Monday, May 25, 2015

5.23.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes



          23, Convicts produce accouterments of war in Nashville

Work at the Penitentiary.—The Nashville Patriot says that there are at least two hundred men employed at the penitentiary in the manufacture of haversacks, caps, pouches, camp chests, gun hammers, tool chests, and remodeling bayonets, scabbards, and that in a few days, preparations for making cartridges, etc., will be completed. A large Number of hands have also been employed in the manufacture of shoes for the soldiers, and wagons for army purposes. Col. Johnson is thus making the prison subserve the use of the State in this emergency, and we feel well assured that he will make it as useful as possible.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 23, 1861.

          23, "Insane fury appears to posses their souls." The Louisville Journal Decries the Memphis Vigilance Committee and the Tennessee Ordinance of Secession.

In 1854 we for the first time visited Memphis. We were received with such honors as we were not vain enough to think we deserved. A public dinner was tendered to us and accepted. The best and most distinguished citizens of Memphis and of the surrounding country attended it. We were overwhelmed with complimentary speeches and toasts from men of all parties. In the little speech that was of course expected of us, we alluded to the great changes which had taken place in our relations with old political friends and old political opponents during the twenty-four or twenty-five we had been in editorial life, and we ventured to suggest, improbable as such a thing then seemed to us, that perhaps similar changes would occur to us in what then the future.

Since that time we have repeatedly visited Memphis, and always been received with a hearty cordiality most gratifying and most flattering to us. We have thought that there was no city in the United States, where in proportion to population, we had a greater number of ardent friends. One of the changes, however, which, seven years ago we allude to as possible, has at last taken place. We are a Union man [sic], but Memphis has become a secession city. We have held steadily on, following the guidance of the spirit that controlled us in 1854, but Memphis has surrendered herself up to the fierce and bitter spirit of disunion. Her men seem to have changed their whole natures. They have given way to madness. Insane fury appears to posses their souls. They tolerate a tyranny, a despotism in their midst, and they glory in upholding it. They are under the remorseless government of an irresponsible little mob, calling itself a Vigilance Committee. All their affairs are controlled by that Committee. It is for the Committee to say who may live in the city and who man not, what newspapers the people may be permitted to receive and what ones must be banned and barred from the city limits, what steamboat cargoes bust be confiscated and what ones may be allowed to pass, who must be imprisoned, who whipped, who have his head shaved, who be tarred and feathered, and who hung.

This Memphis Committee of Vigilance or Committee of Safety has issued an edict against the circulation of the Louisville Journal in that place, ordering that all copies of it, arriving their by mail, shall, instead of being delivered in obedience to the post office laws to the persons they are directed to, be returned to us. Now we call upon the Post office-Department, if the people of Memphis slavishly permit this thing to be done, to cut them off from all mail facilities utterly and at once. As a free citizen of the United States, we have a right to demand that an outraged perpetrated upon our rights shall be redressed so far as the punishment of its perpetrators and those who countenance or tolerate them can constitute redress. No person can be fool enough to charge that the Louisville Journal is in any just sense an incendiary sheet. The worst enemy it has on earth cannot allege that it ever contains anything tending to excite servile insurrections or to undermine the foundations of morality and civil society. No man in Memphis can deny that is speaks in as lofty a tone and is conducted upon as exalted principles as any paper in that city. No one will say that it has not deserved and won as large and extended a share of a nation's regard and admirations as any paper in our Western land. If it ever inflames man's minds, it inflames them legitimacy and properly-inflames them against those men, and those only, who, with sacrilegious hands, would demolish the sacred ark of American freedom.

Deeply as we scorn the miserable elicit directed against us by the little Memphis mob, we have the consolation of being able to regard it as the highest compliment ever paid to us in a city where we have been so often and so handsomely complimented. It shows that the power and influence of the Louisville Journal are so deeply felt that the advocates of disunion, when struggling for the popular vote in favor of their dark and destructive policy, feel the necessity of shutting our paper out from the eyes of their people by violence. The Memphis Appeal, a most bitter disunion organ, whilst announcing with exultation the exclusion of the Journal from Memphis, proclaims that "papers of more flagitious character are allowed to be exhibited for sale with perfect impunity;" and surely this is an unequivocal admission that the political power of the Journal, and, that alone, has caused the paper to be proscribed by the miserable little self-constituted committee of eighteen or twenty traitors. Grateful as we have ever been to the people of Memphis, deeply as we have appreciated all their kindness, we must say that, if they are poor spirited enough to submit to this thing, mean spirited enough to leave the control of their reading to the censorship of a committee, and especially such a committee, we shall blush to remember that we were ever the recipient of their hospitality.

