Tuesday, March 24, 2015

3.24.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        24, Rabbi Peres wins in common law court

The Hebrew Trial.—In the case of the Rev. J. J. Peres, who sued in the common law court for salary claimed by him from the congregation of the synagogue in this place, a verdict was given yesterday in favor of Mr. Peres. A trial for libel in which Mr. Peres is plaintiff is expected to take place next week. It will be very interesting, many points respecting the present religious standing of the Jews in this country and their observances, will come up. The clergy and religious portion of the city will find much to interest them.

Memphis Daily Appeal, March 24, 1861

        24, Skirmish at Camp Jackson [C. S. camp of instruction]

No circumstantial reports filed.

        24, Initiation of Confederate steps taken to guard railroad approaches to Chattanooga

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, March 24, 1862.

Brig. Gen. S. B. MAXEY, Chattanooga, Tenn.:

GEN.: Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith directs me to inform you that on the 20th instant Gen. A. S. Johnston telegraphed him that steps should be taken to guard the approaches to Chattanooga, which were threatened in the direction of Nashville. Having no available troops, Gen. Smith telegraphed to the Department at Richmond, and also to Governor Brown, of Georgia, requesting him to send arms and men for the protection of the place.

No response has come from Governor Brown. Gen. R. E. Lee, commanding, responds that the Governor of Alabama has been telegraphed to send any regiment he can command to Chattanooga.

Gen. Smith further directs me to say that it is of the first importance the railroad from Stevenson toward Nashville and the McMinnville and Manchester Railroad should be effectually obstructed, to prevent the enemy from using it for military purposes, and this will be done best by the destruction of bridges, &c., the blowing up of the culverts and tunnels. For this purpose blasting powder can be obtained at this place.

The cavalry belonging to Brig.-Gen. Floyd's brigade has been ordered back to Chattanooga, and under your directions will be employed in scouting the country north of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and in the direction of Sparta, Tenn. There is a force of 1,200 to 1,500 infantry and cavalry, under Brig.-Gen. Leadbetter, at Kingston, Tenn. You will take every precaution to check the disposition of the cavalry to maraud, and will direct them to report any advance of the enemy and its probable force. When these reports are well authenticated and important you will immediately send them to these headquarters.

It is greatly desired that the large amount of commissary stores should be removed to Atlanta, Ga., as soon as possible, and you will give your special attention to this matter. Instructions in relation to the removal of these stores have heretofore been given to Capt. Monsarrat and also to the Government agent at Chattanooga. They, of course, should be ordered by you to report what has been done and their plans.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 358-359.

        24, Revival of business in Nashville

Steadily trade revives, and the scared mercantile population, finding that the Yankees are not the vandals they had supposed they were, now cheerfully and industriously endeavor to turn an honest penny. [sic] The retail groceries are doing a thriving trade, and countrymen in butternuts come in with eggs, butter and milk, the latter article of which is a perfect godsend to the sick in the hospitals. Our boys, however, confine themselves to the sutlers, and know that though they may be cheated, cannot be so outrageously gouged as they are in the Nashville stores. An intelligent wholesale merchant, though a "Southern rights man" (please tell me the difference between Southern rights and secession,) told me a day or two since, in speaking of the manufacturing interests of the city, that a few enterprising Yankees would at once throw new life and power into commerce and trade. A large number of manufacturing establishments lie idle. Their machinery and material having been destroyed by rebels-"a military necessity," as they say, but Heaven save the country from such military necessities. In going around the city, one sees many evidences of rebellion in the half-finished ambulances, litters, cannon-carriages, and other articles of war nature-for, be it known, Nashville was the head and front of the offending in this case. The clumsy attempt of ingenuity by the negro mechanic must be controlled by the master hand of the Northern "mud-sills," and though they say they can do without it, their very words belie them, for even now they desire Northern mechanics to extricate them from their difficulties. These things will, however change, and we shall yet live to see them subsist by the labor of their own hands.

The ladies, with the bright sunshine, have come out once more, and silks and satins rustle you in the streets as if there were no war. Carriages, elegant ones, with all the gorgeousness of Fifth-avenue, may be seen at the shop doors, while obsequious tradesman bring forth their goods for inspection, and the haughty occupant, after a few words is languidly expressed as to the style and the cut of the article displayed, drives onward to visit others in the same way, until the morning is filtered away in a round of such senseless enjoyment as is common with this class of women. On the promenade the scene becomes livelier, daily, and ladies who peered at the Northern Vandals, as they designated us, through half-closed blinds, when our army first occupied Nashville, now throng the public thoroughfare, gaily dressed, glancing in a coquettish manner at the handsome young officers of our army and navy, and evidently wishing to be better friends, now that their former beaux have left them for Jeff-Davisdom. Upon the whole, the city has undergone quite a change since, especially in a business point of view, and we may soon expect to see the "City of Rocks" in a still more thriving condition than Louisville, which latter city has vastly improved since the advent of the "Lincoln hirelings."

