Monday, May 11, 2015

5.10-11.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

May 10-11, 1861-1865



          10, Rhetorical Approbation for Secession in Clarksville

We trust there is not a heart in Tennessee that will not beat freer, and glow with warmer emotions of patriotism on learning that our gallant State has, through her Legislature, passed an ordinance, declaring her independence of the Black Republic of the North, and she has also entered into a treaty, offensive and defensive, with the Confederate States – both acts to be perfected by an affirmative vote of the people on the 8th of June next. The Legislature has likewise appropriated five millions of dollars for war purposes, and authorized a call for fifty-five thousand troops – twenty-five thousand of that number for immediate service.

This is glorious news, and we tender our individual acknowledgments to the Governor, to the able Commissioners, appointed by him, and to those members of the Legislature who sustained these measures, for their wisdom and patriotism – their devotion to southern rights, and their stern defiance of abolition tyranny and usurpation. However dire the necessity, we cannot, without pain, witness the dissolution of the Union formed by our forefathers, but although the stars that blazoned the old flag, are, to us, lessened in number, they will gain in luster, and the stripes we bequeath, a fit legacy, to the contemptible tyrants and fanatics who have rent in twain the glorious old banner, and gathered its stars into two separate constellations. But the die is cast, and for the honor and safety of Tennessee, let there be but one voice among the people, and that in favor of a separation, now and forever. Let the 8th of June be a day every memorable for the unanimity with which Tennessee proclaimed her independence of the northern despot who seeks the destruction of her rights and the subjugation of her people. Away with delusive hopes of peace and union! Away with timid counsels and clinging sympathies for a once glorious government now perverted into an engine of oppression. Cast out the evil spirit of submission to a base usurper, and let every Tennessean resolve to stand by his State and the South until peace and independence have been won and secured.

Clarksville Chronicle, May 10, 1861.

          10, "…this whole region in a miserable state of unpreparedness, and totally unable to meet an invasion that is imminently threatened by U. S. troops from the North." A Mississippian's fearful assessment and counsel relative to military preparedness in West Tennessee

TRENTON, TENN., May 10, 1861.

Gen. L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War, &c., Montgomery, Ala.:

DEAR SIR: I came to this place my former residence, a few days since from my plantation in Noxubee County, Miss., and found this whole region in a miserable state of unpreparedness, and totally unable to meet an invasion that is imminently threatened by U. S. troops from the North. There are now at Cairo, the southern point of Illinois, 7,000 men, well armed, having field artillery and plenty of heavy guns, and everything indicates that it is being made a strong point-d'appui, or basis of operations, for an extensive invasion of the country below. It is quite probable that in a few days a force of 20,000 or 30,000 men will be concentrated at Cairo, and in all this section there are only a few half-formed companies of volunteers and home guards, mostly without arms of any kind, to meet and repel any attempt at invasion. The defenses being prepared on the Mississippi above Memphis are totally inefficient when the river is down, and it is now rapidly falling. There are at Randolph, the second Chickasaw Bluff, about 1,000 men with two batteries under the bluff, but a force of 1,500 or 2,000 landed a few miles above can easily march around, take possession of the hills that overlook the batteries, and shoot down the men in them like bullocks in a pen. Another fort for the protection of these batteries should be immediately constructed, or they will be of little use. In like manner a respectable force can be landed above Fort Harris and in a few hours be in the city of Memphis, where there are no defenses looking landward. The best defense of Memphis, as well as all points below, on and off the river, may be made at Columbus, Ky. Below the mouth of the Ohio River there is no strategic point of half so much importance, and it should be immediately occupied by a strong force, notwithstanding the neutral position of Kentucky. Self preservation demands it. A strong fort at that place and an auxiliary one at the old Jefferson Barracks at the mouth of Mayfield Creek, eight miles above Columbus, with sufficient garrison in each, would protect the terminus of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad and prevent the passage of any but an overwhelming force. If the Government of the Confederate States should not determine to take and fortify Columbus, then a strong force should be immediately sent to Union City, the intersection of the Mobile and Ohio with the Nashville and Northeestern Railroads, and to the point where the former railroad crosses the Obion River, with field artillery and a sufficiency of heavy guns for several strong batteries. The Mississippi and West Tennessee volunteers should be concentrated at these points. Your Excellency would excuse me for making and urging these suggestions did you know the exposed situation of this region, and the greater imminence of the danger from the recent action of the State of Tennessee and her alliance with the Confederate States of America.

I have the honor to be, with highest respect, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 93-94.

          11, Report of murder committed by Negroes in the Bull's Gap environs

We learn from the Chattanooga Gazette that a horrible murder is reported to have been committed near Bull's Gap, East Tennessee, a few days since, by the negroes of a Mr. Bright.  They were five in number and killed Bright, his wife and daughter and a sister of Mrs. Bright.  It is thought the negroes were induced to commit the terrible deed by two white men passing as Methodist preachers. Four of the negroes were said to have been burned on Monday.

Louisville Daily Journal, May 11, 1861

          11, Report of murder committed by Negroes in the Bull's Gap environs

We learn from the Chattanooga Gazette that a horrible murder is reported to have been committed near Bull's Gap, East Tennessee, a few days since, by the negroes of a Mr. Bright.  They were five in number and killed Bright, his wife and daughter and a sister of Mrs. Bright.  It is thought the negroes were induced to commit the terrible deed by two white men passing as Methodist preachers. Four of the negroes were said to have been burned on Monday.

Louisville Daily Journal, May 11, 1861


          10, Confederate physician's bravery and workers' donation for wounded soldiers

Bravery of a Surgeon-We are informed by soldiers who participated in the battle of Shiloh, that Dr. W.C, Cavanaugh, Surgeon to the second Tennessee (Colonel Walker's) regiment, displayed much bravery upon the battlefield. He extracted balls on the field and made those who tried to "play of wounded" go back to their posts. All who saw Dr. Cavanaugh speak in the highest praise of him.

The employees of...Winn & Co., (saddle & harness factory) handed Mr. Lofland, treasurer, six hundred and seventy dollars yesterday for the benefit of the wounded soldiers [of Shiloh].

Memphis Argus, April 10, 1862.

          10, Confederate report on five day scout, Hickman to Union City to Dresden, relative to strong Union sentiment in West Tennessee and difficulties with independent companies

HDQRS. CAVALRY, Trenton, Tenn., April 10, 1862.

Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Corinth, Miss.:

MAJ.: I have just returned from a five days' scout in the direction of Hickman; remained one night at Union City, and thence toward Dresden. The enemy's cavalry did not make their appearance. I found everything quiet on my line. The Union feeling throughout the upper country is very strong, and the management of these men is one of the most delicate and perplexing of all to me. Our Southern friends beseech me not to interfere with the Union men, since they will be certain to report them, and thereby bring down a retaliation on the part of the Federal troops much more harsh and severe than any that we could have the heart to show our enemies. I have therefore determined not to arrest any Union sympathizers unless known to be aiding and abetting the enemy.

I have made a reconnaissance of the country above this, and am of the opinion that there is no line nearer to the enemy than the one from Dresden through this place across to Dyersburg to be convenient to a telegraph office. There seems to be but little disposition displayed by the citizens of Weakley and Obion Counties to sell provisions and forage to the Confederate Government, since they invariably refuse to take Confederate notes in payment.

The Obion bottoms are at present almost impassable, which will prevent my forming a new line above this point. I can guard the line, however, by sending out from time to time strong scouting parties to operate in the country about Union City and Dresden.

The independent companies attached to my command are an expense to the Confederacy and do very little service, since they are not acquainted with the country. I would respectfully recommend the merging of all these companies (with the exception of Dillard's) into one, and have the election of company officers, then muster them into one, and have the election of company officers, then muster them into service for the war, and if they do not wish to do this, discharge them. They are now a heavy expense for the service rendered. Capt. D. G. Reid, with a squad of 15 men, is operating on my line under the authority of Gen. Beauregard, and I would state for the information of the general commanding that he is doing great damage to our cause. He is reported to me by good citizens to be engaged in taking horses from Union men on the line and near Dresden, thereby causing the Union men to retaliate upon our friends; in fact, I consider the party a nuisance, and have the honor to request his removal from my line.

I was sufficiently near Island 10 on last Sunday and Monday to hear the firing, which was very heavy. I presume you have heard the result; it is reported by parties from there that one gunboat ran by the island on Friday night and two more on Sunday night; our batteries were abandoned and spiked Monday and the infantry force surrendered on Tuesday morning; a good many poor made their escape and are coming in here daily.

Capt. Neely's company arrived here to-day; Haywood's company not yet arrived. I would respectfully request that Capt. Robertson's company be ordered here at once, as I need them very much. I have lost the copies of my order and my report of the Union City affair, and would like to have copies of both sent me. For the present my headquarters will be at this place.

I am, major, with high respect, your obedient servant,

W. H. JACKSON, Col., Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 407-408.

10-June 3, Confederate Report and Correspondence Relative to the Victory at the Battle of Plum Point and Measures Needed to Defend the Mississippi River

Report of Brigadier-General Thompson, Missouri State Guard,


Gunboat General Bragg, May 10, 1862--10 p.m.

GENERAL: At a council of war held last night by the captains of the fleet it was determined to attack the enemy this morning, to cut out a gunboat which for the past two days has been guarding the mortar boat.

We started at the commodore's signal at 6 a.m. and steamed round the point in front of Fort Pillow. The boat guarding the mortar boat immediately started into the current and ran for the shoal water on Plum Point. The General Bragg, Captain Leonard, which had the lead, ran rapidly at her (supposed to be the St. Louis), striking her a glancing blow on the starboard bow and receiving a broadside at 10 feet distance. The Bragg then backed out, and the Sumter. Captain Lamb, passed on, striking the same boat on the starboard quarter, and continued up stream to strike another. The Van Dorn, Captain Fulkerson, which came next, went up to the mortar boat and fired into it at 20 yards distance, and, passing for larger game, ran into another large gunboat, and then, unfortunately ran ashore, where for several minutes she sustained a terrific cannonade until she backed off. The Price, Captain Henthorne, which was third in the line of attack, went gallantly in, and struck a large gunboat, supposed to be the Benton, and also received several point-blank shots. The other boats of this fleet, viz, the Beauregard, Colonel Lovell, Jeff Thompson, and Little Rebel, were not able to get into the fight, except with their guns, but it is worthy of note that the gunners on the open forecastle and sterns served their guns steadily amid a shower of missiles without one casualty.