Throughout the whole State of Tennessee, the mockery of submitting the ordinance of secession to the popular vote is perfectly atrocious. It is an insult to human nature. The Legislature, in secret session, without waiting for the people to vote upon the ordinance of secession or even to read it, proceeded at once, without even the pretense of popular or any other authority, to place the whole power and military resources of the State at the disposal of the Southern Confederacy and invited the armies of that Confederacy upon Tennessee soil, thus putting it out of the power of the Tennessee people to exercise, through the ballot-box or in any other way, the slightest secretion of liberty-box or in any other way, the slighted secretion of liberty of choice in deciding whether their State should or should not come under the Southern Government. And ever since the passage of the secession ordinance by the Legislature, the disunion leaders have been raising troops by thousands and tens of thousands, marshalling them under the Southern Confederacy's service, and levying for their support monstrous raises of taxation upon the people without the authority or even the form or pretext of law. Of course it is obvious that, under such circumstances the popular vote, so-called, upon the ordinance, can have no meaning or significance in the world; yet the leaders, for the poor sake of appearance, are determined to have a vote, or what they propose to call a vote, in their favor. Hence by the machinery of scores of hundreds of miniature mobs or vigilance committees, they are industriously expelling, night and day, thousands of true and bold Union men from all parts of the State. Hence they are muzzling the mouths of their editors, are compelling them to trample upon their own convictions and their own self-respect and to become the shameless advocates of disunion. Hence they are holding public meetings and giving notice to those noble champions of the country who have hitherto swayed and molded the public mind, that, if they dare to make a speech for the Union, their lives shall instantly pay the penalty. Hence they are suppressing the circulation of a faithful and fearless newspaper organ of Unionism, in their dread of the effect of its arguments and appeals upon the minds of their wronged and insulted fellow citizens. And hence they are everywhere proclaiming and publishing their resolution that every voter, on going to the polls, shall expose to the bystanders what is written upon the ballot, the plan being to beat or maim or kill all who shall have the audacity to vote for the Union. We have seen scores of the best men of Tennessee within the last few days, and they all bear witness, that, in their belief, the reign of terror now raging and maddening in that State has no parallel in modern history. There is less of personal freedom; there is more of atrocious and horrible tyranny, in Tennessee, at this time than could be found under the worst and most wretched Government of Asia or of the savage islands of the sea.

Unquestionably in the condition of things that now exists, such of the people of Tennessee as are loyal, enjoying no protections and experiencing only oppression from the hands of their State government, have just claims to be protected in their right by the Federal Government. Yielding a willing allegiance to that Government, they have a right to expect to be sustained by it, for they are not more citizens of Tennessee than they are citizens of the United States. How far the Government at Washington is prepared to accord the protection, which under the Constitution, it owes to them, we cannot say, for the circumstance of the whole country are at the present time extraordinary. Buy certainly no well-informed and just man can hesitate to say, the virtue and force of an ordinance of secession fairly and legitimately adopted by the majority of the free voters of a State, the vote about to be given upon the Tennessee ordinance should be treated as a nullity, a nothing, by the Federal Government and by all mankind-treated as not affecting in any way or in the slightest degree the right and the duties either of the Government at Washington or of the Tennessee people.

Fellow citizens of Kentucky! The disunion leaders in the midst of us are using all their guilty and desperate energies to make Kentucky what Tennessee is. Say to every fiend of them-"Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Louisville Journal, May 23, 1861.[1]

          23, The Memphis Committee of Safety

A gentleman of high standing, who has just been driven out of Memphis, gives an account of the deplorable state of affairs in that place as detailed by a correspondent of the Tribune. He says:

Memphis aspires to become the great commercial metropolis of the Mississippi Valley; and by way of preparation, with unexampled ferocity, is driving out the Abolitionists, as every man who advocated the Union is now called, whether he be of Northern of Southern birth. More than five thousand worthy and peaceable citizens have already been forced away, and as they could not, even when permitted, settle up their business during the present depression, their property is virtually confiscated. At the February election Memphis gave a majority of eight hundred for the Union; but after this reign of ruffianism, what a wretched farce will be the vote upon the secession question on the 8th of June.

A Committee of Safety(?) [sic] heady by a wealthy grocer named Titus, and composed of those who style themselves the first citizens, is ruling with despotic sway. It is constantly I session in Titus' block, and for the last two weeks the number of persons brought before it have averaged more than one hundred per day. Here is an illustration of its inquisitional character:

Last Friday, a quiet, young citizen, a native of Southern Illinois, was arrested in his place of business by a policeman, and taken before the Committee. This was at 10 o'clock A. M..

"A charge against you has been lodged before us," said the president functionary.

"What is it, sir?"

