19, 1861, Wealth and tax brackets in Memphis
The City Taxpayers and Their Wealth.
The tax ledger in the controller's office shows that assessments for the present corporate year, have been made as follows:
717 taxpayers of from $1000 to $3000; 341 of from $3000 to $5000; 334 of from $5000 to $10,000; 141 of from $10,000 to $15,000; 93 of from $15,000 to $20,000; 56 of from $25,000 to $30,000; 19 of from $30,000 to $35,000; 27 of from $35,000 to $40,000; 16 of from $40,000 to $45,000; 12 of from $45,000 to $50,000.
Taxpayers of $50,000 and upward, each are as follows: [list of 60 names with amounts follows]
From the same source we learn that $1,389,000 of the above is assessed upon property held and owned by married and single ladies (the names of the latter class, we understand, cannot be ascertained by batchelors [sic] without a fee) and that the sum of $54,000 is assessed upon property held and owned by free persons of color, eighteen in number.
For the above very entertaining statement we are indebted to the city controller, W. O. Lefland, Esq. It affords a proof of the accuracy and clearness of the city accounts as kept in his office.
Memphis Daily Appeal, March 19, 1861.
19, Treatment of Federal dead killed at Pittsburg Landing, March 1, 1862
Special Correspondence of the Chicago Times.
Pittsburgh, Tenn., March 19.
The principal features of this town are a half dozen cabins, a burying ground, and a spring of living water,--the latter in itself being a sufficient reason for delaying a while here, even if the transport fleet could safely move farther south. The grave-yard dates from the first of March; at least I gather as much from the epitaphs printed on small boards and fastened to the trees. The only two inscriptions I could discover read as follows:
Killed March 1st, 1862,
At the Battle of Pittsburgh."
And in another part of the field a board was found bearing these words:
"1st Sergeant Meitzer,
Co. C, 32d Illinois.
The bodies of both Federals and rebels seem to have been buried together indiscriminately, and but little time could have been spent in digging their graves as they were in most cases under a foot deep, and none were deeper. Here our soldiers allowed themselves to be impelled by a morbid curiosity to the commission of a deed, an outrage rather, which should crimson their cheeks and make their friends blush for them. The assumed the character of resurrectionists.
With pointed sticks, and now and then a spade, they removed the scanty covering of earth from the bodies of those who might have been their comrades to-day but for the accident of this battle, exposing their countenances to view with comments like these: "He keeps pretty well," "By golly! what a red moustache this fellow had," and other like observations which one would scarcely expect to hear from the lips of men who, in another hour, might be lying dead themselves with no grave at all to rest in. Thus will a soldier's life eradicate many of those feelings of decency and humanity which should distinguish men from other animals….
You will perceive therefore that Pittsburgh, Tennessee, just now is not a very desirable place of residence, and I think its former inhabitants so regard it, as none of them could be found at home.
Chicago Times, March 26, 1862.
19, Ms. S. McNairy and Major-General A. McD. McCook
Spirit of the Nashville Ladies.
So long as the ladies of Nashville exhibit the spirit indicated by the two following incidents, which were procured from an entirely reliable source, we can never despair:
When Gen. McCook, of the Lincoln army, arrived in Nashville, he sent up his card with the request that he might renew his former acquaintance with Miss S. McNairy. The following was the patriotic reply of the noble and accomplished lady, written upon the back of the card:
"Sir: I do not desire to renew any acquaintance with the invaders of my State!"
Two other Hessian officers obtruded their presence into the parlor of Dr. Martin, and sent up their cards to his daughter, Miss Bettie Martin, an elegant and accomplished young lady, requesting also the renewal of an old acquaintanceship. Repairing to the parlor, with a look of ineffable scorn and contempt, she dashed the cards into their faces, and said: "Your absence, Sirs, will be much better company to me than your presence."
Tennesseans, are you not proud of your women? Will not these noble responses nerve your arms in the hour of battle?
Montgomery Weekly Advertiser, March 19, 1862.
19, "As a friend and lover of the Southern Confederacy I beg to make a few suggestions." A Plea to Protect Planters' Property Losses with Confederate Gunboats in Memphis
MEMPHIS, TENN., March 19, 1862.
His Excellency President DAVIS:
As a friend and lover of the Southern Confederacy I beg to make a few suggestions. You can ascertain from Governor Harris, R. C. Brinkley, Sam. Tate, M. J. Wicks, and many others here, true to our cause, that large quantities of sugar and cotton are stored away in this city and now being removed by the order of the provost-marshal on the "Bluff" ready for destruction, if necessary. To destroy this sugar and cotton without compensation will reduce to poverty a number of good and loyal men. It should certainly be destroyed rather than fall into the hands of the Federals, but as the sacrifice would be for the public good they ought to have their pay in Confederate notes, which in this city is only worth half as much as gold; yet they would willingly taken them at par value. The probability is, without a change in the tide now against us, Memphis will soon be in the hands of the Lincolnites. With it will go a large portion of rich cotton plantations. Planters, who have little, and some of them no money, are required to pay the war tax in gold, or almost its equivalent, besides all expenses. Now, in addition to this, burn their cotton, their only reliance, without paying them in Confederate notes, which they can now use, and you seriously injure many. It will throw a damper on the Confederate cause, because the burden is not equal. Meat men, corn and grain raisers, stockmen, have all been paid fair prices. The cotton planter has suffered most, and ought to be relieved where his cotton is burned for the public good. He ought to have Confederate notes, which he can now use. More than three months ago, in Nashville, Tenn., I heard Col. Wirt Adams say that Nashville had but little more protection, other than the low stage of the Cumberland River; that the fortifications at Fort Donelson were holly inadequate to resist a formidable assault. He was to me a comparative stranger, yet his remarks made upon me a deep impression, as they did upon many others. The Secretary was entirely too slow in commencing to build gun-boats, and he is now heartily cursed from one end of the country to the other. The property taken and destroyed by our enemies on the Tennessee and Cumberland would have built gun-boats sufficient to have protected all the rivers in the South. Now, should he get down the river we lose all our boats.
With high regard, respectfully submitted, in great haste, by,
OR, Ser. IV, Vol. I, pp. 1008-1009.
19, "The Federals are sorely disappointed at the reception they meet from our people." A letter from Nashville
From the Atlanta (Ga.) Commonwealth, 27th.
Extracts—Letter from Nashville.
Nashville, March 19, 1862.
My Dear Friend: Since you left here things have changed to a very great extent. The Nashville of to-day, is not the Nashville of a few months since. Fully two-thirds of our best population have gone, and are now scattered over the cotton States. Their places are filled by the very dregs of society from Northern cities. There are thousands of merchants and drummers here from New York, Philadelphia, and Cincinnati, and new business houses are being opened here every day by Northern men. There are numbers of steamboats arriving each day from Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louisville, and St. Louis. The cars are now running regularly from Louisville to Edgefield. Gen. Buell is still in command here. His headquarters is at the Hermitage, twelve miles from the city on the Lebanon turnpike. His force is at least 60,000 men. Gens. Thomas and Shoepf are at Lebanon, thirty miles northeast of here, with 25,000 men. Thus you will see there are 85,000 Federals in the vicinity of Nashville, and the cry is still they come. All the horses and mules and many of the able bodied negroes in the counties adjoining Davidson have been pressed into the Federal service, and are working like beavers on the fortifications around the city, which are of the most formidable character. The heaviest fortifications are east and south of the city. The enemy have possession of the towns of Lebanon, Murfreesboro', Levergn, Franklin, Shelbyville, Columbia, Centreville and Charlotte, which towns are east, south, and southeast from the city, and embracing a radius of forty miles. They are constructing the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, and the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad, as they proceed South….