New York Times, March 24, 1862.

        24, General Mitchel reprimands Mrs. Polk

The Nashville correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette tells these incidents:

"The following interesting scrap of news is told by an eye-witness to the scene: One day last week General Buell and the Brigadiers of the Department, who were present, went in a body to call upon Mrs. James K. Polk and her niece, daughter of Ex.-Rev. Gen. Leonidas. Mrs. Polk seemed determined that no doubt should be entertained as to her sentiments in regard to our unhappy difficulties. The gentlemen present, as they were severally addressed, simply bowed in silence, until Gen. [Ormsby MacKnight] Mitchel who was standing somewhat away from the party, was singled out. To him Mrs. P. remarked: "General, I trust this war will speedily terminate by the acknowledgment of Southern Independence." The remark was the signal for a lull in the conversation, and all eyes were turned upon the General to hear his reply.

He stood with his lips firmly compressed, and his eyes looking fully into those of Mrs. Polk, as long as she spoke. He then said: Madam, the man whose name you bear was once the President of the United States; he was an honest man and a true patriot, he administered the laws of this Government with equal justice to all. We know no independence of one section of our country which does not belong to all others, and judging by the past, of the mute lips of the honored dead, who lies so near us, could speak, they would express the hope that this war may never cease if that cessation was purchased by the dissolution of the Union of States over which he once presided." Needless to say that remark was, in a calm dignified tone, apt with that earnestness for which the General is noted, no offence could be taken.

Southern independence was not mention again during the interview.

New York Times, March 24, 1862.

        24, The Forty-fifth Illinois Ordered to Save the Bacon at Nichols' Landing

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Savannah, March 24, 1862.

Maj. M. SMITH, Forty-fifth Illinois Volunteers, Cmdg. Expedition:

You will proceed with the force under your command to Nichols' Landing, 2 miles back of which it is understood that a large quantity of Government (Southern Confederacy) bacon is stored. You will get it and return.

Nichols' Landing is 10 miles below Clifton. Mr. H. Gibbs, of Clifton, will accompany you to that place, and furnish a guide there, who will show you where the bacon is. You will avoid all delay, but remain until your expedition has completed the object for which it is sent. Private property is on no account to be molested nor citizens annoyed. The troops under your command should be impressed with the idea that the neighborhood where they are going is almost entirely Union. It was a citizen of the country, or rather a delegation of citizens, who gave the information of the bacon being where it is and of its ownership.

No large bodies of troops are supposed to be near where you are going, but small bodies of cavalry are known to be there. You will therefore keep your men from straggling, and at all times keep a guard at the boat to prevent accident there.

You are to be particularly cautious against engaging an enemy of your own or superior numbers. You are not going to fight the enemy, but for a different object, where nothing could be gained by a small victory, which would cost us a single man. Should the enemy therefore appear in sufficient force to make a stand, return, and a large number of men will be sent.

U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 63-64.

        24, Skirmish at Davis Mill's Road, near LaGrange

MARCH 24, 1863.-Skirmish on Davis' Mill road, near LaGrange, Tenn., Report of Lieut. Col. Reuben Loomis, Sixth Illinois Cavalry.

LAGRANGE, TENN., March 24, 1863.

COL.: This evening I was informed that the Second Iowa pickets, standing on the road running southeast from this place, had been attacked by a party of guerrillas, and two of them were captured. I instantly took about 50 men and went in pursuit of them. We traveled about 15 miles double-quick, came upon them, killed 3, recaptured our men, and took 3 prisoners. We stopped at a house where there were 4 or 5 men who called themselves citizens, but I under the impression they are part of the above-named party.

Herewith I send you 3 prisoners, as follows, viz.,: W. L. Barrett, W. T. Bowlend, and L. W. Mills, whom you can dispose of as you think best.

Hoping that this may prove satisfactory, I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. LOOMIS, Lieut.-Col.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, p. 473.

        24, Skirmish at Pocahontas

BOLIVAR, March 24, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. SULLIVAN:

Col. [Fielding] Hurst, with 100 West Tennessee Cavalry, is fighting about 400 at Pocahontas, and has sent for help. I send all I have, and have telegraphed to LaGrange and Grand Junction to send a re-enforcement.

