Sunday, March 22, 2015

3.21.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        21, HostileNashville Belles

Pistolical [sic] Ladies.-The Black Flag. The Nashville correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette, writing under the date of the 10th instant, says:

We have some very obstreperous young ladies in Nashville, whose hearts have been fired to such an intense heat, it is strange they don't set the river on fire. They are all raised ladies, but the wicked talk of politicians and preachers has unsettled their minds. One of them, when the Federal soldiers entered our city and passed down the street on which she resides, armed herself with a pistol and bowie-knife, and expressed a determination to dispatch the first man who molested her-Poor girl! No opportunity presented itself.-Another hung the black flag from her window as the National soldiers passed under. This succeeded so far as draw a rough remark from a thoughtless man in the ranks. Said he looking up at the damsel, "I could cut your head off just like a cow's." If his officers had heard his language, he would have been punished as he deserved. A man who cannot bear with the foolishness of women, and hold his tongue, needs discipline. These valiant young ladies, I am now assured, are well armed with pistols. How much better would a battery of bright eyes and sweet smiles become them!

Boston Herald, March 21. 1862.

        21-23, Reconnaissance to and skirmish at Cumberland Gap

MARCH 21-23, 1862.-Reconnaissance to and skirmish at Cumberland Gap, Tenn.


No. 1.-Col. Samuel P. Carter, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army.

No. 3.-Col. James E. Rains, C. S. Army.

No. 1.

Report of Col. Samuel P. Carter, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. TWELFTH BRIGADE, Camp Cumberland Ford, March 24, 1862.

CAPT.: Late in the afternoon of the 20th instant I was informed by a messenger from Claiborne County, East Tennessee, that four rebel regiments, with six pieces of artillery, under command of Gen. Smith (who had arrived on the preceding day), left Cumberland Gap on the 19th instant to attack the Second East Tennessee Regt. [sic], which was then stationed at Woodson's Gap, some 3 miles from Fincastle, Campbell County, East Tennessee. Orders were given to the First East Tennessee Regt. [sic], Col. Byrd; Seventh Kentucky, Col. Garrard; Sixteenth Ohio, Col. De Courcy; Forty-ninth Indiana, Col. Ray, and to Lieut.-Col. Munday, First Battalion of Kentucky Cavalry, to prepare four days' rations and be ready to move on the following morning. Capt. Wetmore's Ninth Ohio Battery was also ordered to have one section (two Parrott guns) in readiness to accompany the command. The whole force amounted to some 2,300 men. Proper guards were left at this place and in the several camps.

On the morning of the 21st we marched toward Cumberland Gap, with the hope of arriving there before the return of the rebel troops. But when we arrived within 2 miles of the Gap I was overtaken by a messenger (who had been sent to Claiborne County) with information that the rebels had made a forced march, and were by that time within their encampment. As my force was much too small to make an attack on their strong intrechments, protected by heavy redoubts, I determined to remain in front of their works for a day or two, and make as complete an examination of their works as practicable. We advanced on the enemy's right and drove in their pickets; moved close to their right line of defense, and bivouacked for the night.

On the morning of the 22d threw out skirmishers and drove the enemy from the woods to the abatis, which covers the whole mountainside, inside the line of fallen timber. The rebel sharpshooters were well protected by rifle pits. The skirmishing on our part was admirably performed by companies of the Sixteenth Ohio. Quite a number of the enemy were shot by them. The rebels opened on our skirmishers with shrapnel from two 12-pounders, but without doing any damage. I moved the two Parrott guns and there regiments to a ridge in the front of the Gap, where the former were placed in position and soon opened on the rebel works, and continued cannonading them until the afternoon. Our fire was returned warmly from seven different works-one on the top of the Cumberland Mountains to the left of the Gap, which reared far above us; one on the side of the mountain, also on the left; one in the Gap, and four on the right or west side of the Gap. They threw 24-pounder solid shot, 12-pounder shell (spherical), 6-pounder solid, and 8-inch shell. Only the latter, which came from the guns exploding among their tents and others in their works, but I am not able to say what damage was done to them. They were several times driven from their guns, but as they had hill and deep trenches close at hand where they seemed to be securely covered, I doubt if they suffered much. The Forty-ninth Indiana was deployed on our right (the enemy's left in the afternoon), when they discovered another battery, which opened on them with shell, and although they were in good range and many shells exploded about them, no one was injured. Although the rebel force was more than double ours, all of our efforts to draw them from their works were unsuccessful. This command bivouacked again just in front of the Gap, and as I had completed successfully the reconnaissance, I left in the forenoon of yesterday, and arrived in this place last evening. Some of the officers and men had narrow escapes, but not one was injured or lost. Officers and men behaved admirably, and will, I am sure, accomplish all that any equal number of men can. Inferior as they were in numbers, and notwithstanding the strength of the rebel works, I believe that every man would have cheerfully advanced to storm their works if the order had been given. Although we had snow-storms and sleet during both the nights we bivouacked in the mountains, as well as yesterday, I heard no word of complaint from either officer or man. The ammunition of Parrott guns, both fused and percussion, seemed to be defective, as very many of our shells were not seen to explode. I have ordered it to be carefully examined.

This examination of Cumberland Gap confirms the opinion given in a former letter that the place is very strong if attacked from the north side, and can only be carried by a large force with a heavy loss of life, but it can be readily reduced by having a good force attack simultaneously on the south side, or, better still, by an investment, which would soon starve them out. I would suggest that another battery, with heavier rifled guns, could be advantageously used to this line. If Gen. Garfield could march down from Pikeville through Virginia with his force and attack on south side or cut off supplies, I do not think the rebels could remain there long.

I forward herewith a rough sketch of the Gap and their works. I have ordered up the Thirty-third Indiana Regt. [sic]

Respectfully, &c.,

S. P. CARTER, Acting Brig.-Gen., Twelfth Brigade.

No. 2.

Report of Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., March 30, 1862.

GEN.: Col. J. E. Rains, commanding the post at Cumberland Gap, reports that on the evening of the 21st instant the enemy drove in the pickets and on the morning following appeared in his front. Having succeeded in placing two pieces of artillery in position on a neighboring ridge, they opened fire, which was kept up during the day (the 22d) with considerable vigor, as well as from small-arms at long range, but with little effect. The loss of the enemy is not known, but during the night they withdrew, apparently in great consternation. A body of cavalry to protect their rear were the only troops of the Federal forces seen the next morning, and which it was impossible to cut off.

Information which had reached the enemy of an expedition toward Jacksborough led them to believe that the garrison had been weakened to a great extent, and induced this demonstration. After feeling and ascertaining that it was in force, they retired. Their force was no other than Carter's brigade, estimated at about 4,000 to 6,000.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

No. 3.

Reports of Col. James E. Rains, C. S. Army.

HDQRS., Cumberland Gap, March 22, 1862.

SIR: On yesterday evening, about dark, a party of infantry scouts which I sent out drove in the enemy's pickets 3 miles out on Harlan road.

At daylight skirmishing parties of the enemy opened fire upon our right from the adjacent hills. The firing is now going on and the Minie balls are falling within our works. I have seen no artillery. The snow is falling thickly and the morning is dark. Our men are in the trenches. The fire is a very thin one, and we have not returned it. One man is wounded.


JAMES E. RAINS, Col., Cmdg. Post.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 42-45.

