Friday, May 29, 2015

5.29.2015 Tennessee History Notes



          29, Editorial opinion on the indecency of young women giving daguerreotypes to soldiers

Advice to Girls.—There is a practice, quite prevalent among young ladies of the present day, which we are old fashioned enough to consider very improper. We allude to giving daguerreotypes of themselves to young men who are merely acquaintances. We consider it indelicate in the highest degree. We are astonished that any young girl should hold herself as cheap as this. With an accepted lover it is, of course, all right. Even in this case the likeness should be returned if the engagement, by any misunderstanding, cease.

If this little paragraph should meet the eye of any young girl about to give her daguerreotype to a gentleman, let her know that the remarks made by young men, when together, concerning what is perhaps on her part, but a piece of ignorance or imprudence, would, if she heard them, cause her cheek to crimson with shame and anger. "Were it a sister of ours," we have often said with flashing eye—"were it a sister of ours!" but that not being the case, we give this advice to anybody's sister who needs it, most anxiously desiring that she should at all times preserve her dignity and respect.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 29, 1861.

          29, The work of the Southern Mothers

Southern Mothers: The unfortunate combination of circumstances which prevented the reception room of the society from being ready by Monday will not prevent its being made so this week. The committee will be in attendance to-morrow, Wednesday, A.M., and the room will be ready by the afternoon to receive the sick. The members, and others intrusted [sic] with work, are requested to send sheets, towels, linen, and all articles useful to a sick room. Sheets and towels should be marked "Southern Mothers" in the corner. The visiting committee will attend at the room every afternoon from five P.M., when persons, desirous of taking the sick to their houses, can remove them. The constitution of the society requires that the persons admitted shall be actually in the service of the South, and sent to the officers of the association by the officers of the army; no others can be received. Ladies are requested to send in immediately supplies of bandages and other articles for the surgeons to Mrs. S. C. Law, president, as boxes are in preparation to be sent to the camp hospitals. One will go to Randolph on Wednesday. Persons wishing to contribute articles of food, services of servants, etc., are requested to come forward and do so immediately.

By order of the president,

Mary E. Pope, Secretary.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 29, 1861.

          29, Attempt at welfare fraud in Memphis

Did Not Know Where She Lived.—A woman, who represented herself to be in extreme distress, applied yesterday at the office of Mr. Underwood, the city almoner, on second street, near Madison, and asked for relief. She said her husband had fits, and her own health but poor, and heaven help them, they were next to starvation. The story was told with great unction, and movingly interspersed with tears. Underwood is not easily caught in a shower, so spite of the chrystal [sic] drops "in dear woman's eye," he asked where the weeping daughter of affliction lived? "On Union street, sir." Between what streets?" "Do not know the streets sir." "Tell me the names of some of your neighbors?" "Don't remember them, sir." This was puzzling, so Underwood sent his assistant to attend the lady home, (the almoner is always polite to the sex) and to see how she was fixed. At the next corner "the lady" was obliged, now she was up town, to call on a lady acquaintance; she would just look in and be at the corner in a minute. The minute passed, and several more in its company, but "the lady" did not return to the corner. Imposters have no chance with Underwood, but the suffering and necessitous will not apply to him in vain. He is overflowing with the milk of human kindness to those who are really in distress, and such can call upon him with confidence that no necessary kindness will be withheld.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 29, 1861.

          29, A Woman Driver

A Fast Lady.—At sun down last night a buggy, containing one person of each of the two sexes, was seen rushing with racing speed along Shelby street. The reins were held by the lady, who drove like one of the haunt ton[1] driving through a husband's fortune. The gentleman reclined against the back of his seat with an air of enjoyable languor; as he puffed his cigar with a satisfaction ineffable and almost transcendental, he gave a look of quiet approval at his 2:40[2] driver in crinoline, who reminded every spectator of the loves and triumphs of "Mose and Lize."[3] On Monroe street the fast couple halted to give their nag a breath, and indulge themselves in a cobbler. But here, alas! their proud and triumphant progress through admiring throngs was at an end and the elegant Mose, and the dashing Lize were taken into custody by policemen Van Campen and McIlvainie, who conducted them both to the station house.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 30, 1861.

          29, Manufacture of shoes, haversacks, cap pouches, bayonet scabbards, etc., in Confederate Nashville

We learn from the Nashville Union that large quantities of shoes are being manufactured in the Tennessee Penitentiary for the soldiers of that State. It is also stated that 200 men are at work, at the same place, on army equipage, consisting of haversacks, cap pouches, remodeling bayonet scabbards, gun hammers, camp chests and tool chests. There will also be in operation, in a day or two, a laboratory for preparing a large number of wagons for army purposes.

