment, powerless to restrain it he turns and gazes helpless and terror stricken upon its mad plunging. In the sporadic effort of approaching dissolution, his truculent minion have enacted a sweeping "conscript law" embracing all men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, save the functionaries of the executive and judicial departments. What a harvest for the for the battle field. A no distant future will decide whether the Northwestern people will submit tamely to its execution. Good night.

Very respectfully yours,


Chattanooga Daily Rebel, March 6, 1863.

        6, Rules governing the Army of the Cumberland ambulance service

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 41. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., March 6, 1863.

The following rules for the government of ambulance service in this department will be observed in future:

I. There will be allowed to each regiment one two-hours ambulance, which will remain with, and be kept in order by, the regiment.

All ambulances now serving with regiments in excess of this allowance will be at once turned over to the chief quartermasters on duty with the corps, detached division, or brigade.

II. There will be allowed for each brigade ten ambulances, to be retained at corps headquarters, or at the headquarters of divisions or brigades were they are on detached service.

The chief quartermaster of army corps, detached divisions, or brigades will receipt for and be held responsible that these ambulances are kept in serviceable order. They will appoint an ambulance master for each train of their ambulances, who will have immediate supervision of the same. They will hold these trains in readiness to comply with requisitions from the medical directors of corps, divisions, or brigades.

III. As ambulances are issued to the army for the transportation of the sick and wounded, they will be used for that purpose only. Any person found using or causing ambulances to be used for hauling freight, or for personal conveyance, except by special written permission of the corps or detached commander, will be arrested and tried for disobedience of orders.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 116.

        6, "Heaven help me. I am strange enough as I am." Excerpts from the diary of Mary L. Pearre

Seven days have passed since I wrote. Ruth, poor little darling came near dying. We sent for her Father. He has not come yet. She is convalescent now. Mag is also getting well. Have been about half sick myself. Caught cold sitting up at night and having to be out doors so much in the day time.

Had company every day & several night. Bob C. came here again this week. I read Vallandigans[1] [sic] speech to him. Took me over an hour. I don't like to read aloud, felt my voice tremble when I began. Was a little embarrassed. Bob is a flatterer. This is quite palpable in his conversation. Says women should be educated. Taught to reason to think and above all should cultivate a fondness for reading. I agree with him, yet I told him that a woman that thought & reasoned to an extent was unhappy, that they find they have to feed too much on mere "husks." The outward world that they hide within their hearts do not agree. If I had read less, imagined less & educated my mind for the practical instead of the ideal in life, I would have been better adapted for the prosaic existence that appears to be mine. That is my fate so far.

Yet I threw away (I fear) my hope of earthly happiness & must wait until the troubled heart moans itself unto the rest which knows no waking.

I do not feel so unhappy, personally I am growing indifferent, yet my heart bleeds in every pore for my country & my friends.

I heard the booming of cannon yesterday. Bro. Robert, I expect, was in the fight. We have heard nothing from it, only that our boys fell back. They have been fighting at Vicksburg. We gained the victory.

* * * *

The bright sun of American peace and liberty I fear is extinguished. A fearful home is all we profess. A hope we will gain our independence. (A Negro War) [sic] how hateful the thought. I wish they were all in their native land beyond the sea. God only knows if slavery be right. Yet all men were certainly not born equal. If so they surely would have obtained their rights before now. I am a half fatalist [sic]. Naturally cannot help it. Have never read any works tinctured with that belief. If I had four years since, what would I have been now. [sic]

Heaven help me. I am strange enough as I am.

* * * *

Diary of Mary L. Pearre

        6, "Gayoso Block."

