Thursday, May 28, 2015

5.28.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes


          28, Difficulties and disarray in recruiting for Tennessee's Confederate Volunteer ranks, Isham G. Harris to L. P. Walker, Isham G. Harris to L. P. Walker


Hon. L. P. WALKER, War Department, Montgomery:

SIR: When I had the honor of addressing you on the 25th instant[1] I flattered myself with the hope that I should experience no difficulty in inducing some four of our volunteer regiments already organized to muster into the service of the Confederate States at once, and by that means secure the use of the 4,000 guns you had the kindness to send me; but upon submitting the proposition to any one of our regiments or companies I find many members ready to be mustered into the service at once, but others objecting, and to attempt to carry out the policy is to disorganize regiments and companies and to a great extent demoralize the force now so necessary to the service of the State and the Confederate States. This I am unwilling to do. Hence the regiments-for the Confederate States must be raised for that especial purpose, which will take some time, during which, under your order, the guns you sent me are lying idle, while I have several thousand men organized and ready for the field [already mustered into the service of the State], but unarmed, with a powerful enemy menacing us every moment. If you can, consistent with your sense of duty, relax the rule laid down in your dispatch of the 20th instant so far as to allow me to put these guns into the hands of our State troops, I assure you that they shall be withdrawn from them and placed in the hands of the regiments raised for the Confederate States the moment these regiments are raised and mustered in. Nothing short of the imperative necessity of the case before me would induce me to trouble you with this request; but believing as I do that it is a matter of the highest importance to the successful defense of the Confederate States, as well as the State of Tennessee, I feel that it is a duty to urge it.



Have the kindness to answer by telegraph.

I. G. H.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, pp. 358-359.

          28, Convicts' upsurge in war production in Nashville

A Good Work Going On.

The Nashville Union speaks encouragingly of the manner in which military work is being forwarded in the penitentiary. On visiting that institution on Friday last, the editor found sixty-five men employed alone in making cartridges, turning them out at the rate of 20,000 per diem. A little practice will greatly increase the result of their labors. Thirty men are employed in repairing and cleaning muskets, who finish up, as bright and perfect as when new, about one hundred daily. The manufacture of cap boxes, cartridge belts, haversacks, camp chairs, stools, cots, military chests, etc., etc., is also being vigorously prosecuted. Of course all these preparations are being made at a very trifling expense to the State.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 28, 1861.

          28, Exhortation to provide for needy families of Confederate volunteers

Families of Volunteers.—Although the county court have agreed to furnish regular aid to the wives and children of those who are gone to the war, we are informed by the mayor that he has many applications made to him by those who are entitled to this aid, and whose necessities require immediate attention, but that he is unable to direct them what to do, as the mode of dispensing the promised assistance has not been agreed upon. This is an important subject; we are bound to prevent distress and want reaching the families of those who have devoted their lives to their country. Let no "red tape-ism," no "circumlocution office" obstructions stand in the way of the performance of this sacred duty. Since writing the preceding, we have been informed that any proper person calling upon any magistrate, (Esquire Hume and Mallory have been appointed in this city) and presenting a certificate of the volunteer's enlistment, when he enlisted, and in what company, will at once obtain relief.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 28, 1861.

          28, Memphis highlanders organize a volunteer military company


"Scots wae, ha wi' Wallace bled."

To Scotchmen, Scotch-Irish and their descendants:

 Brothers and Friends—Our native and adopted land is invaded, and shall we, the descendants of noble clansmen, who were never known to turn the deaf ear to "Freedom's call" now remain idle? No! To arms! and let us hurl back the hireling mercenaries of Glasgow, who for Lincoln gold would invade our soil, desecrate our firesides, and taint the glorious name of SCOTCHMAN.

Meet at the city council chamber, corner of Madison and Second streets, at 8 o'clock this evening.

[Signed]—Wm. Pooley, John Gomley, Wm. Hutchinson, John Smith, A. D. Gwynne, James Rae, S. S. McMoster, C. W. Frazer, W. W. Furguson, J. B. Park, J. M. McCombs, B. R. Ellis, J. Bruce, P. H. Crump.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 28, 1861.

          28, Women drill in Confederate military camps in Jackson

Letter from Jackson.

Jackson, Tenn., May 29, 1861.

Editors Appeal: According to promise, I write you this letter to let you know how times are with us, and something about times in camp since our arrival here. The most interesting circumstance that has occurred since our arrival this place was a large company of ladies out on drill at the camp on yesterday, officered by Dr. Bryan and Col. Young, of Memphis….

The camps are filled daily with ladies and gentlemen from the vicinity of Jackson. I think we will get our marching orders by the last of this week. It is rumored that we are to go under Gen. Beauregard, but I do not know how true it is. Truly yours,

Jno. A. G. H.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 31, 1861.

          28, "There was a rumor yesterday of a negro insurrection in the neighborhoods, but it was entirely without foundation" James I. Hall's letter from Jackson en route from Mountain, Tipton County, to his camp of instruction in Union City

Jackson  [Tennessee] May 28/[18]61

Mr. & Mrs. J. S. Hall

Dear Parents,

I take this opportunity to write a few lines. I arrived here the next morning after leaving home & have been quiet well since, [I] have been treated with great kindness by friends here particularly by Dr. Jackson & Mrs. J. The boys from the neighborhood are all well and are conducting themselves well.

Our company has taken a high stand. Mr. [Captain David Josiah] Wood could be elected Colonel of the regiment almost without opposition, but will not leave his company. We will be formed into a regiment this evening; I don't know when we will leave for Union City, probably soon.