The Little Rebel was Commodore Montgomery's flagship, and ran about amid the storm as heedlessly as if charmed.

A tiller rope on the General Bragg was accidentally cut, which prevented her from again returning to the charge, and as the difference in speed had opened the gap between our boats so far, and as the enemy's boats were enough injured to repay our attempt and damage fourfold, the commodore hoisted his recall, and we fell back, cheering and shouting.

Our loss has been: W. W. Andrews, steward on the Van Dorn, killed; third cook on the Bragg, mortally wounded, and eight or ten slightly wounded, among whom is Captain Fulkerson--a contusion on the hand, more painful than dangerous.

Where all acted so handsomely it would be invidious to discriminate, and I will simply state that the captains and crews of this fleet deserve the confidence which has been reposed in them, and my officers and men acted, as they always have, bravely and obediently.

Yours, most respectfully,


Brigadier-General, Missouri State Guard, Commanding Confederate Troops on Fleet.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD, C. S. Army, Corinth, Miss.


Report of Captain Montgomery, Commanding River Defense Fleet.

FLAGBOAT LITTLE REBEL, Fort Pillow, Tenn., May 12, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report an engagement with the Federal gunboats at Plum Point Bend, 4 miles above Fort Pillow, May 10.

Having previously arranged with my officers the order of attack, our boats left their moorings at 6 a.m. and proceeding up the river, passed round a sharp point, which brought us in full view of the enemy's fleet, numbering eight gunboats and twelve mortar boats.

The Federal boat Carondelet was lying nearest us, guarding a mortar boat that was shelling the fort. The General Bragg, Captain H. H. Leonard, dashed at her. The Carondelet [Cincinnati], firing her heavy guns, retreated toward a bar where the depth of water would not be sufficient for our boats to follow. The Bragg continued boldly on under fire of nearly their whole fleet, and struck her a violent blow that stopped her further flight, then rounded down the river under a broadside, fired and drifted until her tiller rope that had got out of order could be readjusted. A few moments after the Bragg struck her blow, the General Sterling Price, first officer Thomas E. Henthorne, ran into the same boat a little aft of her starboard midship, carrying away her rudder, sternpost, and a large piece of her stern. This threw the Carondelet's [Cincinnati's] stern to the Sumter, Captain W. W. Lamb, who struck her, running at the utmost speed of his boat.

The General Earl Van Dorn, Captain Isaac D. Fulkerson, running according to orders in the rear of the Price and Sumter, directed his attention to the Mound City, at the time pouring broadsides into the Price and Sumter. As the Van Dorn proceeded, by skillful shots from her 32-pounder, W. G. Kendall, gunner, silenced a mortar boat that was filling the air with its terrible missiles. The Van Dorn, still holding on the Mound City's midship, in the act of striking, the Mound City sheered, and the Van Dorn struck her a glancing blow, making a hole 4 feet deep in her starboard forward quarter, evidenced by splinters left on the iron bow of the Van Dorn. At this juncture the Van Dorn was above four of the enemy's boats. As our remaining boats, the General M. Jeff Thompson, Captain J. H. Burke, the Colonel Lovell, Captain James C. Delancy, and the General Beauregard, Captain J. H. Hurt, were entering boldly into the contest in their prescribed order, I perceived from the flagboat that the enemy's boats were taking positions where the water was too shallow for our boats to follow them, and, as our cannon was far inferior to theirs, both in number and size, I signaled our boats to fall back, which was accomplished with a coolness that deserves the highest commendation. I am happy to inform you, while exposed at close quarters to a most terrific fire for thirty minutes, our boats, although struck repeatedly, sustained no serious injury. Our casualties were 2 killed and 1 wounded (arm broken).

General M. Jeff Thompson was on the General Bragg; his officers and men were divided among the boats. They were all at their posts, ready to do good service should an occasion offer. To my officers and men I am highly indebted for their courage and promptness in executing all orders.

On the 11th instant I went on the Little Rebel in full view of the enemy's fleet. Saw the Carondelet [Cincinnati] sunk near the shore and the Mound City sunk on the bar. The position occupied by the enemy's gunboats above Fort Pillow offers more obstacles to our mode of attack than any other between Cairo and New Orleans. But of this you may rest assured, if we can get fuel, unless the enemy greatly increase their force, they will never penetrate farther down the Mississippi.

I am with great respect, your obedient servant,

J. E. MONTGOMERY, Senior Captain, Commanding River Defense Service.

General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Commanding C. S. Army of the West.


Report of Brigadier-General Thompson, Missouri State Guard, regarding the action of the rams in the river.

C. S. RIVER DEFENSE SERVICE, Gunboat General Bragg, off Fort Pillow, May 13, 1862--8 p.m.

GENERAL: Your telegram suggesting our trying the slow boats downstream is received. Upon reflection you will find that none of the rams will answer downstream, except when manned by a "forlorn hope" to accomplish some specific object. After the first "butt" downstream, whether it be fair or foul, your boat is lost, for you can not back upstream to strike again, and in drifting down you will be at the mercy of the enemy. This matter was fully demonstrated on the 10th, for the Bragg, which is the best and fastest boat, went in the lead, and after striking her first blow simply fouled a tiller rope and had to drift out of the action. Our only hope is to make ourselves useful "upstream," and we will keep the enemy ,at this point in check until they are largely reinforced. The enemy s boats above Fort Pillow are now moored in narrow channels behind sand bars, where we can not attack them again, but we will wait and watch for another opportunity. Should gunboats pass Vicksburg and the fort at that place remain in our hands, then we can run downstream and sink everything we hit between here and there, and then return to this post.

Yours, most respectfully,


Brigadier-General, Missouri State Guards,

Commanding Confederate Gunners.


Commanding C. S. Army, Corinth, Miss.


[ Telegram. ]

MEMPHIS, TENN., June 3, 1862.

If not already done, for God's sake order the River Defense Fleet to defend every bend and dispute every mile of river from [Fort] Pillow here.

I am willing, and believe I am able, to hold the river if Commodore Montgomery will cooperate, which I believe he will.




[ Telegram. ]

MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.

Without it was a strategic movement, it was useless to evacuate Fort Pillow.

If we are allowed to place the mortars on rafts and permitted to use the transports and play strategy back on the enemy, I will contract to hold this river above Memphis for a month.




[ Telegram. ]

HEADQUARTERS, Grenada, June 3, 1862.

I wish you to take command at Memphis and hold your forces in such position as to cover it and contribute to its defense. This is on the presumption that your previous orders do not conflict and that you have evacuated Fort Pillow.

The new gunboat Arkansas will reach Memphis in a few days to join the cotton gunboat fleet.[1]

I hope to be in Memphis to-morrow morning. Can you furnish some heavy guns for Memphis? Answer.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, Commanding.

Brigadier-General VILLEPIGUE, Memphis.


[ Telegram. ]

MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.

I will promptly obey your instructions. I will do the best I can to hold the enemy in check at all points. I think that the fleet ought to be kept above. Shall I detain remainder of troops as they arrive? The troops have only five days' rations.

Rations had better be forwarded to Hernando, if I detain them here, so that if they run short they can be procured easily. No batteries of any kind here, except those that will arrive to-night.

THOS. H. ROSSER, Colonel, Commanding Post.

General RUGGLES,Grenada.


[ Telegram. ]

MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.

The Golden Age passed down this morning from Fort Pillow with troops for Vicksburg. We may have about 200 troops here on whom to depend, and can make no defense except against a very meager force.

We shall remain till everything is shipped and as much longer as possible.

Nearly everything has been forwarded. Will finish to-day probably.

THOS. H. ROSSER, Colonel, Commanding Post.

General RUGGLES, Grenada.


[ Telegram. ]

MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.

Fort Pillow is evacuated. I left the fort this morning myself. The remainder of the ammunition and 600 troops were taken by steamer Golden Age this morning to Vicksburg. The remainder of the troops, with General Villepigue, are coming by land. There is neither arms nor powder here.

In view of the importance of holding Memphis, public meetings have been held and addressed by General Thompson, Colonel Rosser, and Captain Baird, with the most discouraging results. Colonel Foote will leave on the evening train for Grenada and will explain to you the true condition of things here. Captain Baird will accompany him.


General RUGGLES, Grenada.

NOR, Ser. I, Vol.23, pp. 54-59.

          11, Skirmish at Wartrace

APRIL 11, 1862.-Skirmish at Wartrace, Tenn.

Report of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April 28, 1862.

GEN.: I have the honor to report that on the 10th instant a detachment of the Eighth Tennessee Cavalry, under Lieut.-Col. Starnes, was sent out from Hillsborough, in this State, by order of Brig.-Gen. Maxey, for the purpose of scouring the country lying near the western slope of the Cumberland Mountains.

This force, consisting of about 200 men, came upon a body of the enemy, 600 strong, at Wartrace, in Bedford County, and immediately attacked them in their camp.

After a short engagement our men were withdrawn, with a loss of 3 killed and 8 wounded. The killed are Lieut. Wilson, Dr. Drahe, and Private Austin Stanley. The names of the wounded are not given. Lieut.-Col. Starnes reports killing a considerable number of the enemy, but owing to the fact that they fought from their tents, their exact loss could not be ascertained. A good effect was, however, produced, as it was a surprise to the enemy, and so alarmed him as to stop for some time the running of trains on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad.

The officer commanding the expedition reports that the officers and men of his command behaved themselves with great gallantry.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 644.


The Wartrace Skirmish.—A gentleman from Shelbyville has given us some particulars of the skirmish at Wartrace, eight miles from Shelbyville, which we noticed the other day. A company of Col. Starn's cavalry, belonging to Floyd's brigade, came at daybreak upon a part of the Forty-second Indiana, of less than half their own numbers under Maj. Shanklin of Evansville. A desperate fight ensued in which four Federal soldiers were killed and twenty-five slightly wounded. Four rebels were killed on the spot, and twenty of them wounded, two or three mortally. Among the rebels killed were Capt. Wilson, of Chapel Hill, and Dr. Duke, surgeon of the battalion. One of the rebels who had been in Shelbyville a few days previous, passing himself off as a Union man, was shot through the forehead with a minnie ball. Our informant says that our troops behaved with wonderful gallantry.