        21, 1862 A Funeral, Confederate Attack and Incorrigibles; Excerpts from the letter of Captain Gershom M. Barber from Murfreesboro

Head quarters 1st Battalion O. V. S. S.

Murfreesboro Tenn. March 21 1863

My Very Dear Wife

….At 12 we attended the funeral of a private of the 7th Company Capt. Sqire. He died of congestion of the lungs induced by cold and measles. It is the first funeral in the battalion and was very impressive. Chaplins Harker of the 86th Ind. performed the ceremony and the escort was furnished by the 10th O.V.I. We have had heavy skirmishing on the front the last two days. Rosecrans sent in his pickets on a particular route and directed [?] [in a] hurry forces on the flanks and thoroughly enticed the enemy's cavalry with[in] about five miles of our camp and then gobbled them up. They say hear it is an old friend of his. We rendered this morning hospital preparation for 150 secesh wounded. We had one killed and 30 wounded. A captain of a Tennessee regiment left his company and chased a rebel who turned on him and shot him dead. The booming of cannon and explosion of shells we hear heard distantly yesterday and the day before. Today all is quiet along the front. The health of the Battalion is generally good except measles. We have about twenty cases in the hospital most of them doing well… two [are] dangerous….

….We have a few incorrigibles who are homesick and want to get discharged and lie around and pretend to be sick and are very angry because we won't discharge them. We will put them on the front line trenches as work before long when they will get enough to do duty mighty quick. One man [who has been] lay[ing] in his tent for days and groaned and took on a terrible sight [?]. Would get up about once a day and come to my quarters and cry and beg me to get him discharged as he would die in a month and he wanted to see his family once more. I got the Surgeon to give him a through examination and he pronounced him as well as he ever was in his life. Surgeon told him he was pretending to be sick and if he didn't do duty he would give him medicine that would make him sick to death earnest. I induced him to duty and he has been well enough since. Another one who has been groaning all the time the surgeon has cupped and blistered half over his body until the poor fellow can hardly walk. I understand he says now he will now try to play off again. Most of the boys….are perfectly satisfied. We have a few cowards and I heartily wish the surgeon would discharge them. But it is a hard place to play "old soldier."

Barber Correspondence

        21, General Joseph E. Johnston reports on food collection work for Army of Tennessee

TULLAHOMA, March 21, 1863.

Hon. JAMES A. SEDDON, Secretary of War:

SIR: On the 4th instant I reported to you that Maj. Cumming, assistant commissary of subsistence, had the orders of Col. Northrop to assume the direction of the purchase in Middle Tennessee of provisions for Gen. Bragg's troops, and was about to obey those orders.

I learn here that he has not given this important subject his personal attention, further than by sending agents into some of the neighboring counties, without reporting the fact to the chief commissary of the department.

These agents have a list of maximum prices, authorized by you, which have been published, announced rather, as ordinary. These are about double those given by the quartermaster's and commissary departments of this army-prices which satisfied the people of the country. These agents are furnished with State money also. In the single article of corn, our expenditures will be increased by at least $18,000 a day, on account of these changes.

I have just suggested to you, by telegraph, to annul the list of prices, and forbid the use of any but Confederate money within the country we hold.

The persons who still hold provisions are, of course, less friendly to us than those who have been supplying the army, so that the disloyal and least loyal will receive about twice as much for the same articles as we have paid our true friends. Allow me to say, most respectfully, that fair prices of the products of this district can be better ascertained here than in Richmond.

I hope that Maj. Cumming may be punished for disobedience of the orders of Col. Northrop.

The feeding of this army seems to me a matter important enough for the services of some of the most efficient officers of the Subsistence Department. If they cannot be spared for such duty, I hope that the agents of Maj. Cumming may be recalled. They have furnished nothing as yet.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 718-719.

        21, Reconnaissance, Milton to Liberty [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, above]

        21, Scout, Milton to Cainsville [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, above]

        21, Scout, Milton to Statesville [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, above]

        21, Scout, Milton to beyond Auburn [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, above]

        21, Scout from Milton to junction of Liberty and Las Casas [sic] pikes [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, above]

        21, Confederate scout, Unionville to Black's Ship, 7 miles from Murfreesborough

LEBANON, March 23, 1863.

Gen. WHARTON, Unionville, Tenn.:

GEN.: In obedience to your instructions, we sent a scout night before last [21] in direction of Murfreesborough. They could not proceed farther than Black's Shop, 7 miles from Murfreesborough, where they found a brigade of the enemy encamped. All the crossings of Stone's River were guarded by a chain of pickets, and they could not effect a crossing. Last week (the latter part) the enemy sent three brigades up the Shelbyville pike.

* * * *

Gen. Morgan had a sharp skirmish near Liberty on Friday last; [20th] suffered some loss, and had to fall back.

* * * *

It was the impression of Lieut. Burgess that the Federals were not falling back.

I have the honor to remain, yours, truly,

M. H. ROYSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 723-724.

        21, Cavalry skirmish with supply boats on the Cumberland River, near Carthage[1]

No circumstantial reports filed.

Carthage, TENN., March 21, 1863.

Gen. JAMES A. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff, Army of the Cumberland, Murfreesborough:

I cannot send daily reports, as I have only a few horses, and it takes all of them to escort the mail down one day and back the next. I cannot establish a courier line unless I have cavalry to keep the enemy from coming on this of the river. The rebels taken all the horses from this section of the country, except old brood-mares, fillies, &c. Were my men mounted on these, in any movement requiring expedition, I would have to dismount and go afoot. I was never completely beat out before, but I have to acknowledge that I can do nothing against this cavalry with my infantry. I cannot entrap them in any possible way, for they have their spies and scouts all over this country, and I can make no movement without their being apprised of it before I can get to them with my infantry, and then, if it is not to their advantage to fight me, they get out of the way. They have no baggage or trains to detain them from making rapid movements.

I have seventy days' complete rations here, 150 rounds of ammunition for small-arms, and 200 rounds for battery.

I sent boat [sic] up the river yesterday, 43 miles; returned this evening, bringing some 500 bushels of corn and 600 bushels of wheat. The boats were attacked last night or this morning by several hundred cavalry. They did no damage. There are no supplies on the south side of the river amounting to anything.

Who is "Tinker Dave" Beatty? [2]

What amount of supplies shall I accumulate here? I can get no answers to my dispatches to you. The boats leave in the morning for Nashville.



OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 157-158.

        21, Skirmish near Triune

MARCH 21, 1863.-Skirmish near Triune, Tenn.

Reports of Brig. Gen. John A. Wharton, C. S. Army.

HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 21, 1863--8.30 a. m.

GEN.: Your dispatch, with copy of Gen. Wheeler's, has been received.

Yesterday morning I sent out Capt. Gordon, with 40 men, to develop the movements and designs of the enemy. I have just received the accompanying dispatch from him. He is still out and will report again soon. I have sent two regiments to feel the enemy at the forks of the roads. I have sent 2 men to La Vergne and 12 to capture couriers plying between Murfreesborough and Triune. They travel the road that leads off from the end of the Wilkinson pike, and not the old "dirt road," as they ought. Please send me late papers. I send Cincinnati Commercial of the 16th instant.

Most respectfully, general, your obedient servant,



A D D E N D A. [sic]


March 21, 1863. (Received Shelbyville, March 21, 1863.)

We have just driven in the pickets, but find them too strongly posted on Stone's River to be driven any farther.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 161.