There was a rumor yesterday of a negro insurrection in the neighborhoods, but it was entirely without foundation. Our fare here is plain, but abundant & good. Gabe[2] makes a very good cook, he is in fine spirits & well. Stephen Carnes, John Matthew are here and will all be in our regiment. I should like to see you all particularly the children, [I] don't know when I will be at home. I hope the children are well, [I] would like to see them. This will be taken to by Charley Hill who is reporting [to] his company. I wish you to write to me soon. Kis[s] to the children for me.

From your afft. Son,

Jas. I Hall

As cited in: James R. Fleming, The Confederate Ninth Tennessee Infantry,

(Pelican Publishing; Gretna, 2006), p.128.[3]

          28, On the Memphis Vigilance Committee


Mr. Theodore Tyler-a nephew of the late Capt. Howe-has just arrived from Memphis, Tenn; which city he left a week ago on Monday. Mr. Tyler has resided at Memphis for some years and was considered one among the Tennesseeans, yet his loyalty to the Union suffered no shock. He deferred his departure, however, from Memphis until after the introduction of the reign of a Vigilance Committee, since when it has been difficult for a Northern man to get away; early in the history of Secession the Committee would permit anyone to leave who expressed such a desire, but lately the case has been different.

Mr. Tyler was compelled by motives of  personal prudence to enlist, and for a month has been in the Rebel camp near Memphis. He has been in the habit of often visiting the city and so regularly returning that his reputation for loyalty was established. Leaving camp one day Mr. Tyler diverged from his usual route and taking a "side track" but out into the country. He traveled on foot fifty miles, striking the river above Memphis where he got on board he steamboat Franklin and came up to Cincinnati, stoping some hours at Cairo. Mr. T. left everything save what he had on his back at Memphis,-glad to get out of Tennessee at any cost.

Mr. T. says that great want already exists at Memphis; that the negroes are now in fact on short allowance and that the  most of the whets can only get bacon and corn bread. He had not eaten wheat bread for weeks, although at the large hotels they still had wheat flour. He was a Mississippian on his return from a fruitless expedition from the North for supplies, his gold being refused in exchange for provisions. Distress is existing in Mississippi.

Among the volunteers at Memphis are large numbers who have enlisted because compelled to do so through want of employment or from prudential motives, and he says there are many Tennesseeans in the number who are as good and true Union men as we of the North. At first it was suppose the North would yield to any demand the South might make, but now the gathering of Northern forces astonishes them and it is already whispered about among themselves that they will be compelled to "knock under." The South begin[s] to feel that they are about to get more than they bargained for.

Daily Cleveland Herald, May 28, 1861. [4]

          28, Press report on Union Loyalists Resistance and Confederate Conscription in East Tennessee


We take the following from the Murfreesboro Correspondent if the Cincinnati Gazette:

East Tennessee – Formidable Organization of Loyalists.

The rebels evidently find it a difficult undertaking to repress the spirit of loyalty in East Tennessee. Every one of their sheets contain evidence of this fact, and the reports of those who continue to escape from that region and come within our lines furnish most forcible illustration.

A communication dated Clinton, May 9, and sent to the Knoxville Register, develops the fact that amongst the Cumberland mountains, in Anderson county, there is a regularly organized band of Union men, who defy all efforts of the rebels is capture or exterminate them, who pounce upon small parties of rebel soldiery at every opportunity, and who support themselves by regular levies of forage and provisions impressed upon the rich "secesh" in the valleys. In collecting their contributions, they manifest a subtlety of planning and a rapidity of execution, which utterly baffle their enemies.

Trouble of Conscript Agents Amongst the Mountains.

Lieut.-Col. E. D. Blake seems to be commandant of conscripts in East Tennessee. He not only orders all between the ages of eighteen to forty to present themselves to him for enrollment, under pain of being considered deserters if they refuse, but tell them they just in addition, come provided with three days' rations. He fills nearly two columns of the Knoxville Register, with advertisements describing deserters, or conscripts who have failed to report, and offering rewards for their apprehension, The following communication inserted as an advertisement in the Register, illustrates the difficulties which Blake's agents meet with his enforcement of his commands:

"Maysville, Blount Co. May 8.

Lieut.-Col. E. D. Blake, Commandant of Conscripts, Knoxville, Tenn.

Sir: - We arrested one W. G. Henry this morning, in the garret of his house. While getting him down, his sister-in-law ran over the neighborhood, and a force was son gathered to rescue him. But my men got away with him and saved themselves by close work.

Yours  truly,

Samuel L. Keer.

Chief Enrolling Officer for Blount Co."

Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, May 28, 1863.[5]


          28, Skirmish at Sparta

No circumstantial reports filed.

          28, Foraging expedition to Powell's Valley [see June 30, 1862, Affair at Lead Mine Bend of Powell River below]

          28, Major-General William T. Sherman on "Germantown, a dirty hole"

MOSCOW, June 28, 1862.


Your dispatch received....Had we not better clean Germantown, a dirty-hole? There is were was planned the cutting the wire and destruction of road. I am told they openly boast the Yankees shall never run a train over the road.

I am preparing a car for a 12-pounder howitzer.

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.

OR Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 44.