The large range of buildings on Main street between Gayoso and Beal, known as the Gayoso Block, has been appropriated to the purpose of a hospital under the name odd the Gayoso Hospital. We looked over the interior yesterday and found it had to be a model institution. The building has been arranged for the purpose to which is to be applied by Surgeon J. E. Quider, U. S. A.; the Superintendent being the accomplished chief of the hospitals in this department Surgeon Irwin. The rooms are large, well lighted and ventilated and have high ceilings. The wards are furnished with beds to the number of seven hundred, that being the number of patients the establishment will accommodate. A dumb waiter ascends from the kitchen to each floor; the kitchen itself is admirable arranged for the working and other duties to be performed there, and like the whole place from ground floor to the roof as clean as soap, water had had work can make it. There is a well furnished common dining room, offices, dispensary, and rooms for officers, assistants, and nurses. On the roof are tanks to which water is driven by forcing pumps from the basement; from these every floor, and the bath closets, are amply supplied. In one room a platform is fitted up to receive a melodion[2] [sic], and for seating the choir at divine service on Sundays. The orderly and methodical arrangement of the beds, furniture, utensils, materials for the sick, show that an intelligent and [illegible] mind been busy directing and overseeing all. The Gayoso Hospital is yet scarcely in active operation; it will be devoted to the wounded, and is well supplied with the trimmings for surgical operations. Dr. Quidor is surgeon in charge; He has been selected for his profound professional knowledge and his personal experience. He has obtained celebrity for the peculiar and wonderful art with which he saves limbs in cases where amputation is usually deemed inevitable, and for scientific invention which have obtained the approbation of London Journals and home scientific periodicals. His efforts will be seconded by an able corps of assistant and nurses who have been sent from Indiana by the Sanitary Commission. Twenty-five ladies of the glorious order of St. Florence Nightingale have arrived, and they will be the soother of the suffering; angels of mercy hovering round the bed of pain, supplying the place of absent wives and mothers, and whispering words of peace to the parting soul; hastening recovery by their cares and telling the dying of a triumph bought with the blood of the Son of God. A visit to a hospital is usually a melancholy occasion; in this instance it was not so. Skill and kindness are so happily combined, and the rules for the government of the place drawn by Dr. Quidor are so excellent that we are sure in Gayoso the sufferer will have all that talent, benevolence and care can bestow.

Memphis Bulletin, March 6, 1863.

        6, "SANITARY ARRANGEMENTS." Editorial approval of street cleaning initiative in Memphis [see also March 20, 1863, "The Public Debate on Sanitation in Memphis" below]

We have taken occasion to point out in our columns, within a few days past, the importance of cleaning the streets, alley and gutters of the city from the pestilential matter accumulated upon them, a measure necessary to the health of the city. We are gratified to find that others, in a situation more competent than ours to give effect to their perceptions of what is necessary, have directed their attention to the importance of taking precautions to present the city being the victim of pestilence or epidemic during the coming hot weather. A perusal of the proceeding of the Council, which we publish this morning, shows that Gen. Veatch, whose vigilance has not failed to observe the necessity of proper precaution, and whose kind care has induced him to take decided action in the matter, has called up on the city Council to take steps for having the city streets well cleaned, and has offered to supply the necessarily labor required to do the work. In accordance with his recommendations Council has divided the city into districts, and appointed gentlemen of its own body to superintend the work. We presume the labor will immediately be commenced. We have heard it said that there is no occasion for haste in this matter; that if we wait a month the loose and putrefying soil that now makes the streets disgusting from its rottenness, will be dried up by the heat of the sun, and will be no longer the eye-sore and obstruction the nuisance to walkers and riders it now is, and that the mounds of filth from houses, stores and shops that now encumber many places in the streets, and all the alleys, is all that requires removal. These persons would have the vile deposits of the gutters, and the sides of the streets thrown into the centre of each street, to "round it up." The passing carriage will press it down, and the sun dry its surface – then all is well fixed for the Summer. Whether this be a satisfactory way of doing the business, it is for medical men to say. There are plenty of competent gentlemen, in the various hospitals of the city, who can authoritatively pronounce upon this question. It appears to us that the filth thus thrown together in the middle of the street, is as liable to give off its miasmatic influence there as elsewhere except insofar as unhealthy fermentation, and consequent exhalation of miasmatic gases may be impeded by the decreased supply of moisture at times when dry weather pervades. Even if a decrease did then occur, every rain is sufficient to penetrate beneath the surface at a time when the temperature was high, would be a new occasion for the engendering and throwing of injurious exhalations. But even in fine dry weather the evil will not be suspended. Rotting and pernicious particles in the form of dust, would be whirled in the air by every breeze, and tossed into it by every footfall and by the wheel of every passing carriage. The proposal to cleanse the city streets, and to do it without delay, while the filthy soil is plastic and easily removed – is an excellent one, and citizens generally will feel grateful to Gen. Veatch for his active and practical interference in the matter. We take the liberty of hinting that every citizen ought to co-operate in this good work by attention to the cleansing of his own outhouse, yards, and entrances.