        21, Skirmish at Salem

MARCH 21, 1863.-Skirmish at Salem, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Salem, Tenn., March 21, 1863--8 a. m.

COL.: Since my last, at sunrise, considerable skirmishing has been kept up on my left. It resulted in our cavalry pickets being driven in on the Middleton road. The enemy's cavalry were for a short time in my rear, on the Salem pike. They have now, however, retired in the direction of Middleton; how far, I can't say. I hear artillery in that direction, which is evidently the enemy. Col. Cook has not yet reported a word, though strictly ordered to do so frequently. I think a strong reconnaissance should be made on the Middleton road, which runs up the river. All quiet in the direction of Versailles and right of that road.

Yours, truly,

JEFF. C. DAVIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 161.

        21, Skirmish near Federal picket lines at Murfreesboro; excerpt from the letter of Albert Potter, 4th Michigan cavalry, to his father

Sunday March 22nd [1863]


Dear Father

*  *  *  *

….The rebels are getting saucy. Our whole line of pickets was attacked simultaneously yesterday morn but were ready for them….

*  *  *  *

Potter Correspondence

        21, Scout, Middleburg toward Somerville as far as Whiteville [see March 21, Guerrilla attack on railway train between Bolivar & Grand Junction below]

        21, Unethical and illegal business practices in Memphis


Proceedings at the Recorder's Court shows that this morning an individual was fined fifty dollars for purchasing this [sic] business without a license. Persons who come to the city to purchase goods should be on their guard of men who approach them and seek to induce them to come to a particular house to buy. Such men receive from the house where the victim is inducted to lay out his money a percentage of the amount of the bill he makes. Of course, what is paid to the "drummer" who leads the victim to the store with which he has an understanding is first put on the goods which the victim purchases. Strangers purchasing here should make their enquiries known to respectable houses, and consult the advertisements in some reliable paper. We repeat these cautions, which have been given before, because this practice was never so common in Memphis as it is at the present moment. Anyone who discovers that he has been victimized in this way we describe should give information to the police and a fine of fifty dollars is the least that can be laid on the drummer.

Memphis Bulletin, March 21, 1863.

        21, Guerrilla attack on railway train between Bolivar & Grand Junction

MARCH 21, 1863--Guerrilla attack on railway train between Bolivar and Grand Junction, Tenn.


No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Mason Brayman, U. S. Army, commanding at Bolivar.

No. 2.-Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army, commanding Fifth Military District.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. Mason Brayman, U. S. Army, commanding at Bolivar.

BOLIVAR, TENN., March 22, 1863.

SIR: The transactions this side of Grand Junction appear substantially as follows:

Information appears to have been sent down the road on Friday that on yesterday morning the road paymaster would be down to pay the laborers. This information, diffused, of course, through the country, probably induced the effort to capture the pay train. On yesterday morning the wood train went down in advance, the pay train following. At 8.30, the pay train came up with the wood train. A rail had been removed on the outside of a sharp curve, 3½ miles this side of Grand Junction, in a cut. The engine, tender, and five cars had run off the rails. The train men had been captured and carried off. The enemy lined the banks, and approached through the thick woods. The engineer of the pay train reversed his engine. As it paused before receding, the guerrillas, who surrounded the car, cheered triumphantly, supposing the capture accomplished. The gallant fellow stood to his work, put on all steam, and shot backward. Discovering his purpose, they poured a hot fire upon the train, striking the engine, tender, and car, several balls striking near him [the engineer]. Sheltered by the side of the engine, he retained control of it, and brought his train to Bolivar in safety. Two persons--Mr. [Carlos] Dutton, quartermaster, and Mr. Cumming, from the machine-shop at Jackson--fearing a collision with the wood train ahead, jumped off and were captured. Through the negligence of the station agent, and those having charge of the escaped train, I was not advised of the accident until noon, some two hours after the return of the train, when the quartermaster, Lieut. [William W.] McFarland notified me.

At 1, Col. Engelmann, of the Forty-third Illinois, with 200 men, proceeded by train to the scene of disaster. Some two cars had been burned, a fire built in the tender, without serious injury, the wires cut, and the track somewhat damaged. The damaged cars were thrown from the track; the engine and other cars replaced. When the Jackson train came down, I placed upon it two companies of the One hundred and sixth Illinois, under Lieut.-Col. Campbell, to secure the safety of that train, and, if necessary, aid the detachment which preceded it. Immediately on receiving intelligence, I sent detachments of the First West Tennessee Cavalry, who scoured the country along the railroad beyond Middleburg, toward Somerville, and as far as Whiteville where they captured G. W. Cashea, of Capt. Colter's company, Forrest's cavalry, who says the attacking force consisted of three companies of Forrest's and a portion of Street's band, about 100 strong. I am informed that on the occurrence of the accident, information was sent to Grand Junction, and the forces at that point placed in line of battle standing in defensive attitude until 4 o'clock in the afternoon, about which time an imposing force moved out to where the trouble occurred, finding there the force from Bolivar, and the damages in course of repair. The scene of accident, and in this direction (including Hickory Valley Station) being outside my command, I am not advised what forces were on guard, or whether any further casualties occurred than I have mentioned. The expedition from Bolivar returned safely, having performed gallantly and well the duty assigned them. The attacking force appears to be the same that has for some time infested the neighborhood south of here, and were probably attracted to the point by the expectation of capturing a train bearing public funds and feebly defended. I think they fled north to join Richardson, not even waiting to do serious mischief after the paymaster escaped them.

I think proper to advise you that, upon reliable information, I conclude that Richardson is now stronger than last week, when annihilated by the newspapers.

Respectfully, yours, &c.,

M. BRAYMAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

No. 2.

Report of Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army, commanding Fifth Military District.

PANOLA, March 28, 1863.

Capt.'s S. G. Street and Wilson, with 80 men, made a gallant dash behind the enemy at Grand Junction; threw a construction train off the track within 5 miles of the Junction, and burned it; captured 16 white prisoners and 16 free Americans of African descent. [sic]


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, pp. 470-471.[3]

"Guerrillas on the Charleston Railroad.

Train Captured-Two Cars Burned

Paymaster Captured and a Machinist Robbed

The passenger train on the Charleston railroad, due here at half past seven o'clock last night, did not arrive until eleven o'clock. We learned the following particulars by persons who came on the cars, of the cause of the delay: At eleven o'clock yesterday morning a wood train, on its way from Jackson for Memphis, when within three miles of reaching Grand Junction, was thrown off the track in consequence of a single rail having been removed by guerrillas belonging to Saulstreet's [sic] Brigade. These men, numbering, it is estimated, from seventy-five or a hundred, at once pounced upon the train which consisted of twelve or fifteen cars. They captured the conductor, engineer, and twenty negroes [sic], and set to work to burn up the cars. When they had set two cars on fire, their attention was called off by the approach of another locomotive, to which was attached a car. The car contained Captain Ditton, paymaster of the road, who was on his way down with his pay chest, to pay off the employees, the machinists of the railroad shop at Jackson, and some others. The engineer seeing that something was wrong on the road ahead of him, brought his engine to a stop, and Captain Ditton and the machinist jumped out of the car to look ahead. The engineer soon saw the guerrillas approaching, and calling to those who had left the car to jump on, backed and started the engine. Capt. Ditton and his companions ran about thirty yards in the vain endeavor to reach the train, when the guerrillas ordered them to stop or they would be shot. They did so, when a volley was discharged at the locomotive, without, however, doing any one injury. The engineer ran his engine safely back to Bolivar. The captured machinist was robbed of four hundred dollars in money he had about him, and his gold watch. He was then parolled [sic] and liberated. Capt. Dilton [sic] was detrained and carried of a prisoner.