The Federals are sorely disappointed at the reception they meet from our people. We keep aloof from them and have no communication with them whatever. The country people refuse to bring in any thing at all, and our market is almost bare. Aside from the miserable and money-making population with which every Southern State is unhappily afflicted, our people are sound to the core. We are hopeful and buoyant, and will wait patiently and pray fervently for the good time coming.
Our women, God bless them! are all in favor of the South. An incident occurred here the other day, which is worthy of mention. Several Federal regiments were passing through the city for some point east. In passing by the elegant residence of Dr. Bolling, a Federal officer asked a lady who stood in a porch,
"Whose residence is this, madam?"
"Where is Dr. Bolling?"
"He is in the Confederate Army."
"Ha, so you are the wife of a rebel."
"Yes, sir, I am, and I glory in it." And (calling her little daughter to the door, who held a Confederate flag in her hand) "here is the child of a rebel, and here is the proud emblem of rebellion, which can be seen in every room in this house."
The crest fallen vandal, putting spurs to his horse, replied, "I will see you again madam." This is the spirit which animates our women."
Weekly Columbus [Ga] Enquirer, April 1, 1862.
19, "Let Andrew Johnson beware. He may find a Corday in every woman he meets; he may expect at every corner, in every crowd, the ball that is to send him to his Maker's presence, unshrived of his odious crimes." A call for resistance to the pending Union occupation
Another Appeal to the People of Tennessee.
Editors Appeal:; Gen. Beauregard appeals to the planters for their bells, to be cast into cannon. If our country needs the metal, should not our churches give their bells to this sacred cause? True worshipers need no sounding brass to call them to the house of God. In times like these the human heart naturally flows out in prayer; every thought is a prayer—prayer for our imperiled country, imperiled friends. These bells have long served in well-doing. Thousands of straying feet have they called into the paths of peace, up to religion's altar. There is now a stern duty to perform—sterner, but no less sacred. Mold these bells into cannon and let their roar sound the death-knell of tyranny. Let their thunderous music make the song Tennesseans most delight in. Memphis may fall into the hands of the Vandals, and if Memphis falls, her men, her metal must fall back and fight on for freedom. At this time the South can ill afford to have either her men or her metal fastened up within Yankee pickets.
The Yankees are astonished at southern hopefulness. One of their reporters, writing from Clarksville, says: "Strange as it may seem to those who, flushed with recent success, are predicting the war will end in a month, these people seem to believe in the ultimate success of their cause."; And why should we not believe in our ultimate success?; Because within the last two months we have met several severe defeats?; How little you seem to know—we will not say of southern nature—but of human nature, Mr. Reporter. Our defeats have only made us in more deadly earnest. We are just getting properly stirred up. The fall of fifty Fort Donelsons will not find us conquered. You may pour in your Yankee hordes until our race is extinct, but not conquered. You may slay the eight millions of men, now arrayed against you, but there are as many boys growing up to whom their mothers will teach an eternal hatred of the murderers of their fathers, the invaders of their homes, the polluters of their country's soil. In time these boys will be men, and the sons of southern mothers are not born for bondage. The day of reckoning will come.
It is probable that the enemy may get possession of the Mississippi river, of the cities on her banks, of the cities on the Atlantic coast, and yet the fight will be but begun. Even in that case, our condition would not be so bad as other nations have fallen into, yet have struggled up from victoriously. I have already mentioned the case of Prussia, with only five millions of inhabitants, fighting for seven years against allied Europe. In the annals of the world there is not a parallel to so unequal a contest—five millions of people at war with one hundred millions, yet triumphant in the end!
After the dreadful battle of Pavia, which left ten thousand Frenchmen dead on the field, Francis I himself made prisoner, dispatched a letter to his mother, Louise, the regent, containing only these words:; "Madam, all is lost except our honor."
The honor of a nation is its soul, its spirit. Until our honor be lost, there will always be power to retrieve disasters. The honor of the South is untarnished.
When Francis I, the brave, chivalrous king of France, sent that memorable letter to his mother, the kingdom was in a fearful condition. Robertson says:; "France, without a sovereign, without money in her treasury, without an army, without generals to command, encompassed on all sides by a victorious and active enemy, seemed to be on the very brink of destruction. But the great abilities of Louise, the regent, saved the kingdom. Instead of giving herself up to lamentations, as were natural to a woman so remarkable for her maternal tenderness, she discovered all the foresight, and exerted all the activity of a consummate politician."
In the history of the world there are many such examples; and yet, in the face of history, our foolish foes persist in believing the South is conquered because we have lost two half-manned forts.
"Whom the gods destroy, they first make mad."
We will not positively assert that the gods intend to destroy the Yankee race, but are positive they have lost all common sense. Witness this extract from a Yankee reporter to a northern paper:
"Gen. Smith has made a very favorably impression upon them (the Clarksville people.); The gray-headed old veteran looks a soldier. Whatever latent Union feeling there may be in the place he will draw it out. His treatment of a pompous rebel the other day was characteristic. The man called on him to ask a special favor. "Who are you, sir," asked the general?; "I am a Southerner, sir, and not ashamed to say, a Secessionist."; "Get out of my room, you scoundrel!; I don't talk to traitors!; Get out of my room!"
We look in vain to find the irony in this statement, but no!; the reporter is in cool, dead earnest. In the same passage that tells us, 'if there is any latent Union feeling Gen. Smith will be sure to draw it out," he gives us a sample of the general's low bred bullying of a southern gentleman for the honest utterance of his sentiments. If this is the way Gen. Smith proposes to "draw out Union feeling," we confidently predict he will not, in a hundred years, get enough to fill a pint bottle.
Andrew Johnson has accepted the position of military governor of Tennessee. The Yankees think there is a peculiar fitness in this appointment. So think we. We prefer they send us Andrew Johnson to any man in the world, unless it be Emerson Etheridge. There is but little difference between them. Let us be content with Andy and return dutiful thanks to Abraham for all such favors. Our purpose in mentioning this matter, is to hereby extend to that military governor an invitation from us, the women of Memphis, to visit our city. From our hearts we hope he may come, and when he comes, when Tennessee soil is dishonored by the tread of that dastard traitor, let him beware. In her darkest days of oppression France had her Charlotte Corday,  and when the dark days fall on Tennessee, her men may be beyond her borders fighting in the ranks of freemen, but her women will be left. Let Andrew Johnson beware. He may find a Corday in every woman he meets; he may expect at every corner, in every crowd, the ball that is to send him to his Maker's presence, unshrived of his odious crimes.
The Wife of a Soldier.
Memphis Daily Appeal, March 19, 1862.
19, Confederate reconnaissance and skirmish near Readyville
HDQRS., Murfreesborough Pike, March 20 [Friday], 1863.
Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. Corps:
GEN.: On Wednesday [18th] I received numerous reports from reliable persons who came from the enemy's lines, to the effect that the enemy were moving troops from Murfreesborough to Nashville; also that they were sending trains loaded with troops from Nashville to Gallatin; also that they had for some time been sending stores of all kinds north from Nashville, and also that the general impression prevailed that the enemy were falling back, at least as far as the Cumberland, and were to garrison more strongly various points in Kentucky. At the same time I received official reports from Gen. Martin that the same opinion prevailed in his front.
On first hearing these reports, I directed Gen. Morgan to prepare to move his command, and gave him orders to cross Stone's River and attack their flank. I also ordered Gen.'s Wharton and Martin to attack their pickets, and develop any change they might be making. These arrangements occupied nearly all Wednesday [18th] night.