          28, Difficulties faced by military authorities in pacification and administration of local government in Williamson County

Franklin, June 28/62 [sic]

Gov Johnson

Dr Sir-

I find Williamson County to be the hottest bed of secessionism in the state-untill [sic] yesterday-not a man in it had taken the oath-I have given notice that all persons holding office shall subscribe to it-and they are to decide at 4 P.M. to day [sic]-They have already asked to resign their offices to eve it -- but I have declined to receive their resignatins [sic]-My reasons for this course is-that their is an understanding amongst all, not to take it-and so soon as I can force some few prominant [sic] ones into it-I think there will be no trouble-as I am sure there are hundred[s] who want to take it-but fear to do so-as the balance threaten them-Judge Perkins, judge of the County Court is the most prominant [sic] one here-he posatively [sic] declines, and I send him down to day [sic]-to the Comdg. Officer with the request that he be sent south [sic]-

My principle [sic] reason for writing you-is for information in reference to what course to pursue-for carrin [sic] on the government of the county-

Judge Perkins having refused to take the oath there is no county court-no taxes have been ordered to be collected-and I may say there is no funds for any purpose in the hands of the treasurer-That for County purposes being less than 50 $ [sic]-

The Poor Fund is exhausted-and many poor are in the County-

The bridges want repairs-

I propose to levy a special tax of Some 2 or 3000$-to be collected from the most prominent and richest secesh farmers in the neighbourhood-this money to be placed in the hands of the County Treasure [sic] if he takes the oath-and if not to appoint one-From this fund, to support the poor & repair bridges and all other matters of actual necessity-under the proper officers if they take the oath-if not, to appoint-It being understood, that this is only a temporary measure-to be abandoned when the proper wheels of government can be put in operation-

The office of the Planters Bk [sic] of Tennessee is open here-I propose to close it unless the cashier takes the oath-

If these steps do not meet your approbation please advise me[.]

Resp Yours

Wm. B. Cassilly, Lt Col 69th Ohio.

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 511-512.

          28, Special Orders, No. 4

Headquarters District of West Tennessee

Office of the Provost Marshal General

Memphis, June 28, 1862

* * * *

Permits issued for persons to pass out of the city of Memphis and its immediate suburbs, kept for the purpose of retailing spirituous, vinous or malt liquors of any kind, must be closed and kept closed by and after 12 o'clock M. of this day.

Any person violating the letter or spirit [sic] of this order by keeping open drinking saloons, or retailing therein with closed doors, will subject themselves to imprisonment and the forfeiture of their entire stock.

This order applies to steamboats while lying at the landing.

D. C. Anthony, Lieut.-Col. and Provost Marshal of the City of Memphis

Memphis Union Appeal, August 10, 1862.

          28, Resistance to Federal rule in Middle Tennessee, Robert B. C. Howell informs Military Governor Andrew Johnson that he refuses to take the oath of allegiance to the United States of America

January [sic] [June] [sic] 28, 1862

Gov. Johnson-Sir: Summoned before you I am requested to take the following oath:

I do solemnly swear that I will support, protect and defend the Constitution and government of the United States against all enemies, whether domestic of foreign, and that I will bear true faith, allegiance and loyalty to the same, any laws, ordinances, resolutions or convention to the contrary notwithstanding; and, farther, [sic] that I do this with a full determination, pledge and purpose without any mental reservation or evasion whatsoever; and, further, [sic] that I will well and faithfully perform all the duties which may be required of me by law[.] So help me God

Sworn to and subscribed before me.

I have ever scrupulously conformed myself to the government under which I have lived. I do this as a religious duty. I have never knowingly violated any law of the Federal government, of the state government, nor of the military government now established. I am informed that no violation of the law is charged against me. My purpose is to pursue the same course hereafter. I intend not to resist the "powers that be," but to comply with their requisition as far as they do not come in conflict with my duty to God. Respectfully I feel myself obliged to say that I cannot do it, and for several reasons, some of which I beg permission very briefly to state.

First-I cannot take this oath, because there are some parts of it which I do not understand. When I am requested to swear that I will "bear true faith, allegiance and loyalty to the Constitution and government of the United State, any law, ordinances, resolution or convention to the contrary notwithstanding," I am at a loss as to the meaning. What law, ordinances, resolution or convention is referred to, I know not. I cannot tell whether reference is had to some exiting law, ordinance, resolution or contention which I am likely to suppose obligatory upon me, or to something of this kind which may hereafter be inaugurated. Nor do I know who is to be the judge, I myself, or some one else, whether such laws, ordinances, resolutions or conventions if there be any such, are or are not in conflict with the Constitution and government of the United States.

And, further, when I am called upon to swear "that I will well and faithfully perform all the duties which may be required of me by law," I perceive no conditions nor limitations. What laws may be adopted by the United State and by the State of Tennessee, who knows? They may be laws in conflict with my duty to God; they may be laws in collision with the constitution; they may be laws in antagonism with other laws claiming my obedience. Such compliance with them is impossible, yet it is demanded of me to swear that "I will well and faithfully perform all the duties required of me by law," without condition and without limitations.

An oath so vague, indefinite and impracticable respectfully I must decline to take.

Second-I cannot take this oath, because once having sworn to support the Constitution of the United States, and having up to this hour faithfully complied with the obligation, and receiving now no office nor privilege of any kind under the government of the United State nor of the State of Tennessee, there is nothing known to me in the Federal Constitution, nor in the constitution of this state, nor in the laws made in pursuance of either which requires me to repeat that oath. The demand that I shall do so under the circumstances in which I am placed implies that I am an offender against the Constitution or the laws, or both. That implication I respectfully decline to countenance by taking the oath.

Third -- I cannot take this oath because, since the present government of the United States, and the Constitution of the United States, are in some respects at least confessedly [sic] in antagonism, to "support, protect and defend" both is clearly impossible.

To support, protect and defend the one is necessarily to oppose and resist the other. To keep this oath, therefore, (I speak for myself only) is impracticable. Perjury is inevitable. From taking it, therefore, I must be excusable.