At noon a regiment of cavalry started from Grand Junction in pursuit of the guerrillas. If the order issued when the road was first opened is carried out, somebody will be he held responsible for the doings of the guerrillas.

When the up and down passenger trains reached the spot of the occurrence they were unable to pass and each train transferred its passengers and baggage to the other, thus enabling both to complete their journey, although considerably behind times.

Memphis Bulletin, March 22, 1863.

        21, Federals ambush Confederates near College Grove [see March 22, 1863, Confederate scout, College Hill, Harpeth River, Eagleville below]

        21, Skirmishing near Stones River

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Bolivar[4], Tenn., March 21, 1863--Sunrise.

Col. G. P. THRUSTON, Chief of Staff, Twentieth Army Corps:

COL.: The pickets are all quiet on my front in the direction of Versailles and the road leading to Middleton from this place. A little skirmishing has been opened since daylight on my extreme left, near Stone's River. It is now subsided. About 200 cavalry reported at daylight, and I have sent them out on the Middleton road. As soon as I receive a report from them, I will communicate it.

Yours, truly,

JEF. C. DAVIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 156.

        21, "City Lighting."

The number of lamp posts in the city is one hundred and eighty-eight. The four in Court Square have four burners each, making the number of burners lighted each night exactly two hundred. In New Orleans, the number of public burners is twenty-five hundred. In Memphis each post costs the city for light thirty-six dollars a year, in New Orleans, forty-five dollars. Owing to want of system the lamp posts in this city are very irregularly placed. In some places they are all on one side of the street, while the other is left in darkness. Such is the case, for instance, on second [sic] street, between Jefferson and Adams. This is for want of the simple plan, adopted in other cities, of having a map of the city in the City Engineer's office, with all the lamps that are down indicated in one colored ink [illegible, indicating?] those that are to be put down in another [color ink?] that when the lamps are ordered [illegible, they] are fixed.

Memphis Bulletin, March 21, 1863.

        21, Fires in Memphis

There were two fires last evening. The first one, at eight o'clock, was in Chelsea, too far beyond the city limits for the fire engines to get to it. The second broke out at eleven o'clock in a hollow beneath the bluff that is on the left hand after passing the bridge beyond the Charleston railroad depot. It broke out in a one story frame house, tenanted by Mrs. English, a widow. In the rear were some negroes [sic], and the fire began in the back kitchen where the negroes [sic] lived, and is believed to have arisen from carelessness on their part. The next house south, also a one story frame, tenanted by Mrs. Hannibal; another widow, caught fire and was also destroyed, as was a third house, south of the latter, in which a number of negroes [sic] were living. The three houses were one story frames of no great value. They were the property of Mr. Armor, and the rents were received by [the] Government. The three fire steamers were on the ground, and a hand engine. If water had been plenty one of the three houses would have been saved; as it was the fire was kept from spreading to the houses near by on the right and left of those destroyed, by Chief O'Neil and his men. The Vallentine was unable to get water at all. The Danbury got an insufficient supply. The Desoto[5] was late in getting water, but she worked hard when it was obtained. Our present fire steamer force is evidently capable of doing splendid work.

Memphis Bulletin, March 21, 1863.

        21, "The Dust."

The dust is upon us. That curse of the Memphis summer. The tanks on the bluff, at the foot of Jefferson street, from whence our streets used to be watered, are destroyed, but once streets were watered in summer before those tanks were built, and of course they can be watered again if business men and others prefer to have the dust sprinkled to having it destroy their stocks and furniture. If subscriptions are got up for street sprinkling, Council would pass an ordinance forbidding any stagnant or impure water to be used for the purpose.

Memphis Bulletin, March 21, 1863.

        21, "For the past three weeks I have been very sick with the fever." Frank M. Guernsey's letter to Fannie

Memphis Tenn

March 21st 1863

Dear Fannie

You have doubtless been wondering why you received no letters from me lately, but there has been good reason for it. For the past three weeks I have been very sick with the fever. I have been in the hospital for the past two weeks and am here now on the convalescent list. They give me no medicine to speak of only waiting to gain strength. I tell you Fanny it is not so very pleasant to be sick so far from home and friends but I have no greate [sic] reason to complain as I have received thus far very kind treatment. Oh, how often I have thought of you and how much I have wanted to see you since I have been lying here sick. If any thing will make a fellow think of home and its loved ones it is to be sick among strangers, but the good Father has been very merciful to me. I have found some who have been friends indeed since I have been sick. Our hospital matron has been a sister to me. She says that all the soldiers are her brothers and of course she is their Sister. She is a young woman but is doing a great amount of good. Many a poor soldier like myself will live to bless her for her many little deeds of kindness. She comes into our room every morning about nine oclock [sic] and washes us up, combs our hair and makes us comfortable generally. There is [sic] only two of us in one room, Lieut. Pierce and myself. Lieut. is not near so well as I am now. I am in hopes to be out in two or three days if I dont [sic] have any pull backs. Glendenning comes up to see me every day and talks with me and cheers me up. He brought me the heart and little whale all sound [sic], also a letter from you. He told me all the news and etc. but I must begin to think of closing as I have written about as long as I can stand it. Now Dear Fannie please answer this soon and dont [sic] wait to hear from me. I shall write just as often as I can. Please give my love to all the folks and may the good Father keep and protect you from all harm is the prayer of your sincere friend.

Frank M. Guernsey

Guernsey Collection.

        21, "The town was nearly burned to the ground." David R. P. Shoemaker, Co. "E" 11th Reg. O.V.I. to Henry A. Bitner

March 21, 1863.

Carthage, Tenn. March 21/63

My Dear Friend:

Your favor of March 10th was duly received and I wrote an answer and mailed it day before yesterday, but I have just learned that the mail was captured by the Guerillas between here & Gallatin, so I will have it to do all over again.

So you have committed matrimony, have you? Or were you only joking? If you really have "gone and done it" allow me to congratulate you on your choice and to wish you and your bride a happy voyage together down the stream of life, together with the "little responsibilities". I am sorry however to lose you from among the noble fraternity of Batchelors . I fear that the joys and cures of matrimony may induce you to forget your friends who have not yet joined the Benedictine order.

The fact is I intend to take me an helpmeat[6] myself from among Pennsylvania's fair daughters, some day--p-e-r-h-a-p-s . With this view I expect you to spread a good word for me to all the "genuine fenders" and it may be I can find some one fool enough to have me.--

I quite agree with you in regard to the wish you express in regard to that holding affair.

Since I last wrote to you we have "changed our base" to the north side of the Cumber- land river as it was getting quite unhealthy on the other side. A forage train of 18 six-mule teams [was captured on the 6th] together with the escort of 62 men from our regiment was captured on the 6th, and hardly a night passed without some of our pickets being shot. Since we crossed we have not been troubled in that way. Four of our boats were fired into yesterday 7 miles below here and two men wounded . Our gun-boat shelled the town (Rome) and the adjacent roads and quite a number of the rebs were killed.--The town was nearly burned to the ground. We are every day expecting an attack from Gen' Bragg, who has lately been heavily reinforced. We are also expecting reinforcements.