At daylight Thursday [19th] morning I started to reconnoiter the front in person. A portion of Col. [Baxter] Smith's regiment drove in the enemy's pickets at Readyville. I got a fine view of their camps, and could count distinctly some two hundred tents. No doubt many more were there, as they seemed to extend in a wood near Stone's River. I could not see any fires, men, wagons, or horses. I therefore notified Lieut.-Col. [P. F.] Anderson, commanding Smith's regiment, and directed him to press in the pickets again, and report the result. When I hear from him, I will report again. I then rode along our line to Bradyville, and from thence, between our line and that of the enemy, to Fosterville, at which place I arrived at 4 o'clock this morning. After resting about three hours, I went to the front with Gen. Martin, whose brigade had driven in the pickets yesterday, and found the enemy strongly posted.
We have out scouts this morning, and if I find any change, I will press out with the entire force at my disposal.
Some prisoners taken near Bradyville state that they were at the depot at Murfreesborough day before yesterday, and they thought but few troops were moving toward Nashville, but they thought some troops were moving toward Triune or Franklin.
Very respectfully, general, your obedient servant,
JOS. WHEELER, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 717-718.
FOSTERVILLE, March 20, 1863.
Maj. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
We drove in pickets and made a reconnaissance of the enemy's camps at Readyville yesterday at 12 m. I could count about two hundred tents standing. No positive indications in this immediate front of a retrograde movement on the part of the enemy.
JOS. WHEELER, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 716.
19, Skirmish at Statesville [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, below]
19, Running skirmish from Prosperity Church to Auburn [today Auburntown] on Auburn Pike [see March 20, Action `at Vaught's Hill, below]
19, Skirmish at Richland Station [today Portland, Tennessee]
MARCH 19, 1863.--Skirmish at Richland Station, Tenn.
No. 1.--Brig. Gen. Eleazer A. Paine, U. S. Army, commanding at Gallatin, Tenn.
No. 2.--Col. George P. Smith, One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry.
No. 3.--Brig. Gen. Henry M. Judah, U. S. Army, commanding at Bowling Green, Ky.
No. 4.--Maj. Isaac R. Sherwood, One hundred and eleventh Ohio Infantry.
Reports of Brig. Gen. Eleazer A. Paine, U. S. Army, commanding at Gallatin, Tenn.
HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Gallatin, Tenn., March 25, 1863.
GEN.: Herewith I send you the official report of Col. Smith upon the railroad attack, on the afternoon of the 19th instant.
I wish to add that Col. Smith and his regiment have been of invaluable service to me in hunting down the outlaws who infest the northern part of this county.
I have just received a dispatch asking why I did not report the occurrence to headquarters. Within ten minutes from my receipt of Col. Smith's dispatch, I sent one to headquarters.
E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
GALLATIN, March 25, 1863.
GEN.: Your dispatch of to-day is received. Within ten minutes from the time that I received the dispatch from Col. Smith informing me of the attack, I sent the following:
Brig.-Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff, Murfreesborough:
GEN.: A guerrilla band ran the passenger down train from Louisville off the track in Richland woods, about 16 miles from there, this evening. Col. Smith sent some infantry; killed 1, wounded 3, and took 4 prisoners. I think they will get the train through to-night.
Our loss, none. I shall go up as soon as we can get a locomotive.
E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen.
Gen., the above dispatch was sent to Gen. Garfield that night and the next day I made a written report to Gen. Garfield upon the matter, referring to my dispatch the evening before.
Gen., I never sent a dispatch or communication to a newspaper, except a few lines to a Chicago paper on the capture of Fort Donelson.
I do not know what was in the Louisville Journal.
E. A. PAINE, Gen.
Report of Col. George P. Smith, One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry.
HDQRS. 129TH ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, South Tunnel, Tenn., March 24, 1863.
DEAR GEN.: As the finale of the rebel raid upon the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, of the 19th instant, near Richland Station (of which I apprised you by telegram of that date), I beg leave to report that the rebels were completely routed and driven from the ground in great disorder. We recaptured moth of the mail, express goods, of which there was a large quantity, and $9,000 in money, which was taken from the train. We also captured 16 guns (Springfield rifle), and should have got a good many more, but whilst my men were pursuing the enemy, a force arrived at the scene of action on a train of cars from Bowling Green, Ky., who picked up the guns which the rebels had thrown away in their flight. Twenty-eight horses and 4 prisoners were captured. One rebel killed. In the retreat, as admitted by the rebels, 18 were wounded, some slightly, others more seriously. One of the prisoners, who was shot through the knee, was peremptorily taken from the corporal who had him in charge, by a medical officer, who claimed to be height in authority, and who, as he said, was going to Louisville.
Gen., it is but just to say of Companies A and K of my command, who are stationed at the stockade, 1 ½ miles from where the train was thrown from the track that they made the distance and were firing against the marauders within twelve minutes from the time they heard the crash and firing upon the cars.
Company A was commanded by Lieut. J. F. Culver, a brave and efficient officer; Company K, by their first sergeant, Charles Margraff.
Most respectfully submitted.
G. P. SMITH, Col., Cmdg.
Brig. Gen. E. A. PAINE.
Report of Brig. Gen. Henry M. Judah, U. S. Army, commanding at Bowling Green, Ky.
HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Bowling Green, Ky., March 21, 1863.
CAPT.: I forward herewith the report of Maj. Sherwood, One hundred and eleventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, in command of the detachment sent by me to the scene of the recent attack upon the railroad, near Richland, Tenn.
Although the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois is serving in another department, I feel justified in directing the attention of the district commander to several facts developed in Maj. Sherwood's report. Among them, the rank of the officer in charge of so large a party; its abrupt departure, leaving to my detachment the duty of guarding the train, and the reported possession, on the part of two of the wounded rebels, of passes from Col. Smith, One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois.
My detachment left without supper or blankets, and, excepting a few crackers, were without food for nearly twenty-four hours, during which interval they faithfully guarded provisions of all kinds, including delicacies, a fact which speaks favorably for their discipline.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. M. JUDAH, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
Capt. A. C. SEMPLE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., District of Western Kentucky.
Report of Maj. Isaac R. Sherwood, One hundred and eleventh Ohio Infantry.
HDQRS. 111TH Regt. [sic] OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Bowling Green, Ky., March 21, 1863.
SIR: On the evening of the 19th instant, I was placed in command of a detachment of 200 men from this regiment (One hundred and eleventh Ohio), with orders from Brig.-Gen. Judah to proceed immediately by railroad to a point on the Louisville and Nashville road, about 9 miles south of Franklin, between Mitchellville and Richland, where, it was said, the rebels had possession of a passenger train of cars. We reached the spot about 8 p. m.; found the rebels gone, and the train guarded by about 100 men of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois, under command of a lieutenant. The spot where the train was thrown from the track is about 1 1/4 miles distant from the camp and stockade of a portion of Col. Smith's (One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois Regt. [sic]) command. The soldiers in camp were only notified of the outrage by hearing the crash of the falling engine, as it was precipitated over the embankment, and the discharge of musketry, as the rebels fired into the train.
About 10 p. m. the lieutenant in command of the men of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois drew in his men and left for camp. I immediately threw out guards, and, upon learning that the express goods and baggage were left unguarded, sent men to protect it. We finished relaying the track at 11 a. m. the next day, and loaded the express goods and baggage on the freight train which went forward to Nashville, when I returned to Bowling Green with my command, arriving at 4.20 p. m. The major and adjutant of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois visited the wreck about 9 a. m., the day after they outrage.