Fourth-I cannot take this oath because it binds me to support and protect and defend the "government of the United States," by which doubtless is meant the government of the United States as at present administered. Already the administration has done many things which I cannot support and defend, and which I cannot conscientiously swear that I that I will support and defend. What it may do hereafter, and what its successor may do, I cannot tell. This makes me swear with conditions and without limitations "that I will support, protect and defend the government of the United States."

To do this would be to "resign my right of thought" and so renounce my liberty as a free citizen of my country.

Fifth-Nor can I take this oath as a measure of expediency. By expediency I refer to the fact that since an oath taken under duress is not binding then on those who resort to it to save their families from suffering and themselves from punishment. I have a large, helpless and dependent family; I am myself not indifferent to the ease and comforts of life, but I cannot avail myself of this plea for several reasons, one only of which need be mentioned. This oath makes me swear that I take upon me those obligations "without any mental reservation or evasion whatever;" that is as I understand it, that I do not avail myself of this expedient, but take the obligation heartily and in good faith. In me, who cannot disregard its moral binding force, this would be perjury.

Sixth-I cannot take this oath because it would be a violation of my duty to God. My duty to God requires that I shall take no oath the entire import of which I do not fully understand, that I shall not swear unless there be good and sufficient reasons for it, that I swear to do contradictory things, that I shall not do impracticable things, and that if I do swear that I shall not swear falsely, but shall truly and fully perform my oath. To take this oath would there fore be to violate my duty to God.

Seventh-Without an oath I shall in the future, as I have heretofore, perform as a religious duty every just obligation to the "powers that be," but this oath I cannot take. I cannot take it as a measure of expediency; I cannot take it at all. I must respectfully decline it and take the consequences.

January [sic] 26, 1862

R.B.C. Howell[6]

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 513-514, 516.

          28, Calliope music at the Nashville wharf

The steamer Rose Hamilton while lying at our wharf yesterday, regaled the public ear with the delicious strains of music from her splendid steam calliope [sic]. It had an enrapturing effect upon those who are accommodated with "music in their souls," more especially the African connoisseurs, whose savage breasts were soothed in a tremendous measure. One of the sable listeners was overheard to exclaim "Golly, wish dat fleetin' moosick box 'wd happen at de landin' more frekently!" It would be somewhat lively, not to say charming.

Nashville Dispatch, June 29, 1862.

          28, Flowers in Middle Tennessee, as described by 2d Lt. R. S. Dilworth.

Fort Ewing Tenn

June 28th, '62

~ ~ ~

 Oh how charming! How beautiful the scenes, nature in all her beauty unfolds herself to my vision. Whilst I am visiting, the fragrance of the rose from my loves bower greets my sense. And I hail it as a token of her fidelity, her love, her purity truth and loveliness. How gentle, how peaceful, how innocent is she who donated this rose, this emblem of purity. This badge of love. Oh couldn't I once more but sit beside the giver and from thou eyes receive the intelligence which sparks her soul…..The language of those eyes, how dear to me all the more though 9 months has elapsed since I have had the pleasure of reading, or dreaming rather the fond, the hopeful dream that I was loved. Yet coward that I was, I feared to express my sentiments untill I saw the last, long look and in those eyes, read all the world to me when alas! it was to (too) late for me to express what I felt. Oh! how well did thou conceal thy feelings untill the morning of my departure. But with pleasure I can look forward to the time of meeting with interest and feelings which cannot be described. To part was pain but to meet will be life to me.

Memorandum of R. S. Dilworth.

          28, Confederate prognostication concerning Federal forces in East Tennessee


During the past week the enemy who entered East Tennessee at Wilson's Gap, in large force, has been steadily making his way up Powell's Valley, and at our latest advices was in possession (line is cut off here). The only opposition (cut off again) that we can hear of, has been from the cavalry of our gallant Col Ashby, who has been continually skirmishing with his pickets, and harassing him no little in his progress. Henry Ashby has the right mettle in him, and bids fair to wim as high a name in the vallies of East Tennessee, as his brave cousin, the lamented Gen. Turner Ashby, did in the Valley of Virginia. We hope for him as much renown but a longer career.

The enemy's position at Tazewell is a threatening one, and if he is not attacked "at once and furiously," may result in giving him advantages that will be irretrievable ruin to us. Tazewell is immediately in front of Cumberland Gap, on the nearest route from Knoxville to that point. Powell's Valley extends into Virginia, and from Cumberland Gap, through this Valley to Moccasin Gap, is one of the best roads in the country. Thence to the Salt-works, and to the Va. & Tenn. Railroad at Abingdon, there is nothing to stay his victorious career, unless he is at once attacked and routed by the army of Gen. Smith. The possession, or even the partial destruction of the Salt works, by the enemy, would be a calamity to the Confederate Stats more serious than the fall of Richmond, for these works are now almost the sole reliance of the South for one of the most indispensable necessaries of life.

The character of the enemy in Powell's Valley is one, also, which in addition to other incentives, should rouse up our Government to every possible exertion to at once destroy or drive him back. His in part composed of the five or six regiments of East Tennessee renegades who come with oaths of vengeance on their tongues and hellish rage in their hearts not to fight for a political sentiment, nor to restore a perished Union, but to glut their revenge in the blood and ruin of their former friends and neighbors, and to indemnify themselves by pillage for their time lost and substance wasted during the self-banishment into which they were deluded by the cunning and unprincipled leaders whom the misguided leniency of this Government have spared to hound them on in this diabolical work. Their course already has been marked by outrage which (illegible) humanity, as we learn from those Southern citizens who have escaped from their hands.