The small pox has made its appearance here in some of our regiments. Otherwise the health is good.

This is about all the local news. With the generally news you are better acquainted, I presume, than I am.

The weather is quite fine and ploughing and gardening is the order of the day among the citizens. In that respect I presume they are about three weeks ahead of you.

Our regiment was today furnished with bran new Norfolk Rifles (Springfield pattern) I am quite proud of mine, which I call "Katie Darling" and I am anxious to draw a bead on a rebel with it. I intend to sleep with it tonight .

Give my respects to your lady and all the friends, and write soon

Yours Truly

D.R.P. Shoemaker

Co. "E" 11th Reg. O.V.I.

Valley of the Shadow[7]

        21, Editorials concerning the Army of Tennessee

From Our Army in Tennessee. – We have nothing of importance from the front, but a general opinion prevails among the men and subalterns that a move will be made soon. Some are alarmed lest the army should fall back, but Gen. Bragg has displayed generalship enough to provide means of retreat in case of necessity. This is a part of the art of war. The success of armies is uncertain, and a retreat must, be secured in case of the worst.

The next ten days promise something starting in front, and as we now have enough paper to do us for four or five months, our readers may expect to be daily posted.

A few more days of good weather and Rosencranz will have to make a move, or Bragg will force him to move, and that too in double quick time. Bragg's boys are determined to bag the old scoundrel and his minions.

[Winchester (Tenn.,) Bulletin, 18th.]

Whilst the tramp of war echoes in the far distance from the valleys of the Mississippi, the drums and trampling of an advance, on either side, are yet unheard in Middle Tennessee. But the winds of March are humming; the saturated earth yields itself to the warm, spring sun; and as sure as the gales of the Equinox, so sure the storm of battle approaches. We welcome it with prayer and thanksgiving!

[Chattanooga Rebel, 19th]

Daily Morning News (Savannah, GA), March 21, 1863.[8]

        21-22, Scout from LaGrange to Saulsbury, and skirmish

MARCH 21-22, 1863.-Scout from LaGrange, Sixth Illinois Cavalry.

Report of Lieut. Col. Rueben Loomis, Sixth Illinois Cavalry.

LAGRANGE, TENN., March 22, 1863.

COL.: In pursuance of your orders of the 21st instant, I proceeded with the effective force of the regiment and four guns of the battery to Grand Junction, Tenn. There I was informed by the officer in command of the post that the depredations which had been committed on the railroad a few miles from that point were supposed to have been done by [S. G.] Street and a certain Capt. White, of guerrilla notoriety, and their command consisted of about 34 men. Thinking we could manage the aforesaid force without the battery, I ordered it back to LaGrange, to report to you. We then proceeded on the State Line road in the direction of Saulsbury. After marching about 2 miles, I divided my command, Capt. Sloan taking command of Companies C, D, E, F, G, and H, and proceeded on the State Line road in the direction of Saulsbury, with instructions to scour the country on his route generally, and to make connection with me or the rest of the command at Saulsbury.

I then proceeded to the railroad, and found the wreck that Street had made of the train. My object in going to this point was that I might possibly get the direction which the guerrillas had taken; but, after observation, we found, after the rebels had left the railroad, they divided in parties of some four or five, and had gone in all directions. I then took up the march in the direction of Saulsbury, but after leaving the railroad about one-half mile, I sent Capt. Pierce, in command of Companies A and B, to the left, whilst I, with the remainder of the command, went to the right. We scoured the country throughout, and met at Saulsbury without any correct report or definite idea as to where Street was or had gone. We remained in Saulsbury some two hours, waiting for Capt. Sloan to make connection, during which time we fed our horses, and sought information concerning Street, but gained but little. Finally Capt. Sloan arrived. He had been somewhat more successful than I had been; he had heard of Street, but he was some six hours ahead, and making his route in three parties through the woods and fields. One of said parties consisted of 9 Union prisoners; another consisted of a gang of negroes [sic] to the number of 20 or 30; whilst the third was mounted, and seemed to be a kind of an advance guard or generally look-outs.

The enemy having so much the start of us, I considered it useless to make further pursuit, and as there was no forage in the immediate neighborhood, I returned to camp, where we arrived about 1 a. m.

Hoping this may prove satisfactory, I remain your most obedient servant,

R. LOOMIS, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Regt.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, pp. 471-472.

        21, Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest's situation report for West Tennessee

HDQRS. FORREST'S CAVALRY, Jackson, Tenn., March 21, 1864.

Col. THOMAS M. JACK, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of Ala., Miss., and East La.:

COL.: I forward, for the information of the lieutenant-general commanding the inclosed statement of outrages committed by the commands of Col. Fielding Hurst and others of the Federal Army.

I desire, if meets with the approval of the lieutenant-general commanding, that this reports may be sent to some newspaper for publication. Such conduct should be made known to the world.

Very respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant,

N. B. FORREST, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

HDQRS. CAV. DEPT. OF WEST TENN. AND NORTH MISS., Jackson, March 21, 1864.

Lieut. Col. T. M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

COL.: I have the honor to report the arrival of my advance at this place on yesterday morning at 11 o'clock, and deem it proper to give to lieutenant-general commanding a report of the condition of the country through which I have passed, also the state of affairs as they exist, with such suggestions as would naturally arise from observation made and a personal knowledge of facts as they exist. From Tupelo to Purdy the country has been laid waste, and unless some effort is made either by the Mobile and Ohio Railroad Company or the Government the people are bound to suffer for food. They have been by the enemy, and by roving bands of deserters and tories stripped of everything; have neither negroes [sic] nor stock with which to raise a crop or make a support. What provision they had have been consumed or taken from them, and the major of families are bound to suffer. They are now hauling corn in ox wagons and by hand-cars from Okolona and below to Corinth, and as far north as Purdy, also east west of Corinth, on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, but their limited means of transportation will not enable them to submit their families, and my opinion is that the railroad can be easily and speedily repaired, and that any deficiency in iron from Meridian north can be supplied front the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, and that a brigade of cavalry with a regiment or two of infantry placed at Corinth would afford protection to that section, and would be the means of driving out of the country or placing in our army the deserters and tories infesting that region, whose lawless appropriation of provisions, horses, and other property is starving out the defenseless and unprotected citizens of a large scope of country. Repairing and running the railroad would enable the inhabitants to procure provisions from the prairies and would prove an invaluable acquisition in the transportation of supplies and troops from this section. But little can be done in returning of supplies and troops from this section. But little can be done in returning the deserters from our army now in West Tennessee, and collecting and seeding out all person subject to military duty, unless the railroad is rebuilt or repaired, at they will have to be marched through a country already, for want of labor and supplies, insufficient for the subsistence of its own inhabitants. With a conscript post or an established military post at Corinth and the railroad from thence south they could be rapidly forwarded to the army. The wires can also be extended and a telegraph office established. The whole of West Tennessee is overrun by banks and squads of robbers, horse thieves, and deserters, whose depredations and unlawful appropriations of private property are rapidly and effectually depleting the country. The Federal forces at Paducah, Columbus, and Union City are small. There is also a small force at Fort Heiman, on the Tennessee, and Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi River. About 2,000 men of Smith's forces, composed of parts of many regiments, have crossed the Tennessee River at Clifton and Fort Heiman, and returned to Nashville; four regiments of Illinois cavalry have re-enlisted and have gone home on furlough. The cavalry force at Memphis is therefore small.