Memphis Bulletin, March 6, 1863.

        6, General Joseph E. Johnston's opinion of R. V. Richardson's activities [see January 6, 1863 R. V. Richardson, First Tennessee Regiment of Partisan Rangers relative to prisoner-of-war issues above]

CHATTANOOGA, March 6, 1863.


One [R. V.] Richardson, claiming to have authority of the War Department to raise partisan rangers in Mississippi and West Tennessee, is accused of great oppression. If he has any authority, I respectfully recommend that it be withdrawn.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 654.

        6-7, Reconnaissance from Murfreesborough, including skirmishes near Christiana and at Middleton, Tennessee

MARCH 6-7, 1863.-Reconnaissance from Murfreesborough, including skirmishes near Christiana and at Middleton, Tenn.


No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Richard W. Johnson, U. S. Army, commanding Second Division, Twentieth Army Corps.

No. 2.-Lieut. Col. Fielder A. Jones, Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry, commanding First Brigade.

No. 3.-Col. Hans C. Heg. Fifteenth Wisconsin Infantry, commanding Second Brigade.

No. 4.-R. R. Gaines, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Hagan's Cavalry Brigade (Confederate).

No. 1.

Reports of Brig. Gen. Richard W. Johnson, U. S. Army, commanding Second Division, Twentieth Army Corps.


GEN.: Agreeably to telegraphic orders, I have sent out two brigades. The First Brigade of my division, under Col. Jones, to go to Middleton, via the old Nashville and Shelbyville dirt road; the other brigade, from Gen. Davis' division, under Col. Heg, moves down on the pike within supporting distance of Col. Jones. I ordered Jones to reaming in the neighborhood of Middleton until sent for, and to communicate with Gen. Sheridan. Col. Heg remains out under like orders. Both are instructed to communicate with me frequently, and report their respective operations. If my minute instructions are followed out, we will surely pick up a number of rebel cavalry.

I have called on Gen. Stanley for a regiment of cavalry for duty with these two brigades. Your dispatch last evening, for Gen. Sheridan, was received at 10.45 and forwarded at 11.15, by a squad of cavalry (10). With the regiment called for furnished, I will keep up a communication between Sheridan, Jones, and Heg. I sent a courier to Gen. Sheridan this morning, informing him of the movements of my troops.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. W. JOHNSON, Brig.-Gen. of Volunteers, Cmdg.

HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Camp Still, March 6, 1863--8 p. m.

MAJ.: From information received from Col. Jones, commanding First Brigade, Second Division, I have the honor to report that we met the enemy, about 600 strong, composed of the Eighth Confederate and First and Second Alabama, about 3 miles north of Middleton, and drove them 2 miles beyond, meeting with considerable resistance at two or three points. Casualties of the enemy, as near as can be ascertained, were 5 killed and several wounded-number not known. Our loss, none killed, 5 wounded. Not deeming the position a good one, Col. Jones fell back about 1 mile north of Middleton, on the Shelbyville dirt road, and went into camp for the night, where he was joined by a squadron of the Fourth Regular Cavalry. Col. Heg's brigade occupied Lee's Knob, on the Shelbyville pike, about 2 miles east of Col. Jones, where he has gone into camp for the night. Communication is kept up between both brigades by means of cavalry. Col. Jones has heard nothing of Gen. Sheridan.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. W. JONES, Brig.-Gen. of Volunteers, Cmdg.

No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Col. Fielder A. Jones, Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry, commanding First Brigade.

HDQRS. 1ST BRIGADE, 2d DIVISION, 20TH ARMY CORPS, Camp Still, March 8, 1863.

I have the honor to report operations of First Brigade on the 6th and 7th instant.

