Thursday, May 21, 2015

5.20-21.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes




          20, Confederate Secretary of War L. P. Walker to Governor Isham G. Harris relative to twelve month enlistments for Tennesseans and provision of muskets [see August 7, 1861, On Tennessee Volunteers, by "TWELVE MONTHS" below]

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Montgomery, May 20, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that four regiments are required for the Confederate service to be raised in Tennessee, and which will be armed by this Department with muskets, and should Your Excellency desire it, will arm four other regiments with the country rifle, they will be also received into the Confederate service. The general rendezvous of the first four regiments will be Union City, but as to the last four, when they shall be organized, Your Excellency's proposition will be considered as to a point of rendezvous for them. Col. Churchwell is here, and has assured this Department that he has now a regiment ready for service. If this be so, and if it be agreeable to Your Excellency, one of the four regiments named to be armed with muskets may be that he has mentioned, in which event the rendezvous of that regiment may be made Knoxville instead of Union City.

Considering the importance of instant action in the organization of these forces as a check to the threatening attitude of the enemy on the north banks of the Ohio River, and to impart a greater feeling of security to the citizens of Tennessee, I have consented to exercise the discretionary power with which this Department is invested, and to relax the general rule exacting service for the war, and to receive the whole of these regiments for twelve months only, trusting to their patriotism to re-enlist if the exigencies of the war at the end of that time should demand it. But to prevent any misunderstanding hereafter, in the event that the general rule should be applied to Tennessee as elsewhere, I wish here to say it cannot have escaped Your Excellency that our enemies of the North, through their Executive at Washington, have made proclamation for enrollments for three years and enlistments for the war, thus indicating their determination for a prolonged contest, and a firm resolution to prepare fully for that result by the conversion of their forces from raw militia and volunteers into trained and disciplined regulars. To the effectiveness of these troops thus inured to the battlefield your Excellency will perceive they will add economy of administration through the movement. Their calculation is that often heretofore made and notably practiced by the Cromwellians against the Cavaliers.

It is supposed that at first our impetuosity and superior dexterity in the use of arms will cause the earlier victories to lean to our side, but that trained discipline and the solid phalanx will finally prove triumphant. Nor will it be denied that the heaviest relative expense of an army is demanded during the year of its enrollment and general equipment. Therefore, for us to disband each of our regiments at the end of twelve months' service would be to entail upon the Government the largest yearly expenditures and to keep our armies constituted of raw recruits, while the enemy were constantly diminishing their relative expenditures and advancing more in every element that constituted effectiveness. Under these circumstances it is plain we should conform our periods of service in the field, as we have been doing from the first, to those of the enemy, and thus at all times leave to our forces the advantage of their original superiority. I send herewith a circular copy of the general rule adopted. I have ordered the requisite number of muskets to arm four regiments to be sent to Your Excellency; but they are sent with the distinct understanding that they are not to be distributed to any other troops than those indicated, and not to them until they are duly organized and mustered into the Confederate service by a Confederate officer. This duty will be assigned to Lieut. McCall, now at Nashville.

This rule is universal and cannot be relaxed under any circumstances. The Government must see to the husbanding of its resources as to arms, to their effective use, safe-keeping, and proper return, and Your Excellency will excuse the repetition that these troops must be organized into regiments and duly mustered into service before they receive their arms. Your Excellency will doubtless appreciate the reasons that have led me to suggest the ordinary country rifle for four of the regiments named. Our lines of operation have recently become widely extended, as Your Excellency is aware, and the demand for arms so great since the accession of the border States, adopting our flag, that considerations associated with controlling public interests and the success of the war in which we are engaged call for the practice by this Department of the wisest discretion in regard to the distribution of our military provisions in these respects, consisting chiefly of muskets. The necessity for this course on the part of the Department becomes still more apparent from the fact that our manufactories of arms are not yet fully established. It therefore occurred to me that as many of your citizens were known to be habituated to the use of the rifle, and that weapon was common among them, four regiments might be formed and armed from the country, each man furnishing his own instrument; and I must confess I have never yielded implicit credence to the prevailing idea that the musket is a superior weapon to the rifle. Such may be the case with the improved minie gun, but even the ordinary rifle, in the hands of the brave Tennesseeans [sic] and Mississippians, saved and won the battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican war, as it did in the hands of Carolinians at the battle of King's Mountain during the Revolution--in both instances with sad havoc to the enemy. There can be little doubt, I apprehend, that with a large portion of our inhabitants among the mountains the rifle would always prove more fatal and successful on the field of battle, than the most improved muskets in any other hands than those of veterans.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 103-105.

          20, Enthusiasm for war in Middle Tennessee, excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence

The Confederate army are still increasing. At Camp Trousdale, from the best information, are all in good health and spirits are kept close at drill every day -- the friends of the boys are making visits every week to them, taking them clothing and boxes of something to eat. So, war is not such a bad thing after all? They have no fears, are satisfied they can whip [sic] two Yankees [sic] to one and would not wish to engage a less number. Being in a war camp has a tendency to make men courageous and defiant and may add somewhat devilish [sic].

Spence Diary.

          20, Confederate Navy's interest in the Tennessee Iron Works in Stewart County

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, Navy Department, Montgomery, May 20, 1861.

SIR: Upon the receipt of this order you will proceed to ascertain the practicability of obtaining wrought-iron plates of from 2 to 3 inches in thickness.

The Tennessee Iron Works have, I am informed, rolling mills for heavy work. They are on the Cumberland River, in Stewart County, Tenn.

* * * *

You will ascertain as early as possible whether the plates of this thickness can be furnished, and their form, dimension, weight, and price per pound must be stated, together with the best means of forwarding them to New Orleans.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. R. MALLORY, Secretary of the Navy.


Navy OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, p. 792.

          20, Resolution of the Confederate Congress to provide for the defense of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers

Hon. S. R. MALLORY, Secretary of the Navy.

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Navy be empowered to purchase four steamboats, to be converted as soon as practicable into gunboats for the defense of the Cumberland River, and also to procure a like number of gunboats for the defense of the Tennessee River, at the earliest practicable moment.

Adopted, December 19, 1861.

Navy OR, Ser. II, Vol. 2, p. 117.

          20, "He told them, among other things, that Jeff. Davis and the Governor of the State ought to be hanged and would be hanged…" Senator Andrew Johnson's speech in Cleveland, Tennessee

AN INTREPID SENATOR,- The Washington National Republican of Saturday says: "We have heard reliably from Senator Johnson as late as last Monday [20th], when he was sixty miles west of Knoxville, on his canvass of the State, which votes on the 8th of Junes upon the question of secession. Mr. Johnson and his friends were, at that date, hopeful. The passage of the ordinance of secession by the legislature proves nothing, as that body have been for secession since the start. At Knoxville the Union men were as firm as ever. The nomination of a Union candidate for Governor, Mr. Campbell, by the convention presided over by William H. Polk, brother to the late President, has given animation to that cause. The election of Governor comes in August.

The style of Mr. Johnson's canvassing may be judged of from the commencement of his speech at Cleveland, Tennessee, where threats against him had been largely indulged in. He told the crowd that he 'did not come here to be shot but to shoot,' that if there was to be a fight, he and his friends were ready for it, and he preferred to finish up the fighting before making his speech. Nobody coming forward to fight, the intrepid Senator proceeded to speak, and by the time he had finished, nineteen-twentieths of the audience were with him. He told them, among other things, that Jeff. Davis and the Governor of the State ought to be hanged and would be hanged, at that not distant period when the Judicial power of the Government would be brought to bear upon them."

Atlantic Democrat, May 25, 1861.

          20, A New York Newspaper's Assessment and Conjectures About Tennessee

TENNESSEE. The territory embraced by this State in mean length is four hundred miles, and the mean breadth one hundred and fourteen miles, containing an area of territory of 44,000 square miles, and embracing a population of 1,146,000, of which 167,000 are liable to military duty. In regard to the present crisis, Tennessee has not directly severed the bonds which bind that State to the Union. But it has adopted a military league made between its Governor and three Commissioners of the Confederate states, in which it is agreed that all the force of the State shall be employed to assist the confederated rebels. The Legislature has also adopted a declaration of independence, and has permitted the people to vote on it, which they will do on the 8th of June prox. The State is at present without effective military arms, and some inconveniences may arise before it can send an effective force into the field. At present a considerable force from this State, under the command of Major General Pillow, is assembled at Memphis, and north twenty miles along the bank of the Mississippi. This force, it is reported, is co-operating with a large force from Arkansas, whose ultimate design is to besiege Cairo, Illinois, now occupied by United States troops.

The New York Herald, May 20, 1861. [1]

          20, Major-General Gideon J. Pillow's General Orders No. 3

The seizure of Boats and Cargoes at Memphis, &c.-The following is Gen. Pillow's order directing the seizure of boats and cargoes belonging to citizens of Northern States:


Headquarters, Provisional Army of Tennessee

Memphis, May 20, 1861

The authorities and people of the military despotism at Washington having illegally and in violation of plain provisions of the constitution of the United State, seized large amounts (in value) of the property of the people and government of Tennessee, and reprisals being recognized by the law of nations as a right of redress for such wrongs, therefore, the Major-General commanding the Provisional Army of Tennessee, orders and directs that all good and supplies, and property belonging to the government and people of the North, be seized and confiscated to the use of the State of Tennessee. For the purposes of carrying this order into effect the military commanders at Memphis, Fort Harris and Randolph, will stop all upward bound boats, ascertain  their destination, owners and consignees and will take possession of all boats owned by the enemies of Tennessee, and all goods consigned to the ports of her enemies, and hold the same subject to the orders of the commanding general for the supply of the army of the State. The commanding officers at the forts above mentioned will not allow any wrong or violence to be done to the boat or cargo of a friendly people or State, viz: Missouri or Kentucky, except where the owners are known to occupy an attitude of hostility to the State of Tennessee. They will in all cases report seizures to these headquarters, and until further orders will place proper guards over boats and cargoes seized. Commanding officers will be expected to give personal supervision to the proper execution of this order.

By command of Major-General Gideon J. Pillow

Commander P. A.[3] Tennessee

The Daily Picayune, May 27, 1861. [4]

          20, Murder Near Memphis and Auxiliary Actions of the Memphis Committee of Safety [a.k.a., Vigilance Committee]

~ ~ ~

[From the Avalanche of Tuesday Evening (May 14)]


A sad and fatal affair occurred on the Pigeon roost road leading to this city, seven miles from Memphis by which Mr. T. Wood was shot and instantly killed by his brother-in-law, Dr. Holmes. Wood married a sister of the Doctor's, and it is said, ill-treated her. The Dr. Met Wood at the second toll gate, fired at him with a double barreled gun. The whole load of buck shot entered Wood's right breast and he fell dead.

Dr. Homes is well known in this community, and generally esteemed as a gentleman of mild manner, and the terrible affair is the more regretted on that account.


Gen. Pillow, in company with Inspector Gen. Carroll, left Randolph, for the purpose of inspecting and mustering into service the volunteers stationed at that place.


Yesterday [May 19] the St. Francis brought in two pieces of ordinance and fifty shot from Helena. The same oat had on board a man named John West, who had his head shaved in Wittsburg, Poinsett Co., Ark., for tampering with niggers. He was consigned to or safety committee [i.e., Memphis], by whom he was last night placed in the calaboose, and will to-day be sent further on his travels up river.


Edward Pucket, an Abolitionist, charged with tampering with negroes, was on the 6th of May, at Grande Glaize, Ark., put on board the steamer Admirable, done up in a box described in the bill of lading as "one live abolitionist." He was afterwards transferred to the Kanawha Valley, which boat yesterday delivered the live article over to the Memphis safety committee, by which body he was yesterday shipped on board the Bell Memphis for Cairo.