Numerous reports having reached me of the wagon destruction of property by Col. Fielding Hurst and his regiment of renegade Tennessee, I order Lieut. Col. W. M. Reed to investigate and report upon the same, and herewith transmit you a copy of his report. Have through it both just and proper to bring these transitions to the notice of the Federal commander at Memphis, and by flag of truce will demand of him the restitution of the money taken from the citizens of Jackson, under a threat from Hurst to burn the town unless the money was forthcoming at an appointed time. Have also demanded that the murderers be believe up to Confederate authority for punishment, and reply from that officer as to the demand, &c., will be forwarded you as soon as received. Should the Federal commander refuse to accede to the just demands made, I have instructed the officer in charge of the flag to believe the notice inclosed[9] outlawing Hurst and his command.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

N. B. FORREST, Maj.-Gen.

HDQRS. FORREST'S CAVALRY DEPARTMENT, Jackson, Tenn., March 20, 1864.

Col. R. McCulloch, Cmdg. Division, Oxford, Miss.:

COL.: I am directed by the major-general commanding to say that he will move on Union City and Paducah, and has forwarded you orders to send Richardson's brigade to Brownsville. He directs also that you move the remaining brigade of your division up as near to Germantown as possible, keeping on hand five days' ration ready it be cooked at a movement's notice. The general commanding thinks you can move over to Waterford; at any rate, move as far over as you can subsist your command, and be ready for a forward movement should the enemy move after me from Memphis, or further orders be sent you. Should it become necessary, or you be ordered to move, you will leave one regiment to guard the country and your wagon train, and bring with you only such wagons as may be necessary to carry your extra ammunition and as few cooking utensils as will do your command. He directs me also to say that the force of the enemy at Paducah, Columbus, and Union City is reported as small, and that he will move on Union City at once.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. W. ANDERSON, Aide-de-Camp to Maj.-Gen. Forrest.

HDQRS. DEPT. OF WEST TENN. AND NORTH MISS., Jackson, Tenn., March 21, 1864.

Col. ROBERT McCULLOCH, Cmdg. Division:

COL.: You will order Richardson's brigade to move via Hudsonville and LaGrange or Moscow, direct to Brownsville. They will move five days' cooked rations, and 60 rounds of ammunition to the man, if possible to get it; not less than 40 rounds in cartridge-boxes, bringing no more wagons than will be necessary to bring the extra ammunition, if any. The commanding officer of the brigade will dispatch of courier to these headquarters at Jackson, stating the time, &c., that the command will reach Brownsville, starting the courier as soon as the command passes LaGrange or Moscow.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Forrest:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 663-665.

21, Major General J. G. Foster's report on operations of the Army of the Ohio in East Tennessee, January 7 – February 9, 1864.


February 21, 1864.

GEN.: I have the honor, in obedience to your direction, to make the following report of the operations of the Army of the Ohio while I was in command, and of the general condition of affairs in East Tennessee:[10]

Gen. Grant visited Knoxville on the 30th of December, 1863. Seeing the suffering of the troops, he decided to have me await the arrival of supplies and the completion of the Strawberry Plains bridge before advancing. He left on the 7th of January to return by the way of Cumberland Gap. The cavalry, under Gen. Sturgis, was almost constantly engaged with the enemy's cavalry in the direction of Dandridge and Mossy Creek after crossing the Holston. These fight culminated in a general cavalry engagement near Mossy Creek on the 29th [of December], in which the enemy were driven from the field toward Morristown. Gen. Elliott's division of cavalry, from the Army of the Cumberland, particularly distinguished itself for gallantry.

On the 13th January, the main body of our cavalry having entirely exhausted the supplies in the country around Mossy Creek, were forced to move to Dandridge, where some little forage was to be found. The draft animals of the infantry and artillery, being by this time almost entirely without forage of any kind, were dying by the hundred daily. It became a matter of the first importance to move to a position where forage, if not corn for the men, could be obtained at once. I therefore ordered the Fourth and Twenty-third Corps to move across the Strawberry Plains bridge (which was passable on the 15th January), to march to Dandridge, cross the French Broad River near that place on a bridge to be built of wagons and any boats that could be obtained, and then to occupy the country south of that river as far toward the Nola Chucky as possible. It was represented that a considerable quantity of corn was to be found in this section. Besides this, the movement would tend to disturb Longstreet concerning his left flank and communications to the rear, especially toward North Carolina. The Ninth Corps was ordered to hold Strawberry Carolina. The Ninth Corps was ordered to hold Strawberry Plains, to be ready to support the movement while in progress, and afterward cover Knoxville.

The troops started on the 15th and reached Dandridge on the 17th, when the bridge was immediately commenced. It was completed to what was supposed to be the opposite bank of the river, and a brigade crossed over. It was soon found, however, to be upon an island, and that another channel of the river remained to be bridged. In the mean time the cavalry which had skirmished heavily with the enemy on the previous day (the 16th) near Kimbrough's Cross-Roads, 5 miles from Dandridge toward Morristown, had been forced back by the determined advance of the enemy almost to the town. Gen. Parke satisfied himself that Gen. Longstreet was in his front with his whole force, having advanced from his front with his whole force, having advanced from his cantonments to meet our supposed advance in force. This fact, added to the delay in completing the bridge, the difficulty in crossing in presence of an active enemy, the want of rations, and the commencing rain, which would soon make it impossible to get up supplies from the rear over the then almost impassable roads, induced Gen. Parke to decide to retire at once on Strawberry Plains, which he did without loss. I immediately ordered the whole force to move to Knoxville, cross the Holston on the pontoon bridge at that place (just completed), and ascend the south side of the French Broad to reach the foraging ground that it had failed to reach through Dandridge. As the cavalry passed through the town most of their horses had not been fed for forty-eight hours, and some of the artillery horses were without food for four days and nights. The cavalry reached and occupied the country south of the French Broad as far up as Fair Garden, 10 miles beyond Sevierville and scouted through the entire country as far up as the Nola Chucky. The Fourth Corps in following was 4 miles out from Knoxville, when I received Gen. Sturgis' report that the reports of the supplies in that section of the country were very much exaggerated, inasmuch as they would only suffice his cavalry for three weeks, and that the roads were impracticable for wagons and artillery. Disappointed in this, no other course remained but that of distributing the bulk of the force to obtain forage and supplies wherever it could be found. I accordingly sent the Fourth Corps to Morrisville, Lenoir's Station, and Loudon, with orders to gather their supplies from the surrounding counties. The Ninth Corps occupied the railroad, within supporting distance of Knoxville. The Twenty-third Corps encamped around the town. All the draft animals were sent to the rear on the Tennessee River, to forage. Those that were entirely broken down were sent back to Kentucky. The cavalry occupied the country south of the French Broad until the supplies were nearly exhausted, when the enemy, feeling the necessity of driving it away, made the effort with his cavalry on the 27th January. Gen. Sturgis met the enemy's cavalry at Fair Garden and completely defeated it, with a loss of 150 killed and wounded, 75 prisoners, 2 rifled field pieces, and some wagons and horses. The enemy's cavalry was then re-enforced by several brigades of infantry which had succeeded in fording the river, and Gen. Sturgis was in his turn forced to fall back toward Morristown. Previous to this Col. Palmer with his regiment, the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, had captured Gen. Vance with his staff and 150 prisoners. Subsequently he sent an expedition against Col. Thomas and his gang of whites and Indians at Quallatown, which succeeded in entirely breaking up the gang. All were killed or wounded except 50 that escaped into the mountains and 22 that were brought in as prisoners. The Governor of Kentucky having become anxious for the safety of the State from raids by the enemy, and having called on the Legislature to raise regiments for the defense of the State, I sent a division of dismounted cavalry to Mount Sterling, Ky., to be reorganized, remounted, and re-equipped for service, either against raids or in making them upon the flanks of the enemy's communication with Virginia. The remainder of the cavalry was ordered to the Little Tennessee River to forage.