"You are charged with saying that you have many friend in Cairo, and will not willingly take up arms against them."

The young man admitted the truth of the allegation. He was and always had been pro-slavery in his sentiments, but had expressed unwillingness to fight against the community in which he was born and bread. For this sole offence, he was ordered to leave town at 4 o'clock that evening, and placed in custody of a policeman until his departure. Through the neglect of the officer, he missed the cars that night, and was locked up, as a criminal, in the police station house, until four o'clock the next morning when he took a Northern train. He is now safe in Cairo.

Within the knowledge of my friend, eight men, after having their heads half shaved, have been started North by the Committee within a few days, and three were under sentences of death when [they] left. One of these, named Horton, was originally from New York State, but more recently from Chicago. He had been trading in horses through the South for the last eight years; and it was said that he would be hung last Saturday night. It was also currently reported that Mr. Samuel Kennedy, publisher of the West Point (Ark.) Times, had been hung as an Abolitionist. He was a printer by trade, a young man of twenty-two, who went from Chicago only a year or two ago. His friends still reside here; and his father and brother have filled honorable positions in the city government.

On Friday, a Union man who had enlisted in the secession army for personal safety, called on my friend and implored him to aid his escape.-His face was balanced with terror, and he declared that he would give all the property he held in the world to be once more in the North. He was particularly obnoxious to a party of secession ruffians, having been an out-spoken and earnest Union man, and had little hope that he would be permitted to depart alive, even if he could procure his discharge.

Bangor Daily Whig & Courier, May 23, 1861. [2]




          23, Sutlers, "Cramping" and Contrabands in the Shiloh Battlefield Environs

Special Correspondence of The Chicago Times.

Shiloh, May 23.

Peculiarities of Enterprise.

On the river bank, not far from the landing, is a small tent, before which is fixed, on a forked stick, a sign-board which reads as follows:

"Rain Water with ice.

Five Cents a Glass."

Here, in the heat of these torrid days, people may repair and quench their thirst in good clear cool water. When one has drunk Tennessee River water for weeks and weeks, with its muddy, insipid flavor, heightened by the warmth that the sun has imparted to it, he will know how to appreciate such favors as the above. The speculator brought his ice and water from Cairo, and it is to be hoped, has made a good thing of it. In another place, a genius who has an inventive turn, having discovered a spring of water in the bluff, conducted it along by means of bark pipes to a convenient locality, where it flows over the bluff in a romantic little cascade, affording (for a consideration) drink and coolness. I have seen men bathed in heat, sitting under it for a bath, heedless of wetting and its consequences.

There are numerous bakeries in full blast in the woods; some of them made of primitive ovens built of stones and soda, and others of patent zinc concerns, which do the work in short order. The bread sells at ten cents a loaf, the loaf being considerably smaller than the six penny article at home. Another branch of industry displays itself in the daguerrean line. There are "artists" without number. They abide in tents and houses which they carry along with them, and may be found in the woods and camps, busy at work, taking the soldierly lineaments for wives and sweethearts at home. Soldiers have a commendable pride in themselves when the regimentals are on, and the peripatetic artists have plenty of business at high rates. Of course they take execrable pictures, but it is not expected to get the best of everything here, even at the highest prices.

The Luxuries of Life.

Soldiers do not want for the luxuries of life so long as they have money. The sutlers deal in everything, and, by due pertinacity in searching, anybody's wants can be satisfied. If the principle applied which rules in some classes of society, viz.,: that what costs the most is most luxurious, then soldiers would be the most luxurious people in the world, for they pay immense prices for everything they buy. To begin with the primary luxury, whisky, costs a dollar a pint. A barrel brings the sutler from three to five hundred dollars, which may be reckoned a nice profit. They are allowed to sell to commissioned officers only, but the restriction merely necessitates the operation of passing the bottle and the money through a commissioned officer's hands. Under this arrangement the liquor does not become the curse it is at home. It is too costly and precious to squander, and men cannot afford to get drunk on it. Taken moderately, as a consequence, it braces them up, and answers a good medicinal purpose. Other luxuries are to be had in the shape of sugar, cheese, candles, lemons, and preserved fruits of all kinds. Sugar can be got at twenty cents a pound, cheese at forty cents, lemons at fifteen cents apiece, and pint cans of fruit at a dollar. The soldiers generally affect the sweets, being destitute of them in their regular food. I have seen them buy a pound of sugar and eat it without delay, and, in the purchase of dollar cans of fruit, they are quite zealous. In this line I must plead a fellow feeling for, after living on camp diet for weeks, I became so ravenous for something fresh and sweet that I rushed one morning to a sutler's wagon and bought a can of fresh pineapple, which I straightway ate with great gusto—feeling the while somewhat guilty, for one of the rules of the camp is that no member of a mess shall appropriate to his individual enjoyment any rare eatables which come into his possession. Reasoning that I could not buy enough for all without a run on my funds, I silenced conscience and ate my dainty with an ineffable relish. Soldiers are denied even these costly luxuries a large portion of the time, for the deepest purse would soon give out with their rash expenditures, and they consequently have a keen appetite when the pay day comes around.