Another feature of their programme, we have it plausibly hinted, is the destruction of the bridges on the upper end of the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad. If they are permitted to reach Moccasin Gap in Virginia, an easy and unprotected road through Hawkins, Sullivan and Washington counties are now swarming with armed traitors and bridge burners, who openly avow their readiness to cooperate with any force the Federals may send on this mission.

All these facts sufficiently indicate, we think the imperative necessity of at once checking the progress of the invaders up Powell's Valley Gen. Smith has a crisis to encounter which will admit of no dallying on halfway measures. We trust and believe that he will prove himself equal to the emergency. By a rapid and determined coup he may rid East Tennessee of a scourge, avert a most serious danger from the Confederacy, and at once place himself in the front rank of the heroes of this Revolution. The troops who have so long been pining in this region for want of active service, as well as those who have come from winning laurels in other fields, are all burning with noble ardor at the prospect of meeting the enemy. Let them at once be led against him, and victory is sure. If the golden opportunity is lost, and the foe has time to strengthen his columns and choose his positions, the consequences may be disastrous to us to a degree we shudder to contemplate.

Macon Daily Telegraph, June 28, 1862.

          28, "The War in East Tennessee."

The Columbus (Ga.) Sun has an editorial reviewing the position of affairs in East Tennessee, which we copy, inasmuch as, in the whirl of stirring events near home, the more distant fields of operation have to some extent been lost sight of.

It is now quite evident that the enemies are about to put into execution their long threatened inroad upon East Tennessee. From the best information we can gather of the situation of affairs in that section, we take it that fighting will soon commence there in earnest. The Yankees already have possession of Sequatchie Valley, a productive and stock growing country, and a force of perhaps not less than 5,000 men in Powell's Valley, a portion of country said more important to an army in the way of provisions. But the great valleys of the Tennessee, Hiwassee, Holston, and French Broad rivers, are still in possession of our troops, and can, we have reason to hope, be held against almost any force that may assail them. We think it altogether probable that Cumberland[,] Wheeler's and Big Creek Gaps, will be evacuated, if indeed they have not been already, and that our forces will make a stand at Chattanooga, Kingston, and Bean's Station, in order to keep the enemy north of Walden's Ridge and the Clinch Mountains. This, we feel confident, can be done successfully with the force now under Gen. Smith's command, which cannot be less than 30,000 men. There are, besides this force, which is a low estimate, several efficient guerilla bands, among which that of the famous [John Hunt] Morgan is the most conspicuous. This line of defense, should it be adopted, will save to us about three fourths of the territory of East Tennessee, including Jonesborough, Greenville, Knoxville, Athens, Cleveland, Chattanooga, and the line of railroad from the latter place to the Virginia line.

The part of East Tennessee thus defended is one of the most productive and healthy regions of country in the Confederate States. It contains, even now, bacon, corn, and flour, in great abundance. Nearly every farmer has bacon to sell, and which can be fought at not exceeding twenty seven cents per pound. It is one of the finest wheat countries in the South, and we have it from good authority that the wheat crop in that section this year will fall but little short of the average crop in that section this year will fall but little short of the average crop, particularly in the upper counties, There is, perhaps, at this time, more hogs and cattle in the thirty one counties of East Tennessee than in the whole State of Georgia, and upon this account, should be defended at any cost.

Whit it is true that the majority of the voting population in East Tennessee is deeply tinged with toryism, it is equally true that some of the most staunch Southern men, and many of our ablest military leaders, are East Tennesseeans. There is one fact in connexion with this disloyal section not generally known. Nearly every man and boy capable of bearing arms, who were advocated to separate State action, are now in the Southern army, and although the conscription act is not in force there, they have joined for the war. In addition to this, there are, to our certain knowledge, not less than one third of the original "Union" men now in that section -  the ultras having joined Lincoln in Kentucky – many of the m ore moderate have changed their views since Lincoln's free negro policy was promulgated in November late; while the remainder, being too indolent and cowardly to take any part in the contest  of arms, are content to remain at home, cultivating their farms, and make something to support the army.

The Semi-Weekly Raleigh Register (Raleigh, NC) June 28, 1862

28, "Who would not be a market man in Nashville?"

The jolliest and most independent dealers in our city are our market people. Whoever else fails of selling their wares, they are seen to sell out without the least trouble. The market man knows in the morning to a five cent shinplaster the sum he will take home at dinner. His only trouble is the importunity and annoyance of the customers who throng and jostle around him. The jam begins at day-break and lasts three or four hours when everything edible is swept from the market. Not a potato nor a pound of butter, nor a beet is to be seen. Not a cat-fish swings in torment from his pole; not a shin-bone remains for a blue bottle to buzz around. Nothing remains except the fragrant breath of the onion which still haunts the deserted market-house, even as the scent of the withered rose lingers in the broken vase. Who would not be a market man in Nashville?

Nashville Daily Union, June 28, 1862.

28, "A Righteous Judgment." Exile of Prominent pro-Confederate citizens from Pulaski

Five of the most prominent and active rebels in Pulaski, were sent "down South to Dixie" on last Monday, under a mounted escort of Capt. Twyman's cavalry. These men were rich and influential citizens of the town of Pulaski, and had taken a very active and decided part in the rebellion. Since the advent of our troops into the town, they had made themselves notorious by manufacturing and circulating reports detrimental to the peace of the community, and expressing sentiments of disloyalty that could not be tolerated. When arrested Col. Mundy gave them their choice, either to take the oath of allegiance, or be transported across the lines and handed over to the rebel authorities—they chose the latter, and were dealt with according to their desires. One of them was parson Mooney, a Methodist preacher, and another, Thomas Jones, Esq., who was a member of the first Confederate Congress.