Nashville Daily Union, April 17, 1862.

          11, Changes brought about in Memphis by the War.

 "The Peculiarities of the Day."

In the whirl of passing events we scarcely notice the strange things that are daily happening and existing around us. The bonnet that the ladies wear in the streets and at church, excited but little of or attention, but, if in 1882 we should happen to see a portrait of a person wearing a bonnet of 1862, how strange it will appear to us-so it will be of the events of eighteen hundred and sixty-two. How those of us who are then living, will be listened to with gaping mouth and staring eye, as we relate events and circumstances of "the war!" The war has affected almost every department of our life, and rudely torn away the whole habits of our past existence. Our dress, food, literature, business, devotions, pursuits, out-of-door conduct, and fireside conversation, are all changed and modified by the influence of the war.

What would the people of the South have said two years ago, to any one who should have predicted that they would get their breakfasts without coffee, and drink the juice of parched rye as a substitute, without a work of complaint or a wry face? Yet, the fact is done. The failure of our usual supplies of barreled meat from the cities of the West, has made a change in the diet of every man and woman in the Confederacy, and a no less striking changed in the produce of the plantation. How astonishing it will appear, in a few years, that a time existed when planters raised corn and potatoes, fattened hogs and cultivated garden vegetables, while cotton was by universal consent neglected, and this at a time when cotton was worth in Liverpool twenty-eight cents a pound, yet selling on the plantation at five cents. How odd it will be to remember that certain merchandise was forbidden to be brought into the city, and certain kinds of produce to be taken out; and that in many places in the markers and stores, dealers could sell only at prices dictated to them by a Provost Marshal. While our eating is thus affected, our drinking is no less so – slings, juleps, smashes, and all the paraphernalia [sic] of drunkenness, is in a state of suspension, and every groggery in the city is close. Not only is the coffee gone we drank without families at home, but the brandy we pledged our friend's health is abroad.

Our dress is affected to an equal extent with our food. The very books, that with places of glaring colors used to show us how the beaux and ma'ams [sic] of New York and Philadelphia wore their hats and bonnets, cats and dresses, are no longer to be found among us. We do not know what the fashions are, and without a grumble don anything we can find in the stores that is to be bought; and the stores, having no means of replenishing their stock with "new good from the East," our "go to meeting coats" are often more remarkable for their comfort, than for their elegance.

In our business there is a change that in twenty years will make every listener doubt as he hears the story. Days pass by in which neither railroad trains or steamboats bring a pound of freight. 'Change[2] hour passes without a visitor at the mart of commerce, without a document being placed upon the bulletin board, a sample on the table, or a sale on the register. What is more, every store closes at two o'clock in the afternoon, and the city one-half of every day has the quietude of Sunday.

In our reading we have no books "just published," no New York weeklies or monthlies, no European magazines; have not read Dickens' last, or commenced Collin's new story. Have not seen the last principal "star" on the stage, and do not know who is the reigning prima donna at the opera. Our newspapers have felt the martial influence as strongly as other things. They never had so much variety as not, since FAUST [sic] pulled the press; they are of all sizes and colors, and sometimes contain four pages, and sometimes two. They are short enough for a pocket handkerchief one day, and big enough for a table cloth another. They assume as many hues as Niagara in the sunshine, and are by turns blue, yellow, green, red, purple, grey, and common brown packing paper. At church our prayers have conformed to new events, or if they do not conform there are indications that the war can extend its prerogatives beyond the precincts of the battle-field.

Our very medicine has experienced its share of the change; Epson salts have become an expensive luxury, and quinine is a treat "niggers and poor white folks" find beyond their reach. Even our sleeping apartments have been invaded, and blankets are all gone to the soldiers' tents. Politics are dead. A political enemy is a curiosity only read of in books. We have no Whigs, no Democrats, no Know-Nothings, no nothing. Our amusements have revolutionized. The winter has passed by without a company having engaged at the theater, or a single circus having spread tent. Our people have done their own playing and their own singing, and the most accomplished ladies in town have spent the mornings in sewing coarse shirts or pantaloons for the soldier to wear, and sung in public at night to gain money for the soldier's equipments.

How far we might extend this list every reader of our remarks knows, but brief as it is, a few of the changes the war is brought upon us as it enumerates, it contains the mention of facts that will excite wonder if read twenty years hence.  [emphasis added]

Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.

          11, Criticism of Confederate deserters and looters at Shiloh


All accounts we have from the battle of Shiloah [sic] agree in blaming in the strongest terms the large numbers of our unworthy soldiers who seemed to have on the battle field but two objects: Firstly, to plunder the Federal tents; secondly, to secure their spoils. They cared not to know what had become of their comrades after the victory of Sunday, and cared less yet to participate into another fight, but scattered away in all directions leading to a place of safety. Many will, of necessity, be captured by the Federal cavalry, and for them we have no sympathy. Many have effected their object, and saved themselves and plunder: but let them remember that in their fight they have also acquired an everlasting stain upon their reputation as soldiers and patriots. The country will remember is, and steps will be taken hereafter to interfere with such disgraceful conduct.

Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.

          11, Reassessing the battle of Shiloh


It will be seen by the telegraph dispatches sent to us from Corinth on yesterday, and, which we publish in another column, that the battle of Shiloah [sic] has not been renewed by either side up to this day, all rumors to the contrary notwithstanding.

The inaction of the Federals after the engagement of last Monday is for us a virtual acknowledgment off our victory. We held our ground up to the last hour, and retired at leisure, bringing everything away with us that we chose, to the full extent of our means of transportation, over most wretched roads. Gen. BRECEKNRIDGE brought up the rear guard with our cavalry, and wherever the enemy showed himself, trying to annoy our movements, we repulsed them with loss.

That the drama of the battle is ended at Corinth, is not likely. But, at any rate, the two first acts permit us to auger well to the end. The Western army, under command of Gen. GRANT, has found out, at a fearful expense, that we have a Confederate army, and BEAUREGARD had conquered for himself the right of being addressed by them as a Confederate commander. After the battle of Shiloh they will acknowledge us as equals – after the battle of Corinth, they will acknowledge us as superiors.

Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.

          11, Letter on the Confiscation of Civilian Arms in Nashville

[Correspondence of the Louisville Journal.]


Nashville, April 11, 1862.

The sword and the bayonet may subdue physical resistance, but these cannot tame the unkindled passions, nor win back the alienated affections. I therefore feel happy in being permitted to wield the weapons of thought in the great battle of public sentiment. In the arena of politics I have been an unswerving advocate of every constitutional Southern right. My prejudices and prepossessions were on that side-it was the home of my fathers. I boasted of Southern hospitality, and was proud to have descended from a noble Southern ancestry. I believed them to be zealous votaries of reason, and generous to those who honestly differed with them in opinion. I am not yet changed in my purposes nor entirely revolutionized in my opinions. Permit me to say, however, that I have been mortified and disappointed.

Our officers have been exceedingly kind and forbearing to citizens at Nashville. I have studies to win their affections; I have sought to converse with them mildly and reason with them liberally; yet I have met little else than insult and indifference. When I have bowed to them to them, they have turned from me with insulting sneers, and on meeting ladies to whom no gentleman would return an insult, I have been reputed with the epithet Yankee. Under the heading "Our Rages," a stirring article appeared in the Nashville Patriot some days since, and was copied in the Banner on the next day. In this article we were severely criticized for searching the housed in Edgefield for concealed arms. To which article I wrote a reply.[3] The paper ceased, and we are left with the censure upon us. Permit me to assure you that the Patriot misapprehended our motives. We intended no outrage, and we, as much as the Patriot, regret the causes which impelled us to this alternative.

The news came to us in the evening, that a crowd of men had been heard to say that they intended to arm themselves on that night, and shout into a camp of cavalry close by us, and we had heard guns fired at different hours in the night for some nights previous. Our men had been openly insulated whilst quietly passing along the streets. We could but believe that this bad blood and these threats were backed by implements of human destruction. These are the circumstances, together with the earnest entreaties of officers who knew the citizens, under which Lieut. Col. Heffren consented to the search, and in behalf of our men, and in defence of that gallant officer, who is now absent by affliction, permit me to ensure you that our men went quietly to each house, knocked at the door and informed the inmates that they were compelled by threats to search for concealed implements of war, and that nothing else was intended, and that all that was private property should be promptly restored. If, therefore, any were abused or insulted, the 50th regiment Indiana volunteers must be exonerated from the charge. God forbid that any soldiers should do anything to aggravate a people already overburdened with apprehensions of our barbarity, and whose minds were poisoned by demagogues with ungenerous falsehoods.

Had the South been united they might have a sound national Democratic President; has Southern Representatives and Senators stood to their post they might have had the Crittenden compromise. I would to God they would stop and reason. We would love to be friends with them. We would gladly lay down our arms and embrace them. We will gladly guarantee to them every right they have hitherto enjoyed. We aim not to subjugate them. All we want is the government of our fathers-the Union as it was. This we will have or all perish upon the battle field. We must be one or nothing. The severed or fraternal ties must again be united, or the storm of revolution will roll over us all and bury us together with all of our aspiring hopes in ruins in one common grave.

P. W. Hervery, Ass't. Surgeon 50th Reg't Ind. Vols.

Louisville Daily Journal, April 17, 1862.[4]


The Nashville Patriot of Tuesday [8th] announced that squads of soldiers had entered dwelling-houses in Edgefield at midnight in search of guns, pistols, and knives. The Patriot admitted that they found the weapons they were looking for, but it denounced the search as "the greatest outrage upon decency and propriety ever committed in a civilized township." The next day the paper gave notice of its own dissolution. This is the second time it has died within a few weeks. It sprang up in a new but not much better form from its first death, and, Heaven and Gov. Johnson willing, it may raise in some shape or other from its second.