The Sutler's Tent.

The locality of this institution may be ascertained at any time by the crowd which

surrounds it. Soldiers have an irresistible longing to look upon the good things of earth, and they congregate about the sutler's quarters as little neighborhoods sometimes convene at the village grocery. When they cannot buy, they derive pleasure from witnessing the transactions of others; and all day long, when off duty, they linger about this place of charmed associations. They are allowed, after spending all their cash, to go in debt to the extent of one-third of their pay. The temptation of seeing others buy is beyond their power of resistance, and, one after another, they clamor for something to buy. The sutler puts down the man's name for a dollar, and he begins to buy. He gets tobacco first, and then matches. Then he thinks he will indulge in a cigar, and he buys one for his chum. This proceeding is not only of interest to himself, but in matter of eager consideration to the bystanders, who discuss the merits of each purchase, and inwardly resolve to become equally blessed the first time the sutler's heart relents towards them. In the meantime the buyer has become confused at the field which opens before him, and he looks around in perplexity, not knowing which to choose. He thinks he will take a lemon, with lemonade in prospect. Then he decides on another box of matches and half a pound of cheese. Still lost in a sea of enticements, he demands in an absent way some more smoking tobacco, which in turn necessitates another box of matches. Then in a desperate way he calls for a pound of butter, but, finding that it costs half a dollar, he relinquishes the fond hope, and takes another lemon and some more tobacco. Sugar suggests itself in a moment of lucid thought, and a pound is speedily transferred to his haversack, followed, in the most natural connection, by some candy. The dollar is nearly expended by this time, and, as a last resort, he takes some more tobacco and matches, and goes off to sit on the ground and look over his purchases.

The great end attained in all this is that the sutler makes three and four times the first cost of his goods, and is sure of his pay, for Uncle Sam sees that he is paid before the men are. Many of them have ten and fifteen thousand dollars due when pay-day comes, besides the cash they have taken in. There are some risks, however, as in the case of the battle of Shiloh, where the enemy took our camps and, with them, all the sutlers' goods. Some of these traders lost three or four thousand dollars on that occasion.

The Accumulative Faculty.

One of the peculiarities of a soldier is his insatiate desire to accumulate all manner of property, by whatever means attained. The fact that he can neither send home nor carry with him this plunder makes not the slightest difference. For instance, in prowling about deserted camps and farm-houses, he finds thousands of dollars' worth of property without owners—which latter, however, is of no consideration with him, as owners are not recognized in his creed. He picks up what strikes his fancy, be it clothing, books, crockery-ware, iron skillets, horse shoes, or anything else. Many articles happen in his way which possess great value, especially on a battle-field, and if at home would be worth more than all his wages for the three years' service, but he cannot send them home, and, as the next best thing, he takes them to camp and puts them in his knapsack. One or two foraging expeditions fills that receptacle to repletion, but his accumulative desires do not decrease, so he goes on picking up, and, to make room, he throws away the least desirable of his stock, and fills it with the novelties. In this manner a change goes on from day to day—picking up and throwing away, accumulating and discharging, and always keeping on hand a stock of heterogeneous articles, which nearly breaks his back every time he attempts to march, and is the source of much anxiety and [illegible]. A little German who was connected with a regiment with which I was familiar on this field used to be a source of immense amusement to me. He was a surly, avaricious little wretch, and received [illegible] as a snapping turtle does familiarity. From being the smallest man in the regiment he had the largest knapsack and the heaviest haversack in the crowd, and was always to be seen when on the march, staggering along with reckless disregard of the [several lines illegible] appearance. The natural desire to irritate such men caused him to become the butt of the regiment, and sarcastic allusions met him at every step, which he received with sullen silence or a ludicrous burst of Teutonic wrath. After some weeks of toil, he wilted under it and the surgeon ordered his traps inspected and lightened. They took out of them three overcoats, several blankets, a lot of tin plates, some old iron, the running gear of a farmer's clock, two or three pounds of secesh cartridges, several fruit cans full of small articles, and other trifles ad libitum, and then left him a load equal to any other man in the regiment. He groaned in spirit at this ruthless destruction of his property, and refused to speak for several days.