Milwaukee Morning Sentinel, May 20, 1861. [5]

          21, Letter from James Ferguson[6] to his wife in Bolivar

Near Randolph, Tenn-

May 21st 1861

My Darling Wife,

On Yesterday [sic] morning we heard some canon firing at Memphis & thought something must have turned up & about 8 o'clock A.M. we were ordered to Randolph to start at 11:00 A.M, you never saw such confusion -- did not have time to get breakfast -- started on train numbering about 1000 [sic] men -- arrived in Memphis, marched to the river to get on the Turgoncar[7] -- had to hold men all night on the deck to keep the boat from turning over. Could get no dinner or supper. Got off boat at daybreak -- chose camping ground stretched tents -- pitched tents and now at 10:30 O.C. [sic] are eating Breakfast, the 1st meal we have had for 30 hours-of course we feel badly-But I am willing to bear privation & sorrow & even death to preserve untarnished this our heritage of freedom to protect you, My Darling [sic] wife & those I love. Though the Gnawing [sic] of hunger are [sic] terrible yet the consciousness that I am doing my duty makes me welcome with a smile -- any suffering any fate -- And, if my life should be taken -- then my Darling, [sic] trust in God & he will protect you -- he [sic] will be a perfect husband -- One that can protect & defend you in all time & against all enemies. And I tell you frankly that if I did not have an abiding confidence in his protection of you Death would be an unwelcome visitor. But when you trust in Him there is no death what seems so is transition -- This life of mortal breath-Is but the [illegible] of the life Everlasting whose portal we call death.

I think we will leave here soon. They are expecting an attack here as Lincoln sent over [?] night last [sic] week [?]... a corps of Engineers to survey the mouth of Hatchie Bottom and escaped without being detected.

Give my love [to] Ma & [the] children, Uncle John & family. I will write to them all when I have time.

God Bless you....

James Ferguson

Talbot-Fentress Family Papers, TSL&A

          21, Tennessee – Confederate passion and rhetoric; Dr. Robert C. Abernathy of Pulaski to Dr. Hern of Indiana regarding Southern enthusiasm to defend itself from the Federal invasion

Dear Friend,

Your very welcome letter reached me in due time & met with a cordial reception by all your friends (to whom I showed it) – I would have answered it sooner, but my time has been monopolized by my profession & my mind preoccupied in anxious reflections upon the impending crisis. Your friends are all well so far as I know & hopeful as to the result of the conflict. Pro. Mooney preached the most soul-stirring sermon to the volunteers ever heard in this country,-all were delighted, his text was the 45th verse of the 17th ch[apter]. Of the 1st Book of Samuel,-he read the whole chapter as preliminary to the sermon, & made Goliath personify the North & David represent the South – said that the world was full of Good & Evil; David representing the Good & virtuous of his day & his seemingly invincible adversary, the evil. You can imagine from the text the character of the sermon, but you cannot conceive the true effort. We will publish it & I will send you a copy. Our volunteers numbering about 25,000 are near the Kentucky line, near Cairo & other convenient points in camp. Well provisioned and well armed. Such entire unanimity prevails that the first intimation of invasion 75,000 freemen will rise as one man to repel &crush out the vandal hordes & scoundrels who would dare to put their infamous feet upon the soil of Tennessee. I tell you, my Friend, the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong." We are resolved to conquer a peace & dictate the terms of it,-we have asked to be let alone, & have been told in cowardly defiance, "that it did not belong to the vanquished to dictate terms to the victors.["] I say cowardly defiance, because nothing but the confidence which brute force inspires could ever have induced the Gentry of the conscientious-scruple sick school of fanaticism to have given expression to so wonderfully a heroic a sentiment,-the most chivalrous sons of Tennessee are in the field & they will know no defeat. We who are the fathers of the land are forming reserved companies of Minute Men & we are all resolved to go whenever our Governor calls us. Our Negroes are all in fine spirits, many have gone with the Army & many more want to go & if God shall (in his wisdom) suffer us defeated in the first engagement, we will muster 10,000 or perhaps 50,000 slaves who will meet death cheerfully in defense of their masters [sic] rights. Subjugate us!! Never, never, never!!! Mind you, we wage no offensive war;-& we claim to be freemen & to be possessed of the right to live in a Government of our own making. The North denies us this right & affirms that they will conquer us & hold us as conquered provinces,-Now in the name of all that is good & right! what sort of Government will this be if Lincoln & his minions succeed in subduing us? Could it by possibility be maintaining the Unions [sic]? A Union of 8,000,000 of high toned, brave &chivalrous men & women with [the] yoke of Northern bondage & oppression upon our necks? Talk of Union of gunpowder with fire of religion with sin, of Heaven with Hell as well as [the] union of these two elements, the one claiming to be free & independent, the other planting its unhallowed foot upon our necks &crushing us into submission to their heterodox ideas. The idea at the North seems to be to whip us into submission & then make us trade with them, & this must be done before the 1st of Jan. 1862 – well, they may possibly accomplish their object but it will be the most costly patronage the world has ever seen.

Diary of Martha Abernathy

          21, "Tennessee."

All hail, beautiful and brave daughter of the South! With open hands and loving hearts we welcome you! No oath is needed to prove to us your fidelity and affection. The achievements of your gallant volunteers in every field when you country called you, are your witnesses! Those fields have been reddened with your blood and determined by your glory! Tennessee – the Volunteer State – the native land of heroes, the burial ground of Jackson – can never be false to her friends and brethern [sic]!

Many of her friends looked to her with abting [sic] faith and faltering hearts. Our confidence never failed. Our convictions the unbroken faith of all Mississippi have been confirmed! Prophecy has become history. The Pleiad which some though had gone forever, has re-appeared. If it vanished for a moment – if a cloud was drawn over it that concealed it glorious beams have now emerged with additional splendor, and sheds it light upon the azure field of the "Confederate Flag." Tennessee! Our fate, our affections are the same. Mississippi has not an echo that does not repeat your name! She has not a heart that does not say "God bless you!"

Vicksburg Sun.

Clarksville Chronicle, May 24, 1861.

          21, Assessment of military preparations in West Tennessee; an excerpt from the report of George B. McClellan

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Cincinnati, May 21, 1861.

Col. E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of May 15, sent by Lieut. Williams, and beg to assure the lieutenant-general commanding that I will leave nothing undone to carry out his wishes as expressed therein. I have received from several different sources important information in relation to the movements and position of the rebels in Tennessee, the substance of which is as follows:

Nashville and Memphis are evidently the strongholds of the secessionists in that State. There are counties in Western Tennessee, such as Stewart, Henry, Haywood, Lauderdale, and Henderson, where the Union feeling is predominant, if not represented by main force. I learn that the Union men have determined to go armed to the polls, and, if necessary, use force to enable them to deposit their votes. Their ulterior course is not yet determined upon, but their leaders say that the presence of the troops of the Gen. Government would be beneficial and would rally to the cause of the Union many who are now outwardly secessionists. I am told that there is much excitement among the negroes there, who in their private talks have gone so far as to select their white wives. Reliable information has reached me that a detachment of Arkansas troops, stationed on the Mississippi above Memphis, has been suddenly recalled to Searcy, White County, Ark., to repress a negro insurrection. A white preacher and six negroes were hung there a few days since, and thirty negroes were to hung yesterday, charged with being concerned in the insurrection. Intercepted telegraphic dispatches indicate the movement of 1,000 Arkansas troops from the interior of the State to Fort Smith yesterday. Other Arkansas troops are said to have passed through Memphis en route to Lynchburg. The indications are that the disposable troops in the regular Confederate service from Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana have taken the same direction. The troops remaining in Tennessee seem to be State militia, and not in the regular Confederate Army. They are represented as being but indifferently armed, under no discipline, consisting to a large extent of boys and old men, much excited by liquor and politics, and anxious to fight. Desertions are said to be frequent, and it is said there will be much difficulty in keeping them together for any great length of time.

Some allowance, of course, must be made for these statements. The following points are undoubtedly occupied: Germantown, in Shelby County, Tenn., is a rendezvous; Camp Harris, on the Mississippi, about six miles above Memphis, by 3,000 men, with three guns, one of which is said to be a rifled cannon recently smuggled through from Boston; Randolph, on the Mississippi River, is held by from 3,000 to 5,000 men, with the six light guns formerly constituting Bragg's battery; at Union City, on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, in Obion County, from two to three regiments without guns; at Clarksville, about 1,000 men without guns. It is probable that two regiments, formerly posted in eastern Tennessee, passed through Nashville two days ago to take post on the railroad near Springfield, in Robertson County. I learn that various small detachments are posted at different points near the Kentucky line.

I hear from excellent authority that Governor Harris has expressed a determination to occupy Columbus, Ky., by the troops now at Union City; this to be done whether Governor Magoffin consents or not, and the movement to be effected within a few days. Some indifferent iron guns are being cast at the foundry of A. Street & Co., Memphis. Efforts are being made to establish a powder factory at Nashville….

* * * *

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 51, pt. I, pp. 383-384.

          21, Memphis' Zietgeist

Flight from the South. These are times of great peril to southern residents of the northern origin, a large class, by the way, and embracing the most valuable and enterprising of the population. It is stated that from four to five thousand have left Memphis, many of them from choice, others in obedience to the mandates of the local vigilance committee. The city is filled with alarms. A correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette states that a few nights since, a rumor spread that a large body of troops were coming southward from the Ohio, and a fearful scene of excitement filled Memphis for hours. The fire bells rang furiously. The numerous mounted patrols dashed to and fro. Women shrieked. Mothers clasped their children to their bosoms in frantic agony, All was confusion, and its greatest terrors lay in the doubt whether it was an insurrection southern soil or an invasion of federal troops.

Lowell Daily Citizen and News, May 21, 1861. [8]




          20, Skirmish on Elk River

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          20, "'Blood Hound' Harris"

Another of the Lebanon prisoners [May 5] is Captain W. H. Harris of the 1st Tennessee rebel cavalry. This man has acquired an unenviable reputation as a brutal and inhuman persecutor of Union men throughout the state, and it will afford gratification to not a few who have been the victim of his beastly passion to know that he is on the high road to retribution. During the rebel reign of terror, this Harris was employed to hunt down Union men, drive them and their families from their doors and desecrate or destroy their homesteads and property. Some of the men thus hunted, unable to cope with him in strength, took the redress of their wrongs into their own hands and visited it upon his plundering and murderous followers. Unwilling to brave the danger he had incurred manfully, he resorted to a mode of warfare which even a Comanche would scorn, and with brazen impudence promulgated the following notice in the public newspapers; (Cut from the Nashville Gazette of Dec. 1st, 1861.)


We, the undersigned, will pay Five dollars per pair for fifty pairs of well bread Hounds [sic], and Fifty Dollars [sic] for one pair of thorough-bred Blood Hounds that will take the track of a man. The purposes for which these dogs are wanted is to chase the infernal cowardly Lincoln bushwhackers of East Tennessee and Kentucky (who have taken the advantage of the bush to kill and cripple many good soldiers) to their dens and capture them. The said Hounds must be delivered at Capt. Hanner's Livery Stable by the 10th of December next, where a mustering officer will be present to muster and inspect them.

E.W. .McNairy, W. H. Harris

Camp Comfort, Campbell Co. Tenn. Nov. 16

And yet this cowardly man hunting with bloodhounds, Harris, is one of the [illegible] of Tennessee! What would be their verdict upon a Union Officer who should advertise for blood hounds to hunt up the male and female traitors and "bushwhackers" of Murfreesboro? Truly, their lamentations would out vie poor old Jeremiah, and their indignation turn into red hot wrath. But they can lionize and cheer, throw boquets [sic] and kissed to "Blood Hound" Harris with a sanctimony and grace which [they] deem irresistible. What an astonishing degree of chivalry [sic] this rebellion is developing among the people of Tennessee!! Kisses and tears for "Bull Dog and Blood Hound" Harris-May kind heaven avert the deserved retribution for such crimes against humanity.

Murfreesboro Union Volunteer, May 20, 1862.

          20, A West Tennessee woman's concerns about the future

It has rained incessantly since last night. All day rain, rain, it will keep the rivers up to float the Yankee gunboats, and stop our farmers' ploughs and perhaps injure the wheat crops. I feel gloomy and depressed-nothing is more calculated to cast a cloud over us than a rainy day. But when we feel that a rainy day is bad for our country on the brink of ruin, Oh! How sad our hearts feel, none but who suffer can tell.

We are ever inclined to murmur at God's providence. We must be patient and prayerful, never losing faith in Our Father for He doeth all things well.

The scarcity of provisions in the South makes it a fearful thing to think of our crops of grain failing. Our enemies have ever boasted that they "will starve us out," and if our bread crops fail they will succeed. Salt is not but thirty dollars a sack and scarce at that. Heaven only knows how we will manage to save our meat another Fall [sic], but there is time enough to grieve over that. Let us get our Army through the Summer before we dread the Fall. "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof."