The Nashville Banner copies the Patriot's violent denunciation of the searching of the houses-revel houses no doubt-and the seizure of the arms, and says that "the vile wretches of the Louisville and Cincinnati press have been laboring hard to bring about this state of things." As for ourselves, for whom no doubt a portion of this goodly rebel-compliment is, we haven't said one word about searching houses in or around Nashville, but we have certainly favored the adoption of a firm policy toward the rebels there, and we certainly think it right to search all houses where rebel arms are believed to be concealed, and to search them at whatever hour of the day or night may be thought most favorable to the success of the search. If to hold such an opinion is to be a "wretch,": then every man is a "wretch" who isn't either a traitor or a fool. Men not more deeply steeped in treason than the Editor of the Banner are in prison as traitors, and ought to be upon the scaffold.

That Editor, though he tries not to hide his treason, is as much a traitor in soul as he was when the rebel flag floated over Nashville. And then, as the correspondent of a Cincinnati papers says, be "out Judas Isacrioted Judas Iscariot." Here is the language, which, after the surrender of Mason and Slidell, an act which elevated our country in the estimation of all nations, be applied, not to the president or any other functionary, but the United States:

["]Look at the spectacle to-day. See the mean and despised braggart, stripped of his feathers, humiliated and disgraced before the eyes of men. Utterly cowed. Backed down from everything. A renegade from principle and a recreant to promise. A self-stultified, brutal, swaggering, swearing wretch, forced to lick the dust and end in the most groveling for mercy.["]

In noticing some suggestions as to the desirableness of a peace between the United States and the Southern Confederacy, the Nashville traitor talked thus:

["] Peace! peace! There can be no peace without Maryland! No peace without Kentucky! No peace without Missouri! And if we had our say, none without poor little forgotten Delaware.["]

If he had his say! We wonder what chance the fellow thinks there is just now of a peace on the terms he indicated. We certainly   have no objection to being called a "wretch" by a chap who calls our Uncle Sam "a self stultified, brutal, swaggering, swearing wretch." We can stand the "wretch" without the ornamental epithets as well as our good Uncle Sam can with them.

Louisville Daily Journal, April 11, 1862.

          11, The surgeon's painful error

Our Hospitals.—We have now two fine hospitals open in the city, the Overton and the Irving. The former is in charge of Dr. G. W. Currey, assistant surgeon, P. A. C. S. Dur Curry gained a large store of experience while having charge of the hospital of the Southern Mothers. He is a valuable member of the surgical staff. We regret to say that he is suffering considerably at present from the effects of making a slight wound in his hand while engaged in an amputation. This does not prevent him, however, from exercising all his usual activity. Dr. Fenner has the Irving hospital in excellent order. He has secured the valuable services of Mr. and Mrs. Brewster in the house department.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 11, 1862.

          11, Skirmish near Pulaski

No circumstantial reports filed.

          11, Pacification measures ordered in Murfreesboro by Military Governor Andrew Johnson

Nashville May 11 [1862]

Col Parkhurst

Commanding officer,

Murfreesboro, Tenn.

I have just had consultation with E. L. Jordon,[5] G. W. Ashburn and E. D. Wheeler prominent citizens of Murfreesboro in regard to the shooting which took place last night.[6] There was some statement made to them just on starting which induced the belief that some development would be made throwing more light upon the affair. Has any thing of the kind transpired since the left. [sic] If not and no steps be taken satisfactory to you, you will at once arrest as many persons as you in your judgment may believe will have proper effect upon spirit of insubordination [which] seems to prevail in that community. Transactions of this kind must be met and dealt with as the public interest requires. Act out your judgment & you shall be sustained [.]

I omitted to send back [a] list of names for arrest leaving it to you to consult with [the] mayor.

If you desire a list of names telegraph back immediately.

Teach them a lesson they will not forget.

Andrew Johnson

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 377.

          11, Confederates propose suspension of conscription contingent upon populace taking oath of allegiance

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Office Provost-Marshal, May 11, 1862.

Hon. R. M. BARTON.

DEAR SIR: I shall issue a circular in a few days to deputy provost-marshals by order of the major-general commanding suspending the operation of the conscript bill in East Tennessee. I have an idea to order the deputy provost-marshal in every county or district to have a deputy in every civil district to administer the oath of allegiance at the coming judicial election. What do you think of it? Will not this enable us to see really who are with us and who against us?

Respectfully, your friend,

W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 2, p. 1424.

          11, "…the pleasure of killing lincon hirlands…."[7]

Beautiful Letter from a Nashville She-Rebel

The following polished and peppery letter was written by a Nashville girl, it is said, to her "spicy," "turtiledove, eet. cetery," as Artemus Ward would say, who is a prisoner at Camp Morton, Ind. It ought to be published in the [illegible]. She says:

John, I want you write and tell me about the fight, and how many lincoln devels you killed. I would like to been there to see them lincon devils keel over. It would have done my soul good to have seen them fall by thousands. John, as you are a prisoner, and cannot have the pleasure of killing lincon hirlands, I believe I will take your place, and I tell you whot I will kill live yankies, I will do more for them than Morgan has done for them. I tell you Morgan is taring up the burg for them; he is doing the work for them. John, I wish I was a man, I would come there and I would soon let you out of that lincoln hold. I would tar there hearts out, and then cook them and make them eat them; but I will do all I can for you, and when they come in Shelby I will get some of their skelps [sic] and hang them up in my room for you to look at. I will be for Jeff davise till the tenisee river freezes over, and then be for him, and scratch on the ice

Jeff davis rides a white horse,

Lincoln rides a mule,

Jeffdavis is a gentleman,

And lincoln is a fule

I wish I could send them lincon devels some pies, they would never want any more to eat in this world. May Jeff ever be with you. This is from a good southern rights girl—from your cousin.


Nashville Daily Union, May 11, 1862.

11-12, Josiah Feagle's letters home to his parents from Camp Shiloh

Camp Shiloh

May 11/1862

Dear Parents,

I have a few more moments of spare time and I will try and crowd in this one all I have to say. I expect and every one else here expects there will be a terrible battle will be fought here before the rebels will give up and even now the work of death is going on between pickets and skirmishes. The county between Corinth and savannah [sic] is very messy where ever there is any water and there is a good many swamps and the roads all need to be built. There is a regiment of engineers and mechanics and they have a good deal of work to do. There is a front to our army here of thirty miles. The report is that General Segal landed here today with 20,000 men which will make our army here over 200,000 men which is more than I ever expected to see but a man's life is not counted of but little consequence. Oh how I wish this war was at an end. Whether this battle decides our fate time alone will show but you nor me cannot tell.

Camp Shilo [sic]

May 12 /62

Dear Mother and Father and brother and sister and Minnie

Well dear Mother I received your dear letter this morning written April 27th and was glad very glad to hear you was all well. I am bullie tough as ever and our (illegible) has got most anything a man wants. Canned fruit of all kinds but they are a good price but we are in the army and what money we earn is to spend. I have drew [sic] in all $83 dollars and sent home $65 dollars. 40 by Jake and 25 by the preacher home and now Pa put it out at interest the best you can and when I come home I will have something to start on. At any rate I will have more that I ever had at one time before. Now dear folks at home I would like to have some postage stamps for I cannot get them here at any price. And when I could get them I had not the money. I will send $5 dollars in this letter and that will add a little more to my file. Get me some postage stamps. Do not send more than 10 at a time until you send me $1 dollar worth. I made $5 buying and selling a pistol and $3 dollars in tobacco. See you.

Feagle Correspondence.[8]

          11 – June 5, U. S. Naval Intelligence on the Run Up to the Battle for Memphis

Extracts from diary of Captain Davis, U. S. Navy, commanding Western Flotilla, pro tem., May 13 to 31, 1862.

May 11, [1862].--The enemy came up yesterday in very gallant style; the vessels were commanded by spirited fellows, who had evidently made up their minds to take it at the closest quarters and in the roughest way. We had scouts out yesterday, and we find that they are hard at work repairing damages, though only six of their gunboats were in sight. These gunboats of the rebels were built, I believe, by individual subscriptions; and Colonel Fitch, the military commander here, had in his hands day before yesterday two numbers of a Memphis paper in Which the severest comments were made upon the inefficiency of their commanders. Colonel Fitch said, when he told me of it, that he thought they would be stimulated to some effort of a desperate nature.

It is evident that the public opinion, such as it may be, demands some effort, some display of earnestness and determination, on the part of these people, who have collected a force without, at first, any apparent purpose of using it. I have no doubt we shall have another fight soon if our gunboats do not come up the river, or if Corinth and Memphis do not fall.

If the Cincinnati and Mound City were not so completely crippled, Colonel Fitch and I would be already engaged in the execution of a plan for reducing Fort Pillow, of which he £s the author, and which I found on the tapis when I came out. As it is we must wait for several days.

May 21, [1862].--General Quinby came down last evening with reinforcements, and last night we had a council of war. According to the best information, they (the rebels) have very few people now at Fort Pillow. The story is that they have gone down to Randolph….Their gunboats are not in their usual anchorage. Our plot is a good plot. We require a little luck to carry it out successfully.

There are at Cairo and St. Louis, on the stocks and unfinished, vessels that would make us perfect masters of the river and everything in it. But they will not be finished till the war is over. Is not this truly provoking?….

I can not tell what damage I did to the rebel fleet. Two of their vessels dropped out of action, enveloped in steam and smoke, in the first fifteen minutes, and one appeared to sink as she rounded the point. The information given by the refugees (who are numerous) is that she was kept afloat twenty-four hours and then sank, and that we killed 108 of the rebels. This is the least estimate; others give more.

I am doing nothing just now. General Quinby, after reconnoitering the ground, came to the conclusion that he had not men enough to undertake the combined movement we had agreed upon, and he has gone back to wait for more….

May 28, [1862].--A party of deserters from the fort came in day before yesterday and another yesterday. They agree in the number of troops, etc., and also in portraying the condition of the rebel soldiers as one of suffering from want of good and sufficient food, and of general disgust and discontent….[emphasis added]

May 29, [1862].--I have now an addition of five or six rams to the squadron, and the gunboats have received the protection of cypress logs and iron rails in their weakest parts. If I could get at them (the enemy's fleet), I should make the attack myself, and my own anxiety is now, not to avoid, but to renew the fight clear of the guns of Fort Pillow….