From the best information I could gather, the outrage was committed by from 60 to 75 men, under command of a Capt. Jones, from Shelbyville, Ky. (formerly of John Morgan's cavalry). An obstruction was placed on the track at a short curve in the road, which threw the engine and two cars from the track. As soon as the train was stopped, the guerrillas fired into it. The passengers (women, civilians, and officers), numbering in all some 200, commenced scattering in all directions, leaving the rebels in quiet possession of the train. Plundering was immediately commenced. They cut open the mail bag and robbed the mail; broke open the express safe and took out the money, and were just on the point of paroling the officers captured, when the men from the camp of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois made their appearance and drove them from the train. In their flight they dropped the largest portion of the money captured and a part of the mail. The men of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois succeeded in capturing 6 men and 4 horses, and severely wounding 1 man. Not a soldier on our side, or a passenger, was injured. The money dropped by the rebels was found; also a part of the mail. Capt. [T. C.] Norris, who commanded a scouting party from my command, found six guns and a small a portion of the lost mail. The guns (two Enfield and two Springfield rifles) I hold subject to your orders; the mail I have forwarded. I was unable to learn from the express messenger the amount of money carried away. But little of the express goods were damaged, and only a small portion missing.
I also learned that the rebels were piloted to the spot by a man living 1½ miles distant (name not known), and that two of the men captured had passes from Col. Smith, of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois.
I am, sir, your most obedient servant,
I. R. SHERWOOD, Maj. One hundred and eleventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 147-151.
Franklin, Tenn., March 20.-The Nashville train was yesterday thrown off track, by the guerillas placing obstructions on the track, by the guerillas placing obstructions on the track four miles above Richland Station, not at Woodburn, as previously stated. The locomotive, tender and two express cars were crushed.
The guerillas fired into rear car, containing women and children. They called themselves Morgan's men. The passengers returned the fire, killing one and wounding three. One passenger was slightly wounded. The guerrillas commenced paroling at the head of the train, and took away the officers' side arms, rifled their carpet sacks, &c. Adams' Express car was robbed of its contents, but part was subsequently recovered. The mail on the train was seized but recovered.
The Conductor ran back one mile, to the station, and the soldiers coming up at the double-quick, recaptured the train and drove off the guerrillas, wounding several and taking four prisoners.
General Brannon and Lieutenant-Colonel McKer were in the rear car, but were neither captured nor paroled, but are safe at Nashville.
Philadelphia Inquirer, March 21, 1862
19, Skirmish at Spring Hill
Report of Col. Thomas J. Jordan, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry.
HDQRS. NINTH PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY, Franklin, Tenn., March 20, 1863.
SIR: I beg leave to report that, agreeably to orders, I moved on the morning of the 19th with 330 men, detachments from the Ninth Pennsylvania, Second Michigan, and Fourth and Seventh Kentucky Cavalry, toward Spring Hill, on the Columbia turnpike, at which place I was to meet the command of Col. [L. D.] Watkins that had been sent out on the Carter Creek road. About 4 miles from Franklin I captured 2 prisoners, who informed me that there was division of cavalry (rebel) at Spring Hill.
After sending the prisoners under a guard, with a dispatch to yourself, to headquarters, I moved on carefully to Thompson's Station, and, finding no enemy, I proceeded forward to Spring Hill. My whole command, with the exception of 70 men of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, was deployed as skirmishers and flankers.
Immediately on passing the town, I came in contact with the enemy, about 800 or 900 strong, drawn up on the wooded hill to the right of the road, and a most galling fire was opened by them upon Company A, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry, killing 1 man and very seriously wounding another. I ordered my men to dismount and advance carefully, taking advantage of the fences and irregularities of the ground to shelter them, and, if possible, drive the enemy from their position.
After a sharp conflict the enemy withdrew, and I followed them about 1 mile, when I halted my command till Col. Watkins came up, as I had information that he was near. We then joined our forces and drove the enemy over Rutherford Creek. By this time, as night was approaching, I ordered the horses to be fed, and as a great part of the command had run out of rations, marched back to camp at Franklin, at which place I arrived at 12 m.
The moment the enemy began to retire, I at once sent a dispatch to Gen. Smith, notifying him of the fact.
THOS. J. JORDAN, Col. Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 150-151.
19, Skirmish at Liberty
Report of Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan, C. S. Army.
HDQRS. MORGAN'S BRIGADE, McMinnville, March 21, 1863--1 p. m.
GEN.: A dispatch just received from Gen. Morgan, dated Liberty, March 19, says:
Upon reaching Liberty, I found that Col. [W. C. P.] Breckinridge was draw[n] up in line of battle near Liberty. The enemy advanced in force in our front, and also upon our left flank, and attacked our forage train, which is nearly in our rear. Those in our rear are cavalry; those in front, infantry and cavalry. Those in front I shall attack, and hope to capture to-morrow. Send a dispatch to Gen. Wheeler or Gen. Bragg that, from all the information I can get, the Federals are not falling back. The last news from Gallatin is that the trains to Louisville had soldiers to meet Morgan's command, who were reported to have crossed the Cumberland at Gainsborough, but, finding the real condition of things, returned by rail to Nashville. I am pretty certain that there is no probability, or I may say possibility, of their retreat.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
B. W. DUKE,
Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON.
P. S.-As I am not advised of Gen. Wheeler's whereabouts, I have not been able to send this information to him.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 152.
19, Skirmish near College Grove, and destruction of Federal bridge over Harpeth River
MARCH 19, 1863.-Skirmish near College Grove, Tenn.
Report of Brig. Gen. John A. Wharton, C. S. Army.
HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 19, 1863--9 p. m.
GEN.: Your letter of yesterday has just been received. I have been pressing them for several days, but can discover nothing to induce me to believe they are evacuating Murfreesborough. They are still encamped at the junction of this and College Grove pike, and yesterday my men engaged them 1 ½ miles this side of Salem. To-day a body of 250 picked men from this command, supported by Roddey, drove the enemy away from the new bridge they had constructed over Harpeth, near College Grove, and burned the bridge. The fight lasted several hours. Your orders relative to pressing the enemy's pickets shall be carried out.
Most respectfully, general,
JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 153.
HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 19, 1863--8.30 p. m.
Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. at Shelbyville:
GEN.: Yours of 1.30 p. m. of this date has just been received. My scout has just returned. They went within 1 mile of Salem. They learned that the enemy moved out infantry (the number not known) to Salem last night. The officer could learn nothing of the evacuation, save that he was told that they were moving their wounded from Murfreesborough, and that the negroes [sic] are running to the Yankees, both of which might indicate a retrograde movement. The enemy are at the same position on this pike. I sent 250 picked men yesterday to attack the enemy near College Grove, and ordered Roddey to support them. They engaged the enemy 1 ½ miles south of College Grove, drove them before them, and burned the bridge which they have just built over the Harpeth, near College Grove. Please advise Gen. Bragg that I have destroyed this bridge. I learn that the enemy sent thirteen transports, laden with troops, to Carthage last Thursday. It may be Gen. Rosecrans is about to adopt my campaign, via Carthage to Kingston, E. Tenn.
I have sent a lieutenant, with three good men, with Mr. House as a guide, to the enemy's rear, passing around to the Wilkinson pike. I will hear from them by 12 m. to-morrow. I have four men now near Triune; will report when they return. The fight at College Grove and its results are very creditable. I have a scout now at Lebanon. I will use every exertion to advise you of the movements of the enemy, and will attack them upon every opportunity. Please give me your suggestions from time to time.
I send you Cincinnati Enquirer of the 9th and 14th instant. One contains the recent elections in New York; the other a speech from Hon. Mr. [George H.] Pendleton, of Ohio.
Most respectfully, general, your obedient servant,
JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.
[P. S.]-Please return the Cincinnati Enquirer of the 14th, as it does not belong to me.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 710.
19, Confederate scout, Unionville to Lebanon [see March 19, 1863, Skirmish near College Grove, and destruction of Federal bridge over Harpeth River above]
19, Confederates capture passenger train near Mitchellville
No circumstantial reports filed.
LOUISVILLE, March 19, 1863.