Estes' Diary

          20, Mrs. Belle Reynolds; Rank and Marital Discord [See: May 19, Newspaper Report on Mrs. Major Belle Reynolds "a lady on the bloody battle-field of Pittsburg Landing" above]

The Woman Major--A Row in the Family.

We have appropriately chronicled the fact that Gov. Yates has commissioned as Major in one of the Illinois regiments with Gen. Halleck the wife of a Lieutenant, who had shown both courage and devotion to the cause of humanity among the sick and wounded on the field in and after the battle of Pittsburg Landing. …the Cincinnati Times tells us something further of her and the consequence of her appointment:

"I am sorry to inform you that there is at present some apprehension of a domestic difficulty, originating out of the late commission of a female to the rank of Major in the United States army.

"This worthy lady, whose bravery and Samaritan kindness to our wounded soldiers on the battle-field of Shiloh has won her the love and esteem of an appreciating public, and who has been promoted to rank by a grateful government is, I fear, about to fall victim to that most dreaded of delusions--jealousy. This lady is at present holding her headquarters on board one of the hospital steamers now lying at Pittsburg Landing, anxiously awaiting for the expected battle, to again render that comfort and aid known only to exist in the presence of angels and the attentions of lovely woman.

"But what is most unhappy in the case of this lady Major is, that her once adoring and loving husband, who now holds the rank of Lieutenant, insists on being made a Colonel, and gives as a reason that his wife now commands him, from the virtue of her rank--being a Major--and that this is directly contrary to the original understanding existing between them at the day of their nuptials.

From this protest of the Lieutenant I fear that all law abiding wives will hold up their hands and exclaim, "Oh! the brute."

Chicago Times, May 20, 1862.[9]

          20, Some cases before the Police Court of Nashville

Police Court.

Mr. Conolly, dressed in Federal uniform, but presumed to be "a camp follower," as he failed to give a clear account of himself, was mulcted in $12.75 for being drunk and disorderly.

John Smith (not the real veritable John, but a man named White, who had the audacity to assume that highly respectable name) was found by the Police in the Market, sleeping off the effects of the bad whisky he had imbibed. Costs of lodgings $10—of court $2.50--$12.50.

Ann Brown and Mary Lyons have had a slight misunderstanding. Mary devoted Sunday evening to "calling Ann everything she could lay her tongue to." Ann would have resented the base insinuations immediately, had not Martha Carson and Miss Dunn prevailed upon her to abstain from "soiling her fingers" by contact with Mary's hair. On Monday morning Mary renewed her attentions to Miss Brown, threatening to have her put in the work-house, when Ann remarked that "she might as well go there for something as for nothing," and accordingly left her room, went into the street, and before you could say "Jack Robinson," Ann had inflicted a blow upon Mary's cranium, caught her by the hair, and had her lying in the dust, crying for mercy, which being extended, both were brought before the Recorder, and fined $8 each….

Nashville Dispatch, May 20, 1862.

20, Account of Major Morgan's company of Cherokee Warriors visit to Knoxville

Cherokee Warriors in Knoxville.

From the Knoxville Register.

Our streets were enlivened yesterday by the arrival of a large company of Cherokee warriors, from the mountainous regions of North Carolina. These "children of the forest" have been enlisted in the Confederate service my Major Morgan, third Tennessee Regiment. The company already here numbers about one hundred and thirty, and we learn that Major Morgan expects to raise a battalion composed partly of these Indians, who, we predict, will do good service with their unerring rifles, under the lead of their gallant major. This officer, we must say, deserves the highest praise for his indefatigable zeal and energy, as displayed in the enlistment of so many valuable recruits from the aboriginal population.

The battalion has gone into camp at Flint Hill, and have name their ground "Camp Oe-con-os-to-ta," in honor of the distinguished Cherokee chief of that name, whose remains lie buried on Major Morgan's farm, at Citico, in Monroe county. Other companies of whites and Indians are desired to fill up the battalion to six companies. They will go into immediate active service.

Philadelphia Inquirer, May 20, 1862.[10]

          21, "…I gave him such a big piece of my mind and talked so fast he couldn't say much." Kate Carney's opinion of Murfreesboro natives supporting the Union

Cousin Ann & I went to the store and I asked Tally about putting his name to the paper requesting the State go back into the Union. He seemed proud of it when I first asked him, but I gave him such a big piece of my mind and talked so fast he couldn't say much. We met Pa going home when we came up, so I had a good time raking Tally over about being a Union man. Poor Pa looks so sad & is growing so sad, I feel so sorry to see him look that way. I have noticed more this week than ever before. Since that old dog Capt. Round insulted him last Monday when he asked for a pass. He threw down his pen, saying as he did so, that taking the oath was the only condition of Pa's getting a pass. The rascal, I would love to see him hung, he & old Bill Spence & a number of others, & feel no regret. Cousin Ann & I stopped at Mrs. Anderson's a few moments, then went around to Mrs. Leiper's, & on our way stopped & talked a little with Aunt Nancy, then by Mrs. Bole's, & talked a little, & stopped a short while at Mrs. Henderson's, then came home. I would not be surprised if I was not shortly arrested for my long tongue. O how I do hope our Confederacy may be victorious in the end, I can't conceive of defeat being possible. What would I do if the last spark of hope was extinct?

Kate Carney Diary.

          21, Sanitary Conditions at Hamburg

* * * *

….At Hamburg, on Friday, there were 4,000 sick, and the thermometer stood at 92 degs [sic] in the shade. The post at Pittsburg had been abandoned, and the hospital boats removed to Hamburg, such was the unendurable stench arising from the decomposing remains on the late battle field. And while we are speaking of the sanitary condition of our army, our readers may be interested to know that the Sanitary Commission are forwarding large quantities of salt codfish for use in checking the bowel diseases of the camps.

Chicago Daily Tribune, May 21, 1862.[11]

          21, Confederate Correspondence Relative to the Organization of the Provost Marshal's Office in East Tennessee.


J. F. BELTON, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

Herewith I respectfully submit the organization[12] of the department of provost-marshal for East Tennessee. It is nearly though not entirely complete. There are some more private police needed who will be employed as the right men can be selected. The operation of the law in this department seems to be working as well as could be excepted when the deep rooted disaffection is considered. Many are returning from Kentucky and many more expected to return, arrangements having been made by their friends to bring them. By this time the fact of the suspension of the conscript bill in East Tennessee is in the camp of the enemy in readable from which must work advantageously and tend to demoralize the enemy. Inclosed in [sic] card[13] sent into their camp. I respectfully desire that the rank (if any) and the pay of each be fixed and also to be instructed by whom the officers, employees and expenses of the department are to be paid.

[W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.]

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, p. 876.

          21, Memphis Juveniles Punished for Slurring Ladies

Insulting Ladies.—Three boys—John Buros, Geo. Saxton, and S. Cravan—were fined six dollars each, in the Recorder's court yesterday, for insulting ladies.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 21, 1862

21,…"as good as a king's bond." Andrew Johnson's reaction to Union troops being fired upon in Murfreesboro praised

["]Governor Johnson of Tennessee, is as good as his word, and that's as good as a king's bond. A Union soldier was recently fired at in Murfreesboro by concealed foes, and for this, twelve secessionists were arrested, including a brother of Mrs. Ex-President Polk, and taken to Nashville, where they are held in custody. Every outrage within the broad sphere of the Governor's sway will be avenged with equal promptitude.—Louisville Journal. ["]

We trust and pray that the prompt and determined policy of Gov. Johnson will be imitated by President Lincoln, and the Union authorities everywhere. We are in a wild and fearful revolution, and it is only the heart and nerve of an Oliver Cromwell or an Andrew Jackson, which can grapple successfully with the thousand secret foes which best us. Thank Heaven, we believe that Tennessee has an Executive able, willing and ever ready to

"Set his life upon the cast

And stand the hazard of the die,"

however fiercely may rage the storm of opposition.

Nashville Daily Union, May 21, 1862.

          25, Theatrical Review in Nashville

Theatre.—The attendance at the theatre last night was very large, and we think that every person who was there went away satisfied with the performance. The "Old Guard" and "Black-Eyed Susan" was given in a most unexceptionable manner. Each and every member of the company deserves great credit for the way in which they personated the different characters they represented. Mr. Weaver's "Haversack," in the "Old Guard," could not have been surpassed. We have not seen a piece of acting for years that we consider superior to his personation of that difficult character.

Miss Constantine, who has been an exile from the stage for some nights past again made her appearance. She has, however, lost none of her bewitching fascination, but, on the contrary, looks prettier and dances better. Isabel Cubas should look to her laurels, or she may find a formidable rival in the fair Constantine, who, although she may not claim to be an "exotic," reared beneath a "sunny sky," still she understands the "poetry of motion," and is a most faithful representative of the Terpsichorean art. In addition to the dance, she favored the audience with a song. Her voice is soft, flexible, and sweet, but of not great range. We find no fault with her singing, yet we like her dancing better.

The bill for Monday night is very attractive, and will, no doubt, draw a crowded house.

Nashville Daily Union, May 25, 1862.

          21,22, Confederate Military Executions at Shiloh

Military Execution.-A rebel correspondent of the Memphis Appeal, writing from Shiloh on the 23d May, gives the following account of a military execution:

Another soldier was yesterday [22nd] shot for desertion. During the previous night, he had run by our pickets, but evidently lost his way, for on approaching the lines again, the sentinel cried "halt!" "Oh! I'm all right, you need not stop me," was the response-"I'm as good a Federal as you are."

"What are you doing here?" said the sentinel.

[I need not mention the purport of the revelation.]

"Well, I reckon you have got in the wrong box. I'm a Confederate picket, and you are my prisoner."

The officer of the guard was accordingly summoned, and the man given into custody. Yesterday [22nd] he was taken before General Jackson, and examined. He then frankly confessed that his heart was not in the cause; that he was an Englishman by birth and had deserted with the intention of giving intelligence of our movements to the enemy. Evidence so clear and conclusive dispensed with the formalities of a court martial, and the man was taken out and shot.

On the day previous (Wednesday [21st]) I saw another suffer the same fate-a spy named Coon Farris, from Paris, or Paducah, Tennessee.

A more stoical death I never witnessed. As he rode along upon a rude cart, seated upon a box which was to be his future bed, he acted as indifferently as if he were a spectator, and not the object of the terrible preparations. When the vehicle stopped he jumped lightly out, and waited for the removal of the coffin. This being done, he walked carelessly to a tree twenty feet distant, the coffin was placed under it, his handcuffs were unlocked, and for a moment he engaged in conversation with the officer attending him. Not a sign of trepidation was visible. The keen, black eye was as bold and unwavering as ever, and neither cheek blanched nor muscle quivered. His interview terminated, the words of which I was informed, were "I die an honest and innocent man!" He took his seat upon the coffin, his coat was buttoned across his breast, arms pinioned from behind, eyes bandaged, and of his own accord he leaned back against the tree. Such was the imperturbable self-possession of the man, however, that even then shut out from this world for the last time, with only a moment bridging the interval between time and eternity, he took the pains to make himself comfortable by moving his head from side to side on the tree, that it might rest easily upon the rough ridges of the bark. The guard was then ordered forward three paces, so that but ten steps separated them from the culprit. The officer took his place at their right, and in a low tone gave the order, "take aim"-a few seconds' pause-"fire!" A splash of brains, a sudden start, a drooping of the head to one side, a falling of the jaw, and all was over. The spy has paid the forfeit of his life for his crime, and the majesty of military law was vindicated. K.

The Louisville Daily Journal, June 4, 1862. [14]




          20, Skirmish[15] at Collierville

MAY 20, 1863.-Skirmish at Collierville, Tenn.


No. 1.-Col. John M. Loomis, Twenty-sixth Illinois infantry, commanding brigade.

No. 2.-Col. R. McCulloch. Second Missouri Cavalry (Confederate).

No. 1.

Report of Col. John M. Loomis, Twenty-sixth Illinois Infantry, commanding Brigade.

COLLIERVILLE, May 21, 1863.