My orders from Brig.-Gen. Johnson, at that time commanding Twentieth Army Corps, were to make a reconnaissance on the old Shelbyville stage road to Middleton, my command serving at the same time to cover the left flank of Gen. Sheridan, who was supposed to be at or near Versailles, while my own left would be covered by a brigade to move forward on Shelbyville pike to Christian. I left camp at 7 a. m. March 6, meeting no resistance until we arrived to within 4 miles from Middleton. Here we found the enemy posted in a strong position, which was carried handsomely by our troops. We drove the enemy through Middleton, and out of his camp, 1 ½ miles beyond the town. He made four different stands, but was quickly dislodged by our men. I never saw finer nor more intrepid skirmishing than was done by the Thirty-second and Thirty-ninth Indiana and Forty-ninth Ohio and about 70 men of the Third Indiana Cavalry. Great credit is due both to officers and men of those commands. The other two regiments of the brigade were held in reserve. The roads were so has as to render our artillery almost useless. We lost 2 men wounded, 1 only severely. The enemy left 7 dead on the field, and 2, mortally wounded, fell into our hands, and were attended by our surgeons. These men reported, and their reports was confirmed by citizens and others, that the force we fought consisted of the First and Second Alabama Cavalry and eighth Confederate Regular Cavalry, numbering in all about 900 men, and under the command of Col. [J. S.] Prather. They also reported a strong cavalry force at Rover, with one brigade of infantry at or near Unionville.

Learning from Gen. McCook that Gen. Sheridan had moved to Harpeth and Triune, I deemed it prudent to fall back to a strong position just north of Middleton, where we bivouacked for the night. At 2 a. m. of the 7th, I received orders from Gen. McCook to return to camp, where we arrived about 9 a. m. of same date.

The country about Middleton is generally rough, diversified with small farms and dense cedar thickets, and intersected by a labyrinth of neighborhood roads, and has been entirely exhausted of forage.

Very respectfully,

F. A. JONES, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Brigade.



Respectfully forwarded.

Col. Jones a gallant and intrepid officer, and deserves promotion.

A. McD. McCOOK, Maj.-Gen.


HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, March 13, 1863.

Lieut. Col. F. A. JONES, Cmdg. First Brigade, Second Division, Twentieth Corps:

SIR: The general commanding directs me to say that he has read with great satisfaction the report of the handsome services performed by the brigade under your command, on the 6th and 7th instant. He thanks you and the troops under your command for the gallantry and spirit displayed by all concerned, and the promptness and courage which characterized all their movements on that occasion.

You will please convey to them the good opinion which the general commanding entertains of their conduct.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY STONE, Lieut. and Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

No. 3.

Report of Col. Hans C. Heg, Fifteenth Wisconsin Infantry, commanding Second Brigade.


SIR: I have the honor to report the following movements and transactions of this brigade during the 6th and 7th instant: Agreeably to instructions from headquarters Twentieth Army Corps, I proceeded toward Shelbyville, on the pike, at 7 a. m. on the 6th, with two days' rations and without baggage. Arriving at the Methodist church about 8½ miles from Murfreesborough, I met the enemy's cavalry in considerable force, which were soon routed by skirmishers from the Twenty-first Illinois and Fifteenth Wisconsin Volunteers.

At the house of Capt. Newman, near the brick church, the enemy's cavalry dismounted and endeavored to hold us in check, but the steady advance of our skirmishers drove them from their hiding-places. Falling back upon their reserve, they again made a stand along the crest of a high rocky bluff, well covered with timber, at a point where the pike runs through a gap of this bluff. It was evident the enemy were trying to post their artillery, it being for them a very strong position. I doubled the strength of the skirmish line by details from the Fifteenth Wisconsin and Twenty-first Illinois Volunteers, and gave orders to take and occupy the bluff. In the mean time Lieut. [A.] Woodbury, commanding Second Minnesota Battery, brought up a section of his Parrot guns, and got them in position on the crest of the hill. The enemy, failing to obtain for his artillery the position he sought, planted two guns three-quarters of a mile farther back on the pike, and opened a lively fire on our lines. Woodbury replied with his Parrotts, and soon forced the enemy's artillery to retire.

My orders were to remain at this point, and, if possible, open communication with Lieut.-Col. Jones, commanding an expedition moving toward Middleton, on the Shelbyville dirt road. The communication was opened by a small detachment of the Third Indiana Cavalry, ordered out with me as an escort.

The enemy's force consisted of cavalry, who dismounted and fought as infantry.

I held the position indicated above until 3 a. m., March 7, when I received orders from Maj.-Gen. McCook, commanding corps, to return to camp.

We captured a few guns and killed some of the enemy's horses. There was also some evidence of our artillery having played on them with effect.