Maj. Gen. HORATIO G. WRIGHT, Cincinnati, Ohio:
Rebels captured passenger train this afternoon near Mitchellsville [sic], Tenn. Col. Streight had men on the train and gave fight. Were fighting at last accounts. Gen. Judah telegraphs he had sent 200 re-enforcements. Train thrown off the track. I am more than anxious to have an additional regiment here. It is important. Can Col. [John S.] Casement come?
J. T. BOYLE, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 153.
19, Confederate scouts in Middle Tennessee
SHELBYVILLE, March 19, 1863.
Col. [G. W.] BRENT, Tullahoma:
The enemy's lines are being searched at all points closely by the cavalry in my front and other scouts. Nothing decisive has yet been developed, but all that is received indicates a movement of some sort. He has taken in all his troops and pickets on this side Stone's River. I hope to have something definite to-day. My command is kept well posted as to the state of things in my front.
HDQRS. MARTIN'S CAVALRY BRIGADE, March 19, 1863--11.30 a. m.
Maj. THOMAS M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
MAJ.: The parties I sent out to feel the enemy's lines have found that Salem is reoccupied, and the enemy is disposed to push his pickets to the points occupied by them four days since. I had these pickets driven in from 1 mile this side of Salem, on that turnpike, but they were re-enforced to such an extent as to stop the advance of my party. I expect to hear soon from two other parties. The camp-fires last night do not indicate a very heavy force to the left of Murfreesborough.
WILL. T. MARTIN, Brig.-Gen.
FOSTERVILLE, March 19, 1863. (Received Shelbyville, March 19.)
My scouts report a strong body of the enemy moving toward Eagleville.
WILL. T. MARTIN, Brig.-Gen.
(Copy of above sent to Gen. Wharton, March 19, 1863--8 p. m.)
CHAPEL HILL, March 19, 1863--1.30 p. m.
Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Shelbyville, Tenn.:
Maj. Johnson has just returned from his scout. He reports finding the Federal pickets, 1 mile this side of College Grove, at daylight. At about sun-up he advanced upon and drove the party from the bridge (the bridge only a skeleton, not complete), and skirmished with him until he burned it. Some time afterward the enemy re-enforced with two regiments of infantry. He fell back, and continued the fight until about 10 or 11 o'clock; then fell back, no one of the enemy pursuing. A Yankee colonel stated to Dr. Webb, yesterday, that their falling back was made to meet a change Gen. Bragg had made, by which move he was likely to get in their rear and cut off their communication with Gen. Grant's army.
P. D. RODDEY, Col.
[P. S.]-Rumor says the enemy are fortifying at or near Triune and at or near Dr. Webb's.
HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 19, 1863--10.30 a. m.
Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. at Shelbyville:
GEN.: I have several small and strong parties out, from whom I will gain information. All quiet. Mr. House has arrived and gone. I am much obliged to you for him.
Please have the letters to Col. [H.] Oladowski forwarded. You were advised, at 7 p. m. of yesterday, of the positions of the enemy on yesterday.
Most respectfully, general, your obedient servant,
JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 709-710.
19, "The Adams Hospital."
We were yesterday taken to the Adams Hospital, on Second street below Adams, by the skillful and energetic surgeon in charge of that immense establishment, Dr. S. L. Lord. The neatness, good order, and attention to the comfort of the invalids manifested in all the arrangements speaks highly for planning thoughtfulness as well as for the unwearying industry of the surgeon in charge, under whose skillful care the hospital was commenced and got into working order. The details of so vast an institution would surprise anyone who looked over it for the first time; for example, there is one of the largest rooms in the block, extending from the street to the alley; the rear fitted up with shelving and used as a baggage room. Here the knapsack and effects of each patient, neatly tied up in a uniform manner is deposited. Each package is ticketed and registered, and it is but the work of a minute to restore to each man as he is discharged from the institution, his individual package. The laundry is an expansive affair, and every corner of it exhibits neatness and [illegible]. The cooking department of this hospital is much better arranged than any other hospital we have examined. Besides the general kitchen for those who can partake of their ordinary food, there is in each story a smaller kitchen for the purpose of such articles of diet as may be necessary for particular cases. Dr. Lord is one of those physicians – would there were more of them – who do not regard the medicine chest as the sole remedial agent in their hands. He is careful that his patients shall have what will assist their speedy recovery. Soups, chicken, boiled fresh eggs and other [illegible] and comforts are prepared in the [illegible] kitchens as ordered by the attending physician. To this strict attention to diet it is probably owing that the deaths have been a minimal percentage of the whole; they have as far averaged only two and a half a day out of a thousand patients. The various wards are at that state which ladies describe as "the very peak of neatness." Carpeting between the beds or rooms prevents noises calculated to irritate the sick; every floor is perfectly clean and no smell was perceptible in any room. Dr. Lord informs us that he is about to establish a library for the benefit of patients who are able to leave, where they have papers, magazines and some books to read. The Adams Hospital is admirably conducted, and Dr. Lord we regard as eminently "the right man in the right place."
Memphis Bulletin, March 20, 1863.
19, Gas Street Lighting Problems in Memphis; Profit vs. the Public Good
THE GAS LAMPS. – The Council a short time ago appointed a committee to ascertain the reason why the street lamps have lately given so little light. The decrease of light is a matter of common observation. On looking down a lighted street the lamps are seen shimmering here and there, but the streets notwithstanding are in darkness. Even when there is a lamp on each of two corners, crossing it is dark at the center of the two. The difference is very striking to anyone who will contrast the light around a street lamp with that in front of a window whose burner is lighted. The Council committee have reported that the causes of the diminished light is the want of a due pressure on the gas meter at the gas works. Of course, if that pressure is inadequate the amount of gas flowing up the street mains is diminished, and not only street lamps but private burners have a decreased supply. As the company is paid so much a lamp, whatever quantity of gas may be burned, the less the consumption the greater the profit. The gas burned by private consumers, however, is charged by measure, and to lessen the supply to them is to increase the income of the company. When a light burning in a store is compared with one burning in a gas lamp, the difference between the two is manifest where the pay is increased in proportion to the amount of gas consumed the supply is plentiful; where the profits decrease with the amount consumed the supply is small. The facts point to different explanations of the matter in question from the one given by the committee. A year or two ago a new contract was made with the gas company at their own desire, which took the lighting and cleaning of the lamps out of the hands of the city and put it in the hands of the company, and the city, instead of paying for gas by measurement, paid for it at a fixed rate per lamp. This contract the Council have resolved not renew after termination of the current contract year. It is observable that not only has the amount of light from the lamps been diminished, but they have often been unlighted at hours when their light was most necessary. The present contract makes it to the interest of the company to have the lamps consume as little gas as possible, and we may naturally expect the company to look to its own interests.
Memphis Bulletin, March 19, 1863.
19, Skirmish with and Capture of Guerrillas near Memphis
Bethel, Tenn., March 19, 1863
A detachment of the 11th Illinois cavalry has just returned to this post from a "scout" and brought with them six guerrillas, said to belong to Captain White's company, who have been committing all kinds of depredations in the vicinity of Riply [sic], and Tippah county, Mississippi, of late.
Among those is a notorious horse thief and robber by the name of S.B. Rodgers, who calls himself a Third Lieutenant of the "gang," and boasts [sic] that he has taken the oath of allegiance a half dozen times, at as many different places.
Our cavalry came upon a camp of about thirty of these guerrillas on Hatchie river, surprised and captured their sentinel, charged into their camp. And after a short, but spirited fight, in which one of the guerrillas was killed and a number wounded, succeeded in capturing six of them together with twenty horses, a number of guns, saddles, &c.
The loss on our side was two wounded, one of them severely,
Memphis Bulletin, March 25, 1863.