SIR: The attack of yesterday evening was made on picket post Nos. 4 and 5, directly in our front, in three columns, by different roads, and of larger forces than I supposed last night. Cavalry and infantry supports arrived at the line before the enemy were out of sight of the next post, but, as they scattered in the woods, our cavalry did not overtake them. Neither post was surprised. The guard fought well, and held their posts too long to be able to retire, they being surrounded. My force at these two posts was 15 men and 2 non-commissioned officers. My loss was 1 killed and 9 missing. The balance did not come on, but held the vicinity of their post until they were re-enforced. I am not aware of the damage to the enemy, though some is reported. I can attach no blame to the officers or men of the guard. All were at post, and in proper order. They discovered the enemy at once, and made such disposition as the officer in charge thought best. Duration of attack probably not fifteen minutes. The guard fired an average of three rounds.

The lieutenant in charge of the left wing of the picket guard, who spends the whole tour of the guards on its line, was at post No. 3, and saw the affair, and speaks in praise of the conduct of the men, as do the citizens who saw the fight.

JOHN MASON LOOMIS, Col., Commanding Brigade.

No. 2.

Report of Col. R. McCulloch, Second Missouri Cavalry (Confederate).

SENATOBIA, MISS. May 21, 1863.

GEN.: The enemy advanced yesterday from Collierville, 1,000 strong, to Coldwater; returned in the evening. Capts. White and [W. H.] Couzens sent Lieutenant [Z. D.] Jennings with 10 me as far as Collierville; here the lieutenant killed 2 and captured 10 Federal prisoners. Arrived here this evening.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, p. 425.

          20, Skirmish at Salem

MAY 20, 1863.-Skirmish at Salem, Tenn.

Report of Col. Edward Hatch, Second Iowa Cavalry, commanding Cavalry Brigade, Sixteenth Army Corps.

HEADQUARTERS CAVALRY BRIGADE, LaGrange, Tenn., May 20, 1863.

CAPT.: I have the honor to report that the scout sent out this morning, consisting of two companies Second Iowa Cavalry and two companies Sixth Iowa Infantry, found the enemy, about 300 strong ([W. R.] Mitchell's, Sol. [G.] Street's, aid others), at Salem. A skirmish ensued and the enemy fled, and, being freshly mounted, got away from our men. One horse was killed on the rebel side. No loss on ours.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDWARD HATCH, Col., Commanding.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 424.[16]

          20, The imprisonment of Mollie Hyde as a Confederate spy

MILITARY PRISON, Alton, Ill., May 20, 1863.

Col. W. HOFFMAN, Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners, Washington, D. C.

COL.: I have the honor to report that another female prisoner, a Miss Mollie Hyde, of Nashville, Tenn., has been sent to this prison "for spying and other misdeeds," to be confined during the war or until released by competent authority. She was sent here by order of Gen. Rosecrans.

I have the honor to be sir, with much respect, your obedient servant,

T. HENDRICKSON, Maj. Third Infantry, Commandant of Prison.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 684-685.

          20, "…they want a man spank in rank now and you no they will not let them come home Martha…." Letter of Corporal W. C. Tripp, Company B, 44th Tennessee Infantry, in camp near Wartrace, to Martha A. Tripp. [Enclosed in the same envelope was the poem, "The Soldier's Farewell"]

May the 20 1863 Camp near Wartrace

Dear Wife I seat my self on a rock to drop you a few lines to let you no [sic] that I am well at this time I hope these few lines will find you all well and doing well I have nothing to rite [sic] to you we had orders to bee [sic] ready to march at a moments warning but hit [sic] was then contered [sic] Martha I received your kind letter dated the 15th of May which gave me great satisfaction to hear that you was [sic] all well the Boys [sic] is all well as common We are all working very hard now we drill two hours in the four part of the day and too in the late part of the day and rest ten minutes between the two hours tho [sic] i [sic] doo [sic] fiteing [sic] on hit [sic] every day but you dont [sic] deserve hit [sic] come and see. Martha you rote [sic] that you Seen [sic] a heap of friends a robbing bees i [sic] wish I could come home to help you[.] But there is no chance for me to come home now they want a man spank in rank now and you no they will not let them come home Martha come up a Saturday if you can if John Smith come up with the waggon [sic] fetch the children if you can for I want to see them tell Martha Smit to come with you and all the rest that can come fetch me one pair of sock [sic] I believe that is all I want if you come in a waggon [sic] you will have to start very soon as you want make hit in a day

Aaron Tripp sends his love to you and remembers you I must bring my few lines to a close by saying good by [sic]


"The Soldiers Farewell"

1. Oh fare you well my darling

So fare you well my dear

Dont [sic] grieve for my long absence

whilst I am a Volunteer

2. It has been my misfortune

A Volunteer to be

So stay at home my darling

And dont [sic] you grieve for me

3. I will stay at home contented

But live a lonesome life

For I long to see the time come

To be a soldiers wife

4. I am a going to Pencecola [sic]

To tarry for a while

To leave my true love far away

For about five hundred miles

5. See how she rings her lily white hands

How mournful she does cry

You will go and join the army

And in the war you will die

6. You will be place in the center

And there you will be slain

My heart will burst asunder

If I never you see you again

7. To see poor soldiers bleeding

Is a dredful [sic] site to see

So fare you well my darling

And dont [sic] you grirve [sic] for me

8. Cannon roar like thunder

The bullets swiftly fly

The drums and fifes are beating

To drown the death like cry

9. We will charge upon those batteries

We will turn their wheels around

Shout shout your Victory

All over the Southern ground

10. We will rout them

We will scout them

We will scout them from our shore

Our captain is as brave a man as ever commission bore


          20, Sergeant Oakley, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, and Lieutenant-General Polk at the battle of Murfreesboro


The following extract from a long letter addressed by a young officer at Shelbyville, Tenn., to a friend in Richmond pays a just tribute to the character of General Leonidas Polk, while it commemorates the gallantry of the color bearer, Sergeant Oakley, of Colonel McMurray's regiment, the 4th Tennessee, as exhibited at the battle of Murfreesboro' on the 31st of December last:

"Yesterday I had the honor to ride around the camps with Lieut. Gen. Polk and General Cheatham, who were on a grand inspecting tour. The camps all looked in fine order, the guns bright and the men in the very best spirits.

Gen. Polk, after questioning Col. McMurray about the condition of his regiment, said where is the color bearer? Sergeant Oakley, a young man about eighteen or twenty years old, stepped out in front of the whole regiment, dressed in common butternut jeans; with real modesty and unaffected manner he took his cap. Gen. Polk, ungloved his hand and said: ;I must shake hands with you,' and then raising his hat, said with great feeling and real martial eloquence, 'I am proud to uncover in the presence of so gallant a man.' The effect was tremendous and a shout rent the air.-This young Oakley at the battle of Murfreesboro' advanced his colors some two hundred yards in front of his regiment under a terrible fire. A battery was playing upon the regiment, and it was uncertain whether it was our battery or that of the enemy. This color bearer advanced in front, displaying his colors in a conspicuous manner, so as to stop the firing if they were friends, or to make it more intense if they were enemies. The increased severity of the firing which immediately followed determined that doubt and showed them to belong to the enemy. He then deliberately resumed his place in the line. We silenced their battery and drove back the opposing column. The high compliment which Gen. Polk paid him made that young man as proud as a king. It was an honor greeter than the Star or Garter. He and his whole regiment will fight until the last man falls."

T. F. H.

Macon Daily Telegraph, May 20, 1863.

          20, Scout to Lavergne from Murfreesboro, blankets, shirt, drawers, sweet cakes, decomposed Confederate soldier from Battle of Stones River; letter of George Kryder

Camp near Murfreesboro

May 20th, 1863

Dear wife,

I take this present opportunity to write a few lines to you know that I am well and hearty and hope these lines may reach you all the same. I rec'd. your letter of the 12th day before yesterday and was glad that you were well but sorry that Lillie was not well. Tell her she must not fret for me for I can not come any sooner than if she would not fret.

I put my clothes and Henry's in a box and expressed them to Centerton and Henry has written to Trimmer's folks to take his out there. I sent one overcoat and two blankets and a shirt and pr drawers 2 pr. socks and l pr of saddlebags and a few little notions with a few of our Lincoln sweet cakes (crackers). I put a few newspapers in and little red memorandum book that I got that I got out of a Secesh store at Hartsville, Tenn. and two pr of glove. Henry did not send anything but overcoat and two blankets. Our clothes are not particularly marked but his coat has a pocket in and mine has not, but mine is shot through the back, and my bright colored blanket has one hole burned through and the dark one has got a K branded between the black stripe and the end, and his has H. H. S. on.

The night after I sent you the other letter we were called up at 12 o'clock to go on a scout with one day rations to march at half past one. No one knew where we were going till about daylight. We found ourselves at Lavergne, but no rebels were there but Brigade that Sam is in is laying there. We halted about an hour and then went about 5 miles on river and stood picket till the next day we were relieved and we came back to Lavergne and we were there two nights and one day and I went and seen Sam and he can not speak out loud yet and I had quite a chat with him and then we came back and our Co. went on picket and yesterday we moved camp. We were too far from water. Now we have it close by.

You heard that it as the 3rd Ohio that was taken prisoners. That was true but it was the 3rd Ohio Infantry. There has been none of our Reg. taken since the 20th Jan when they came pretty near getting me.

I am glad you got my picture all right. I have not sent any papers since those first ones for there has not been much news lately. You said there was a button off my coat and want to know whether you shall come and sew it on. I guess not. I think if you would see the patch that I put on my knee you wou1d think that I could sew on my own buttons.

When I was in Lavergne Sam told me where Ezra is. He is in the 1st Indiana Battery, 2nd Brigade, 14th Division, l3th Army Corp., Gen. McClernard commanding, Milliken's Bend, La. and he also told me Catherine's address is Etna Green, P.O. Kosciusco, Ind.

May 21st. I am not as well this morning. The reason is yesterday I ate some walnuts in the forenoon and then ate some greens for dinner and they made me sick and I vomited them all up but it will be all right in a day or two. Henry does not feel as well as common on account of diarrhea.

Day before yesterday we got orders to turn our clothes over. They are to be taken to Nashville and stored there for the summer, but I think it is the best that we sent ours home for if they should get lost, I would blame no one but myself and if they should get home safe, I know they will not rot as they did last year. I will try and send you some more papers. The news from Mississippi country is favorable and the Rebs are getting discouraged.


George Kryder

George Kryder Papers

          20-22, Scout from Clarksville

MAY 20-22, 1863.- Scout from Clarksville, Tenn.

Report of Col. Sanders D. Bruce, Twentieth Kentucky Infantry.

CLARKSVILLE, May 22, 1863.

My men have returned from three days' scout on side of the Cumberland. Captured 8 prisoners, and have destroyed three flat-boats in Yellow Creek. Some one destroyed small trestle on railroad, 10 miles from here, last night [21st]. All quiet on river.

S. D. BRUCE, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 333.

          21, Destruction of railroad trestle near Clarksville [see March 20-22, 1863, Scout from Clarksville above]

          21, Major-General S. B. Buckner's concerns about conscription and the civil condition of East Tennessee


Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond, Va.:

SIR: The civil condition of East Tennessee is a subject of solicitude with me. Under the pressure of the enforcement of the conscript act several thousand of the young men of East Tennessee fled the territory and entered the ranks of the Federal Army. Large numbers of others, to avoid the conscription, have fled from their homes and are lurking in the mountains, the woods, and the caves. They are chiefly men of families, who desire to avoid all military service in either army and yet wish to remain near their families. Many of these men, rendered desperate by their situation, are infesting the roads, waylaying the conscript officers, and, urged alike by necessity and a spirit of revenge and bitterness, are stealing horses and destroying the cattle, hogs, and products within their reach. Occasionally their depredations extend to the destruction of barns and house and injury to corps within their reach. The civil arm is paralyzed; the bitterness of faction is intense. The enforcement of order by the military arm, however we may seek to restrain its enemies, will often be attended by instances of unnecessary severity, giving room for the charge of persecution. In whatever light we view it, the question is surrounded by difficulties that have doubtless attracted oftentimes the attention of the President. After considering the question as fully as my time will permit, I am convinced that the following policy would be the best solution to the difficult problem:

First. To exempt from conscription for a certain period--say six or eight months--such fugitives as within a limited time will return to the cultivation of their fields, and will lead a life of quiet and obedience to the laws. The effect of this would be to disperse or weaken the bands which are scattered through the mountains, to cultivate and gather a more abundant crop, and to put an end to the molestation of the highways and the destruction and stealing of animals.