Such was the military situation at the time I was relieved by Gen. Schofield, on the 9th February, 1864. In Kentucky the detachments guarding railroads and posts had been reduced to the minimum. Cumberland Gap and the adjacent districts of the Clinch were under the command of Brig.-Gen. Garrard, who had an infantry and cavalry brigade under his command. In my opinion no offensive movement can be undertaken before the 1st of April, in East Tennessee, without running great risks of a disaster which may cause the loss of that section of the country. The reasons are, that the men and animals are worn down and need rest and recuperation; the country between the two armies is entirely exhausted of forage and all kinds of supplies, which it is impossible to haul from the rear in consequence of the bad roads of the winter and spring, and also of the lack of forage even at the rear. For lack of horses, caused by the want of forage, very little artillery can be taken on a march at this time. The green grass, with the green corn, wheat, &c., will by the 1st of April subsist the animals of an army on the march. The men will be recruited in strength, and the veteran regiments returned to their brigades, with, probably, filled ranks. The same reasons will keep Gen. Longstreet inactive, unless forced to move. If, however, he should advance with his present force to attack Knoxville, the chances amount to almost certainty that he will meet with a great disaster. Knoxville, if properly defended, cannot be taken. It is naturally very strong, and I increased the strength of the defenses raised by Gen. Burnside, and armed them with seventy pieces of artillery. As for supplies for a siege, they are ample. I had salted down over 500,000 rations of pork and collected 500 barrels of flour. If Longstreet attempts to march past Knoxville, for the purpose of destroying the communications with Chattanooga, resistance can be successfully made at the Little Tennessee or the Holston, as a line of defense, while re-enforcements are marching from Chattanooga. At the same time his communications will be open to flank attacks from Knoxville. If he should attempt to make a raid into Kentucky through Pound Gap, Pendleton's Gap, or Crank Gap (Cumberland Gap being held by us), a column formed of the disposable force at Knoxville, marching rapidly on his heels, can easily close the gaps in his rear, and perhaps capture his trains; while a force may be thrown around by rail from Chattanooga sufficient, with that in Kentucky, to destroy him. No large force will be thrown into East Tennessee by the rebels, unless we force them to do so by increasing our force and taking the offensive. It is in their power to increase Longstreet's force between this and the 1st of April by detaching from Gen. Lee's army, but after that time they will not dare no diminish Gen. Lee's force. If by great sacrifices Gen. Longstreet be now driven from East Tennessee, he will re-enforce other rebel armies where his presence may be productive of more harm than in East Tennessee. While he is in his present position he can neither do damage in Virginia, North Carolina, nor assist Gen. Johnston to resist our armies in Alabama and Georgia. The best policy seems to be to let him remain until the objects of the movements farther south are attained, and until the offensive can be taken with advantage; even then it is questionable whether the engagements with him should not have for object to retain him where he is until Atlanta, Mobile, Montgomery, and perhaps Augusta and Savannah, fall. Knoxville is only the left wing of the united armies under Gen. Grant. It is 110 miles from the center at Chattanooga, a secondary base, which is still distant from the right wing and the primary base in Tennessee. It is very questionable whether the left wing should be pushed beyond Knoxville. By keeping the army there on the defensive, a considerable force may be spared from it to re-enforce the large army of the center to penetrate into Georgia, where every mile gained in advance tends to dissever the Confederacy. Gen. Longstreet's force has been increased by a force from North Carolina, said to be Pickett's division, numbering 2,800 men. Gen. Pickett did not come with it, but remained in North Carolina. Added to the above about 1,000 convalescents arrived from Richmond.

On the other side, he had suffered from desertions at the rate of 20 a day, and had allowed 5 per cent. of his force to go home on furloughs ranging from twenty-five to thirty-five days each. His present strength is 21,000 infantry and artillery and 6,000 cavalry. The Army of the Ohio, numbered (Twenty-third Corps, 7,000; Ninth Corps, 4,000; Fourth corps, 8,000) 19,000 infantry and artillery, and 6,000 cavalry, of which, however, only about 3,500 were mounted. The question of supplies is satisfactorily settled. The railroad from Chattanooga to Loudon was opened. The work on the bridge at Loudon was being rapidly carried on; it should be finished is seventy days. A wagon bridge having been completed across the Holston at Knoxville, I ordered the pontoon bridge removed to Loudon, to enable the supplies brought up by rail to be wagoned across the river and thence conveyed by rail to Knoxville. The number of light-draught steamers on the river is to be increased. In general the condition of affairs in East Tennessee was so much improved as to produce a decided feeling of confidence.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. G. FOSTER, Maj.-Gen. of Volunteers.

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt I, pp. 444-447.

        21-22, Reconnaissance near Burnt Mill, on Cleveland and Spring Place road


GEN.: Please find below a copy of dispatch received by me yesterday (21st) evening at 4 p. m.:

CHATTANOOGA, February 21, 1864.


Move out upon Spring Place road with 600 men and establish communication with Cruft at Red Clay. Push on as far as possible in direction of Dalton, keeping up communication with Cruft to observe movements of enemy, and prevent or give timely warning of any attack of enemy to turn Cruft's left flank. Should the enemy retire, send word to Cruft that he may advance from Red Clay.

W. D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

I left Calhoun at 6 a. m. this morning with 600 cavalrymen, with ten wagons with forage, and four ambulances. I hardly think they could have known the location of the roads at department headquarters, for this is the nearest point on this (Cleveland and Spring Place) road to Red Clay, and it (Red Clay) is 10 or 12 miles from here. I shall encamp to-night at some mills nearly 2 miles from here on the Connesauga, where I shall remain until I hear something from you. If not inconsistent, please explain to me as clearly as you can what is expected of my command.

Very respectful, your obedient servant,

ELI LONG, Col., Cmdg. Second Brig., Second Cav. Div.

Brig.-Gen. CRUFT, Cmdg. First Division, Fourth Army Corps, Red Clay.

P. S.-I have met or heard of nothing as yet.

E. L.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 469.

        21, Anti-guerrilla expedition ordered, Athens environs, for the duration


Knoxville, Tenn., March 21, 1865.