M. BRAYMAN, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 137.

        24, U. S. gunboats Robb and Silver Lake bombard Confederate conscripting party in vicinity of Carrollville and Clifton on the Tennessee River


Gen. DODGE, Cmdg. Forces at Corinth, Miss.:

SIR: I would most respectfully call your attention to the vicinity of Clifton and Carrollville, Tenn. Being on my way, in company of the United States gunboat Silver Lake, up the Tennessee River, and coming in the vicinity of those places after dark last evening, I thought I would like to see them in daylight, so laid over at Beech Creek Island until daylight. This morning, about 6 o'clock, I arrived opposite Carrollville. I found about 100 rebels of Col. Daugherty's command, under Van Dorn, rendezvoused there, conscripting, stealing horses, and stopping movers [i.e., refugees] from leaving the country. I shelled them out of the place, but don't know what damage was done them. I found a number of carbines and 6 or 8 horses, with saddles and bridles, which I took. I also captured two of the band (Blackburns-father and son.). Clifton and Carrollville are undoubtedly the rendezvous of the conscripting parties of Wayne County and vicinity. Those parties trouble the west side of the river a good deal.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JASON GOWDY, Acting Volunteer Lieut. Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 168-169.

        24, Federal expeditions from Carthage to Rome and Hartsville

CARTHAGE, TENN., March 25, 1863.

Brig. Gen. JAMES A. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff, Army of the Cumberland, Murfreesborough, Tenn.:

The gunboats [sic] has just arrived from Nashville. The guerrillas fired into it at different points from 10 miles below Rome up the river to Rome. No damage done. It takes the boat two days to make a trip from here to Gallatin Landing and back, which is the only safe way for the mail, unless at least an escort of 100 men is sent by land, and as I have only one gunboat I could only send the mail every other day by it. But I ought to keep this boat here all the time in case of an attack. During the present stage of water I feel perfectly safe where I am, and can hold myself against anything like double my number. This stage of water will last over one month yet. I will have all the necessary fortifications erected. I sent an expedition to Rome last night. It returned this evening. It captured a forage train of 7 wagons, 28 prisoners (Capt. Reese among the number), and some 30 horses. My expedition to Hartsville has not yet returned. I send another expedition below Rome to-night after another forage train. Will I want more provisions if the cavalry comes here? I have seventy days' for my present command. No shelter tents came by the gunboat.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 172.

        24, Major-General Granger's assessment of local support for the Confederacy

FRANKLIN, March 24, 1863.


In reply to your circular of March 21[1], received to-day, I would say my portion of the country is swarming with the meanest, bitterest kind of enemies. I know of no other way to report the names and numbers of active enemies than to say that everything in this neighborhood would come under that head, and that the use of a fine-tooth comb of immense size moving southeard would have more effect than any other mode I can propose to get rid of their presence.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 168.

        24, "SOL. STREET AND THE GRAND JUNCTION RAID;" a correction from Major Smith, First West Tennessee Cavalry [see: March 15, 1863, "Saulstreet's guerrilla band's activities near Grand Junction" above]

Editors Bulletin:-Will you please make a correction in your correspondent's account of Sol. Street's raid at my house on last Sunday night a week ago. Street came there with some fifty men, demanded an entrance, which was given to him. Mrs. S. and daughters never left their bed. Sol. Cursed and swore considerably, rifled the drawers, too Mrs. S's jewelry and all the dry good he could find in the house, together with all the stock he could find at the barn, and even some toys that were brought for the children to play with. He took Mrs. S.'s dress, examined the pocket and took therefrom a purse containing forty dollars and left word he was coming back in ten days to burn the house. He and his men acted in the most rude manner. The safeguard was found by one of the negro men being frightened and made [to] tell where he stayed. There was only one of them. I deem it only an act of justice to Col. Oliver, commander of the post, to say that in thirty minutes from the time Street came to my house, which was at 3½ o'clock, he had a force there. They were ten minutes too late. The great trouble has been, and is in this day, that there is no cavalry at this point.

I hope to be at Sol's house one of these days, not only to drive him, but every friend of his out in the country. These lawless bands, that go round the country robbing every man's house they come across, ought to be put down. I respect the regular soldiers, but despise the guerrilla thieves that infest the country. They ought to be pulled out root and branch and nothing of them left, and shall be, as far as my power goes

W, J. Smith

1st West Tennessee Cavalry

Memphis Bulletin, March 24, 1863.