Private Elijah Milan, of Company F, Twenty-first Illinois Volunteers, was mortally wounded during the skirmish. No other casualties.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HANS C. HEG, Col., Cmdg.

No. 4.

Report of R. R. Gaines, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Hagan's Cavalry Brigade (Confederate).

HDQRS. HAGAN'S CAVALRY BRIGADE, March 6, 1863--4 p. m.

MAJ.: Lieut.-Col. [James D.] Webb, commanding the regiment picketing this road (the Shelbyville and Murfreesborough turnpike), instructs me to inform you that, about 10.30 o'clock this morning, the enemy engaged his pickets along his whole left from the turnpike. He moved up his grand guard with one piece of artillery, when he opened upon them with his artillery. They replied, shot for shot, for fourteen shots-the firing at intervals which covered about one hour. They pursued the same course with small-arms, their skirmishers merely replying to ours.

Their force was large, consisting of all arms, and brought wagons. He has been compelled to fall back in consequence of the driving in of our forces on the left from Middleton to about the 10-mile post from Shelbyville. The enemy are now pressing in on our left. The Third Alabama Regt. [sic], on our right, has also fallen back. Col. [J.] Hagan is absent, having gone this morning to confer with Col. [P. D.] Roddey, near Chapel Hill.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. R. GAINES, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23 pt. I, pp. 136-140.

        6, Affair near Island No. 10

MARCH 6, 1864.-Affair near Island No. 10, Tenn.

Report of Capt. Robert M. Ekings, Thirty-fourth New Jersey Infantry.

HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Island No. 10, Tenn., March 8, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the morning of the 6th instant I sent out a party of 12 men under the command of First Sergeant Connor, Company C, Thirty-fourth New Jersey Infantry, to arrest a gang of 3 men who were reported to have murdered a negro the day previous; and also one Joseph Malady, a notorious guerrilla and horse-thief.

The detachment effected a landing on the Tennessee shore shortly after midnight, and proceeding up the river 7 miles made a careful search for the 3 men, but without success. They then surrounded the house they found that he had effected his escape, having received a notification of the attempt to capture him from some source. A thorough search of the premises was made, and several rifles were found and a quantity of ammunition. As the party was returning to the island, those in advance, 6 in number, were fired upon from a thicket by the roadside by a company of guerrillas under the command of Capt. Parks. Finding themselves greatly outnumbered, my men gradually fell back, skirmishing all the way, to the river bank, where, discovering an old raft, they got upon it and floated down to the island, arriving here safely about 8 p. m.

I hardly need observe that had I known of the arrival of the guerrillas in the vicinity previous to sending out the force under Sergeant Connor, I should have sent a much stronger detachment. From the best information I can obtain I should judge that the guerrilla force under Parks and Bradford numbers from 75 to 125 strong.

The guns captured by my men were brought off safely, and also 3 horses.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. M. EKINGS, Capt. Company C, 34th New Jersey Infantry, Cmdg. Post.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 491-492.

        6, Conditions in Chattanooga; An Excerpt from the Letter of Gershom M. Barber

Head Quarters O.V.S.S

Chattanooga Tenn. March 6, 1864

My Dear H.L.

….Chattanooga is in much better condition than Murfreesboro was last year this time. The dead mules and horses here mostly been well buried and the slaughter yards are on the other side of the miss In addition to that most of the army has been moved out to the front…..

* * * *

Barber Correspondence

        6, The Civil War Adventures of Lizzie the Union Soldier from Tennessee

A Strange Story.

"Truth Stranger than Fiction"—Lizzie

Compton, the Soldier Girl.

[From the Rochester Union.]

The young female noticed yesterday as having sought to be received into the 3d Cavalry turns out to be Lizzie Compton, the young soldier girl whose career has been noticed by the Western and Southern papers.

This girl was taken to the police station yesterday. It was supposed that she was an adventurer like many who have appeared in a similar disguise, and was therefore regarded as a disorderly person. The chief found her in Worden's saloon talking with a young man, and told her that she was wanted by the Police Magistrate. She replied that she would go to him, but begged that she might be permitted to go out of the saloon unattended that she might not appear to be under arrest. Her wish was complied with, and Lizzie, in a few minutes, stood before the Magistrate—a fine specimen of a young soldier ready to give an account of herself.