Second. To such as refuse to avail themselves of these privileges a severe policy should be pursued when practicable. They should be considered as alien enemies in armed opposition to the Government, and when captured regarded as prisoners of war and to be exchanged as such. In very flagrant cases a more severe policy might be pursued, but in most cases it would seem needless to try the offenders before a civil court, on account of the difficulty of obtaining two witnesses to the same overt act. To do so would be equivalent to releasing them in our midst, to renew their former course of depredations.

Third. With a view to local defense against such depredations I am encouraging, with some prospect of success, the formation of volunteer companies for local defense, under the act of October 13, 1862. As the people are generally unarmed, their arms having been taken for other purposes by the State authorities, I propose, with your concurrence, issuing to these organizations the squirrel and shot guns now in the arsenal here. In an emergency these companies may add somewhat to the security of the bridge defenses.

I will thank you to lay these views before the War Department. The question is a most delicate one and very difficult of solution; but I think a temporary exemption would gradually bring back these fugitives to the quiet cultivation of their fields--the best service which they can render the Government.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. B. BUCKNER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg. Department.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 2, pp. 563-564.

          21, "Confederate Sympathizers."

The following persons were sent outside the Federal lines on Tuesday last, under the superintendence of Capt. Conover, of the 9th Kansas Regiment: W. F. Richey and wife; Thompson Anderson and one child, Miss P. H. Anderson, Dr. Rob't. Martin, wife and two children, J. T. Sullivan, P .H. Mitchell, O., W. Miller, Dan'l M. Martin, Wm. Moore, wife and two children, Samuel Moore, Mrs. Elizabeth Martin, Mrs. Amanda Biggenotham and six children, Albert Blakley, Dr. W. T. Briggs and wife, W. P. Thornburg, James Caliborne, James Kerr.

Nashville Dispatch, May 21, 1863.

          21, Emigration from Middle Tennessee

There has been a pretty heavy emigration from Middle Tennessee during the past three or four months, mainly to the Western States. These people go to seek homes where they hope to be free from the annoyances inseparably connected with a state of war, like that of which Tennessee is made the theatre. A considerable number of the best citizens of Nashville have left here for the same reason. A portion of these have located in Louisville, while others have gone further North or West.

An old citizen of Nashville, who has located in Louisville, remarked to us the other day that he met more Nashville men in Louisville than he did here. Another citizen, who returned to Nashville a few days ago, after an absence of five months, remarked that he could find comparatively few acquaintances in Nashville, and that in a stroll around three or four squares he met but one man he knew. This will give the reader an idea of the exodus that has taken place from our midst; and almost every day adds to the number of those leaving.

Nashville Dispatch, May 21, 1863.[17]

          21, Editorial on need to diminish tension between Confederate civilians and soldiers during elections


The first Thursday-and sixth day- of August next, is the day on which the Constitution fixes the election of a Governor, and members of both branches of the Legislature. The necessity for keeping up and keeping in good working order our entire State Government, is obvious to every thinking man. To let it go by default is to give our enemies at home and abroad, a dangerous and decided advantage. While we would be willing to let the election for Governor go unnoticed, as  Governor Harris can hold over, and will do as well as a successor well do, this course cannot be pursued in regard to other positions named. We must have an election for members of the Legislature, at the regular time or in default, let go a piece of machinery of Government, and to that extent disorganize.

Believing that the election should be held, and will be, we submit a few reflections on another point, which was the prime purpose of this article. Some gentlemen are announced for the Legislature, others are talked of, and others are on the anxious bench, hoping to be called and longing to be chosen.

To all this we have no objection. This is yet a free country, the right to hold or run for office, and the elective franchise have not been restricted. But we fear we see a latent disposition, which forces itself on now and then, to restrict both by an attempt to create a jealousy between the civil and the military, between soldiers and citizens. The Consummate folly and craven demagogueism [sic] of such a course is apparent to every reasonable man. On the one hand it is thought that none but a soldier, or he that has been one, should be allowed to hold any office; on the other, that none but those who are by reason of law, and only for that reason, [sic] exempt from serving the country in the hour of danger, should be selected by the people to represent them in the administration of government.

Now, the soldier is as good as the citizen and the citizen is equal to the soldier. Neither has any superior claim by being either the one or the other. Each has an equal right to enjoy, if the people see fit to confer honors of a civic character upon him.-The fact that a man is not in the army, is no semblance of proof that he is unworthy or wanting in patriotism. The noncombatant, if he is loyal, is as useful in his sphere as he who carries the musket. This is so as to the farmer, the mechanic and even the merchant-for all are directly or indirectly conducting to the wants, the comfort or the convenience of the army.

So, whether a man be exempt by operation of law or by furnishing a substitute, he may be giving to the army and the government both moral and material aid. We are persuaded that not many of our citizens are meanly shirking or evading duties which every patriot owes his country. And, on the other hand, the soldier whether officer or private-the private has the better claim of the two-from that fact alone, had no superior claims to the position. Nor is it any reason why he should be kept back. The soldier and the citizen have the same rights, the same privileges, the same great interests at stake, the same high destiny to enjoy or the same overthrow to lament. There should, therefore, be mutual esteem and respect, and each should stand on his own merit, regardless of the circumstances of place or power.

Knoxville Daily Register, May 21, 1863.

          21, Change in Murfreesboro, the enemy, Confederate deserters, veterans vs. draftees and seeing the elephant; the letter of Liberty Warner, Co. H, 21st O.V.I


May 21st, 1863

Dear friends at home.

I received you very welcome letter of the 5th inst. yesterday. It found us all in good health and excellent spirits. I had just returned from town. The houses look bad and are scarred up by the soldiers. Murfreesboro was a nice place when we passed those few weeks here one year ago. There is scarcely a building to be seen between this place and Nashville. All are in ashes. If any person wishes to behold the horrors of war, he only has to look at the town of Murfreesboro and its surroundings. Deserters from the rebbel army come into our lines almost daily. They are hard looking customers, dirty, ragged, illfavored fellows. The uniform worn by their chaps is just like grandfather's yellow homespun coat. I would say they were originally of the same material, but they are generally painted with dirt and the sacred soil is set in the cloth with grease.

I suppose you are working away after the old stile and would like to be with you if the rascally rebbels were whipt, but I know it is much better for all of the old soldiers to stand to the front, because they are more used to the climate and the rebbels to. I myself having to be one of that class (one of the old stock the boys call it). I am willing to carry my rifle and cartridge [sic] box for sometime to come. There exists a decided aristocracy among the soldiers; No. 1 old stock, no. 2 recruit, no. 3 is supposed to be several noches [sic]below and is supposed to be forced in to the service. This is the draft. I must stop now for the drums are beating for brigade drill.

Well, drill is over and I am in my tent once more. Tatoo has beat and Jim is on the bunk making all sorts of noises to amuse himself. I have just read to Jim the last paragraph. He says just tell them I send my spectacles. I was verry glad to hear Grandpa had got home once more. I wish I could see him and the rest of you to. Grandpa, I have seen the Elephant several times, sometimes he looked dreadful cross, but I fed him on lead a while. That made him sick to his stomach and also gave him the hint to vamoose. When I was listening to your own experience in war-like service, I little thought that I would ever see contests so fearce. When you come in to line of battle and see the enemy 5 or 6 columns deep advancing on your single column and single reserve, you invaredly think some one might get hurt. Ouch, ouch, quit your pinching. And when you see men and horses piled up, you think some foolish boy has cut his finger or got the nose bleed.

~ ~ ~

L.P. Warner

Warner Papers[18]

          21, The Filthy Knoxville Jail

Horrors of the Knoxville Jail. – An officer of the 44th Ohio regiment, who has just been released from the Knoxville, (Tenn.) jail, reports that the jail is filled with; the loyal citizens of Tennessee, who are threatened with all possible harshness and cruelty, and are kept in the most loathsome manner. The jail is so crowded that the prisoners are compelled to take turns in sleeping. There are in it six cages about ten feet square, in each of which there are confined from five to seven prisoners-generally those who are the strongest friend s of the old Union.

The Farmers' Cabinet, May 21, 1863.

          21-22, "Having gone ½ miles, I looked back, and, to my surprise and indignation, saw no one following." Expedition from Murfreesborough to Middleton[19]

Report of Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., May 27, 1863.

GEN.: I have the honor to transmit, inclosed, the report of Maj. Gen. D. S. Stanley, with sub-reports, of a successful attack on some rebel cavalry camps, near Middleton. The affair was quite successful, our troops capturing and destroying three regimental camps, about six hundred stand of fire-arms, and capturing some 80 prisoners. In this affair Lieut. O'Connell behaved with conspicuous gallantry. Our loss was the gallant Second Lieut. Francis C. Wood, Fourth Regular Cavalry, mortally, 1 non-commissioned officer and 2 privates wounded, and a sergeant and 5 privates taken prisoners, in the charge of Company K, Fourth Regulars, on the enemy's more distant camps.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

Report of Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. CHIEF OF CAV., DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., May 27, 1863.

GEN.: I have the honor to report, for the information of the general commanding, that, having learned that quite a force of the cavalry of the enemy was lying about carelessly at Middleton, I started on the evening of the 21st, with a portion of Gen. Turchin's division and Col. Harrison's regiment of mounted infantry, to attack them. I was furnished by Gen. Sheridan with the best guide I have ever yet followed. We marched to Salem, and thence, striking out south, marched south through fields and by roads, keeping 3 miles west of the Middleton road. I had designed to surround the rebel camp at daybreak, but the stupidity of Lieut. Lawton, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, in breaking the column, caused one and a half hours' delay.

Just as day was breaking, I ascertained we were within 2 miles of the enemy's camp, and near the place he usually posted his pickets. I then ordered a direct attack by the entire column upon the camp, and gave the order myself to gallop for the first mile, and then to go at full speed upon the rebels. I put myself with the advance guard, with Lieut. O'Connell, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, ordering him to run over the enemy's pickets, and ordered the advance.

Having gone 1½ miles, I looked back, and, to my surprise and indignation, saw no one following. [20] At the same instant I heard shots in front. I sent one orderly after another, and finally rode as fast as my jaded horse could carry me back, and found the entire column at a walk and turned upon a by-road at direct right angle to the road we were going on. By fours, by companies, and by squadrons I turned them back, and soon arrived in the enemy's camp, to find that Lieut. O'Connell, to whom the word gallant applies, not as a compliment, but in its true old English signification, had, with his intrepid squadron, whipped the enemy out of his three camps. The rebels, with the exception of a few men in the Eighth Georgia Regt. [sic] and some Georgians, escaped to the cedar thicket--literally sans culottes. An attempt at a stand was made by the fugitives 1 mile from Fosterville, but they fled upon the approach of our support.

We destroyed probably about 800 stand of arms, all the camp equipage and saddles, blankets, and clothing in all camps, some wagons, and, perhaps, captured about 300 horses. These latter have been put in the different regiments.

The incidents of the affair will be found in the accompanying reports of subordinates. The head of the column, led by Gen. Turchin, not keeping up was a serious blunder. It deprived us of at least 600 prisoners. Perhaps I am to blame for not taking more precautions, but when I lead I certainly have a right to expect every soldier in my command to keep up, and especially when I ride as sorry a nag as the one I was on that morning. However, it is a matter of the past; it was bad luck, and we shall hope for better next time.

I cannot speak in terms too high of the conduct of Lieut. O'Connell, Fourth U. S. Cavalry, and his brave squadron. He was well assisted by Lieut.'s Rendlebrock and Wood. The latter, a most promising and interesting young officer, is since dead of his wound. With such officers and men our cavalry must soon be what I know it is fast becoming a real terror to the enemy. To this squadron belongs whatever of the brilliant that may be attacked to the affair.

Maj. [W. H.] Sinclair, Capt. [J.] Hawley, and Lieut. [W. H.] Greenwood, of my staff charged gallantly with the advance guard.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. S. STANLEY, Maj.-Gen. and Chief of Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 334-335.

Report of Brig. Gen. William T. Martin, C. S. Army.

VIA FOSTERVILLE, May 22, 1863.

GEN.: Enemy have captured my piece of artillery on this pike, and a large part of the First Alabama and Eighth Confederate Regt. [sic]'s.

[WILL. T. MARTIN, Brig.-Gen.]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 346.



Correspondence of the Louisville Journal.