        24, "The Dirty Street Theory;" the pre-germ-theory debate on public health in occupied Memphis [see March 20, 1863, "The Public Debate on Sanitation in Memphis," above]

On Friday we gave a synopsis of the arguments used by Dr. Merrill, in the City Council on the previous evening, at a meeting to consider the propriety of increasing the force now at work on the streets in accordance with the directions of Gen. Veatch. Ald. Merrill, while a physician of considerable experience, and who spoke from a professional point of view, was absolutely confident that, now the temperature has become warm, the consequence of removing the immense mass of filth with which our streets and alley are filled, will be disease and death. These effects arise, in his opinion, from the exposure of putrefying and fermenting matter, which sends off poisonous effluvia into the air, from whence it is received in o [sic] and acts upon the human system; whereas, if it were suffered to lie at least in the streets and gutters, a comparatively small surface of the objectionable material being exposed to view, and that portion being comparatively purified by rains and the solidification of the superficial larger, [?] this pernicious result would be at their minimum [sic] or smallest amount. It is well known that new lands, which were perfectly healthy as long as the surface remained undisturbed, become sickly, and abound in horrible chills and fatal fevers, as soon as the hand of improvement exposes to the air portions of soil, by plumbing or other ways. It is on this principle that Dr. Merrill objects to a wholesale cleansing of our streets at the present time. During the cold of winter the frosts would neutralize the pernicious influence of the effluvia, but now the moisture left by the winter rains is acted upon by the head of a temperature not less for the most part of the day than seventy five degrees in the shade, the subsoil of our filthy streets is in the very worse condition it can possibly be for removal; its powerful evil is now at its height. We believe we have now given a fair representation of Dr. Merrill's theory, and shall proceed to give it, as the importunate of the subject demands, a brief examination

Constantinople, Smyrna, and other cities of the East, have long been the abodes of the plague; they are dirty cities to a proverbial London, the city in which the plague used to play havoc in the most fearful degree, has not been subject to that visitation since it underwent the purification of the great fire of 1666. Since modern science has paid attention to the great questions of ventilation and purification epidemics have decreased and the average duration of human life has been increased. These facts are pertinent [sic] to every student of sanitary science. We place ventilation and purification in the same category, for both are injurious by poisoning the atmosphere, though in different ways. That as a general principal, cleanliness is favorable to health, and uncleanliness the reverse, is agreed on all hands, and therefore Dr. Merrill's theory, if true, is so, not as a part of the general law, but as an exception to it. The question then, narrows itself down to this -- is the street theory an exception to the general rue of cleanliness? It must be remembered the streets, alleys and gutters at the right time, but that he contends that the present season is not the right time. Is he correct in this? Is it better to let the city remain in its present filthy condition during the summer, or at once remove the poisonous and putrefying material from the streets?

It appears to us that the filth in the streets cannot but be injurious to public health. All who have been able sufficiently to bear the stench, to notice the material that has been carted off from the city during the past week, will have noticed that when the dried surface is removed, there is very commonly found herewith a mass of moist garbage and filth that is fermenting and rotting. However, invisible on the surface of the dirty street, this decaying process is every moment proceeding actively beneath and every moment noxious gasses, which are positive poison, are becoming disengaged parting into the atmosphere, and obtaining entrance into human lungs. If we suppose that this process is discontinued in time, by the heat of the sun, causing the moisture contained in the filth to evaporate, we must remember that thin moisture mounts into the air charged with deleterious particles, and is of course, as actively poisonous as the effluvium itself. When the filth becomes dry, the surface of it is continually undergoing abrasion by passing feet and vehicles and disintegrated by atmospheric influences. The portion thus pulverized becomes dust, is raised in clouds by every wind, and every passing foot and carriage, and is taken as directly into the human stomach as the medicinal powder that is administered by the physician. But succeeding rains at intervals supply new moisture; the process of decomposition is again renewed; new masses of effluvia are ejected; the drying process is repeated is recreated, and other beds of dust are sent whirling in the air. These facts make it evident that to allow the filth in the streets to remain there, is by no means a [sic] stoppage of the pernicious effects arising from it; it is not in a state of quiet immortality, but is an active injurious agent.

Ald. Merrill relies much on the predictions he claims to have made in 1855 of the coming disaster which predictions were followed by the ravages of the yellow fever. The parallel which he supposes to exist between cleaning in March 1863, and the work that was done in the street of Memphis in June 1855, has no existence in fact. At the former date the city authorities caused several streets in the southern portion of the city to be graded, and large masses of earth were dug up in elevations, and deposited elsewhere on raised depressions [sic], so as to level the streets thus improved. The turning up of new soil was, in Dr. Merrill's opinion calculated to produce the same results on public health, as those which follow in districts where new lands are cleared and broken up. In the latter cases, it is evident, an entire new surface of soil is exposed to the atmosphere, exhaling into it is ominously believed, miasmatic influences. In removing the superincumbent soil from the streets of a city no new surface is in the manner laid bare; the same process is that of removing from the original surface foreign garbage and filth, which has been deposited on it. There is no exposure of a new yielding pernicious exhalations but a removal from the old surface of refuse matter in which such pernicious influences are engendered. The argument in favor of dirty streets is a fallacy, and the fallacy consists in the case parallel just pointed out. We know that the Doctor making an error of fact asserts that the soil which General Veatch insists on having removed is merely sand and clay, coming from the gravel on some streets, and the unpaved natural surface of others. An inspection of the wood pavement on Jefferson street, between Front and Main streets; of the gas tar pavement on Monroe Street, between Main and Second streets; or, still better, if he can bear the stench sufficiently to make the inspection-of the soil itself as it is thrown into the carts will convince him of his error as to the nature of the filth which illness the gutters and clogs up the alleys. On the North River, in New York, and at the Battery, there are acres of new grounds, made on nothing, but soil deposited on and removed from well paved streets.