The popular name for this species of acquirement is "cramping." It is a cunning evasion of the term stealing, implying that his fingers are seized with cramps at contact with the coveted article, and of necessity cannot unclasp. Ask a soldier where he got a fine sword belt or a twenty-dollar navy revolver, and he will say he cramped on it. This system is not confined to soldiers by any means. Officers make good "crampers," and seldom neglect their opportunities. There is many a one would be worth a hundred thousand dollars if he had his property at home.


Numerous specimens of the darkey [sic] tribe are afloat in the vicinity, the majority of which are runaway slaves. The officers are well waited upon at a small expense, as the darkeys [sic], ignorant of the value of their services, are willing to serve an indefinite time, with the prospect of being their own master by-and-by. Little counter-jumping warriors, who never dreamed of such distinction while plying their trade at home, are waited upon by ebony servitors who quake with fear at the sound of their voices, and stand in perpetual dread of being hung up by the neck or flayed alive for petty misdemeanors. Not one in a hundred of these negroes [sic] has intelligence enough to know that his future will be, but they go on a blind supposition. None of them have any idea of the North, except that it is not the South. I asked one how many slaves his master had, and he said "fifteen or forty."

Another sprig of about eighteen mentioned forty-nine as his probably age. Another, giving his reasons for joining the army, said his "massa done run'd away, an' he spec he scare to def, so he clar'd out fur de Yankees." One bright and shining light, conversing on the subject, remarked that "White folks have to look out mighty sharp for dem niggers. Either got to feed 'em a heap of vittals, or dey'll steal, eberyting yer got. Some mighty mean niggers clar'd out of down dere, bress de Lord. De good niggers say to home." Their masters are very vigilant in looking them up, and through Tennessee most of the runaways were recovered. One, who escaped, was followed by his owner for a week. He rode in a camp wagon all the time, among the jumble of pots and kettles and mess chests, and, by the time he felt safe in emerging, was reduced to an incipient jelly. Almost all who get into the army are induced to enter the line of march by tired soldiers, who, seeing a stout nigger [sic] by the roadside, cannot well resist the temptation of loading their knapsacks and guns upon him, and trotting him along as a pack-horse. Once away from their masters they keep with the army, and will eventually escape.

W. P. I.

Chicago Times, June 3, 1862.[3]

          23, Labor shortages in Running Water

Running Water,[4] Tenn., May 23d.

We have the best lands in this State, but nearly all the laborers have dropped the plow and gone to the camp, and our wheat which promises not more than half a crop, cannot be harvested....and I can show you some as handsome girls as any you have in Augusta, who have gone to the plow--young ladies of character and refined education. Can we get no help?

Daily Chronicle & Sentinel [Augusta, Georgia], June 9, 1862.[5]

          23, Special Orders No. 357, Price Controls in Confederate Memphis

Special Orders No. 357

Headquarters, Memphis, May 23, 1862

Having been clothed will full authority to take all necessary measures for the radical suspension of ALL speculative operations in provisions and the necessities of life, the Commandant of this post much regrets that he is called on by many who to rebuke extortion among those who interests should be closely allied with the fate of the Government, or to those [illegible] disposition too clearly [illegible] in this city; to fatten on the misfortunes and necessities of all obedient citizens of such great MUTUAL public and private interest.

Notice is hereby given to all extortionists of any shape or kind, that they will be held in strict accountability, both in person and property, for creating as craven and cowardly an advantage over those, whose natural protectors are on the tented field, striking nobly for their liberties and the rights of their country, while such are living INGLORIOUSLY, on the hard earned pittance of the solders, wrung by extortion in the necessities of life from those dependent on that pittance.

All persons are herby notified that all remunerative prices will be allowed for all necessities, and when such injustice is refused, upon proper examination, if the refused result from an attempt to extortion, the property will be taken possession of at a fair price, and the individual, as before said, held to account.

Having called a Board of five citizens, whose acquaintance with provisions and the cost of necessities is very extensive, and whose patriotism is beyond doub, the following tariff of prices will govern the specified articles until further orders. And any persons exceeding the tariff will be fined not exceeding twice the value of the article confiscated to the benefit of the "Free Market." The prices allowed are fair, remunerative, and in the judgment of the Commander, even high; and those who are unwilling to sell at these prices should be held up the public gaze as vampires on the absolute [opinion?] of the many for public excoriation.

All persons who attempt to hide provisions are to keep them from the market, are warned as to the consequences of such actions.

The [attention?] of all dealers is called to Special Orders relating to Confederate money herewith [are?] to [be applied?].

All persons dealing in articles specified below will keep the Tariff of Prices posted conspicuously at their place of business. The Civil Governor and Provost Marshal will carry into effect this order:


Beef on Foot

First quality not to exceed 12 c. per pound

Second do                 do      10c      do

Third    do                 do       8c       do


Beef at Retail

First class, comprising [illegible] and ribs not to exceed 20[?] c

Second do round and rump 12 ½ c.