She stated that she was about sixteen years of age, assuming that she had been correctly informed as to the date of her birth. Her parents died in her infancy, near Nashville, Tenn., and she was left, as too many children are, to the tender mercies of unfeeling wretches. She was put into the field to work at an early age, and was never taught any duties of the household. When a child she wore a frock—but really was never fully clad in the apparel of her sex. At the age of thirteen, when the rebellion commenced, she put on the clothes of a boy and worked about the steamboats on the Western rivers. At length she sought a place in the army as a bugler, on which instrument she soon excelled.

Lizzie has been eighteen months in the service and in seven or eight regiments. She got into the ranks by fraud—taking the place of some person who had passed muster and was discharged as soon as her sex was discovered. Among the regiments in which she served were the 79th New York, 17th and 28th Michigan, and the 2d Minnesota. Her first engagement was at Mill Springs, and she relates minutely the details of the fall of Zollicoffer. She was captured with her company and paroled by the guerrilla Morgan near Gallatin, Tenn. She fought at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, and several other places in the West. Finally she went to the Army of the Potomac and got into the 79th New York. At the battle of Fredericksburg, early in July, she was wounded by a piece of shell in the side; and the surgeon discovered and disclosed her sex, which led to her dismissal after recovering in the hospital. Her secret was twice betrayed by surgeons. While in a Western regiment she undertook to ride a horse which none of her companions dare mount, and being without a saddle, she was thrown and injured, which led to betrayal.

This girl, familiar with the use of a musket, understands the manual perfectly, has performed picket and other duties of camp and field, and delights in the service. She recites camp incidents and scenes with the ardor of a youth of twelve, and longs to be with her old companions in arms. When asked if she had no fears, she replied that she was some "skeered" in the first battle, but never since, and she added that as she had done nothing to lead her to believe she would go to a bad place in the next world, she was not afraid to die.

The girl has no education—can do no more than recite the letters of the alphabet. Nor has she had religious instruction, except what she has accidentally received. Yet her notions of morality are such as do her credit. She refers to the degraded females who follow the camp and who mingle with the soldiers, with language of loathing and contempt. Indeed, she appears to think that if she consents to assume habiliments of her sex and become a woman that she is liable to become like one of these. She has the instincts of a boy—loves boyish pursuits and is bound to be a man. She declares that she may yet be a gentleman, but that she can never be a lady. She solemnly affirms that she is innocent of crime, and her affirmation will be taken by any one who hears her narrative.

Lizzie is five feet one inch in height, and weighs 155 pounds, and is of course of rather stout build. She has light hair, fair complexion, and in her half military suit with high boots, and pants tucked in the tops, she has the appearance of a rosy soldier boy of fifteen years. She carries with her a paper from the Chief of Police of Louisville, Mr. Priest, stating who she is, and commending her to the favor of the railroad superintendents. She came to this city a few days since, and went to New York to see Barnum, who had written to her. He was not then in the city, and after spending a day or two there, she became disgusted and started Westward. She arrived here without money, and sought to enlist to provide for herself. She was not discouraged at her failure. She declared that she could work at any business a boy could do, and would earn her living if permitted to do so. She was told that the statute forbade a woman wearing a man's clothing, and that she must abandon the practice. She would not promise to make a change—indeed she insisted that she would prefer any punishment—death even—rather than be compelled to act the part of a woman.

Bail was entered for the good behavior of the soldier girl, and she took the cars to go where, we know not. She will no doubt appear soon in some other locality.

New Orleans Daily Picayune, March 6, 1864. [3]

6, "The Cumberland river is quite a stream, being navigable for the largest steamboats."

Nashville March 6, 1864

Dear Father;

I am standing by a window here in the soldiers' home and the boys are just singing the Star-Spangled Banner. Long may it wave! You may be somewhat surprised at my delay in writing to you. me reason was that I couldn't give you the directions to write tome until now. So far I have enjoyed the very best of health. The boys are, I believe, all well, at least in Co. B. The weather here is quite warm. This southern sun shines in at this window this morning with the warmth of amid-summers sun at the north, it looks to be at about the same altitude. The water we have here is not of the best quality; it is the water of the Cumberland River and is very nearly the color of clay. The Cumberland river is quite a stream, being navigable for the largest steamboats.