We remark in passing, that the opinion of Dr. Merrill as to the cause of the advent of the yellow fever into this city in 1855 is by no means universally received by physicians, nor was it at the time. The H. R. W. Hill arrived here with persons from New Orleans on board who were suffering from yellow fever. The proper precautions were not used to prevent persons going on board, and some of the sick were taken into the city. These things many believe to be the originating cause of the fever here, and that the cutting of the streets was a mere coincidence in point of time. Such persons regarded the coincidence as being like that where there was exceeding good wine produced in a certain year on which a comet was visible, and the common people of the time believed the comet to be the cause of the superiority of the wine of that particular vintage. It cannot fail to strike the observer that there is a great difference between the hard clay of this bluff and the rich mold of decaying vegetable substances, which is popularly believed to give rise to chills and fevers when new ground is broken up.

Dr. Merrill's argument, however, though, owing to his laudable desire for the public welfare, [is] loaded [?] with more than its premises will bear, is not without an amount of truth. When the streets after having been, we almost in jest say criminally left for a long period uncleaned, and covered with pestilential filth, much noxious effluvia must be set free when the cleaning is at length commenced, and it is therfore desirable and necessary, that the process, when once begun, should be quickly completed. We hope therefore, that the attention on Dr. Merrill has called to this subject will have at least, the effect of preventing any more filthy soil being thrown from the gutters and for leveling uneven places; also that strict care will be taken that as soon as the mass of filth is heaped up by the laborers in the streets it shall be removed, and that on no account shall that shoveled up one day be allowed to remain until the next day. Let each day's work be entirely complete, as far as it goes. It is also desirable that the soil should be placed where its offensive and pestilence breeding explanations can do no injury. In this connection, we call attention to the fact that at the upper part of the landing, the river has made a breach which threatens destruction to the entire bank there. If the streets will be emptied into the water at this spot, and permanently closed up the chasm, a great good will be affected. If it is washed away the soil will be where no harm can come from its effluvium.

In conclusion we hope that Gen Veatch's requirements will be fully, but carefully carried out, and after being well washed by the heavy rains, we may yet look for, Memphis will for once, rejoice in the luxury of clean gutters, alleys and streets.

Memphis Bulletin, March 24, 1863.

        24, "A Gentleman Robbed of his Pocket-Book While Asleep."

Tuesday evening [24th] about 9 o'clock a thief entered the door, it being unlocked, of No. 6 Walter's Block, Main street, between Madison and Court, and robbed the gentleman occupying the apartment of his pocket-book containing $190. It was earlier in the than he was in the habit of retiring and being tired laid down to rest a few minutes, but soon fell asleep. While in that condition someone, supposed to be a person well acquainted with the premises quietly stole I and relieved him of the contents of his pocket. It is thought the scoundrel who was prowling around for that purpose is known, but up to our going to press, no arrest had been made.

Memphis Bulletin, March 26, 1863.

        24, Cobblers sought in Knoxville


Department East Tenn., Office As't Q. M.

Knoxville, March 24, 1863.

50 Shoemakers [sic] to work in Government Factory at this Post. None but No. 1 workmen need apply.

The applications of enlisted men of commands in this Department, accompanied by the approval of their commanding officer, will receive due attention.

LOUIS DELAIGLE, Capt. and A. Q. M.

Knoxville Daily Register, April 18, 1863.

        24, Capture of Union City[2]

Report of Capt. John W. Beatty, Seventh Tennessee Cavalry, of the capture of Union City.

CAIRO, ILL., April 12, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report to you that I have made my escape from the enemy after being surrendered, together with 16 officers and about 500 enlisted men, by Col. Isaac R. Hawkins, at Union City, Tenn., on the 24th of March, after fighting six hours and repulsing the enemy four times.