Third do neck shoulder and [illegible]



On foot, gross, not to exceed 10c

By retail 18c



Hog round, as per quality, 23 to 25c

Hams and sides, at retail, 39c

Shoulders, 28 to 31 c



In barrels and [illegible], 22 to

In kegs, 26 to 28 c



Double extra, wholesale, $15 per barrel

Single do         do            $14 d0

Super fine         do          $13 do

Double extra, at retail     $16 do

Single     do          do       $15 do

Super fine do        do      $14 do



At wholesale not to exceed $1.25 per bushel

At retail            do                $1.30    do


Corn Meal

At wholesale, not to exceed $1.25 per barrel

At retail              do              $1.30



As per quality, $1.75 to $2.l05 per bushel

Oats, $1.25.



Liverpool coarse, $15.00 per sack

      do         fine       $16.00    do

Packing                   $12.00

At retail, per pound 121/2c



Brown and [illegible] 10 to 121/2

At retail, 10 to 13 c



At wholesale, 30c

At retail, 33 to 40 c



At wholesale, 30c

At retail, 33 to 40 c

Small retailers to [illegible] are allowed as an advantage add to

[Illegible] 23 per cent, and small retailers in [illegible] 15 per


By command of Thos. H. Rosser, Colonel Commanding Post

 Official: Thomas M. Chomer [?]

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 29, 1862. [6]




          23, "Military Hospitals Chap XII

The Prison Hospital.

The Prison Hospital is not numbered; it is located in the Second Baptist (Dr. R. Ford's) Church, on Cherry street, beyond South Union, a few hundred yards South of the Howard High School. There are two wards in the building, both large rooms, and both above ground, well lighted and ventilated, and very clean and comfortable, the hospital being well stocked with everything needful for the comfort of the patients. Indeed, in this respect we think it excels man others, but we may be mistaken as in this hospital we find more seriously wounded men than in other, and the various modern contrivances for easing of pain and relieving the discomforts of the bedfast, may have come more prominently before our eye.

The interesting features in this hospital, to us, was the great care and attention bestowed upon the patients -- Confederates and Federals alike -- who are mixed up with each other most admirably. Side by side the Federal and Confederate soldier eat, and sleep, and chat, and play, and comfort each other, and nurse each other, with that care and attention, sad heart-felt sympathy, which are always to be found prominently in the brave heart of the soldier. This hospital is not as some suppose, exclusively for Confederate prisoners, but for all military prisoners. All the Federals, we believe, have been guilty of mere petty offences, such as being out with a pass, exceeding by a few hours the limit of their leave of absence, attempting to break from the guard, and such like. The kind and affectionate manner in which each patient is addressed by the Surgeon in Charge as well as other officers, and the confidence and great respect which the patients entertain for them, is very striking and truly gratifying to the sympathizer with human sufferings. And here, indeed, is room for sympathy. Ghastly wounds of all descriptions are visible in every direction. Here are several who lost an arm, amputated close to the shoulder; many others a leg; many whose bones have become again unified but leaving one limb much shorter than the other; some deformities; some having lost an eye. Our attention was called to one interesting case, where a Confederate was struck by a minie [sic] ball on the second finger of the right hand, which was broken, and the ball lodged in the fleshy part between the thumb and index finger, a portion of the ball being cut off by coming in contact with his musket, and entering his right eye, which he has lost, and a buckshot entering his neck, and lodged there, and where it remains, just under the skin, but causing him no pain or uneasiness.

Another interesting case is that of an intelligent little boy -- a mere child, -- pretty and delicate, not yet fifteen years old, named John Taylor, of Chattanooga. He was wounded and taken prisoner some time ago, and is now doing very well. He seems to be quite at home, but would much like to obtain permission to stroll about town a little every fine day until he is well enough to be exchanged [sic].

Capt. King, of Louisiana, is also here, badly wounded in the right thigh. The Surgeon informed us that he has suffered severely, but uncomplainingly, for a long time, and several times feared he would lose him; but is not doing well, and likely to recover.

All inmates of this hospital are received from Col. Martin, the Provost Marshal, and to him returned or accounted for.

Among the other inmates were two lunatics, one of whom was sent to the Lunatic Asylum while we were at the hospital; the other is the one who was formerly in the Penitentiary -- a quiet, inoffensive man, who sits in one position all day, eats well, never talks, sleeps well, and takes not the slightest notice of any person or thing. The one who was sent away urgently requested our company to town, and insisted on getting himself ready immediately.