I am sending a steamer up the river to-day to pick up the poor refugees, who stand on the banks begging our mail boats to take them on board with their families. ~ ~ ~ ~

May 31, [1862].---Fort Pillow has neither been evacuated nor reinforced. We know its status pretty well from day to day (the deserters are frequent), and to-day is the first time we have had any intimation of a movement looking toward evacuation, and to-day we receive intelligence, which we think reliable, of the evacuation of Corinth. Our scouts are always on the alert.

Of one thing be assured, that, if ever I get near that rebel fleet again, I shall destroy it, unless they anticipate me themselves.

June 3, [1862].--….There has been a little skirmish between two scouting parties, in which a rebel officer was killed; and further, there have been some movements during the night and during the two previous days, indicating an intention on the art of the rebels to evacuate….If General Quinby were here we would try to anticipate their movements.

June 5. [1862].--Colonel Fitch discovered several days ago a weak and assailable point by which he proposed to attack the enemy's works by land while I encountered the batteries in front. It was agreed between us that this should come off yesterday morning, but a foolish movement of Colonel Ellet prevented it in a way that could not have been foreseen. The movement was then to have been made this morning, as soon after daylight as possible. But the rebels retreated yesterday and last night, after, as usual, destroying everything….These works are very extensive and very strong….

I am now lying under the batteries of Fort Pillow, waiting for Colonel Fitch to return from some examinations he is making. As soon as he comes back we will make our preparations for going down the river. I do not believe that there is any force at Randolph. If not, there is probably no interruption between here and Memphis, except, perhaps, the enemy's gunboats, and they would detain us but a short time

NOR Ser. I, Vol. 23, pp. 52-54.



          10, Observations on Federal forces in Murfreesboro, an excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence

The Federal soldiers here are taking matters quite easy, lying about in the shade eating and drinking. There is quite a mania among them in the way of remodeling their camps. They haul large quantities of cedar brush to ornament their tents, make latice [sic] frame and work the branches in. This destroys a great deal of timber. It appears they came to destroy, it matter[s] not which way.

* * * *

But the greatest excitement here among the soldiers is buying ginger cakes, pyes [sic] and lemonade. May add whiskey, as the effects are seen some times by their being overcome by the article. When this happens, as a punishment, the guilty will have to carry a rail on his shoulder for about two hours each day for two or three days or a headless flour barrel, with the head of the man out at the top, for this length of time. This is for getting drunk, a mode of punishment in the camps by the Yankees. They don't appear to mind it much. Some of them would be willing any time to carry rail or barrel, for a good swig of whiskey.

Some of the boys, as they call themselves, are troublesome, slipping round citizens [sic] gardens and stealing vegetables as they get of any size, onions in particular. They will go to any length to obtain a fiew [sic] onions.

Spence Diary.

          10, "…our Quartermaster to celebrate the occasion rolled out a barrel of whiskey for the boys and the consequence is that many of them are somewhat elevated…." Frank M. Guernsey's letter to Fannie

Headquarters, District or West Tennessee

Memphis May 10th, 1863

My Dear Fannie

It is Sunday again, and I have just returned from a chase after some of the 14th Ills. [sic] boys, they had been troubling some niggers and I took a squad of men and went after them. They ran when they saw us coming but I succeeded in taking one of them and sent him under guard to his Reg[i]m[en]t. [sic] where he will get his just deserts probably.

We are having some very warm weather for this time of year, and the beautiful grove in which we are encamped is now worth a mint of gold to us. In the heate [sic] of the day we lounge about in the shade and pass off time the best way we can sometimes one way and sometimes another. Your welcome letter came to day. I also received one from Judge Wheeler of Berlin and you may bet I was glad to hear from you. Then you do think of me once in a while Fanny, though not more often than I do of you I guess. Perhaps if nothing happens to prevent you may have your wish Fanny, for I am going to try to get a furlough just as soon as the Col. gets back, he is now in Wis. I suppose.

Since writing the foregoing our Reg[i]m[en]t. [sic] presents a scene both comical and sad. We have just heard that Richmond is taken and our Quartermaster to celebrate the occasion rolled out a barrel of whiskey for the boys and the consequence is that many of them are somewhat elevated strange work for a sabbath [sic] day you think; wel [sic] so it is, but Fannie a soldier knows no difference between one day and another, and you can hardly conceive with what joy reports of the success of our arms are received with us soldier boys there are none of us but what the joys and comforts of our homes and the presence of our loved ones are just as dear to as to any of those northern traitors which we have left behind, and we firmly believe that every victory won, every advantage gained is a step towards the soldiers haven of bliss, viz.,: the subjugation or annihilation of these inhuman Rebels, it is hardly to be wondered at then that some of them get jolly. Let them enjoy themselves I say while they can, for the Lord only knows when we may be sent out on another expedition similar to the one we had last fall, then there would be trouble enough.

This evening Glen and myself went out to protect the property and person of a poor white woman living near camp. It was at the same house where that fellow had been that I arrested this afternoon. We stayed until about nine o'clock in the evening and then came to camp. We had lots of fun with a nigger who lives in one part of the house. He was quite a Philosopher. In the course of our conversation he got to speaking of his wife. I asked him how many he ever had. He said he rekoned [sic] about twenty (a few) he said the women were pretty good generally but once in a while they would get the Devil (excuse the expression) into them and there was no getting along with them.

Our Reg[i]m[en]t. [sic] appears to be in luck, there has been another call for troops from Gen. Grant and Gen. Hurlburt has sent one whole Brigade to him. They took Reg[i]m[en]ts. from each side of us and left ours here. I believe I have no very great desire to go to Vicksburg. The climate and the water is very hard on northern troops, though we can stand hardships now. But Fannie I guess I will close as it is late and I am somewhat tired, have been on duty until after nine oclock [sic] this evening. Please excuse this letter for I presume that you will find it a very dull one. My regards to all your people and accept much love for yourself from – Frank

P.S. Fannie you must not get downhearted for this war will soon come to an end like all things else and then I shall come home. I should be very glad to have a picture of you that does you justice. I dont [sic] think the one I have does.

Guernsey Collection.

          10, "Quite a feather in MY cap." Capture of Confederate cavalrymen near Murfreesboro by Lt. Albert Potter, Fourth Michigan cavalry picket

Headquarters Co "H"

Camp 'Park', Murfreesboro

Thursday May 14, 1863

Dear Sister

*  *  *  *

I was out on Picket last Sunday [10th] and had quite a little adventure. Captured 3 Rebels and their Horses and Saddles and arms complete. Quite a feather in MY [sic] cap. Several of the rebs [sic] had been seen for 2 or 3 days back, on the road in front and they nearly all stopped at a home about a mile beyond my videttes. I thought perhaps I could nab them, so I took a Relief, mounted, and went to our outpost a little before Daylight. I then dismounted tied my horse and had seven of my men do the same, ordering the remainder to come to our support if they heard firing. We went down cautiously to the house. I sent a man to the left and right of the road, for you know, we were outside of our lines and did not know what we would come across. We got to the house about daylight, surrounded it. No one there, but, the owners, strong old sesesh [sic], Alexander by name. Presently we saw 3 horsemen come up the road. We secreted ourselves so that if they came to the house we could surround them. They came on, my men ran out in the road in the rear of them – cried surrender. One of them, who had had his gun in his hand all the time, raised it as if to shoot. When quicker than thought my boys fired. One ball struck his hip and came out just below his belt in his abdomen. Another one struck his wrist another one struck his horse. I hollered at the men to stop firing or they would have killed him. I felt sorry for him, smart good looking, if he had not raised his gun the boys would not have fired. He died in a day or two. I expected the firing would draw more of them upon us and when the ambulance came, I took 20 men with me and went down. But no one came in sight. Since then they have kept a fire there all the time.

Potter Correspondence.

10, An appraisal of future Confederate fortunes in East Tennessee


The determination of our military chieftains to retain possession of east Tennessee was never stronger that at present. We are assured that the apprehension which exists that, for some strategic considerations, the army now in East Tennessee, would be diverted temporarily to another point, is without foundation. If the force of Burnside be permitted to pass the mountain barriers and entrench itself along the mountain fastnesses, we shall hereafter find it almost impossible to dislodge it. From such strongholds marauding detachments would constantly come fort the destroy railway bridges, the line of communication between the East and West, and to incited local disturbances among the disloyal population of East Tennessee. Not only would the resources of this region, now invaluable be lost to the South-not only would the production of food and the material of war become impossible, but the grain fields of East Tennessee, hereafter to furnish with bread, bacon and horses, will be desolated.

But beyond all this, there is a consideration affecting the policy of Gen. Johnston, which, if we are not greatly mistaken, renders it absolutely certain that this mount girt district will not be given up. It is hardly probably that Burnside's march towards the Sequatchie Valley, or in the direction of Chattanooga, would be unrevised. If a Federal force, penetrating this region, should reach the points designated, Bragg's position at Tullahoma would be untenable. The enemy would soon be in his rear; his communications with the source of his supplies would be interrupted by Burnside's cavalry; and Bragg would be forced to attack, Rosecrans in his entrenchments, or withdraw into Northern Georgia.

To accomplish this result is, perhaps, the purpose of Gen. Burnside, while his follower proclaim their intention of hanging and slaughtering all the true Southern inhabitants of this district. It follows, therefore, that the abolitionists will not be permitted to establish themselves in mountain strongholds, nor will East Tennessee be surrendered even temporarily, in order to insure a victory at Murfreesboro. The losses to which we would be subjected by the desolation of this district would be too great to justify a maneuver which, after all, might result in a drawn battle, and in that event East Tennessee and our railway would be hopelessly lost.

Knoxville Daily Register, May 10, 1863.

          10, "They formed a line, took each other by the hand & marched into the River." Baptism in the Army of Tennessee; excerpt from the letter of Third Sergeant John R. McCreight, Ninth Tennessee Infantry to his sister from his regiment's position in the Shelbyville environs

From J. R. McCreight

Shelbyville, Tenn., May 10, 1863

Dear Sister,

~ ~ ~

There is still a great deal of religious feeling in the army here and also in Va. A great many have professed and many are inquiring the way. On last Sunday I stood on the banks of the Duck River amid a large crowd and witnessed the emersion of ten soldiers. They formed a line, took each other by the hand & marched into the River. There were a good many Ladies there to witness the scene. After they came out of the water several of the Ladies came up extended a right hand of fellowship with them. There were a great many things in camp life that tends to blunted the sympathies and affections of our hearts, but when I witnessed the above scene I could not refrain from shedding tears. On the evening of the same day in the 13 Reg T.V., the ordinance of Baptism was administered to several by sprinkling. I hope and trust that this good work will go on until the whole army becomes religious and then that long prayed for boone will come (Peace) which we all so much desire….