Col. Mundy, the commander of the Post, is the right man in the right place, he is firm and consistent at all times; he does his duty fearlessly and conscientiously. Unlike many other of our commanders, he cannot be bribed or cajoled into a "milk and water" policy, that only works out its own destruction. He neither coaxes nor flatters; but whilst willing to pardon the repentant sinner, he punishes the hardened criminal with unsparing hand, even to the utmost limit of the law.

Nashville Daily Union, June 28, 1862.


          28, Scout from Memphis to Hernando, Mississippi, skirmishing at Nonconah creek

MAY 28, 1863.-Scout from Memphis, Tenn., toward Hernando, Miss.

Report of Maj. John J. Joslyn, First Missouri Cavalry.

MEMPHIS, TENN., May 29, 1863,

SIR: I have the honor to report, for your information, that, in accordance to instructions from headquarters First Cavalry Division, I proceeded in command of cavalry detachments, consisting of 25 men First Missouri Cavalry, 50 men Second Wisconsin Cavalry, and 25 men Fifth Ohio Cavalry. Left camp First Missouri Cavalry at daybreak on the morning of the 28th, taking the Horn Lake road across Nonconnah Creek. About 7 miles south of the Nonconnah came upon a vedette, who, on our approach, fired and ran. Near the residence of Col. Blythe we came upon a picket of some 6 men, mounted. We exchanged shots, but at too great a distance to take effect. In crossing from Horn Lake to the Hernando road, we came upon another squad of the enemy, numbering about 15 men. With them we also exchanged shots, but effected nothing.

We proceeded to the Hernando road, thence to camp. I would state that the men composing the detachment behaved well. I arrived with the command at camp about 4.30 yesterday evening. No property of any kind was taken.

I am very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. J. JOSLYN, First Missouri Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 445.

          28, Female soldier in the Army of Tennessee

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from a letter by Hiram Tolbert Holt in Wartrace to his wife:

There is a woman in the guard house at Wartrace, who fought through the battles of Murfreesboro & Perryville. She was dressed like a man & is still. She and the other prisoners play cards together just as if she was another man. She will be sent home soon, what do you think of her.

Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. XII, p. 301.[7]

          28, On the cost of living in Nashville and the deleterious effect of the military pass system on the market [see May 27, 1863, "Complaints about the cost of living in Nashville," above]

A Gentleman reading a paragraph in yesterday's Dispatch relative to the scarcity and high price of marketing here, stated to us a fact which goes a long was to explaining he existence of this state of affairs. A countryman came to this city on Friday last with a small amount of market stuff, which he readily disposed of, the whole yielding him ten or twelve dollars. Having sold his produce, his next thought was to procure a pass in order to return home. But so great was the crowd at Lieut. Osgood's office, he failed to get into the office. He failed again Saturday, and when our friend saw him on Monday afternoon, only about half an hour before the time for closing the office, he had still been unable to gain admission. He probably succeeded in getting a pass that afternoon, as our friend had not seen him since. His expenses during the four days he was in the city must have absorbed the proceeds of this market stuff. He declared that when he got home he intended to stay there until the war was over. The difficulty of procuring passes is, we learn, keeping a considerable number away who would be only too glad to bring their produce to town, where they are apprised there is a ready demand for it. The difficulty seems to be a lack of facilities-more room and more clerks-to meet the demands of the pass office. We hear that Lieut. Osgood does all he can with his present force to accommodate the people, and that it is no fault of his that every man and woman from the country does not get a pass when it is wanted. We doubt not when this matter comes to the attention of the military authorities, the evil complained of will be remedied. Every facility should be extended to the country people to bring in their produce to supply the demands of the city. It is in this way that our people may be enabled to supply themselves with fresh and wholesome vegetables, gutter, eggs, chickens, and other produce at something like reasonable prices.

Nashville Dispatch, May 28, 1863.

          28, "…if you kiss any you must kiss them all round…." John Fremantle's first impressions of Confederate Tennessee

28th May, Thursday. – I arrived at Chattanooga, Tennessee, at 4.30 A. M., and fell in with Captain Brown again; his negro [sic] recognized me, and immediately rushed up to shake hands.

After breakfasting at [Chattanooga], I started again at 7.30, by train, for Shelbyville, General Bragg's headquarters. This train was crammed to repletion with soldiers rejoining their regiments, so I was constrained to sit in the aisle on the floor of one of the cars. I thought myself lucky even then, for so great was the number of military, that all "citizens" were ordered out to way for the soldiers; but my gray-shooting jacket and youthful appearance saved me from the imputation of being a "citizen." Two hours later the passport officer, seeing who I was, procured me a similar situation in the ladies' car, where I was a little better off. After leaving Chattanooga the railroad winds alongside of the Tennessee river, the banks of which are high, and beautifully covered with trees--the river itself is wide, and very pretty; but from my position in the tobacco juice I was unable to do justice to the scenery. I saw stockades at intervals all along the railroad, which were constructed by the Federals, who occupied all this country last year.

On arriving at Wartrace at 4 P. M., I determined to remain there, and ask for hospitality from General Hardee, as I saw no prospect of reaching Shelbyville in decent time. Leaving my baggage with the Provost Marshal at Wartrace, I walked on to General Hardee's headquarters, which were distant about two miles from the railroad. They were situated in a beautiful country, green, undulating, full of magnificent trees, principally beeches, and the scenery was by far the finest I had seen in America as yet.