19, Assurances from Winchester Urging Crop Preparation
We can safely assure our readers, and the citizens of Middle Tennessee, that whatever doubt there may have been heretofore as to our remaining permanently in this section of the country, it is now reduced down to a certainty, that here we intend to stick and fight it out. So let all those who have failed to prepare for a crop, take hold of the plough line; and commence their operations in the earthworks, and plant their corn batteries, which will prove to be as formidable to the enemy, and of as much service to our cause, as though they were real gun batteries. – Winchester Bulletin.
Fayetteville Observer, March 19, 1863.
19, Marital difficulty in Lincoln county
WIFE NOTICE. [sic]
Whereas my wife Virginia Ann Key has left my bed and board without any just cause or provocation, this is, therefore, to notify all persons not to credit her on my account, as I will not be responsible for any debts of her contracting.
March 19, 1863
Fayetteville Observer, March 19, 1863.
19, Barter economics in Lincoln County
SALT! SALT! [sic]
EXCHANGED FOR CORN! [sic]
I am authorized to exchange Salt for 600 bushels [of] Corn, for the use of the citizens of Lincoln county. Those wishing to make the exchange will deliver the Corn at the Depot in Fayetteville. Sacks furnished by calling at Shackleford's store. Those having Salt Sacks not yet returned will please bring them in filled with corn, or return the Sacks immediately to Shackleford's store.
W. B. Robinson, County Agent
Fayetteville Observer, March 19, 1863.
19, A day in Recorder's Court, Nashville
Smoky Row was well represented yesterday morning, there being three defendants and four witnesses in Court. The first case was a charge of drunkenness and disorderly conduct against Molly Brown, who "got drunk first thing, and then commenced rarin' and cussin' an' a cuttin' up, an' kept it up all day. In the evening she brought some soldiers to help her, and then she pitched in." Fined $5 and costs.
Elizabeth Moore and Jane Owens had a slight misunderstanding, which induced Liz. to say suthin' she hadn't oughter, and that tempted Jane to try the strength of her fingers in Liz's hair. A short tussle ensued, when the guardians of the peace appeared, and the twain were cited before His Honor, the Recorder.
Nashville Dispatch, March 20, 1863.
19, "Since he has been in Tullahoma Bragg has been in the habit of shooting from one to three every Friday evening." Life in Confederate winter camp at Tullahoma
March 19, 1863
Mrs. T.A. Richards,
Dear and respected Wife, with pleasure I embrace the present opportunity of dropping you a few lines to let you know I am well at present and also to let you know I received your most welcome and interesting letter yesterday evening late which afforded me great satisfaction to hear from you as that is the first letter I have received from you. Since I left home I have written you a letter and sent it by Mr. Spicer and I sent you a nice book. The book was the work of Stonewall Jackson and John H. Morgan and I thought they had time to get home. Before you had written your letter you stated that Grandfather Richards was staying with you. I was very glad to hear that. Tell Grand Pa I want him to stay with you and babe until I come home. That is, if I should be so lucky as to live until this war closes. Sharp, I will tell you what we have got to eat. We have plenty of cornmeal, bacon, pickle beef and fresh beef. Sharp, I am very sorry that I can't send you my Degarotype. There is not an artist in town, if I was there I would be sure and have my likeness taken and send it to you. Sharp, tell Jackson Reed's wife that he said for her to do the best she can. Tell Caroline Jackson Reed says for her to rent out the land if she can make anything . He says to tell Caroline that he don't know when he can come, for when a man leaves camp without leave he is put upon a block and shot and he says he would rather risk his chances in camp, for General Bragg has had several men shot. Since he has been in Tullahoma Bragg has been in the habit of shooting from one to three every Friday evening. Sharp, tell mother I am standing a camp life very well. Tell her I would soon rather be at home and to tell you the truth I would a great deal rather be there as to be any where else in this world. Tell Daniel Vince's wife that Daniel was detailed to make shoes for the government and he is in Columbus, Georgia. Tell her that I.W. Vance received her letter and put it in an envelope and sent it on to him. Isham received a letter from Daniel and sent it to her by the Widow Case. Sharp, you said that little Routh would like to see me and play with the buttons on my coat. God send that this horrable war would end so I could come home and play with her. Sharp, I want you to take mighty good care of little Routh until I come home as I said before if I am so lucky as to live until this war closes. Well I believe that is all that would interest you at present Therefore I will close by saying write to me every chance and I will do the same. As you said if it is not all there you must put the rest there when you go to read it. So no more at present. Remain your cincear and devoted husban untill death. Farewell for the present but I hope not forever.
Mr. R.H. Richards
To Mrs. T.A. Richards
19, Confederate editorial appraisal of the Army of Tennessee
The Army in Middle Tennessee.
We are satisfied that the spring campaign will be opened by a battle in Middle Tennessee. It may come to pass prior to any serious operations on the coast, in front of Vicksburg, or along the Virginia line. It is certainly impending, and has been delayed thus far by the condition of the roads. How well we are prepared for it, the enemy will best able to answer after they have tried us.
Upon the issue of this approaching conflict hang, for a considerable time at least, the destinies of the people of Tennessee. There is no good citizen whose eyes are not turned to it with heart-burning. All of us know full well how seriously it is to affect our political status, how directly it must influence our personal concerns, and how materially its results will touch the most delicate question for the country at large, which rises in the future – that of food. None of us are there who have not kindred, the nearest and and [sic] dearest, and friends the oldest and truest, in that army. It would be strange, therefore, if we were not enlisted into a feeling of the most profound seriousness.
We cannot say that we have heard any expressions of alarm. Not a single apprehension had crossed our own mind, for we have every confidence in the army of Tennessee, and the sincerest affection and respect for Gen. Johnston. We regard also the geography of or probable "situation" as advantageous.
During a recent visit to the camps of our troops, we were struck by the energy which was everywhere manifest. Notwithstanding the gloomy weather, the inactivity, the churlishness of unpleasant quarters, and the various ills generated therein to mind, mood and good feeling, the forces were in the best of spirits. Gen. Bragg, with that rare tact of his, which (notwithstanding we hold ourselves to no especial admirer of his) must be owned a most successful implement of organization, had contrived to amuse the idle hours with various sports and duties, from a dress parade to the execution of a spy. Gen. Johnston was in the very midst of rank and file, making the acquaintance of the regimental officers, showing himself personally attentive to the army, and cheering and encouraging all by his animated, life giving presence. There was that warrior churchman, half a saint and half a soldier, from the far off Louisiana, rising above the multitude of men. Like some temple of devotion, a tower of confidence and strength. – There was the brisk and vigilant, fearless and forcible, senior Major General of Tennessee, with the quiet, but dauntless junior close by him. The boys are always ready to give three cheers for Cheatham, to lift their caps in genuine respect for McCown.
On a review day we saw Breckinridge, who used to be our beau ideal of a Vice-President and who presides as gracefully over a division of soldiers as he did over a chamber of Senators. He and Hardee, by the way, were riding together, and a superb pair they make. Besides these were a host of Brigadiers; but they were not as noticeable; in fact, we do not think so much of the Brigadiers. The glory of the army Generals, are its Colonels - those noble chiefs of clans, whose knightly valor and strong capacity mould the mettle of troops into pure princes, who have received the mission of ancient times transmitted, and hold up the pillars of the Republic as their prototypes of old help up those of the crown; whose barons of a thousand men, chosen by free will for courage, skill and military integrity! Many of them are fit to lead armies, to control States. They are the bone and sinew of the official line in the army of Middle Tennessee.
Of the army itself, let Richmond, Perryville and Murfreesboro', the patient courage, the loyal zeal, the winter march and the summer tramp speak their energies, more eloquent than the words of mouth or scrolls of pen!
Daily Morning News (Savannah, GA) March 19, 1863.