~ ~ ~

J. R. McRight

Ninth Tennessee, p 155.

          10 Third Sergeant John R. McCreight's, Ninth Tennessee Infantry, feelings about the death of Van Dorn. excerpt from his letter written in Shelbyville to his brother

Shelbyville, Tenn., May 10/63 general

~ ~ ~

Gen. Vandorn was killed the other day by a Doctor. I have forgotten his name – for being too intimate with his wife. No person seems to regret his death, the general impression is that the Doctor was justified in shooting….

Ninth Tennessee, p 157.

          11, Skirmish at La Fayette (Macon County)

Report of Brig. Gen. Edward H. Hobson, U. S. Army.

LOUISVILLE, May 12, 1863.

GEN.: The following just received from Gen. Hobson:

Maj. [F. M.] Davidson, Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry, and 100 men had a fight with 125 of Morgan's men at La Fayette, Tenn., last night. Our loss was 1 officer and 2 privates wounded, and 4 men taken prisoners. Rebel loss, 2 killed, 1 wounded left behind, and several wounded carried off. Maj. Davidson falling back to Barren River. Col. Graham has re-enforced him with 50 men. Three hundred rebels are crossing at Greenville.

E. H. HOBSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 297.

          11, Ground rules established for detention and trial of suspected Confederate spies

OFFICE COMMISSARY-GEN. OF PRISONERS, Washington, D. C., May 11, 1863.

Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Cmdg. Department of the Tennessee.

GEN.: I am instructed by the Gen.-in-Chief to say that when a person is arrested charged with being a spy or the commission of any other specific offense requiring a trial an immediate investigation must be had before a military tribunal at the place where the offense was committed and where the witnesses are within reach. Many persons have been arrested as spies and sent to interior prisons and after months of detention it has been found that the charges had neither specifications nor evidence to sustain them. In cases where arrests are made on a general charge of disloyal conduct it is necessary that full details in each case with the character of the person should be given in order to a proper disposal of it. Please give the necessary instructions to insure compliance with the foregoing in your department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. HOFFMAN, Col. Third Infantry, Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners.

(Same to Maj. Gens. S. R. Curtis, A. E. Burnside, W. S. Rosecrans, R. C. Schenck and N. P. Banks.)

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 592-593.

          11, "Sale of Condemned Horses." [see also March 25, 1864, "Sale of Condemned Horses."]

HEADQUARTERS There occurred a sale of condemned horses during the past week, which afforded the citizens of the town and country opportunities to replenish their exhausted stock. The efficient A. A. Q. M., Lieut. C. Harvin, selected the eccentric Capt. Hammer as the auctioneer for the occasion, and, as the result proved, he was the right man in the right place. The total amount of sale of 250 horses – and sorry looking beasts they were – amounted to over $6000, at an average of more than $27 each, a result the Government may well feel proud of. A stand was erected at the horse-yards of Lieut. Irvin, and the animals to be sold were led out singly to be disposed of. The captain starts the sale: "Well, gentlemen, how much am I offered for this fine blooded horse, known through the army, was sired by imported Lexington stock, and damned by everybody who ever rode him – start the bid – how much? Five dollars I am offered, who'll give ten? Ten, ten, who'll give fifteen? Fifteen is offered by two of you, now twenty. Twenty-five – who'll give thirty?" Thirty is offered, and the horse disappears and another led forward. "Now, gentlemen, here is a jay-bird – observe his gait – a little foundered, but that don't hurt him, though he'd be a good deal better without it – all ready to put right before a plow and work to-morrow – start him up young man, every time he trots he increases five dollars in value" This animal ultimately sells for fifty dollars.

"Now Gentlemen, how much for this fine bay mare –sound-kind – good under saddle or in harness. Cars not afraid of her, will tie without standing. Start her gentlemen – how much? Nothing in the world aids her except the distemper – would be just as good without it – start her, how much?" Bidding runs up to $50 and the distempered mare is destined to graze in Williamson County, until she doubles in value. Men of all nationalities and occupations are present, butchers, bakers, farmers, merchants, sporting men, and officers, all desirous of investing in a broken down, good horse. One genius from Green Erin who had purchased two horses at the extravagant price of $1 each, mourned to see his property, elongated in the muddy ground with no ultimate prospect of their ever arising again, and if horses could be said to on a man's hands, the two one dollar animals perished on the palms of the unfortunate Hibernian. Many of the horses brought high prices and but few sold for less than ten dollars. Occasionally an animal would appear on whom no bid could possibly be had. This drawback on the sale was promptly remedied by the Auctioneer who would immediately call for another horse and then sell the pair. We have every reason to believe that the results of the sale meets the approbation of the authorities. Visitors to the yards were charmed with the neatness of the fences, the shops and store-houses, and the admirable arrangements for feeding and watering the large number of horses and mules under Lieut. Irvin's charge. He has, indeed, succeeded in creating a system and order, where before all was delay and confusion, and, therefore, merits the praises freely bestowed on him by both officers and citizens of being one of the most efficient Quartermasters ever in this Department.

Nashville Daily Press, May 11, 1863.

          11, A poetic story of unrequited love

"Gumbo Biglip's Courtship; or The Terrified African!"

by O. K. Asional

Chapter I

Good Times for Gumbo.

On a princely farm, in Tennessee,

Dwelt the hero of our story-

Of lordly form and black was he,

And in ploughing he did glory;

But while he tilled the soil with zeal,

And sought his master's favor,

He now and then began to feel

The pang that makes a brave the braver.

The author of his painless pain,

Gumbo had ne'er made wiser;

She palled e'en Erebus[9] train-

Her name was plain Eliza

~ ~ ~

The old homestead in bounty smiled,

With garners full and fields all teeming,

The darkeys [sic], in their gladness wild,

Sang away the hours while gleaning.

The laurel and the olive, then,

Were closely intertwined,

And thro' the mountain steep and glen,

The hunter's trump, not War's, did wind.

Every breeze and every bird

Joined in gleeful measure,

To praise a reign of peace unheard-

Of guileless hope and pleasure.

No dread alarms disturbed the rest

Of Gumbo's vast plantation-

No "contrabands." the nation's pest,

Upset dark Afric's [sic] population.

O, the present truly was a feast,

Of nature's richest blessings,

The future, as at morn the East,

Glittered bright in hope's reflecting.

Here was a time for sweet content

And every fond invention-

The simple Gumbo's heart gave vent

To its unrevealed intention:

"Dat gal hav long been in my eye,

An's well nigh got my gizzard

I tink it's time dis chile should fly

An' claim de little wizzard [sic].

I feel dat she am all in all,

An' ebery day I'se gettin' older-

I lub her harder dan a maul

Kin hit a rail, and so I'll tole her."

Chapter II

Better Times for Gumbo.

When from the farm-house on the hill,

The master's tin horn sounded

It welcome call to the niggers all,

Homeward quick they bounded;

But Gumbo, mindful of his "love,"

Strolled along the shady; road,

To where his Venus, as he said,

Dropped from her high abode.

They met; and o, such a meeting!

How eloquently did they prate

Of the "tender power" to mortals given-

Their blushes did but each elate,

"Liza, de time wid me am passed,"

Thus calmly spoke our hero,

"For likin' de state ob singleness-

I gits as mad as Nero;

But when I looks at you, my lub"-

Gumbo's lips here trembled

Like an aspen, or rather more-

Twin palm-leaves they resembled!

"I feel no more dat anger,

Kase woman kin our ruffness soothe-

Won't your take Gumbo for wus or better?"

And Gumbo's tongue refused to move.

A pause, and when the modest tinge

United with their darksome cheeks,

And made them more tenebrous,

Eliza, broadly grinning, speaks:

"Gum, I like dat warm confeshun,

Ise shure dar's meanin' in it-

If here dar's what dey kall a hart,

No older "nig" [sic] but you can win it."

At this response, Gum's pliant nature

Led him into raptures foolish-

His symptoms of affection were

As soft as were "Bottoms" mulish!

Fancy's canvas, rainbow-like,

In all the gems of promise glowed:

The Rubicon of doubt is passed,

Two "nigs" in Love's elixir flowed!

"I'll drive an' sweet at massa's plow,

An' dig de taters wid my hoe,

Troo de sun, do hot he shine,

And troo de rain will merry go;

Ebery thing I'll do dat's hard,

And' sides dat its pleasant,

For when day's gone, an' work am dun,

You Liza, will be present."

His Cleopatra showed her teeth

In smiling satisfaction-

Gum cast a glance of sparkling joy,

And left his magnet of attraction.

Chapter III

Bad Times for Gumbo and Worse A-Coming.


Fondest hopes decay -- Gumbo realized

The truth; it couldn't be disguised.

Many blissful moments he had chased

With her on whom his ardent love was placed;

His rude banjo many a night had made

The welkin chime with gallant serenade;

Of had he the luscious 'possum caught,

And, noble (!) [sic] offering to his mistress brought:

Whenever at the neighboring creek they met,

Gumbo the chance for vowing did not forget.

As glides the barque on waters calm,

So these black lovers smoothely ran!

But, lo! the tempest overtook them-

War-clouds lowered, peace forsook them.

Soon the Union host of "subjugation"

Coerced Gumbo and the old plantation!

While Liza, far more ill-fated,

Went off to Dixie--they were not mated.

Gumbo pined and sought to cultivate

Patience, as a "contraband" where, till late

He'd cultivated corn, and rye, and wheat,

And various other "vegetables" to eat!

But 'twas no use-the more he tried to nurture

Forgetfulness, the less he liked its virtue;

So with his banjo, and little comfort,

He resolved to seek his Juliet, minus passport.

The gauntlet run, the land of cotton entered,

Gumbo began to hear he' rashly venture;

But fortune smiled, at last till he had found

The object of his lonely plodding round.