I gave you by telegraph a short account of the night attack made by our cavalry on the enemy's camp near Middleton, on the morning of the 21st. Through the kindness of Gen. Stanley and Col. Minty, the latter commanding the First brigade, which sustained the brunt of the fight, I am enabled to glean, from official reports, the following details: On the night of the 21st at 8 o'clock, Gen Stanley started out on the Salem pike in the direction of Middleton, a small village about three miles west of Fosterville, on the old stage route leading from Murfreesboro to Shelbyville. The forces composing this expedition were the First and Second brigades of Gen. Touchin's [sic] cavalry division, the former consisting of the Fourth Michigan, Third Indiana, Seventh Pennsylvania and Fourth regular regiments, under the command of Col. R. H. C. Minty; and the latter composed of the Third and Fourth Ohio cavalry and the Fifty-ninth Indiana mounted infantry and commanded by Col. Long. Leaving the pike to avoid the enemy's pickets, posted on the road, the column picked its way by gulleys and ravines, obstructed by bluffs, and traversed by serpentine watercourses. The natural barriers intervening impeded the progress of the column, but the sight, its darkness deepened by the forest that overhung, rendered the path almost impassable. After a march of over twenty miles over this rugged country, the horses jaded and the men fatigued the force were halted within a three miles of Middleton, and the preparations made for surrounding, surprising, and capturing the enemy. Gen. Stanley, with his escort and two companies (D and I from the Fourth Regulars) ordered forward to act as advance guard under the command of Lieutenant O'Connell took the road leading to the old Salem Pike in the direction of the rebel camp. Gen Turchin was ordered to follow in supporting distance, with the first brigade. Reaching a point where the road forked with another leading to the right Genl. Turchin sent the balance of the Fourth Regulars and the Seventh Pennsylvania to the left, and the Fourth Michigan followed by the Third Indiana took the road to the right, leading to Middleton. Gen. Stanley, in the meantime, with the advanced guard, had held steadily to the point designated by the guides as the camping ground of the enemy. The camp was situated about a mile from Middleton, in a dense cedar glade and the forces were so disposed that it was necessary to pass through the grounds occupied by the First Alabama to reach the camp of the Eighth Confederate.[21] Having alarmed the sentries, and anxious to surprise the enemy asleep, Gen. Stanley ordered the Anderson Guard forward. No time was lost. In no time Lieutenant O'Connell was at their head, and the two companies with drawn sabers, were dashing forward with a yell that was alone sufficient to strike terror into a drowsy man, and, sobering the frightened Alabamians. The alarms given by the sentries had aroused the Eight Confederate, who, rallying in sufficient numbers beat back the advance guard, who retired with a large number of prisoners. The Fourth Michigan was on the alert, attracted by the tumult, dashed forward at a furious gallop, charged through the town and a mile beyond into the camp of the enemy. The rebels by this time had formed in line of battle on the opposite side of an open field and in the edge of the forest skirting it. Discovering them, the Michiganders, fired a few volleys at them, which emptied several saddles and prepared to charge. The Confederates, more confident in the mettle of their horses than in their own ability to sustain a charge, wheeled about and took to the woods and glades. The Third Indiana, in the meantime, had charged in the direction of Fosterville. The few rebels they found only tarried to exchange shots, and retreated. The second brigade moved forward when the action began, found the enemy gone, and was not occupying his camp. Gen Stanley burned the tents, wagons, clothing, guns, ordnance stores, and everything left on the grounds, and, with over 200 serviceable horses and 72 prisoners, took up a line of march for Murfreesboro. The rebels collecting in considerable force, followed us for several miles, firing on our rear guard and severely wounded a number of our men. Col. Long, with the Second brigade, brought up the rear, and sustained a loss of eight wounded by shots from the enemy following. Reporting to Gen. Stanley that our rear was being continually annoyed, the Fourth Michigan was placed in ambush. The column passed, and the enemy unsuspectingly followed close behind, firing at us. When within easy musket range the Fourth Michigan rose and poured in a volley that played sad havoc in the rebel ranks, and they withdrew to trouble us no more.

The charge of the advance guard was a brilliant affair, and reflects great credit on Lieut. O'Connell, who led the van, and only retired when the enemy in superior force moved forward to oppose him. In this action we lost the daring and gallant Lieut. Wood.

New York Times, May 31, 1863.

          ca. 21-22, "Many have become disheartened and are almost ready to give over the struggle but I believe the Great Ruler of the Universe will yet give success to our army." John A. Matheny, in Jackson County, to his friend Lieutenant A. J. Lacy

Tenn Jackson Cty [sic] May the ___ 1863 [sic]

Honored friend,

I believe I never in all my life attempted to write you a letter up to this time. If I have I have forgotten [sic] when it was and now I am as ill prepared to write an interesting letter I suppose [sic] as any time since I have been accustomed to use a pen.

I do not wish to write you a murmuring and complaining letter murmuring of the ways of Providence, lamenting too much the sorrows that have like and [sic] unbounded ocean all most [sic] over [sic] whelmed [sic] me. I do not want to say one word that would discourage you in the arduous struggle you are engaged in for our rights. Neither have I by any means lost confidence in the justness of our cause or our ultimate success. True we have met with reverses. Our beloved state is in a dessolate [sic] condition. Many have become disheartened and are almost ready to give over the struggle but I believe the Great Ruler of the Universe will yet give success to our army. Our revercises [sic] are no doubt brought on us for our sins for the great dissipation prodigatily [sic] and wickedness that is amongst us. Our proud and stubborn natures [sic] are not humbled as God intended they shall be humbled but in the end I have no doubt that this great revolution will tend to the glory of God and the good of his people for all things work together for good to them that love God too [sic] them who are the called according to his purpose and it ought to be consoling to every Christian mans [sic] hart [sic] amidst all their sorrow and afflictions to know that the judge of all the earth will do right.

The Yankees have been on the north side of Cumberland River doing the citizens a greate [sic] deal of damage. They went to [illegible] McKinneys [sic] taken eleven negroes [sic] all of his horses and mules and some household furniture. Taken sick James W [sic] Draper and his son John prisnors [sic] and about $16.00 in money. Some negroes [sic] horses and mules also F W [sic] Price the [illegible] collection and burned his house. Hamilton has had several fights with them. Has lost but a few men. John Brooks was killed and Cull Armstrong at Selina [sic]. I have not heard from them for a few days. Hamilton is superceded [sic] by a man by the name of Morgan a brother to John H. Morgan. Their has been some talk of Hamilton a quiting [sic]. I cant [sic] tell how it is. He had the ointment [sic] of Lieu Col. [sic] I understand he wouldn't [sic] except [sic].

General Pigrum [sic] has had some hard fiteing [sic] in Ky. He has left Ky. Is making [sic] a stand on this side of Oby [sic]. Colonel Breckenridge has routed the Yankees from Woobery [sic] the other day. Report is that he killed 3 or 4 hundred taking betwixt 8 and eleven hundred prisnors [sic]. I received your very kind and interesting letter of the 16th and 17th of April and was glad to hear that you was well. We attended to your request with [illegible] with great pleasure. We procured something near 300 signers and fixt [sic] it to send it on by Joseph Dowell to Col [sic] Dibrell as he says he is going to that Regt. [sic] We understand that you have left Murry [sic] County and gon [sic] back to Ala Decature [sic].

Wm Hendly and Bejamine [sic] Montgomery was all that opposed the pertition [sic] that saw it. It is a fine thing that persons will do things that they should not be forgotten. May the 22nd [sic] These few lines leaves us all well except your Aunt Lucy. She is unwell the connection and friends are ginerly [sic] well as far as I know. I would like to wrote you but for the want of time and space I will have to quit. I entended [sic] to send this [sic] lines by McLinch.

from John A [sic] Matheny to A J [sic] Lacy

Lacy Correspondence.

          21-26, Expedition from LaGrange to Senatobia, Mississippi[22]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 427-429.





          20, Railroad accident at the Elk River bridge

Railroad Accident in Tennessee.

Cor. Cincinnati Commercial.

Elk River Bridge, Tennessee

May 20th, 1864.

About 8 o'clock this morning a terrible collision took place in the curve of the deep cut immediately south of Elk River Bridge, between a train from the south, loaded with prisoners and wounded from Resaca, and a train from the north, loaded with forage, and a portion of the 2d Ohio. Three soldiers of Company I, Captain T. A. Stevenson, were killed outright, and nine or ten wounded

It is alleged that the accident was caused by the train from the south running out of time, and at the reckless speed of thirty or forty miles per hour, on this very dangerous part of the road. There is no doubt of the fact that the conductor and engineer both jumped from the train and skedaddled as soon as they discovered that a collision was inevitable and have not been heard of since. No blame is attached to the managers of the train from the north, who succeeded in bringing it to a stand before the blow was received. The two locomotives and tenders were badly smashed, the standing train; being knocked back fully fifty yards, and running one platform car completely on top of another, on which the soldiers were sleeping on sacks of corn. Between these cars were the killed and wounded. Lieutenant Colonel Ewing, Captain Stevenson, and Lieutenant Johnson, of the Heavy Artillery, were conspicuous in their exertions to extricate the sufferers from the wreck.

By two o'clock, P.M., the road was clear, and the trains commenced running as usual.

Memphis Bulletin, May 31, 1864.[23]


Railroad Accident in Tennessee-Licking County Soldiers Killed.

Elk River Bridge, Tennessee,

May 20, 1864

About 3 o'clock this morning a terrible collision took place in the curve of the deep cut, immediately south of Elk River Bridge, between a train from the south, laded with prisoners and wounded from near Resaca, and a train from the north, loaded with forage, and a portion of the 2d Ohio Heavy Artillery. Three soldiers of Company I, Captain T. A. Stevenson, were killed out right, and nine or ten wounded….

~ ~ ~

…four were sent back to Murfreesboro, and placed under the care of Surgeon Turney. The others were slightly injured, and went on with the command. The dead were decently buried in  box  coffins, with the honors of war, just over the hill about 150 yards north-west of where the accident occurred, south of east, in range of with four graves….The religious services were conducted by the Rev. A. L. McKinney, Chaplain of the 71st O. V. I. The headquarters of this regiment are now at this place, and every assistance possible was freely given the sufferers by both officers and men.

It is alleged that the accident was caused by the train from the south running out of time, and at the reckless speed of thirty or forty miles per hour, on this very dangerous part of the road. There is no doubt of the fact that the conductor and engineer both jumped from the train and skedaddled as soon as they were discovered that a collision was inevitable and have not been heard of since. No blame is attached to the managers of the train from the north, who succeeded in bring it to a stand before the blow was received. The two locomotives and tenders were badly smashed, the standing being knocked back fully fifty yard, and running one platform car completely on top of another, won which the soldiers were sleeping on sacks of corn. Between these cared were the killed and wounded. Lieutenant Colonel Ewing, Captain Stevenson, and Lieutenant Johnson, of the Heavy artillery, were conscious in their exertions to extricate the sufferers from the wreck.

By 2 o'clock P. M. the road was clear, and the trains commenced running as usual.

W. J. Hawthorn.

Newark Advocate, June 3, 1864. [24]

          20, More counterfeit money in Nashville

Counterfeit one hundred dollar greenbacks have made their appearance in this city. They are much better executed than the counterfeit twenties, and are well calculated to receive those who do not scrutinize them closely.

Nashville Dispatch, May 20, 1864.

          20, "Love in the County Jail." [see January 20, 1864, "'Melton Zachary' hard core juvenile delinquent-a social consequence of civil war," and January 20, 1864, "The trial of Melton Zachary" above.]

Mel. Zachary is becoming desperate-desperately in love; the longer he remains in limbo the more ardent his devotion to his "dearest Mary." Read how eloquently he pleases his cause:

Nashville, May 17, 1864

Dearest Mary: -- Hoping that your eyes will light on these few lines now being traced by this trembling hand, and hoping that Providence will crown my feeble efforts with at least a kind consoling word of hope. Alas! thou, the idol of my heart, the adored of my only love, truly and tenderly do I love you and I hope I am not too unworthy of being loved in return. Although in bondage, I hope I will one day be at liberty; then, I trust, I will realize my only thoughts and wishes. Yes, I will then devote my life and all I have to your welfare, and hope that ours will be the union of souls which conjoin forever, and springing from a mutual perception of everlasting bliss, our walk through life will be strewn with choicest roses, uninterrupted by the thorns of misfortune. Oh! I long to be with you, to gaze upon those bright orbs of dazzling kindness; but alas! I must stop, and call cruel Fate, and the answer I find is as follows:

                              Like some lone bird without a mate,

                              My heart is weary and desolate;

                              I look around, and cannot trace,

                              One friendly smile, or welcome face,

                              And in crowds I am still alone,

                              Because I cannot love but one.