The enemy drove in our pickets at 4 a. m., 24th March, and skirmishing commenced soon after, and by sunrise our camps were entirely surrounded. Their force numbered about 1,500 commanded by Col.'s Faulkner, Bell, Duckworth, Faris [?], Freeman, Tansil and Russell. They first made a charge, mounted, and finding that they were losing a great many men and horses, dismounted and made three unsuccessful charges with heavy loss in killed and wounded. Finding it impossible to rout our forces from their works, fell back great confusion, taking shelter behind fallen timber, stumps, &c., their sharpshooters keeping up a continuous fire until fifteen minutes to 11 o'clock when they cease firing and sent in a flag of truce, demanding an unconditional surrender of our force, &c., giving Col. Hawkins fifteen minutes to make up his mind, stating that they would take the camp by storm as they had re-enforcements close at hand.

Col. Hawkins called together the officers and asked them what they were in favor of doing. I remarked if they had artillery they could whip us; if not they never could get inside our works. All the officers said fight except Maj. Thomas A. Smith. Just at that time the telegraph operator said that they had two pieces of artillery; that he had seen them. Col. Hawkins said that it would save a great many lives if we would surrender, and that if we renewed the fight they would kill every one that might fall into their hands. We the officers, then agreed, to surrender on condition that they would parole the officers and men and allow the men to keep their private property and the officers their side arms; otherwise we would fight as long as there was a man left.

Col. Hawkins then went out and met Duckworth at 11 o'clock, and ten minutes after 11 o'clock, the rebels came in, and Col. Hawkins ordered that all commanders of companies and detachments march their men outside of the fort, or works, and require them to lay down their arms. Afterward we found that Col. Hawkins had made an unconditional surrender. The officers and men cried like a whipped child. They also cursed Col. Hawkins and said he was a traitor, and that they would never serve under him again.

At 12 o'clock the rebels burned our barracks and marched us via Jacksonville to Gardner's Station, on the Nashville and Northeestern Railroad, a distance of 16 miles, where we camped for the night. Lieut.'s Hawkins and Helmer during their night made their escape.

On the next morning, March 25, at sunrise, we were marched 15 miles toward Trenton, Tenn., where we encamped for the night. The rebels gave our men about 1 ounce meat each, and no bread; this was the first that they at since the evening of 23d.

March 26, we started at sunrise and marched to Trenton, Tenn., where the citizens sold our men biscuits at $5 per dozen and baked chickens at $5 each.

March 27, we remained at Trenton during the day. The rebels drew our men up in line and marched them into court-house and searched each man as he went, in robbing them of their money, blankets, &c. Lieut.'s Neely, Bradford, and Morgan made their escape at Trenton. Col. Hawkins said that he would have any officer dismissed from the service that would leave the rebels. They offered to parole Col. Hawkins at Trenton, but he refused to accept it. The rebel officers told me that they knew they would get our regiment when they were 400 miles south of Union City, Tenn. They also said they were willing to parole Colonel Hawkins and let him get some more horses and arms and then they would come and get them.

March 28, we marched to Humboldt, a distance of 15 miles, where Capt. P. K. Parsons and myself made our escape.

JOHN W. BEATTY, Capt. Company K, Seventh Tenn. Vol. Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I. Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 542-544.

Cairo, March 25 – The rebels being reported in force near Union City, Tenn., yesterday forenoon, Gen Buyman, with a force of 2000 men and a battery of artillery, proceeded by railroad to within six miles of Union City, where they learned that Col. Hawkins, with 400 of the 7th Tenn. Cavalry, had surrendered at 11 a.m., after repulsing the rebels (who numbered about 2000) three times. The men were all armed and equipped, and had recently been paid for over a year's service. The enemy burned what was combustible about the fortifications, and marched off with their prisoners. Gen. Buyman proposes to abandon the outposts of Hickman and Union City, as they are of no use to us or the enemy.

New Hampshire Statesman (Concord NH) April 1, 1864.[3]

        24, Correspondence relative to Federal veteran troops in East Tennessee refusing to re-enlist

STRAWBERRY PLAINS, March 24, 1864.

Maj.-Gen. GRANGER, Knoxville or Loudon:

Your dispatch of this date received. I have done all I could do get the regiments within the limits of veteranism [sic] to re-enlist now, but without success. They say they have been so much disappointed herefore [sic], buffeted about, and deceived that they will not entertain the proposition. Several of them started once and were ordered back, and they say that there is no assurance that if they were to start again and get as far as Knoxville or Loudon they might not be again ordered back.

TH. J. WOOD, Brig. Gen.

March 24, 1864.

Maj.-Gen. SCHOFIELD, Cmdg. Department, Knoxville:

On receipt of Gen. Wood's dispatch that his regiments refused to re-enlist as veterans, I telegraphed this morning to Gen. Stoneman that Cameron's regiment could take its veteran furlough at once. By a dispatch from Gen. Granger to Gen. Wood, sent through my hands, I see he regards the question still open. I hope it will not interfere with the Sixty-fifth Illinois, as it would have a bad effect to retract the order regarding their furlough.