There are many other interesting cases here, which we may allude to hereafter, in another chapter. For the present we must concern ourselves to a statement of a few general facts connected with the hospital.

The following are the names of the officers of the Prison Hospital:

Surgeon-in-Charge -- T. G. Hickman, Acting Ass't. Surg. U. S. A.

Chaplain -- Rev. Mr. Poucher.

Steward-Jas. Yerkes.

Sergeant of the Guard-John McFarland, 19th Ill. Vols.

Ward Master-Alfred Hemmings.

Matron -- Mrs. Foster.

Druggist-John Foley.

There are thirty men detailed to guard this hospital under Sergeant McFarland. Six nurses, three cooks, six colored females, and six colored males are employed. There are in the building, for patients, 100 iron cots, 25 of which were occupied on the night of the 19th, but eleven of the Confederates were removed on the 20th, with a view to an early exchange.

There is no regular chaplain belonging to this hospital, but Mr. Poucher visits the patients occasionally, and administers religious consolations to such as desire it. There are not regular religious services. The Sanitary Commission has furnished books on several occasions for the use of the inmates, and the Surgeon informs us that the patients feel grateful to Mr. Crawford for his kindness in this respect.

The bath-room contains only one tub, but that proves sufficient under existing circumstances, there being few able to avail themselves of the luxury of sporting in a large and well filled bath tub. Dr. Hickman encourages a desire to bathe frequently.

For amusement and pastimes, chess, checkers, dominoes, and, we presume, a social game at euchre, are indulged, beside reading and writing.

The officers are on the first floor at the West end of the building; and in a small building in the rear, are the laundry and the room for cooking the delicacies for those unable to bear hospital fare with convalescents. The kitchen is on the north side of the building, and the dining room is a very comfortable one, in which meals are served to guards and convalescents at 7, 12, and 6 o'clock.

The Commissary is abundantly stocked and in addition to the ordinary supply furnished by government, Dr. Hickman informs us that he is indebted to Dr. Reed and Mr. Robinson, of the Sanitary Commission, for liberal grants from that organization. The Dispensary and Linen room are also abundantly stocked with everything needful, or likely to be needed.

Good order, cleanliness, and quiet, prevail throughout this establishment, and the intimacy and familiarity existing between doctors and patients, betokens a confidence and good understanding between all parties.

The friends of Sergeant McFarland will regret to learn that he is very sick, and has been for some time. He is recovering, however, and hopes soon to be able for active duty.

Nashville Dispatch, May 23 1863.

          23, A Confederate Kisser's Court Martial in Tullahoma

Tullahoma, Tenn., May 23d, 1863.

* * * *

A Lieutenant in our brigade is in arrest, and will be tried by court martial, for hugging and kissing a woman on the cars in the presence of other folks—of both sexes.


Mobile Register and Advertiser, May 30, 1863.[7]

          23, "My Brigade has done a great deal of work since it has been here-among other things built a fort called Fort Rains in honor of Brigadier General Rains who was killed at Murfreesboro." H. D. Clayton in Tullahoma to his wife

Tullahoma, Tennessee

23 May 1863

My Dear Wife,

I received orders to go to the front. I start with my command for Wartrace to which place you will here after send your letters. I enjoyed the things you sent me by Ned very much-they were all so nice. I did not need the shirts but since you have sent them they are so nice I will wear them for your sake. I will send the trunk home the first opportunity and in it such clothes as I think I can spare. I want to keep as few on hand as I can make out with, preferring to get them from home as I need them.

My Brigade has done a great deal of work since it has been here-among other things built a fort called Fort Rains in honor of Brig Gen Rains who was killed at Murfreesboro. Is it 125 yards across. The ditch is twelve feet wide and eight deep and the dirt makes a wall eight feet high, and has twelve cannon in it. We have cut down the trees on one thousand acres of thick wood land.

Being quietly situated during the past week and hoping to come across "The Strange Story," Bulwer's last novel, I read it and was rather pleased with it. If you ever get it please read it and write to me what you think of it. If you can keep from becoming too much interested in the war story to enjoy the beginning I think you will like it. I expect Mr. Tompkins has it as you can buy it in Eufaula. Do not read it however if you have any objection to doing so, though I do not think there is anything in it objectionable.

I hope you have received my last letter and answers that hint about coming to see me. If we live we will make arrangements for you to spend July or August one or both with me. Don't you think you can do so without home interests suffering too much? I want to see you again-- enjoyed very much the few days I was with you recently as I hope you did also.

Write to me often.

Dear Wife, I am your devoted Husband.

H.D. Clayton


          23-24, Expedition from Memphis to Hernando, Mississippi

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 429, 432.[8]




          23, Initiation of U. S. N. gunboat patrols of Tennessee River

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, May 23, 1864. (Received 12.30 p. m. 25th.)