Hoping to hear a favorable response, I remain your devoted lover,

Melville Zachary.

Nashville Dispatch, May 20, 1864.

          20, "Hanging of Hugh Fraley[25]-Suicide"

At twenty five minutes past two o'clock yesterday, Hugh Fraley, a native of Ray county, East Tennessee, suffered the extreme penalty of the law, in the yard of the Penitentiary near this city. Fraley had been tried by a military commission, and found guilty of bushwhacking, and murdering Union citizens and was sentenced to be hanged on Friday May 20, between the hours of ten and five. Upon our arrival at the prison, we found every available spot which could afford a view of the awful scene, crowded with spectators, both soldiers and citizens, and among them we regret to say, were a number of females. In the centre of the Penitentiary yard was a gallows constructed of pine, and from its center bung the fatal cord, with the noose already made to receive the neck of the unfortunate man. Around the gallows were a file of soldiers with fixed bayonets. Two o'clock and a quarter past, a procession is seen to emerge from the prison doors. In the centre is seen a young man, clad in butternut clothing; he is about twenty-five years old, tall and slim, with slight moustache and imperial and long black hair. In his hand he carried a back slouched hat, as firm and erect he ascends the steps of the gallows. Unmoved he listens while his spiritual adviser, the Rev. Dr. Wharton, delivers a brief but impressive address to the assembled multitude, and at its conclusion he advances to the edge of the scaffold and speaks as follows: "Gentlemen-I am about to die for a crime of which I am innocent. As to the charge of my being a guerrilla, I never was one, and have never shed innocent blood; but if there was ever a true Rebel soldier I am one. That's all I have to say." Stepping back upon the drop, he let his hat which hitherto he had held in his hand, the officer in charged pinioned his limbs, and the white cap was drawn over his head. Then the noose was adjusted about his neck, and for a moment all was still, even the throng who had crowded the roofs in the vicinity of the prison, and who hitherto were cursing for position and place, were hushed. As the executioner slowly descended from the scaffold, a quick blow from an axe in the hands of the guard severed the rope which held the drop, and the body of Hugh Fraley hung dangling in the air. The fall was too short, for the neck was not broken, and the convulsive struggles of the unfortunate man were painful to witness. At precisely twenty five minutes past two the drop fell, and after the body had hung fourteen minutes, life was pronounced extinct, and the body was cut down and placed in a find coffin for burial.

Fraley was captured in White county, Tennessee, in December 1863, by a detail of the 39th Indiana and 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. He was detailed by Gen. Wheeler to act as guide, and was sent to Pikeville to parole twenty-eight Federal soldiers who were in [the] hospital there. According to his statement, he held a commission as captain in the Confederate service at the time of his capture.

As if to add to the culmination of horrors on this 20th of May, a Federal soldier, confined for some misdemeanor within the walls of the penitentiary, cut his throat from ear to ear with a razor, and lay, as we left, a ghastly, bloody object outstretched upon the stones of his prison.

Nashville Dispatch, May 21, 1864.

A bushwhacker by the name of Fraley, tried and condemned by a Military Commission, was hung yesterday at the Penitentiary. He was, we believe, from White county in this State. He met his unfortunate end with calm courage and composure.

Nashville Union, May 21, 1864.

          20, An ex-Confederate soldier assaulted by Federal soldiers

Another Outrage. – On Friday [20th] afternoon a gentleman named George Armstrong, residing about twelve miles from Nashville, in Williamson county, was attacked and severely injured by four [Federal] soldiers, without the least provocation. From all we can gather upon the subject, it appears that the four men above alluded to went to Armstrong's house, and inquired for him. They were told he was in the field at work, when the men went toward where he was. On meeting the soldiers, Armstrong greeted them in his usual polite manner, when one of the soldiers inquired of Armstrong if he had ever been in the Confederate Army. Armstrong replied that he had. They then asked if he did not want killing, one of the at the same time striking him on the forehead with a club, making a frightful gash, knocking him to the ground and stunning him. The soldiers then mounted their horses, one of them firing his pistol before leaving, but happily missing his aim. An investigation has been instituted, and it is probably the parties may be brought to justice, as it is known to what regiment they belong. No attempt was made to rob the house, or to molest any other person than Mr. Armstrong.

Nashville Dispatch, May 22, 1864.

          21, Anti-guerrilla activity above Cravens Landing on the Tennessee River by U. S. S. Peosta

"At about 12:20pm [sic] the ship's cutter was put ashore to destroy a small boat that had just been used by someone to cross the river. A short time later the cutter returned carrying prisoner Louis Outlaw. Outlaw had been found in possession of two rifles, a revolver, and a small amount of ammunition for each of the weapons. "

U. S. S. Peosta Daily Deck Log

          21, Vendetta on White's Creek Turnpike, Nashville

Saturday [21] morning two men dressed as soldiers and reported to belong to the twelfth Tennessee, met Wm. Pearson, who was driving a wagon, a few miles out from the city on the White's Creek Turnpike, and after a few words they drew their revolvers and commenced shooting at him. Pearson left his team and endeavored to escape. Five or six shots were fired, one of which is supposed by parties who witnessed the affair, to have hit him. When last heard of he was proceeding along the pike in the direction he had started when endeavoring to escape. His friends fear that he has wandered into the woods, and has died from the effects of his wound. Pearson was a young man, and formerly lived in Grundy county, in this State. The men who attacked him stated to some parties who witnessed the shooting, that the affair had its origin in a difficulty of several years standing. Any information in regard to Pearson left at this office will be delivered to his friends.

Nashville Dispatch, May 23, 1864.





          20, Expedition, Memphis to Hernando, Mississippi[26]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 852.

          20, Restoration of civil government in Madison County and assessment of the result of civil war by Robert H. Cartmell

Heard the Court house bell ringing this morning....The object...was for a meeting of the citizens to take into consideration the New Order [sic] of things & [to] organize a civil government. The war is over [sic] & may date its end when Genl. Lee surrendered....By this war the South has lost all, gained nothing. It would have been wise in her never to have begun it. How many lives lost, millions upon millions [of dollars'] of property lost, all for nothing but a fate most abject and humiliating.

Robert H. Cartmell Diary.

          20, Observations made by an ex-Confederate soldier from the Army of Tennessee while on his way home to his home in Dyersburg

....This morning found us on the train in sweetwater [sic] valley. We arrived at Chattanooga about 12 oclk [sic]. [sic] every [sic] important place along the entire route is strongly fortafied [sic] with strong block houses and guarded by U. S. troops White and Coloured [sic]-on arrival at the Depot we were ordered off the train and marched up near the center of town and halted where we drew one days [sic] rations of bacon and hard bread and sit [sic] and stood about until 5 oclk [sic]. [sic] when we were marched to the Depot and pretty soon got aboard the Cars [sic] which left for Nashville about 8 oclk [sic]. [sic] and run out about 9 miles and switched off and halted for the night

Arthur Tyler Fielder Diaries.

          20, An Ohio corporal's observations on the end of the war in Middle Tennessee

Christiana, Tennessee

May 20, 1865

I received your last letter this evening, and was very happy that you are all well….

Nothing much is new except that we see a lot of Rebels on their way home. You should see them, they are as filthy as pigs and full of lice. There is talk that we many not remain in Tenn. any more than 15 days. I believe it too…

Some of our men captured a Rebel who was fishing at the River here and we sent some of our men to look for another one, perhaps his brother, and if they capture him they will get 100 dollars…

Miller Correspondence

          21, Initiation of mopping up operations in Lawrenceburg vicinity


* * * *

II. Capt. Deford, Sixth Tennessee Cavalry, will march to-morrow morning for the neighborhood of Shoal Creek, where and in the region to the west of Shoal Creek will patrol for the purpose of hunting down numerous outlaws who infest that country. All these villains who have been engaged in the recent horrible murders in that vicinity will be treated as outlaws. After the 1st of June all organized parties of armed men consorting together will be regarded as outlaws in the same way and exterminate accordingly; and in pursuing these men Capt. Deford will not regard himself as restricted by any territorial limits. In the execution of these powers, however, the greatest discretion must be exercised that the innocent may not suffer in lieu of the guilty. Capt. Deford will use the greatest diligence and vigilance to restrain his men from the pillage of peaceable citizens or from revenging any supposed private wrongs or grudges, remembering that his mission is to protect all those citizens who, by their present conduct and known character, give reliable assurance of an intention to induct themselves as peaceable and loyal men in the future, and to give to these opportunity to re establish the authority of civil law. One wagon will be taken, transporting fifteen days' rations and such camp equipage as may be absolutely necessary. Forage he will secure in the country from those who are best to spare it, avoiding the oppression of poor people. Indiscriminate plunder will not be permitted. At the end of this mouth Capt. Deford will communicate to these headquarters his operations and whereabouts, and will end to regimental headquarters the monthly return of his company.

By command of Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnson:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 104.

          21, Observations made by an ex-Confederate soldier from the Army of Tennessee while on his way home to his home in Dyersburg environs

....This morning found us on the train about 9 miles from Chattanooga-About 6 oclk [sic]. [sic] Three [sic] trains from Nashville passed us and we left pretty soon after[.] about [sic] 3 oclk [sic]. [sic] it rained verry [sic] hard....We reached Nashville about 8 oclk [sic]. [sic] PM [sic] and on our arrival got off the Cars and after some confusion about where we should go we marched out and bivouacked for the night immediately in the rear of the Penatentiary [sic]-The entire road is strongly fortafied [sic] and guarded by mixed troops.

Arthur Tyler Fielder Diaries.

          21, Government repossession agents, returning soldiers, a funeral and the "gal fight." Comments on the return of peace to McMinnville by Lucy Virginia French