J. D. COX, Brig.-Gen., Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 136-137.

        24, "Military Police Regulations;" the continuing struggle to improve public health in Nashville

Brig. Gen. R. S. Granger has just issued an order, appointing Capt. M. D. Chamberlain, twenty-ninth Massachusetts infantry, as Chief of the Military Police of this city, and authorizing him, in the discharge of his duties to search all premises, alley, out-houses or yards, and to give any orders or directions concerning the cleaning, or keeping of the same, and any orders or directions go given, will be considered as coming from the Headquarters of the Post Commander. The order further provides that no obstruction of any kind will be allowed to remain on the pavements, but must be taken in as soon as delivered. It also provides for the disposition of dirt and rubbish of all kinds, and imposes a fine of $5 for any violation of the orders. As a compensation for faithful compliance with the Police regulations, we are promised clean streets, which will be sprinkled daily at the expense of the Government, and a fair prospect of a healthy city the ensuing summer.

Nashville Dispatch, March 24, 1864.

        24, Colonel Fielding-Hurst's orders to "hang upon and harass" Nathan Bedford Forrest and "forage upon secession sympathizers."



Cmdg. Sixth Tennessee Cavalry:

COL.: Information having been received that Forrest with a considerable force of cavalry, had moved to Jackson, Tenn., with the intention either of crossing the Tennessee and operating in the rear of Chattanooga or of striking some point on the Mississippi or Ohio Rivers, you will move with the effective force of your command, with a full supply of ammunition and such rations as can be carried upon the persons of the men, without train or other incumbrance, early on the morning of the 25th of March, via Somerville toward Jackson, crossing the Hatchie River at Estenaula or such other points as the information you obtain may justify. The object of your expedition is to hang upon and harass the enemy, with a view of impeding his movements as much as possible. You will not bring him into a general engagement, but rather cut off and capture his foraging parties, stragglers, &c.

Hold your command well in hand, and do not allow yourself to be drawn into any trap or to be surprised.

Take any forage or provisions you may find which may be necessary to subsist your command.

Extend protection as far as possible to people of known loyalty, and rather forage upon secession sympathizers. You are particularly cautioned against allowing your men to straggle or pillage. Issue and enforce the strictest orders upon this subject, as a deviation from this rule may prove fatal to yourself and command. Look well with reliable scouts to your flanks and rear, as a portion of the enemy's force is at present; out, and will endeavor to form a junction with Forrest. Communicate as often as possible by courier or otherwise with the nearest Federal forces, and follow the enemy as long as you may consider it safe and expedient.

With your excellent knowledge of the county I rely upon your ability to inflict serious injury upon the enemy without much loss to your own command.

Yours, truly,

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 145-146.

24, "It was east of Union City, at the bridge over the Obion River." Report of Capt. James H. Odlin, Asst. Adjt.-Gen., U. S. Army, of operations in Union City environs, connected to Forrest's expedition into West Tennessee and Kentucky


March 24, 1864--8.30 a. m.

It was east of Union City, at the bridge over the Obion River. They have artillery; cannot find actual strength. They seized all citizens, and it was dark. They brought the artillery to the front as soon as shots were exchanged. No communication with Col. Hawkins; he has no artillery. The boat left at 4 a. m., to bring the Hickman troops away. Could not get from Union City any sooner to give orders. They cut the line while I was sending a dispatch. I then brought the train through safe. I have concentrated two colored companies at one bridge that were scattered along the road. They are conscripting everybody. I have just sent the engine out to try and fix the wires, and get information from Col. Hawkins. My last order was to hold the place, and we would re-enforce him. He said he thought it was impossible to get back to Columbus. We caught a spy in Colonel Hawkins' camp last night, but could not get any information from him.

J. H. ODLIN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 541.

24, Newspaper report on military activity in Middle Tennessee and environs

The enemy appear disposed to press our lines in the vicinity of Chattanooga, and are said to be moving their artillery from Dalton toward Ringgold. Taylor's gap was picketed by rebel cavalry on the 15th inst., our forces driving them off one day, and they returning the next. They have a large force of infantry, cavalry and artillery. Guerrillas have attacked and  burned a freight train from Nashville, near Estelle Springs, after throwing from the track by displacement of a rail.

Pittsfield Sun, March 24, 1864.

        24, Confederate attack on Union City

The Rebels Attack on Union City, Tenn.

Surrender of Four Hundred Union Troops.