It was one of Cynthia's festive nights,

When every thing in earth delights,

Because of heaven's dazzling splendor,

The tribute of its love to render-

Gumbo lightly stole beneath her casement (!) [sic]

To surprise here with a dose of Grief's "effacement."

He began the strain-'twould have charmed a cynic-

'Twas filled with all a nigger's [sic] love could mimic.

Alas, alas! he hadn't posted any pickets-

"Guerrillas" listened from surrounding thickets!

And ere poor Gumbo's sang and played his lay

They nabbed and hurried him away!

Liza showed her raven head in time to hear:

"Farewell, my lub! I'se ordered to de rear!"

She gave him a shriek, another shriek, and fled

To where a cheese-knife lay, then-went to bed.

Nashville Daily Press, May 11, 1863.

          11, Nashville public health inspection reminder


Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1863

The owners and occupants of businesses and dwelling-houses within the limits of this city, are hereby reminded of the Order published March 16th, 1863, requiring them to have the streets, alleys, and backyards adjoining their respective houses thoroughly cleaned.

A thorough inspection of the city by proper authorized persons will be had in a few days, and anyone found to have neglected to obey the Order will be severely punished.

By Order of Brig. Gen. J. D. Morgan,

Nashville Daily Press, May 11, 1863.

          11, A visit to the Stones River battlefield; an excerpt from the diary of John Hill Fergusson, 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry

Monday 11th

N. Fancer and MySelf went out to Murfreesboro. Left Nashvill [sic] at 12 o'clock and arrived at Murfreesboro at sundown. We had an opertunity [sic] of vewing [sic] the battle field near Murfreesboro it is mostly a fine open level country the enemy had decidetly [sic] the advantage as they occupide [sic] the timber on the South side of the field where they could conceal there [sic] forces they also had the advantage of Stones river, our forces had to advance across a large space of open country exposing there [sic] intior [sic] ran to the concealed enemy the field [sic] are yet laying thick with dead horses and buirring grounds are thick on all sides both of our dead and the rebels each party is buirred seperatly [sic] our dead is fenced around whare [sic] the grave of the enemy are laying open to the curious the smell of the country around that neighborhood is very offencive [sic] there is no incampments any way [sic] close as it would not be helthy [sic] or agreeable at this season of the year….

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.

          11, Description of a Federal soldier's life at Camp Stanley, Murfreesboro: letter of George Kryder

Camp Standley, Murfreeeboro, Tenn.

May 11th, 1863.

My Dear Wife:

I now take my pen in hand to let you know how I am getting along. At present I am well and hearty and in good spirits and I hope and trust this letter may reach you the same. I rec'd. your kind letter of the 3rd today and you cannot imagine the pleasure and joy it gave me to hear from you. I waited a long time but it was with patience till at length the welcome messenger came to hand.

Since I wrote to you I have not got any news of any importance. Your letter came in four days after it was mailed on the 7th. I have been on picket only once for nearly four weeks. The reason was after I was able to ride again I had no horse, as I lent mine to go on a scout and he came back with such a sore back that I turned him over and did not get another till today I got another one.

You say you was going to have a boiled dinner, which I would like to have a share of, but since I have got well, anything tastes good, but I would like some fresh fish. It is curious about these rivers in Dixie. They do not afford fish as the streams in the north do for I have not had a mess of fish since I have been in the army. I am glad that you have such good neighbors that do so much for you, Mr. Crosby especially I think done you a great favor in keeping the cow and plowing your garden for which he has my sincere thanks.

I have not heard from father for some time, but I had a letter from Sam yesterday on an answer that I wrote to him in which I tried to bore him for sending to father for money to buy his discharge, which he denies but he owns up that he sent to father for money. And he says he is not ashamed of it either and he says that if you and I knew what situation he and his family was in when he enlisted, that we would not blame him for so doing. But do blame the shiftless man for when he has money he will buy things that he does not need, and then when he is sick he has not got it. But that does not better the case to write about and the time may come when I may need money but I know where I can send for it without sending to father for it. But I do not know but it is a good plan as that would be that much clear gain, but still I do not approve of the plan.

I had my picture taken and I gave it to Capt. Gaylord to take it to Nashville to send it to you. It cost me two dollars. They would not let me have it without the case. I wish I had waited till now for I look healthier but that was the first opportunity I had and I thought I would make use of it. I also sent $30.00 with Captain Livermore. I put it in with C. Benham's and you can get it there at Mrs.Benhams by going or sending for it. The reason I put it in with his was this. It would not cost but little more to send both in one than to send one package alone. I have sent you several newspapers and if you say so I will send you some more. We have to pay l0 cts. apiece for them but we are bound to have the news and the news are pretty good. The today's paper says the Union Flag floats over Richmond the Rebe1 Capital and Gen. Grant's army is doing good work in Mississippi and we do not know what day we will get orders to march against Gen. Bragg in south east Tenn. For the Rebs. are getting pretty bold.

I hardly know what to say about that land in Henry C. but it is not best to be too much in a hurry for I may some time get a chance to come and see it.

You say you are glad to get such a big letter and I am too. Yours today was a good one. I will try and give you all the news and that is all you can ask. I hardly know what to write any more only that we have very beautiful weather with cool nights and very warm in the middle of the day. The woods are most beautiful. If I could only sit in its green shades with you once again, but hope the time is coming fast, for our men are getting into the heart of the rebellion and they have arrested that vile Traitor C. L. Vallandingham who done so much mischief in Ohio. I must stop and go and feed and curry my horse.

My horse is fed and supper is over and I am going to write a little more and I hardly know what, but I will tell you that we turned over our Sibley tents and now we have shelter tents just large enough for two men and we carry them with us on our horses and the way we put up is, we cut two stakes or crotches about four feet long and lay a pole on top of the stakes. (But I have to tell you how our tents are made.) They are two breadths and a quarter of heavy factory cloth about two yards in length with buttons and button holes on three sides of them (two are to go together) and when the two are together the four corners are fastened with stakes and it looks like a house roof set on the ground with the gable ends open. We have (four of us) buttoned our tents together and have raised it about two feet up, and closed the bottom and end with grain sacks and when it is warm we have just the pleasantest shelters you could imagine. We have a floor in it about six inches so we do not have to lay on the damp ground.

Henry is well. I must come to a close for want of room but I have not written to Lillie yet and I do not know what to write, but I suppose she can soon get dinner when Ma can't get time to get it. No more this evening. This from your true and devoted Husband,

George Kryder

George Kryder Papers

          11-15, Expedition from LaGrange, Tennessee to Panola, Mississippi[10]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, pp. 702-703.



          10, Initiation of anti-guerrilla operations along Memphis and Charleston and Tennessee & Alabama Railroads

NASHVILLE, May 10, 1864.

Capt. JOHN C. CRANE, Assistant Quartermaster:

SIR: Several messenger report the commencement of destructive operations by guerrillas. I have thought it my duty, as tending very much to protect Government property, and by advice received at the office of the post commander, to make you a report, and to solicit your attention to some considerations respecting them.

A stone, as an intimation of the commencement of operations, was laid upon the track May 4 between Franklin and Spring Hill. But the principal field of their present operations seems to be between Stevenson and Huntsville, on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, and along the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad. They have since the above date twice fired into trains and in the last instance killed the engineer and fireman. The unfortunate engineer, although mortally wounded, conducted his train out of the reach of miscreants, and died. A messenger has also reported, since I began this communication, that a very alarming attempt was made to destroy the bridge at Elkmont, about forty miles this side of Huntsville. And another has reported that the telegraph wire was cut on Sunday [8th], and a rail laid upon the track to throw off a train, upon the same railroad; and that a considerable quantity of cord wood was set on fire in several places between here and Franklin.

If these miscreant operations are allowed to go on and increase in this ratio, may not some serious impediment soon be interposed to your ability to supply our forces at this important period of our conflict? The military force has been so largely withdrawn that the protection of the roads is entirely inadequate, and its weakness will invite the malicious who prowl in the country. Would it not be an effectual measure to disarm the inhabitants living along the lines of the military railroads where the guerrillas, to a great extent, live and shelter; and could it be in the least degree offensive or injurious to good, loyal men? And would it be difficult or impracticable to execute such a plan? Suppose that an order were issued at your instance requiring all persons living within twenty miles on either side of the Nashville and Chattanooga, and the Tennessee and Alabama Railroads, and perhaps for the same distance on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, to bring in all their arms, at certain specified points, within ten or twenty days from the publication of the order, and every man to be treated indiscriminately as a guerrilla found in arms or having been secreted after the expiration of that time?

You will know what importance to attach to this report and communication, which I make from the desire to make the passage of the messengers safe, and from the relations of the subject with the preservation of the Government property and with the safe transit of the Government stores.

Please accept this communication as arising from my desire to be of the highest service possible to your department.

I have reported to Mr. Sloan the cause of the needless destruction of two engines near Shellmound, and also of the destruction of property at Stevenson from the want of proper switch tenders and signal men.

Your very respectfully and obedient servant,

C. L. HEQUEMBOURG, Chief of Courier Line, &c.

[First indorsement.]

ASST. QMRS. OFFICE, U. S. MILITARY RAILROAD, Nashville, May 10, 1864.

Respectfully referred to Col. J. L. Donaldson, senior and supervising quartermaster, for his information and action.

JOHN C. CRANE, Capt. and Assistant Quartermaster.

[Second indorsement.]

NASHVILLE, May 11, 1864.

Respectfully submitted to Maj.-Gen. Rousseau, with the suggestion that commanding officers along the line of the roads be required to visit points on the road, weekly, twenty miles above and below their posts, and to warn all persons living near the lines that they will be held to a strict accountability if they do not give warning of the acts and approach of guerrillas in their neighborhood.

J. L. DONALDSON, Senior and Supervising Quartermaster.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, pp. 20-21.

          10, Affair with guerrillas at Winchester

MAY 10, 1864.-Affair with guerrillas at Winchester, Tenn.

Report of Col. Henry K. McConnell, Seventy-first Ohio Infantry.