When I arrived, I found that General Hardee was in company with General Polk and Bishop Elliott of Georgia, and also with Mr. Vallandigham. The latter (called the Apostle of Liberty) is a good looking man, apparently not much over forty, and had been turned out of the North three days before. Rosecrans had wished to hand him over to Bragg by flag of truce; but as the latter declined to receive him in that manner, he was, as General Hardee expressed it, "dumped down" in the neutral ground between the lines and left there. He then received hospitality from the Confederates in the capacity of a destitute stranger. They do not in any way receive him officially, and it does not suit the policy of either party to be identified with one another. He is now living at a private house in Shelbyville, and had come over for the day with General Polk, on a visit to Hardee. He told the generals, that if Grant was severely beaten in Mississippi by Johnston, he did not think the war could be continued on its present great scale.

When I presented my letters of introduction, General Hardee received me with the unvarying kindness and hospitality which I had experienced from all other Confederate officers. He is a fine, soldierlike man, broad shouldered and tall. He looks rather like a French officer, and is a Georgian by birth. He bears the reputation of being a thoroughly good soldier, and he is the author of the drill book still in use by both armies. Until quite lately, he was commanding officer of the military college at West Point. He distinguished himself at the battles of Corinth and Murfreesboro', and now commands the 2d corps d'armée of Bragg's army. He is a widower, and has the character of being a great admirer of the fair sex. During the Kentucky campaign last year, he was in the habit of availing himself of the privilege of his rank and years, and insisted upon kissing the wives and daughters of all the Kentuckian farmers. And although he is supposed to have converted many of the ladies to the Southern cause, yet in many instances their male relatives remained either neutral or undecided. On one occasion Gen. Hardee had conferred the "accolade" upon a very pretty Kentuckian, to their mutual satisfaction, when to his intense disgust, the proprietor produced two very ugly old females, saying, now then, General, if you kiss any you must kiss them all round," which the discomfited general was forced to do, to the great amusement of his officers, who often allude to this contretemps.

Another rebuff which he received, and about which he is often chafed by General Polk, was when an old lady told him he ought really to "leave off fighting at his age." "Indeed, madam," replied Hardee, "and how old do you take me for?" "Why, about the same age as myself--seventy-five." The chagrin of the stalwart and gallant general, at having twenty years added to his age, may be imagined.

Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk, Bishop of Louisiana, who commands the other corps d'armée, is a good-looking, gentlemanlike man, with all the manners and affability of a "grand seigneur. He is fifty-seven years of age--tall, upright, and looks much more the soldier than the clergyman. He is very rich; and I am told he owns seven hundred negroes [sic]. He is much beloved by the soldiers on account of his great personal courage and agreeable manners. I had already heard no end of anecdotes of him told me by my traveling companions, who always alluded to him with affection and admiration. In his clerical capacity I had always heard him spoken of with the greatest respect. When I was introduced to him he immediately invited me to come and stay at his headquarters at Shelbyville. He told me that he was educated at West Point, and was at that institution with the President, the two Johnstons, Lee, Magruder, &c., and that, after serving a short time in the artillery, he had entered the church.

Bishop Elliott, of Georgia, is a nice old man of venerable appearance and very courteous manners. He is here at the request of General Polk, for the purpose of confirming some officers and soldiers. He speaks English exactly like an English gentleman, and so, in fact, does General Polk, and all the well-bred Southerners, much more so than the ladies, whose American accent can always be detected. General Polk and Mr. Vallandigham returned to Shelbyville in an ambulance at 6.30 P. M.

General Hardee's headquarters were on the estate of Mrs.---, a very hospitable lady. The two daughters of the General were staying with her, and also a Mrs. --, who is a very pretty woman. These ladies are more violent against the Yankees than it is possible for a European to conceive; they beat their male relations hollow in their denunciations and hopes of vengeance. It was quite depressing to hear their innumerable stories of Yankee brutality, and I was much relieved when, at a later period of the evening they subsided into music. After Bishop Elliott had read prayers, I slept in the same room with General Hardee.

Lieut.-Col. Arthur James Lyon Fremantle, Lieut.-Col. Coldstream Guards, Three Months in the Southern States: April, June, 1863, pp. 70-73.[8]

          28, The price of flour

Tumbling Down.

We are glad to hear that here, as elsewhere, the prices of articles of Necessity are coming down rapidly. Good flour, we are told, has been offered during the past week, at a greatly reduced rate in Confederate money. The price has been too high, and ought to be broken down to such a rate as will allow poor folks and soldiers' families to live. The reduction, as our columns have shown, has not been peculiar to this market. The Cleveland (East Tenn) Banner says:

Tumbling – Flour is advancing backwards in this market. It is drawing out of the garrets and pushing itself upon the market at considerably less figures than heretofore, but few buyers.

So in Atlanta, Ga. The Commonwealth says:

Down! Down!! Down!!! – We are glad to perceive that the news from the country in all directions continues to be good, giving assurances of low prices for provisions being close at hand. In this market no bid can be had for corn for future delivery.

Fayetteville Observer, May 28, 1863

          28 & 29, Juvenile Grand Larceny in Memphis

A Bank Entered by a Boy and Robbed of $5,400."

One of the most daring robberies which has been committed in this city for several years took place Thursday [28th] afternoon. It was the robbery of an exchange office, the names of the owners of which are we omit for various reasons. The chief of the Police, Mr. Winters, was apprised of the facts of the robbery, and yesterday [29th] he and his detectives Morrison, Johnson, Winters and Mahoney, set about hunting up the perpetrators of the deed. The only information they could obtain from the persons who lost the money was that four or five boys were seen about the outside of the exchange office a short time before they missed the money.