19-20, Confederate scout, Unionville to Murfreesborough
No circumstantial reports filed.
HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 20, 1863--12.30 p. m.
Lieut.-Gen. POLK, Cmdg. at Shelbyville:
GEN.: Lieut. [William L.] Smith, of Company G, and three men from same company, Texas Rangers, with Mr. Lycurgus House, of [W.] Ledbetter's company, First Tennessee Infantry, as a guide, started yesterday at 11 a. m. to the rear of the enemy, to ascertain whether the enemy were leaving or preparing to leave Murfreesborough. They have just returned. They went to Gen. William H. Smith's, who lives 3 ½ miles from Murfreesborough, on the Wilkinson pike.
The enemy are still at Murfreesborough, encamped on the same ground occupied by our troops while there, although the encampments are larger. The sick were moved yesterday, and for several days previous, to Murfreesborough. No evidence that they were taken farther. There was a Federal surgeon at Gen. Smith's whilst the lieutenant was there, and could have been captured if he had been a legal prize, or if his capture would not have invited aggression on Gen. Smith.
Lieut. Smith saw or heard nothing to induce him to believe the evacuation of Murfreesborough was contemplated by the enemy. Yesterday a small brigade arrived at Murfreesborough, from direction of Nashville. Saturday last three brigades and fourteen pieces artillery went on the dirt road in direction of Triune, and have not yet returned.
Night before last a small body of infantry was sent to Salem (no farther), to prevent my cavalry from raids in that vicinity. No troops passed south of Salem yesterday, as you were improperly advised.
A cotton buyer tells the citizens around Murfreesborough that Rosecrans cannot advance, owing to the preponderance of Southern cavalry and the consequent drain upon him to protect his rear.
I have out now four scouts; they will return to-morrow and this evening, and you shall be advised promptly of the result, and I wish you would complement Lieut. Smith, Mr. House, and party, as they have passed to the enemy's rear at great risk and gained reliable and accurate information.
Fifty men could have ridden as they did to Gen. Smith's, and from there, directly on the pike, as Federal cavalry, into Murfreesborough, and I will have it done yet.
I shall have the enemy's picket at Widow Zane's (your headquarters during the battle), on the Wilkinson pike, captured.
This evening I will send you late papers.
Most respectfully, general, your obedient servant,
JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.
P. S.-Gen. Smith was in Murfreesborough all day yesterday.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 715-716.
19, Skirmish at Beersheba Springs [See March 11-28, 1864, "Counter-insurgency operations around Sparta, including skirmishes on Calfkiller Creek and near Beersheba Springs" above]
No circumstantial reports filed.
19, "Is that any way for him or any Federal officer to do?" Complaints about Federal depredations in West Tennessee
at [sic] my farm Haywood County, Tennessee, 19 March 1864
Honble Andrew Johnson
Military Governor of Tennessee
Dear Sir [sic]
Last evening I brought home from my office at Brownsville 2 of the writing Desks & a Chest containing part of my letters & papers all battered in by some of the Command of Col Hurst [sic] you can see the prints of their guns on the folding door of my little Secretary & many of my papers are gone & feathered to the four winds of heaven [sic]
Col[.] Hurst burned 3 establishments belonging to 3 of the best Union men about Brownsville. Is that any way for him or any Federal officer to do? some of these sufferers has [sic] left since and settled in Peoria Illinois, [sic] I learned yesterday & one had before gone & opened an establishment in Memphis Tenn [sic]
It appears that old Satan has been turned loose to go about and injuring the innocent [sic]
Previous to the advent of Col. Hurst I had shipped all of my Law Books & the most valuable papers to a place of safety, not knowing when one or the other of the Armies might enter and Destroy-I was always opposed to the war never was infavor [sic] of secession & never expect to be so and I have suffered more than the secessionists and it looks hard and both sides have taken from me horses & mules &c [sic] but show the consolation of Job when his friends told him "to curse God & die" he told them " I know my redeemer Liveth" and so do I-[sic]
In the summer of 1862 the Federal soldiers in passing would ride up to the field where my negroes [sic] were ploughing & try to take out their mules or horses & go with them that "they would pay them $8 to 10$ pr month" [sic]
My property before the war was estimated at about two hundred thousand Dollars & I would willingly give it all to close the war satisfactorily now as I am young enough to make more but it appears that his majesty "Old Satan" is revelling [sic] in great luxury North & South & that if this war should end before he shall have been thrashed out of the people both North & South, it will soon brake out [sic] anew like an old Canser [sic]
If Mr. Lincoln had had the nerve of Genl Andrew Jackson or Mr. Filmore or Col James J. Polk [sic] our difficulties might have been ended ere this [sic]
When Genl Lew Wallace went from Corinth to Memphis in 1862, he knocked the wind out of the sails of the secessionist & made Union men out of secessionists & when the 7 Kansas Regiment [sic] went from Columbus Ky passing Jackson Tenn [sic] in 1862 robbing and hanging people they made Secessionists out of Union Men [sic]
What Caused our arms to Conquer Mexico so soon or easily in 1846, 47 & 1848? it was the mild & Gentle policy pursued by our President Col James K Polk who would not permit the Soldiers to rob pillage & plunder the Mexicans & paid for what they got [sic] But Louis Napoleon landed his forces in Mexico in Novb [sic] 1860 & he suffered them to plunder & devastate the country & he is not nearer conquering them now than he was 12 mos ago [sic] Notwithstanding he has more men there than James K Polk had in 1846, 47 & 1848 [sic] But it appears that Mr Lincoln [sic] cannot resist the outside pressure of these heavenly sanctified preachers nor Could Mr Buchanan resist the outside pressure of Floyd Toombs, Thompson & others & now where is Mr. Buckanan? [sic] Had the policy of James K. Polk & Genl Scott been adopted-peace now might perhaps "have been restored" [sic] & then "those who danced could have been made to pay the Fiddler" and I am fearful peace is far off from our once happy Country [sic]
History proves that a different policy towards our enemies will produce a different & better result [sic] Look at the policy to Spain towards the United Provinces in a war which lasted nearly fifty years & in which Spain lost those Provinces [sic]
Look at the Policy of Charles II of England & his parliament-he pardoned all his rebels with a few exceptions & he did not enter into this wholesale destruction & Confiscation of private property or he never could have maintained his head on the throne & those difficulties lasted 18 years before his restoration & Some of your old substantial Union friends in this part of the Country say-(I dont [sic] mean such men who are "pig today & pork tomorrow." [sic] Union when the Federals are about & Secessionist when the Confederates are nearby such as have always been the same from the Orient to the Occident) that unless a different policy be pursued this war will last 30 years & that there is only one way to settle it in order to have a permanent peace of which it is not my purpose now to write you [sic]
My relative the Honbl John Reed of Jackson Tenn who has always been a Union man & is now in his 77 [sic] year of is age has suffered from the Federal Army more than any other man according to his property or about as much as any in that County according to his property-This is no way for officers & soldiers & a Government to treat their peaceable quiet and orderly Citizens [sic]
Some times I get out of hear & think that our Dear Country is gone to old Satan or is fast on the verge & that the old maxim that "the people are incapable of self Government" has been realized [sic]
I write you thus plainly because you are our Military Govenor [sic] & you were a Breckenridge Democrat and sow was I and I wished to inform you how matter have been managed in portions of this Country [sic]
What do you think of the English papers calling us a nation of thieves and Robbers? That is tolerably tall talk [sic]
Some times [sic] it does seem to me that the whole Country will get into a general row from one end to the other from the Lakes to the Gulf and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, like it was in England during her civil wars and it so much distresses me some times [sic] that it almost sickens me [sic]
Several of my negroes [sic] left me in 1863 & are in the Federal Army or waiting on the Army [sic]
Please have the kindness to inform me what course should I pursue in order to get a Voucher for them [sic]
If you think proper to address me, you can direct your letter thus
Yours Respectfully Edward J. Read
Of Brownsville Tennessee
Care of Farmington & Howell Memphis Tennssee [sic]
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 648-650.