SIR: You will proceed with all the effective armed force of your regiment from Athens, Tenn., and distribute it at the several passes through the mountains east of that place. All enlisted men not armed will be left at Athens under charge of a commissioned officer, who will report to Capt. W. H. H. Crowell, Second Ohio Heavy Artillery, commanding post at Athens. With your effective force you will take measures to guard the mountain passes mentioned, and to prevent the incursions of guerrilla bands, and will be held responsible for any failure to do so. You must enforce strict discipline in your command, and under no circumstances permit the men to leave their companies, or to straggle in the march or from their camps, and all depredations and all cases of absence without authority of the major-general commanding the department must be severely and summarily punished. Your command will subsist upon the country, but all supplies taken must be receipted for on the proper blank forms used by quartermaster's and subsistence departments, whether obtained from loyal and disloyal persons. You will appoint a discreet officer to perform the duties of regimental quartermaster and commissary, who will alone have authority to provide the necessary supplies for your command, and you will be held responsible that his duty is faithfully and strictly performed. You will procure a full supply of ammunition before starting from Athens, and see that your men have at all times forty rounds of ammunition ready for use, and also that their arms are always kept clean and free from rust. You will send your tri-monthly report promptly, in time to have it reach these headquarters by the 10th, 20th, and last days of each month. You will also forward your monthly report promptly on the last day of each month, and be very careful that all returns and reports are correct before they are sent. You will provide yourself with the necessary blanks before starting.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. G. GIBSON, Col. Second Ohio Heavy Artillery, Cmdg. Brigade.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 46-47.

        21-April 25, Expedition from East Tennessee into SW Virginia and Western North Carolina [Stoneman's]

While all the fighting connected with this report took place in North Carolina and Virginia, there were still some activities in East Tennessee, principally in the way of troop movements from the 18th to the 27th of March, 1865, as the following illustrates:


Excerpt from the Report of Brig. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, U. S. Army, commanding Cavalry Division, District of East Tennessee, of operations in the Expedition from East Tennessee into Southwestern Virginia and Western North Carolina, March 21-April 25, relative to activities in East Tennessee, March 18-27, 1865.


MAJ.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the cavalry, District of East Tennessee, from the 21st of March up to the present date. To prevent repetition I will merely say that from the time the division left Morristown, on the 23d of March, until the 17th of April, Maj.-Gen. Stoneman, commanding the District of East Tennessee, accompanied the division, and that its movements were made in compliance with his instructions.

On the 18th of March, in compliance with orders from headquarters of the District of East Tennessee, I assumed command of this division. At that time but one brigade (Miller's brigade, Third) was at Knoxville. On the 22d the division was concentrated at Mossy Creek. On the 23d the division moved to Morristown, Tenn., where five days' rations, one day's forage (corn), and four horseshoes and nails were issued to each man of the command. At daylight on the morning of the 24th Col. Miller, with his brigade (Third), moved on the road toward Bristol, with orders to take the north or Snapp's Ferry road at Bull's Gap, and by a rapid march by Fall Branch to get on the railroad between Jonesborough and Carter's Station, and thus get in the rear of the portion of the enemy's forces reported in the vicinity of Jonesborough. Col. Miller was accompanied by a telegraph operator. The other two brigades from Bull's Gap took the central or Babb's Mill road, whilst Gen. Tillson, with the infantry and train, moved by the main or southern road, by way of Greeneville. Nothing of interest transpired on the 24th. On the 25th we encamped ten miles west of Jonesborough; the train came up, and the First and Second Brigades drew all the rations the men could carry conveniently. On the 26th the command moved, cutting loose from all encumbrances in the way of trains. One wagon, ten ambulances, and four guns, with their caissons, were the only Carriages that accompanied the expedition. At 12 m. we passed through Jonesborough, and learned from Col. Miller that he had complied with his instructions, but that in consequence of injuries to the railroad bridge over the Watauga there had been no trains south of the river for some days; that rebel Gen. Jackson had fallen back the previous night in great haste, and that the country was full of rebel stragglers and deserters, and that he had killed and captured some of the former. In compliance with his instructions Col. Miller then moved to Elizabethtown. On the 26th a portion of the command encamped on Buffalo Creek and the remainder at Doe River Cove, it being necessary to scatter the command in order to procure forage. On the 27th Col. Miller was ordered to concentrate his brigade and follow the division on the following day. On the 27th the command moved up the Watauga River, and after halting for a short time near the mouth of Roan Creek to feed, marched until 12 p. m., when we bivouacked on the eastern slope of the Iron Mountain until daylight, when the march was resumed. About 10 a. m. on the 28th, when approaching the town of Boone [North Carolina]....

* * * *

ALVAN C. GILLEM, Brig.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg. Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, p. 330.


[1] This skirmish is listed neither in the OR General Index, nor Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee It is the sort of military activity that was not given official designation by the army during the war, or by the editors of the OR in the decades following the war. It may appear to be a minor, even insignificant affair, but it did happen and it did involve an unknown number of steam boats and an estimated 100 Rebel cavalry. It is therefore necessary to list it here.

[2] Beatty was a Union guerrilla leader on the Cumberland Plateau. He was as notorious as was Champ Ferguson, the infamous Confederate partisan leader. There are but few passing references to him in the OR. One source indicates the whereabouts of "Tinker" Dave's hideout: "Near the town of Montgomery [then the Morgan county seat, about a mile northwest of Wartburg] is an extensive cave in the mountains called Beatty's Cave. In that rich valley, Beatty, the leader of those mountain patriots, is intrenched and fortified, and thousands of acres there cultivated in corn and other grain for their subsistence.

Before the late advance of our army [to Knoxville in August 1863], Beatty kept pickets constantly posted to warn him of the approach of the enemy, and whenever a rebel force was discovered in the vicinity, the sound of Beatty's horn, the signal of alarm, was simultaneously respond to by a hundred other horns amongst the neighboring hills, when the members of the Union League would start for Beatty's cave for safety and defence . At one time the rebel cavalry, fifteen hundred strong, made an assault on Beatty at this cave, whom he repulsed with desperate slaughter. When the pen of the historian shall have faithfully recorded the chivalrous deeds of 'Tinker Beatty,' he will be regarded by his country men as the 'William Tell' of the Cumberland Mountains." See Frank Moore, ed., Anecdotes, Poetry and Incidents of the War: North and South, 1860-1865, (NY: Bible House, 1867) p. 383.

Basil W. Duke, one of Morgan's generals, wrote about "Tinker Dave Beattie" [sic] as "the great opponent of Champ Ferguson. This patriarchal old man lived in a cove, or valley surrounded by high hills, at the back of which was a narrow path leading to the mountain. Here, surrounded by his clan, he led a pastoral, simple life, which must have been very fascinating, for many who ventured into the cove never come away again. Sometimes Champ Ferguson, with his band, would enter the cove, harry old Dave's stock and goods, and drive him to his retreat in the mountain, to which no man ever followed him. Then, again, when he was strong enough, he would lead his henchmen against Champ, and slay all who did not escape. But it must not be understood that he confined his hostility to Captain Ferguson and the latter's men: on the contrary, he could have had, had so chosen, as many scalps drying in his cabin as ever rattled in the lodge of a Commanche war-chief, and taken with promiscuous impartiality. There were not related of Beattie so many stories, illustrated of his personal strength and bull-dog courage, as of Champ Ferguson....But Beattie possessed a cunning and subtlety which the other, in great measure lacked. Perhaps he was more nearly civilized...." See Basil W. Duke, History of Morgan's Cavalry, (Cincinnati: Miami Printing and Publishing Company, 1867), pp. 416-418.

[3] See also: Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 129.

[4] The place given this report seems unusual inasmuch as Bolivar is in West, not Middle, Tennessee.

[5] Both the Vallentine, the Danbury and the DeSoto were fire engines.

[6] Helpmeet or helpmate.

[7]Valley of the Shadow.


[9] Not found.

[10] Gen. Foster relieved Gen. Burnside on December 12, 1863. For portion of this report here omitted, see Series I, Vol. 31, pt I, p. 286.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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