Detective Johnson soon made up his mind where the thief was, and accordingly after a tedious search found a boy by the name of Thomas Porter, who admitted the facts in the case and implicated Marcus Dunn, Daniel Grady, David Driscol and Frank Lavalle. He said the boys including himself, a large pile of money lying on a table in an exchange office, and all agreed it would require but little effort to get it provided the man in the office would step out for a minute. Just at that time he walked into a back room. As soon as he was out of sight, Thomas Porter, a boy not more than ten years of age, jumped over the counter and took all the money which was within his reach, $20 in silver and $5,380 in green backs. He, as soon as he got outside the room divided the money and each boy went on his way rejoicing. Chief Wiknters, who by the way is one of the best officers we ever knew, and the detective, whose names are given above, after capturing Thomas Porter went in search of the boy whose name he had already given, and before six o'clock yesterday afternoon all of the boys were safely lodged in the stationhouse and [most?] of the money recovered. The officers who ferreted out the little [thieves?] should receive the warmest thanks [of the bankers?] of this city ….[remainder illegible]

Memphis Bulletin, May 30, 1863.

"Robbery by two Negro Children."

The house of Mr. Daniel Larkin, who resides on Moseby street, was entered and robbed, yesterday [29th] of $135. The money was in a bureau, which was broken open with an ax. Mr. Larkin had in his employ a negro girl by the name of Mary, who, on being questioned by officer Grogan in regard to the theft said some soldiers of the 27th Ohio did the deed. But the story is not seen at all probably to Mr. Grogan, and, after awhile, he got her to give him the following: A negro boy, she said, came to the house about ten o'clock and demanded the key to the bureau, which she refused to give him. The boy (whose name is Andrew) then got an ax and broke the bureau open and stole the money. They boy and girl are at the stationhouse. The money was recovered.

Memphis Bulletin, May 30, 1863.


          28, Guerrilla attack on train between Elk River Bridge and Decherd [see May 24, 1864, "Skirmish near Winchester, guerrillas rob U. S. Army paymaster" above]

          28, "Watering the Streets"

This should be a general and not an exceptional practice. Several streets are well watered daily; others are not watered at all. This is not right. We do not see the propriety of watering Jefferson street, and neglecting Poplar street. If the property holders are to bear the expense of sprinkling we do not but doubt but those on Poplar street will do it as readily and cheerfully as those on Jefferson. Have those who make it a business to water the streets applied to the residents on Poplar as they have on Jefferson? They have not; but why have they not? The injury done every season to furniture and clothing by the dust, to say nothing of the unpleasantness of it would more than cover the expense of keeping the streets properly watered. Let this subject be thought of and acted upon.

Memphis Bulletin, May 28, 1864.

          28, "Something for the Young Folks"

We have received from F. Katzenbach, 270 Main street, a little library for little people which is for sale at his store, consisting of Poems, for Little Folks, Tales of the Great and Brave, Stories of Animals, Christmas Stories, Stories of Natural History, the Rabbit's Bride, Tales of Adventure, Stories of Foreign Lands, Casper's Adventures, Fairy Stories, Fables in Verse and History of Birds. These books are of convenient size for little hands, beautifully printed, handsomely bound, and illustrated plentifully with engraving. We have dipped into one or two of them, especially the fairy stories, and for a while realized the poet's wish, "Would I were a boy again." The cruel princess, the heartless magician, the cross old grandmother, the kind fairy, the brave adventurer, the lucky little fellow that blundered into fortune, how they passed before us as we knew them long, long, before we became the possessor of bray hairs and the tiresome amounts of wisdom we get with them, as a matter of course. Wisdom here is wisdom in these little books that can make young eyes sparkle and young hearts thrill with an ecstasy our nature seldom fails to impart. Those who would make the young people happy with a gift should call at Katzenbach's store. They are published by Carobs & Nichols, Boston

Memphis Bulletin, May 28, 1864.


          28, Federal army cautiously authorized to provide provisions to the destitute to prevent starvation in Chattanooga

NASHVILLE, May 28, 1865.

Brig. Gen. H. M. JUDAH, Chattanooga:

You are authorized to issue sufficient provisions to the destitute people within your command to prevent starvation. Be cautious, however, that the issue does not become unnecessarily large and an extravagant waste of the public stores, as has been the case generally with such issues.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Thomas:

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 924.

          28, ET&VRR returned to civilian hands, repairs made to railroad line and bridges

The Nashville Union, of the 28th ult., states that the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad is to be turned over to the Stockholders. The road is in running order from Knoxville to Carter's depot, twelve miles beyond Jonesboro. The government has withdrawn the construction corps and transferred them to Georgia. The bridges over the Watauga at Carter's Depot, and the Holston at Zollicoffer, have not been rebuilt. It is to be hoped that this important road will soon be thoroughly repaired.

Macon Daily Telegraph, June 7, 1865.


[1] See OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p.108.

[2] One of Hall's slaves who was his personal servant.

[3] Hereinafter cited as Ninth Tennessee.

[4] As cited in PQCW.


[6] Howell was imprisoned in the state penitentiary in Nashville. Military Governor Johnson pardoned him later, on a "day to day" basis on account of his poor health. Apparently then, Howell did not take the oath, but lived an exemplary life thereafter.

[7] As cited in: Robert Partin, "A Confederate Sergeant's Report to His Wife During the Campaign from Tullahoma to Dalton," THQ, Vol. XII, no. 4 (December 1953), p. 301

[8] Lieut.-Col. Arthur James Lyon Fremantle, Lieut.-Col. Coldstream Guards, Three Months in the Southern States: April, June, 1863, (Mobile: S. H. Goetzel,1864), pp. 70-73. [Hereinafter cited as: Fremantle, Three Months, etc.]


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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