HDQRS. SEVENTY-FIRST Regt. [sic] OHIO VET. VOL. INFTY., Elk River, Tenn., May 11, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that the guerrillas at Winchester yesterday morning were those of Hays and Davis, and were from thirty to forty in number. Capt. McConnell drove them from ten to fifteen be moving in this direction his probable route will be by Lexington, Pulaski, and Fayetteville, a distance of more than 100 miles. We are keeping a vigilant lookout in that direction. We lack 20,000 rounds of ammunition of the quantity required to be kept on hand. I received intelligence yesterday of 300 bushels of corn being brought from below to be manufactured into whisky. I can secure the corn by going not more than ten miles. There can be nothing permanently in the way of mapping until we can secure instruments for that purpose. Mr. Gilham, who lives near this post, will be of great use to us employed in secret service. Can he be so employed? There is also a colored man at Winchester who is regularly reporting here, and will also be of service.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. K. McCONNELL, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 15.

          10, Further restrictions on cotton trade in Memphis, General Orders No. 3

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., May 10, 1864.

Maj.-Gen. SLOCUM, Cmdg. District of Vicksburg:

GEN.: I inclose you an order which I have just issued here in regard to trade. If your views should agree with mine I shall be most happy to have your co-operation to break up the wretched system that has contributed so much toward prolonging the war...

C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.



The practical operation of commercial intercourse from this city with the States in rebellion has been to help largely to feed, cloth, arm and equip our enemies. Memphis has been of more value to the Southern Confederacy since it fell into Federal hands than Nassau. To take cotton belonging to the rebel Government to Nassau, or any foreign port, is a hazardous proceeding. To take it to Memphis and convert it into supplies and greenbacks and return to the lines of the enemy, or place the proceeds to the credit of the rebel Government in Europe, without passing again into rebel lines, is safe and easy. I have undoubted evidence that large amounts of cotton have been, and are being, brought here to be sold, belonging to the rebel Government. The past and present system of trade has given strength to the rebel army, while it has demoralized and weakened our own. It has invited the enemy to hover around Memphis as his best base of supply, when otherwise he would have abandoned the country. It renders of practical non-effect the blockade upon the ocean, which has cost, and is costing, so many millions. It opens our lines to the spies of the enemy, and renders it next to impossible to execute any military plan without its becoming known to him long enough in advance for him to prepare for it. The facts here stated are known to every intelligent man in Memphis. What is the remedy for these great and overwhelming evils? Experience shows that there can be but one remedy, and that is total prohibition of all commercial intercourse with the States in rebellion.

It is therefore ordered, that on and after the 15th day of May, 1864, the lines of the army at Memphis be closed, and no person will be permitted to leave the city, expect by river, without a special pass from these headquarters after that date. All persons desirous of coming into the city will be permitted to do so, but should be notified by the pickets that they will not be allowed to return. All persons who desire to leave the city to go beyond our lines must do so before the 15th instant.

By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, pp. 22-23.[11]

          10, A Tornado in the Nashville environs

"The Great Storm of Tuesday."

The storm of wind and rain which visited our city on Tuesday [10th] evening, we learn, has been particularly destructive in the vicinity of Nashville for miles around. In the region of country skirting the Nolensville Pike, the storm which amounted to a perfect hurricane, in its course uprooted trees, tore down fences, and tumbled over houses to an alarming extent, carrying in its track devastation and ruin to many small farmers and their families, and in some cases loss of life as well as property. Rev. John Rains, living about three miles from the city, near the Nolensville Pike, had his home utterly stripped and ruined -- carriage-house, stable, smoke-house, servants' house, and fencing were entirely destroyed, and his dwelling house is nearly so. Mr. Woodward, in the same vicinity, had his dwelling-house literally torn to pieces, and his wife seriously, if not fatally injured, besides three children badly hurt; the hand of the eldest was so badly crushed as to require amputation of the thumb. Nast. F. Dortch, Mr. McConnico, Mr. Harper, Mr. Lucus, Dr. Whitsitt, and others in the same locality, suffered considerably. Mrs. Aaron V. Brown had a large lot of beautiful timber land destroyed Mr. John Hooper sustained considerable damage, his barn and fencing being destroyed.

In the vicinity of the Hermitage, we learn, a large amount of valuable timber, dwelling houses, etc. were destroyed. Tim. Dodson had his barn, cut house, and fences utterly wrecked. A brick house, on Mill Creek, the property of P. Vickers, is in ruins. The storm traversed a large extent of country Wilson county, doing great damage to fences and out houses. Altogether, from what we hear, this is one of the most disastrous hurricanes that has visited Tennessee for many years.

Nashville Dispatch, May 12, 1864.

          11--12, Morale on the home front; East Tennessee support for the Confederacy

11, A sad, gloomy and cloudy day. It is disagreeably cold this eve. They have been fighting ever since Saturday. It is still undecided. Oh! Our poor soldiers, how many are suffering. Give us the victory, our Father, if it is Thy will. Capt. Hending and his clerk dined here. Capt took breakfast and remained all night last night. We heard this eve that yesterday [10th] the Federals drove our forces back a great deal from them and Gen Johnston drove their left wing back four miles. But with our suffering soldiers, and raise up your friends and relatives to alleviate their pains and administer to their wants. If I could only be there to wait on them. I feel unusually sad this eve, and you, old journal, are the friend that I will confide in.

12, Rather cold this morn. The woods are green and beautiful; or roses are in bloom. I feel so sad when I think probably they will fade and none of our Confederates see them. I would be so happy if I could only see them or if I even thought I would have the pleasure of presenting my sweetheart with a bouquet. Julia, Jeanette Grant and Mag Shadden were here this eve. Report says that a raid of our Confederates is coming. Welcome brave heroes, to the land of your nativity! Thrice welcome stalwart sons of freedom! [sic]

Diary of Mary Adelaide Inman.



          10, Confederate forces under Colonel J. F. Newsom seek to undertake policing mission in West Tennessee after the collapse of the Confederacy [see May 14, 1865, Major General C. C. Washburn demands Col. J. F. Newsom's surrender below]

HDQRS., Jackson, Tenn., May 10, 1865.

Brig.-Gen. MEREDITH, Cmdg., & C., Paducah, Ky.:

GEN.: With reference to the surrender of West Tennessee, which was demanded of me, I desire to make this communication in order that, should that event occur, a full and perfect understanding can be had. I am here under orders from Lieut.-Gen. Forrest for the purpose of collecting the men absent from their commands, and to take measure to break up all bands of robbers and guerrillas, and being the officer highest in rank in the country where my fields of labor are I am in command of the same to a limited extent. As to the surrender of the forces in West Tennessee, I am controlled and bound by the orders and acts of Lieut.-Gen. Taylor, commanding department. His surrender, as a matter of course, includes myself and the District of West Tennessee, and myself and command are bound by that act. I am frank to say that whenever the department commander makes a surrender I shall surrender the forces in West Tennessee under my command. My mission here is more for the protection of the citizens and to break up the bands of lawless men and robbers who infest the country.

Knowing the condition of the people here, and that they need all the protection in my power in order to enable them to live and save what little had been left them, I have directed all my energies and time to clearing the country of lawless and bad men. In behalf of the citizens I ask that none of the men belonging to the command of Col.'s Hawkins and Hurst be sent here. The feeling that exists between soldiers of these commands and the citizens is such that private malice and private revenge might be more the result of such a policy than the restoration of order. For the purpose of a full and perfect understanding on these matters, I am ready to meet and confer with you at such time and place as you will designate, and respectfully ask for such a conference.

I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,

J. F. NEWSOM, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 711-712.

11, Rumor of Forrest's death

PULASKI, May 11, 1865.

Brig. Gen. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff:

Various persons coming from south of river report that Forrest recently had a man shot for desertion, and the brother of the murdered man shot and killed Forrest.

R. W. JOHNSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 722.

          11-26, Counter-insurgency expedition to Florence, Tennessee environs


I. Lieut.-Col. Buck, Eighth Michigan Cavalry, will proceed with a detachment of his brigade, to be furnished him, about 125 strong, to Florence, Tenn., and there take post to remain for fifteen days, unless otherwise ordered, for the purpose of hunting down the outlaws who infest that neighborhood, restoring order, and assisting the inhabitants in re-establishing the authority of civil government. He will be furnished with six wagons, with which he will transport the necessary rations for his command for the period he is expected to stay, three or four days' forage if practicable, and the camp and garrison equipage which is absolutely necessary. Forage will be procured in that country by impressment, receipts being given in all cases to loyal owners. Special effort will be put forth by all officers of the detachment to prevent indiscriminate foraging of the men, which is certain to result in pillage. The necessary preparations for the expedition will be made to-morrow, and the march will be taken up at an early hour on the day following. Lieut.-Col. Buck before starting will report in person or send an officer to these headquarters to receive dispatches which he will see forwarded to the headquarters of the Cavalry Corps at Eastport, Miss.

* * * *

By order of Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnson:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 723.


[1] Wooden steamships using bales of cotton as protection against cannon.

[2] Local slang for "Cotton Exchange."

[3] None of these survive.

[4] As cited in PQCW.

[5] Edward L. Jordan (1817-1899), was a Murfreesboro banker and merchant, a "nonparticipant, but strongly maintained his positioning in favor of...the Union." As cited in Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 377, fn. 2, from Deane Porch, comp., Tombstone Inscriptions of Evergreen Cemetery (Murfreesboro, Tenn., 1965), p. 98.

[6] On May 10, near 10 p. m., as Provost Marshal Captain O. C. Rounds and Colonel J. G. Parkhurst returned from the court house to their camp, a shot was apparently fired at them from behind a fence. A similar incident occurred in the same neighborhood on May 11. Parkhurst, having no clues as to the would be assassin, requested from Military Governor Andrew Johnson a list of "persons to be arrested." The colonel also reported that a search operation in Murfreesboro had discovered over two hundred weapons, all "heavily loaded." Johnson quickly supplied Parkhurst with a list of twelve men to be held hostage to insure the tranquility of Murfreesboro. See, Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 377, fn. 3.

[7] All spelling and punctuation original.

[8] As cited in [Hereinafter cited as Feagle Correspondence.]

[9] Erebus is defined as darkness; Erubus and Nyx (night) were born Hemera, "Day" and Aether, "Sky," according to the ancient Greek poet Hesiod. Later poets identified Erebus with Hades, or hell, a meaning it retains in the 21st century.

[10] There was no action in Tennessee, however the expedition originated in the Volunteer State.

[11] See also: Memphis Bulletin, May 10, 1864


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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