I have just been looking over the above writing[27] and smiling at it a little – it is so impatient. Well, I try to be patient Heaven knows – but I do not succeed in being so at all times. I got very angry once this week, insomuch that the Col. lectured me a little about it and told me I looked exceedingly ugly in that condition! Well, I was angry – and as I conceive not altogether without cause. I believe it was on Wednesday [17th]– I was just dressed and about to sit down to my work when I heard a furious rapping at the front door – as there was no one but myself in the house at that moment, I leisurely went to the door. As I came thro [sic] the hall I heard a course [sic] voice say "I don't believe they're comin'," – I opened the door. Immediately before me stood a low, heavy-set, thick-necked man in a linen duster and black hat, surrounded by half a dozen of them blue things as the negros [sic] call them. I felt the resistance rising in me a moment. The man in yellow bowed – I did the same very slightly. "Is Mr. French at home?" "He is not, sir." "Where is he?" "He has gone to the mill." "Gone to the mills – well I want to see him pertikler [sic]. You – you are his – his lady?" "I am sir!" "Well then Mrs. French, I've come to see you about some furniture in your house – Bersheba [sic] furniture – and" "Who are your sir?" I said haughtily – placing myself straight in his way as he offered to come within the door – only one side of which was open. "Him – my name is – I'm a United States agent – officer – I'm getting up that Bersheba [sic] furniture." Strange to say I forgot all about the Murfree things. I never do have my wits where I can lay hold of them when these Yanks are about,) so I like goose replied I had some articles in charge. "Who for?" "The owner sir." "Who is the owner?" "Dr. Graves." "Where is he now?" "He resides in Texas." "Madame I must see your furniture," as I said "Certainly" he walked past me into the parlor. I went in too – stood facing him and looked him full in the eyes all the time. "I was informed that Mr. French bought a great deal of that Bersheba [sic] furniture – didn't he?" "He did not." "You will not say you did not buy furniture at Bersheba [sic], ma'am? "I have not said so." "We bought bedroom furniture, but from a private gentleman Mr. Morgan." "Where is he now?" "In Ky. [sic] – with his family." "You are sure ma'am you had this furniture before you went to Bersheba [sic]?" "Certainly sir," and I threw all the contempt I was capable of into those two words. The blued things were staring in at the parlor door, swallowing the room, and me and everything else in it. "What became of all [the furniture (?)] at Bersheba?" "The table service I believe went to furnish hospitals." "People don't put silver ware in hospital[s]," [he said] with a sneer. "As to silver I don't suppose they had any – they had some plates, perhaps – I know nothing about that." "Did not Mr. Poindexter buy a great deal?" "Mr. Poindexter was not upon the Mt. [sic]" "Well, Dr. Paine did then?" "Dr. Paine took charge of Mr. Morgan's house, he had nothing to do with the Hotel." "Well, what became of the things in that Hotel anyhow?" "Once and for all, then sir, that place was plundered and sacked in July '64 by mountain people headed and backed by a squad of men in Federal uniform – (and I pointed to the fellows in the door,) they might have [been] Federal soldiers, or they might have been bushwhackers and thieves – I don't know – but there's where the Bersheba [sic] furniture went,-it would be rather difficult to tell where it is now." I saw that he looked down and half turned around as I said bushwhackers or thieves but I thought nothing of it then, only I noticed he seemed willing to drop the subject. "I've been told that Mr. F., went to a great deal of that furniture – but I may have been misinformed." "I should think you had sir." He passed out and as the front bedroom door stood open he walked in. "All this belongs to me" I said "this is the bedroom set I bought from Mr. Morgan." As he turned and went out the front door he said – "Well ma'am, I'll be in at Headquarters in the morning – I'll be here for a day or two and Mr. French can come in and explain the matter and make oath, but if I don't understand it any better'n [sic] I do now I guess I'll have to take some of your furniture." "Mr. French can certainly explain if necessary sir." "Good day ma'am" – I looked at him with a word and shut the door as soon as his yellow duster's tail cleared it. I was towering – I was so angry. I felt myself pale with rage all the time I was talking to him and I didn't get over it for 2 days. Next day when the Col. went to headquarters he sung quite another tune about furniture and said of course he did not think of removing anything from his house, etc., etc., etc. It turned out too that his name was Ready, and he was one of the vilest thieves and bushwhackers in the whole country! There's an instance of the way they're doing things up for you! They have taken Mrs. Been Hill's piano from old Ben's property. He and his wife came a day or two since to Mrs. Stroul's – from Dixie. Captain Coffee arrived with some of his boys – Willie French was supposed to reach home last night. Dibrell's men surrendered on condition that they were to retain their arms, horse, etc., be paroled and allowed to return home. At Chattanooga they were dismounted and have had to return home just as they could. I am told that Gen. Dibrell has gone on to see Gen. Thomas about the conditions of their surrender being thus violated. Great numbers of Kentuckians have passed up this way top their homes, but they flanked this place, not wishing to see any more Yanks than those who could not be avoided. President Davis is certainly captured – we have seen no papers – but rumor says he divided out all his money, among the soldiers, before he was captured. We cannot tell what they will do with him – the best thing they could do would be to send him quietly to his home in Mississippi. Brownlow has offered some time since a reward of [$]5,000 for Isham G. Ham's [sic], and the document – in which this announcement is make is a kewriosity [sic] in its way. It is from Gov. Brownlow – but bears unmistakable [sic] the earmarks of W. G. Brownlow of the Knoxville Whig. Secretary Breckenrid[g]e and most of the Confederate Cabinet were also captured with Davis – it is said. Though fighting with armies seems to be past, Peace and Concord do not seem to bless us immediately. There is a great deal of rebellion yet to be crushed, or allayed, or gotten rid of in some way and of course, as usual, the Federal authorities are pursuing whatever policy will tend to intensify the hatred of the South towards them. So very wise and judicious in their statesmanship! Mollie has been with us most of the week. She saw, a few days since, Byron Rankin, who has been a great deal with Maj. Chaffie. He contradicts entirely the report of that Col. Winston as having himself done the very things he accuses Chaffie of! He (Bryon R.) parted with Maj. C. in North Carolina, and said he expected to have met him here. The boys return slowly as they can – some in one way, some in another. Oh! there will be many sad, sad heard from those who will never come again. I had a letter yesterday evening from dear Auntie, she was now very well, and dear Aunt B. had also been ill. She had received my long 6 page letter from Brooks dated Fort Warren. Poor fellow! I feel so sorry for him! I must sell my new swiss dress, if M. or anyone else will buy it – and send him the money. I feel for him since reading Pollard's experience in Ft. Warrant. Yet I hope that ere this he would be exchanged-what can be the sense of keeping the poor fellows in prison now? But let us see what is going to be the final policy of the administration before we blame, or praise. – The struggle being over among the men – the Union women (or some of them) seem to regard it as incumbent upon them to go in and finish the good work. Quite a sensation took place 2 or 3 days since in Mr. Clark's school. It seems the one of the Clift ladies – (I believe there are some 5 or 6 of them,) had been taunting the girls of rebel persuasion in the school in regard to the returning of rebel soldiery. "They ought to be bound out to work for Union people" – etc. etc. which elicited no reply. Presently a little boy came in with C. S. A. on his forehead. The Clift Representation [sic] fell foul [sic] on him, in a twinkling and her vituperative powers were greatly exercised." Miss Colville remarked "Well Ollie Clift I think you said enough yesterday to satisfy you – I would be quiet now." This brought down the ire of the enraged damsel upon her to such an extent that the Prof. Came in and interfered. Miss Clift informed the Prof. rather curtly that "the rebels were whipped and she had been told by her father to say just [what] she pleased about them." Mr. Clark – who is a strong Unionist – told her that she might possibly be allowed to say what she pleased about the rebel soldiers in her own home, but she certainly could not do it in his school. He would allow no one there to speak disrespectfully of those gallant men who had fought for years – they were noble men [seven] if the cause had failed and nothing could be said against them in his school. He would dismiss any one who did so." Miss Clift said then she would leave the school. He told her to do so. She said she would take her books and leave. He desired her to do so immediately and to stay at home when she got there. She left, as Aremas has it, but some time after returned with her sister-Miss Tenn. [sic] I believe, some say with pistols to charge the school. The latter lady pursued Miss Colville home and abusing and threatening to whip her – threatening Mr. C. also with her father and brother. Mr. C. rather pointedly assured her that he considered himself quite as good a fighting man as her father – old Clift being notorious as the greatest coward in the Benighted States as Polly calls them. The community in general is down upon the Misses Clift and they seem to be getting ashamed of the affair and trying to craw-fish out of it, although the old Captain sent the Commandant of the Post down on Mr. Clark for dismissing the gal [sic]. He has so many and they've been so long on hand that one would naturally suppose he would be pleased to have some of them dismissed – though possibly not in that way. Uncle Lee characterizes this scrimmage – the most brilliant of the war – as "that gal fight." Poor Will Marbury was hurried yesterday. – they laid him beside his good step-mother in a little grove, not far from the house. Mollie said he was very handsomely dressed in a fine suit of English gray cloth – Confederate uniform. She and Sallie and Jennie made beautiful wreaths for his coffin of pure white and rich Luxemburg roses – the "red, white, and red." He told Sallie a short time before his death that he was not a Secessionist when he went into the army – but the Yankees had made him one and he died a Secessionist if he had not lived [as] one. Mr. Putman performed the funeral ceremonies. His remarks, M. said, were very pointed and beautiful. Their burden was that of consolation under all the sorrows and trials and failures. His aim was to impress upon the hearers that to us –

"Evil is not a mystery, but a means selected from the infinite resource to make the most of us."

And this is what I am trying now to realize – I long to find out "What golden fruit lies hidden in the husk?" of the many great evils that have come upon us – the many hard trials we have borne. I believe I shall see it – if not now hereafter, in the words of the Book – "That which thou knowest not now though shalt hereafter know, if thou wilt humble thyself land become as a little child."

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, ca. May 21, 1865.

          21, Surrender of guerrillas at Carthage

HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Carthage, Tenn., May 25, 1865


SIR: I have the honor to report to you that the 21st of this instant Capt. Jacob C. Bennett, with seventeen men all in arms, surrendered to me at Carthage. I administered the amnesty [oath] and released them. There will be others in soon. If different disposition should be made of them please inform me.

Your obedient servant,

WM. J. CLEVELAND, Lieut. Col. Eighth Tennessee Mounted Infantry, Cmdg. Post.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 904-905.

          21, Capture of guerrilla chief Davis and recall of cavalry forces to Knoxville


Maj.-Gen. STONEMAN, Knoxville:

The pursuit of Davis and company having been pushed as far as it could, and Davis being captured, you can now recall all your cavalry to Knoxville, and post it according to your judgment, with a view to conveniently forage the animals and to preserve quiet in the district. I am gratified to express to you my high appreciation of the services rendered by your command in the recent campaign. It had its due influence in precipitating the complete downfall of the rebellion, and the surrender of both Lee's and Johnston's armies.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 863.


[1] TSL&A, 19th CN

[2] This order is not reflected in the OR.

[3] Abbreviation for "Provisional Army."

[4] As cited in PQCW.


[6] Not to be confused with James Ferguson, brother of Champ Ferguson.

[7] Evidently a steamship.


[9] The troubles in the Reynolds marriage went from bad to worse, as the following indicates:

Mrs. Major Reynolds.--Mrs. Major Belle Reynolds, who has been on Gov. Yates' staff, seems to be having rather a rough time. The recent reports concerning her and Yates have caused them to part company for the present, and she was last heard of in Missouri. The Hannibal Herald says that on Thursday evening, the 29th, two rowdies, formerly under Price's command, then under the influence of whisky, appeared at the quarters of Mrs. Major Belle Reynolds, at Hannibal, and demanded "an unconditional surrender," which was "declined." After taking another drink they proceeded to make "a regular investment of the Major's entrenchments," and, "having gained favorable positions," commenced an attack with brickbats and paving stones. While thus amusing themselves they were set upon by a detachment of police, captured and placed in limbo. The next morning the Major appeared against the miscreants, and they were fined according to their demerits.--Rock Island Argus.

Chicago Times, June 6, 1862.

As cited in:

[10] See also: Newark [NJ[ Advocate, May 23, 1862.

[11] As cited in:

[12] Not found.

[13] Not found.

[14] PQCW. See also: Memphis Daily Appeal, June 11, 1862.

[15] According to Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee this was an affair.

[16] There was indeed guerrilla activity in and around Clarksville, some of which had resulted in the taking of Clarksville in August 1862 (see above) In a letter to the Chief of Staff in Nashville dated August 1, 1862, Major W.H. Sidell, Acting Assistant Adjutant General of the Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, spoke of Military Governor Andrew Johnson's determination to keep Nashville safe from Rebel assault. He added the following post script concerning the presence of guerrilla bands near Clarksville. His note is interesting in that it points out class differences between the poor and rich in regard to support for guerrillas.

P. S.-Gen. Mason writes Governor Johnson by letter received to-day and sent to me that there is no doubt of the organization of guerrilla bands near Clarksville, and that the wealthier part of the population is disloyal and humbler classes the reverse; that it would be difficult to raise a cavalry regiment there, but there are sufficient horses belonging to the secessionists to mount as many men as needful. He wants Governor Johnson's order to "possess and occupy" the horses.

Gen. Mason says he has but 250 men near Clarksville, on the opposite side of the river. He says further that he is advised by Col. Bruce that he has sent 400 men to Russellville.

I am, respectfully,

W. H. SIDELL, Maj., Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 243.

[17] As cited in:

[18] Center for Archival Collections Liberty Warner Papers Transcripts: April-December 1862

[19] There are a total of thirteen reports for the scout from Murfreesborough to Middleton. Sometimes there is humor in war, as in this case when a Union cavalry officers charge on a Confederate position came to an abrupt halt. The brevity of the Confederate report also contributes to the mood.

In Civil War Tennessee there were two places named Middleton, one apparently in extreme southeast Rutherford County in Middle Tennessee, today most likely known as Midland, and the other between Saulsbury and Pocahontas and adjacent to the Mississippi State Line in Hardeman County West Tennessee. In this case it was the Rutherford County location.

[20] This humorous detail is left out of the report from the Louisville Journal cited in the New York Times, below.

[21] Eighth Georgia.

[22] All the action associated with this expedition took place in Mississippi, although it did originate and terminate in Tennessee.

[23] As cited from the Cincinnati Commercial, May 20, 1864.


[25] Captain J. F. Fraley, Fourth Tennessee Cavalry [C. S. A.]. See OR, Ser. II, Vol. 8, p. 421.

[26] The mission began in Memphis, but all action took place in Mississippi.

[27] The entry for May 14, 1865.


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