19, Confederate situation report for East Tennessee
HDQRS., Greeneville, East Ten., March 19, 1864.
Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond, Va.:
GEN.: The supply of corn promised us from Virginia comes in so slowly that we shall not be able to keep our animals alive more than week or two, unless some improvement may be made in forwarding supplies. Our rations, too are getting short, so that we will hardy be able to march to any point at which we may be needed unless we can received orders inside of a week, and then we must receive corn by railroad in order that our animals may make a march.
We have suffered more or loss since we have been here in this department for want of proper supplies, but have been able to get along very poorly clad through the winter months, and could, now that the weather is becoming more mild, do very well if we could get food and forage. Without either of these our army must soon become entirely helpless.
The enemy is in front of us at Morristown, with three army corps and could be struck to great advantage were it possible for us to move. The greater part of his force could probably be captured, but animals cannot work without food. The only corn in this country is far our upon our flanks, and is barely sufficient for the cavalry there, and the cavalry is necessary there to prevent its falling into the hands of the enemy.
I beg that you will send us supplies at once, in sufficient quantity at least to enable us to march to some point where out troops can be partially supplied and where they may be useful. These perhaps the troops in the Confederate armies, and should not be left where they starve, and at the same time be of no service to the country.
The enemy is in much poorer fighting condition than he has been since the beginning of the war, and we should have but little difficulty in breaking him if we can be furnished the means of getting at him. I respectfully urge, therefore, than no more time may be lost in making the necessary arrangements for active operations. If our armies can take the initiative in the spring campaign they can march into Kentucky with by little trouble and finish the war in this year. If we delay and give the enemy his full time the war will, in all probability, be prolonged for another four years.
I remain, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
J. LONGSTREET, Lieut.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 655.
19, "To Be Confiscated." Federal seizure of property of alien enemies in Clarksville
The Clarksville Gazette of the 19th inst. says: "The military authorities here gave notice, several days ago, to the occupants of the following named house to vacate the same, preparatory to their being confiscated as the property of alien enemies, and appropriated to military occupancy: Residence of James E. Bailey, Franklin street, occupied by Mrs. Howard; residence of Geo. B. Fleece, Franklin Street, occupied by Mrs. King; residence of residence of D. N. Kennedy, corner of Madison and Second Streets, occupied by Mrs. Kennedy"
Nashville Dispatch, March 22, 1864.
It will be remembered that the Government has for some time past occupied the Church of the Holy Trinity, South Nashville, as a powder magazine. On Thursday or Friday of last week, we are informed, the powder was removed, and the guard taken from the building but no notice give the vestry that the church property had been relinquished by the Ordnance Department. On Saturday morning, Mr. Campbell, who reside near by, saw the front door open and closed it, and informed one of the vestrymen of the circumstance. Supposing that if the military had determined to return the church to its owners, the proper officer would send the keys, no further notice was taken of it, except to fasten the doors, until Wednesday morning, when Mr. Campbell discovered that the door had been broken open, and a brief inspection convinced him that some malicious wretch or wretches had been committing the most wanton outrages in the building. The beautiful and valuable organ was entirely destroyed-broken to pieces, the pipes taken out and broken to pieces over the backs of the pews, and the case and everything connected with it utterly demolished. The Sunday School library, also, was destroyed – the case broken and the books torn or carried away. The furniture met the same fate, and the church left a complete wreck.
Nashville Dispatch, March 19, 1864.
19, The Federal Army's Persecution of Confederate Women and Children in East Tennessee
Affairs In East Tennessee.
A refugee from Tennessee, who has just left our lines there, gives the most deplorable account of the situation of the unhappy people of that State. Both classes, Unionists and Confederates, have come under the ban of the two armies, and what property has been spared by one has been appropriated by the other. Most of the residents consist solely of women and children, and these have been stripped of all save what they have upon their backs, and the few blankets that protect them from the cold at night. They are clad in cotton rags, bare foot and hungry, and live only on the meagre allowance they have managed to bury or otherwise secrete. Negroes, once the property of well-to-do farmers, have returned to their homes, backed by Yankee troops and bayonets, and perpetrated unnamable enormities. The wives and children of "rebels" are debarred from the purchase of even the necessaries of life, unless they first take the hated oath of allegiance, while hundreds and thousands have been driven into exile, and are now scattered through the army and through the more Southern States where they seek the liberty denied them at home.
A favorite occupation of these blue-uniformed wretches, of late, has been, and still is, to march abruptly upon some quiet residence, occupied by women and children, give them twenty four hours notice to leave, and then send them, under guard, across the lines where they arrive penniless, friendless and alone.
God only knows the sufferings that have been endured in this struggle, but as sure as He over-rules the destinies of mankind, just so certain is the hand of avenging justice to fall with blighting weight upon these more than diabolical oppressors.
The Daily South Carolinian, March 19, 1864. 
19-20, Federal scouts, Cleveland to across the Hiwassee River
CLEVELAND, TENN., March 21, 1864.
Brig. Gen. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Cumberland:
I have the honor to report that Maj. D. A. Briggs, in command of the Second Indiana Cavalry, returned from the vicinity of Waterhouse's farm at 9.30 p. m. of the 20th instant; reports no enemy on that road excepting scouting parties. Eighty rebels were at that place on the 19th, and remainder during the night. One of my scouts left Sumac creek south of Waterhouse's farm at 12 o'clock last night, and reports having heard drums in a southwest direction from there in the evening. It has also been reported that a cavalry force from Longstreet's command crossed the Hiwassee at Taylor's Ferry, and marched via Ducktown to join Johnston at Dalton. I have also information, which I deem reliable, that a considerable amount of corn and wheat sacked up in sacks marked "C. S. A." has been accumulated at Callway's Mill, 4 miles from Waterhouse's farm. These stores might be removed to within our lines by sending a considerable force for that purpose. I do not think it would be safe to attempt it without taking all or the greater part of my effective [force] with artillery, but can easily destroy it by burning it. I have communicated this information to Gen. Stanley.
The scouting parties sent out this morning have not yet reported.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. P. CAMPBELL, Col., Cmdg. Division.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 101.
19, 1865, Skirmish at Celina
No circumstantial reports filed.
19-ca. 24, Railroad security by U. S. cavalry, Memphis to White's Station to Collierville
HDQRS. CAVALRY DIV., DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., March 19, 1865.
Col. J. P. C. SHANKS, Cmdg. First Brigade, Cavalry Division:
COL.: The colonel commanding the Cavalry Division directs me to say that from instructions received this p. m. from the major-general commanding, your orders are so far changed as that at White's Station you will leave one of the regiments of your brigade and proceed with the construction train toward Collierville, your movements to be governed by the progress of the train in repairing the road until you reach that point. Between White's Station and Collierville you will leave one squadron at each important bridge or culvert, with orders to patrol as far as is possible from one to the other. You may expect the regiment left at White's Station to remain there for four or five days, as the Second Brigade will not march before that time.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
ALEX. S. JESSUP, Capt. and Aide-de-Camp.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 31.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 French Revolutionary heroine who was guillotined for the assassination of Jean Paul Marat in 1793.
 The fact that this skirmish involved a Confederate forage train, illustrates that the foodstuffs of the civilian population of Middle Tennessee were the target Union and Confederate forces. It was likewise a defeat for Morgan was the result of a guerrilla attack upon a railroad train. Richland Station is today the City of Portland.
 GALEGROUP - GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN .
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456