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Chief of Staff:

Forrest and Lee, with large force, are at Corinth and Tupelo. They have been organizing and recuperating at and near Tupelo for twenty days, and horses and men are in splendid condition. They have from 10,000 to 12,000 men, and have some big enterprise on hand. I have no force here to enable me to go out and attack them and break up their plans. My force at Memphis is hardly adequate to purposes of defense. I fear they will do great havoc if they are allowed to cross the Tennessee. I have requested Capt. Pennock to patrol the Tennessee with gun-boats, for I believe Middle Tennessee and Kentucky their destination. With 5,000 troops, in addition to what I have, I could organize a movable force and go out and disperse them.

C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 44.

          23, U. S. S. Peosta carries out anti-guerrilla patrol at Hamburg Landing

"...the boat stopped at Hamburg Landing where Mr. Nelson of the crew went ashore with 15 armed sailors. The boat moved back into the river and drifted for about a mile and then again put to shore. There they met Mr. Nelson and sailors now in possession of two horses taken from Hayes Guerrillas. Throwing a few artillery rounds towards shore the boat continued its trip down stream."

U. S. S. Peosta Daily Deck Log.

          23, "HEALTH ORDER"

Health Office, Memphis, Tenn., May 23, '64

Brigade and Regimental companies are hereby notified to have all filth and nuisances removed from all the camps and barracks in and around the city.

By order of [W.?] Noel Burke, Surgeon, U. S. Volunteers and Health Officer

W. Underwood, Health Commissioner

Memphis Bulletin, May 24, 1864.

          23, Two decisions from the Recorder's Court

"Recorder's Court."

* * * *

Arthur Johnson, of the thirteenth Tennessee cavalry, was charged with disorderly conduct, and drunkenness, and sent to the Provost Marshal, while Ann Simms, the negro woman he was found in bed with, paid a fined of $10 and costs.

* * * *

Two innocent looking boys were arrested on College street late Saturday [21st] night, charged with carrying deadly weapons. The evidence went to show that they were good, hard working boys, who had been to the theatre, and knowing the danger of crossing the bottom late at night, they had provided themselves each with a formidable loaded club. They were walking along quietly, molesting no person. They were disarmed, and the officer complimented for his vigilance. Their arrest not only being justifiable, but commendable.

* * * *

Nashville Dispatch, May 23 1864.

          23, "Frame Buildings."

An appendix to our paragraph on "Improvements" we may here state that several of the frame buildings therein alluded to have been erected without even counseling the owner of the property on which they are built. Complaint having been made to Gen. R. S. Granger, he directed Capt. Nevin to say that "any authority given from these headquarters to erect frame buildings in this city simply rescinds in the case of the applicant the penalties presented in Special Order No. 69[9], dated March 16, 1864, against any the putting up such buildings. Read Gen. Granger's order in another column.

Nashville Dispatch, May 23, 1864.




          23, Observations made by an ex-Confederate soldier from the Army of Tennessee while on his way home to his home in Dyersburgh environs

....We lay over all day until about 5 oclk [sic]. [sic] P.M. when [we] were into line and marched to the lower Steam Boat Landing [sic] and on our arrival a few of us were invited aboard the Boat [sic] "A. Baker" while much the larger portion bivouaced [sic] on the bank or wharf. We drew one days [sic] rations and were informed there were 5 days [sic] rations on the Boat [sic] and that all hands must be ready to get aboard verry [sic] early in the morning as the Boat would leave quite early for Memphis stoping [sic] at the intervening points where we might desire to get off and that we would be escorted by a Gun Boat to protect us from injury or insult[.]

Arthur Tyler Fielder Diaries.

[1] As cited in PQCW.


[3] As cited in:

[4] Not identified.

[5] As cited in:

[6] As cited in PQCW. Documents relating to the activities of the offices of the Confederate Provost Marshal are rare in Tennessee's Civil War history. Price inflation was apparently a grave problem for civilians in Memphis, just days before the city would fall to the Federal Mississippi River fleet. Additionally, price fixing was not uncommon – in 1865 three Tennessee price control commissioners met in Aberdeen, Mississippi, to produce a price fixing schedule for the Volunteer State. It was a pathetic attempt to revive a flaccid system of such controls inasmuch as Confederate authority was virtually unknown in Tennessee by this time. See: February 1, 1865, "Confederate Board of Commissioners for Impressment for Tennessee issues price schedule no. 10" below.

[7] As cited in:

[8] The expedition originated in Memphis and all action took place in Mississippi

[9] A copy of this order cannot be located, but mention of it does indicate the U. S. Army was concerned with architectural zoning.

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