Cairo, March 25. The enemy being reported in force near Union City, Tenn. yesterday morning, General Brayman, with a force of 2000 men and a battery of artillery, proceeded by railroad to within ix miles of that place, when they learned that Colonel Hawkins, with 400 of the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry, ad surrendered at 11 A. M., after repulsing the Rebels, who mustered 2000 men, three times.

The enemy burned all that was combustible about the fortifications, and marched off with their prisoners. General Brayman proposes the abandonment of such outpost as Hickman and Union City, as they are of no use to the Federals, and of no value at present to the enemy as a means of obtaining supplies.

Philadelphia Inquirer, March 28, 1864.

        24, General Orders, No. 13, Relative to Agricultural Pursuits in Tennessee


Headquarters 15th Army Corps

Huntsville, Ala., Feb. 25, 1863

1. Persons living north of the Tennessee River will be permitted to raise crops the ensuing season, and officers and soldiers of this command will not interfere in a manner with the labors to that end. The should, on the contrary, give every encouragement to the raising of produce for the people of the country to subsist upon, which will believe the Government from the necessity of feeding them.

11. Negroes who are employed on plantations by citizens. Must not be interfered with, but allowed to remain, the people having a right to employ them at fair wages.

This order will read at the head of every regiment and detachment of this command, and must be strictly regard.

By command of

Maj. Gen. John A. Logan

The Ripley Bee, March 24, 1864. [4]

        24-ca. 28, Scout in force from Memphis to Bolivar, Somerville, Tennessee and Estenaula, Tennessee


Maj. Gen. W. T. SHERMAN:

GEN.: Inclosed please find statement [not found] of scout, who returned this a. m. I consider it entirely reliable, as it is corroborated by statements of citizens from canton and other points south. The scout, I have reason to believe, is a very reliable man.

All the old cavalry at this point have re-enlisted and are now going home on furlough. What is left is in poor condition and not very reliable. I have consulted with Gen. Buckland and Lieut.-Col. Harris, of Gen. Hurlbut's staff, and as Gen. Buckland does not consider it best to end any infantry from this point I have concluded to send Col. Hurst, with the effective force of his regiment (the Sixth Tennessee), from 800 to 1,000 strong, to hang upon, harass, and watch the movements of the enemy. He will start to-morrow via Somerville and Bolivar or Estenaula. I will instruct him to communicate at every opportunity with the nearest point. His men are thoroughly acquainted with the country, and I have no doubt that he will be able to impede the movements of the enemy.

* * * *

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 132.

        24, Capture of Confederate navy officers attempting commando attacks upon Tennessee River shipping [see February 5, 1865 Confederate riverine-commando raid frustrated at Kingston above]

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF EAST TENNESSEE AND FOURTH DIVISION, TWENTY-THIRD ARMY CORPS, Knoxville, Tenn., February 25, 1865--7.15 p. m. [Received 27th.]

Maj. S. HOFFMAN, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Cumberland, Nashville:

Two officers in the uniform of and claiming to belong to the Confederate navy were captured yesterday near Loudon. They state they were of a party sent from Richmond to destroy the bridges and steamboats on the Tennessee River. The balance of the party made their escape and are still at large.

DAVIS TILLSON, Brig.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg. District and Division.


Maj. Gen. JAMES B. STEEDMAN, Chattanooga:

Two officers in the uniform of and claiming to belong to the Confederate navy were captured yesterday near Loudon. They state they were of a party sent to capture and destroy the steam-boats on the river. The remainder of the party made their escape and are still at large; they may attempt to carry out their plan. I respectfully suggest that guards on the boats be increased and cautioned to exercise unusual vigilance.

DAVIS TILLSON, Brig.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg. District and Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, p. 769.

        24, "Frame Houses."

The law prohibiting the erection of frame houses in the city without the consent of the City Council was yesterday repealed by that body. It was contended on one hand that this action would tend to create nuisances, endanger valuable property and increase the rates of insurance, while on the other it was maintained that it gave the poor people the advantage of building a home, and encourage immigration into our city. It is a debatable question.

Nashville Dispatch, March 24, 1865.

        24, "Uniformed Police."

The bill passed by the City Council yesterday to uniform the policemen of the city is another step towards progression [sic]. In all cities of any pretension, the police are uniformed, and it has proved of great advantage. The suit prescribed is pretty and appropriate, and cannot fail to lend an air of authority and dignity to our guardians of the city. The will be in the literal sense of the term "clothed" with authority. Strangers visiting us will be impressed with the "greatness of our institutions" and conduct themselves accordingly.

Nashville Dispatch, March 24, 1865.


[1] Not found.

[2] The capture of Union City by forces led by Nathan Bedford Forrest with assistance from was said to be one of the most disgraceful and apparently cowardly acts of any Union commander in Tennessee during the Civil War.


[4] TSL&A, 19th CN


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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