The railroad bridges [ ... ] [unclear: are] on a swing, that is [ ... ] the boats come to it, it is made to separate in the middle and one-half swings to the side. We had the opportunity of seeing this on the evening of our arrival here from Louisville, Ky. A number of us boys went to a theatre, last night, in this place, it was the first that I have ever seen. I thought that I was well paid for my quarter. The principle play was Shakespeare's "Macbeth." I am of course no judge of theatres but I was well satisfied with what I saw and heard. The instrumental music was good 3 violins, harp, one clarinet, one brass instrument, I think a bugle & Double Bass. You talk about singing and such like, but there was a girl here last night that I think would beat your Mrs. Sunderland decidedly. I expect that you have received by this time some money that I sent [ ... ] American Express Co. ($60) [unclear: You] may send me word that you received it, for if not, I have a certificate that insures its loss. I expect that we shall leave here tomorrow, probably for the front, Pulaski. We expected to go today, but some accident or another that happened yesterday between here and Chattanooga prevented us. I am tired of standing and writing, so write to me as soon as possible & direct tome Co. B 7 Reg. Iowa Vol. Pulaski Ten, care of Cap. Reiniger.

Correspondence of Charles B. Senior.1

ca. 6, Fuerguson's and Hamilton's guerrilla bands defeat Stokes' 5th U. S. cavalry scout

Excerpt from the letter of Alvan C. Gillem to Military Governor Andrew Johnson relative to fighting Hamilton's and Ferguson's guerrilla forces in Sparta environs:

Nashville, March 11, 1864


* * * *

Two of Stokes [sic] Companies were Scouting near Spara last week, when they were attacked by Hamilton & Ferguson and twenty seven of them killed – all six of the officers and forty men escaped[.] The disaster is charged to the ignorance & cowardice of the officers – at last Stokes [sic] Regt. has been concentrated & is at Sparta….

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 643.

ca. 6-7, Col. Fielding Hurst's 6th Tennessee Cavalry [U. S.] burns Jackson and Brownsville

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the report of N. B. Forrest


Col. T. M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


Hurst is still reported in West Tennessee, and a portion of Jackson and Brownsville have been burned by his men….

N. B. FORREST, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I,Vol.32, pt. III, p. 609.

        6, Insurgent murders in Memphis environs

Guerrilla Murders Near Memphis.

Four Union Men Hung

Fire in the Bulletin Office

[Special Dispatch by Telegraph to N.O. Times]

Memphis, March 6, 4 P. M., via Baton Rouge, March 9.

Greenlaw's guerrillas, a band of outlaws, unequalled in ruffianism of every description, have been conscripting of late in the country around the outside of the Federal lines at this place. On Saturday they conscripted seven men residing on the Hernando road, only three of four miles from the city. Four of the number were invalids from the effects of congestive chills, and unable to proceed only a mile or two with their captors, when they fell from exhaustion. Saying that the poor fellows were playing sham, and that they should not be left behind to give information to the damned Yankees, the chivalry hung their victims to trees by the roadside, where their bodies were found next morning by a party of Federal cavalry. The bodies were brought into the city and identified as John Raldiffe, Thomas Barns, Charles Edgar, and William Volney, all farmers and Union men. The cavalry were in pursuit of the guerrillas when they found the bodies. The received information of the manner in which they came to their death from a lady residing near the scene do the hanging, who saw they strung up one by one, and overheard the curses of the murderers and the entreaties of their victims.


New Orleans Times, March 10, 1865.

        6, Confederate deserters take loyalty oath in Memphis

Returning Loyalty-The Confederacy Crumbling.-On last Sunday ten rebel deserters arrived in Memphis. They express themselves as intensely gratified at reaching a place where there could be plenty to eat. One of them, a rebel commissioned officer, said to his companions, "Thank God, boys, we are no longer subjected stiff ring and starvation for nothing." This is the common sentiment. Deserters are constantly coming into Memphis. They are generally very apprehensive of harsh treatment, and are astonished when they learn the kindness extended to all who avail themselves of the amnesty proclamation.- Memphis Bulletin.

New Orleans Times, March 6, 1865


[1] Clement L. Vallandigham, prominent "Copperhead" Democrat and opponent of the Federal war effort from Ohio.

[2] An accordion predecessor.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115


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