Weekly Raleigh Register (Raleigh, NC) May 29, 1861.[4]


          29, Kate Carney's opinion of "a grand parade" in Murfreesboro [See also: June 1, 1862, Dragging the flag in Murfreesboro, and excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence, below.]

I forgot to mention in here about a grand parade they had one day over a little secession flag they got from some private family. Pretended as if they had gotten [sic] it in a fight, & tied it [to] the mane of one of their horses & dragged the flag, & strewed flowers where the flag went along. That was a contemptible act, equaled only by the arrest of Mr. Winship, to make him look at their Union flag that Mrs. Matilda Spence and her niece Mary made them, just because he helped raise the Confederate flag when it was first hoisted in our town, but he would not look up, but smoked away like he didn't care a fig for all of them & their old flags.

Kate Carney Diary, May 29, 1862.

          29, Savannah's Irwin Sisters, Confederate Spies

From the N.Y. Tribune of Thursday [29th].

It is now well understood that "unauthorized hangers-on" were excluded from the Army of Tennessee by Gen. Halleck, because the rebels managed to obtain intelligence of the disposition of our forces through some one with the army. The leaky individual, according to the correspondence of the Cincinnati Times, is a brother of Gov. Yates, of Illinois. The rebel agents, two fascinating sisters named Irwin, whose father owns any amount of broad acres and almost countless contrabands, and who have the enviable reputation of being the "most elegant ladies in Tennessee," reside at Savannah, and since the occupation of the lace they have professed strong Union sentiments, and their parlor has been a general rendezvous for all the young gallants in the service.

No one questioned their loyalty, and in course of time they became as familiar with our position and strength as our own Generals. The principal portion of this intelligence was imparted by a brother of Gov. Yates, of Illinois. Immediately after an introduction to the Misses Irwin, he became fascinated, and from that moment his attentions to both in general, and one in particular, became unremitting, and the consideration he received, which he attributed to the high position of his brother and his own personal charms, led him to an indiscreet, not to say criminal, revelation of all he knew about the plans of the campaign and the strength of the army. He is reported as a vain man, and flattery rendered him loquacious, until the whole story was known to the sisters.

In the meantime the "erring brother" found the means of visiting his "loyal sisters" nightly, and what they learned during a day was known to Beauregard before a second dawned. Our authorities soon discovered that there was a leak somewhere, and the result was, a sort of persecution was instituted against newspaper correspondents, who are made to shoulder all the fatherless sins floating about the army. But after a while the whole matter was revealed, and the gallant young man found it very convenient to omit all further attention to the damsels, and seek a healthier climate further north.

Chicago Times, May 31, 1862.[5]

          29, Restrictions on contraband commerce in Nashville

Important Order—Look Out!

The following order just issued by Gen. Dumont is one of much interest to merchants of all kinds and their customers from a distance:

Headquarters, U. S. Forces, Nashville, May 29, 1862

General Orders No. 7.

Whereas, it is represented to me that salt, bacon, coffee, iron, leather, medicines and other goods, are being sold in this city and finally find their way to the enemy: It is ordered that no goods shall be sold in, or taken away from this town or vicinity, towards the enemy's lines, without a written permit from the Provost Marshal of the city, which permit shall specify and contain an accurate list of the articles that may be bought, sold and shipped; but this prohibition shall not apply to necessary articles, not contraband in small quantities absolutely necessary for family use, sold to citizens of the town or neighborhood, the person selling and buying and transporting being held to a rigid accountability that no improper use is made of the same. Any person violating this Order, or in any way aiding or consenting to its violation, will be held as an enemy and punished accordingly. All guards and officers are charged with the arrest of any and all persons violating this Order, and will examine wagons and other vehicles of transportation, to see that it is enforced.

By order of Brig. Gen. E. Dumont

Nashville Daily Union, May 30, 1862.[6]

          29, Advice on how to make saltpeter

To Manufacture Saltpeter.

Editors Appeal: All earths which have been kept perfectly dry, in our climate, as in caves, under gin-houses, stables and floors of negro houses, etc., for fifteen or twenty years, contain more or less nitrous salts, when combined with potash make the nitrate of potash, or saltpeter.

To make saltpeter on a small scale, arrange barrels or hoppers, (as used in making lye) place straw and sticks in the bottom of hoppers, or barrels, put in the earth (being well pulverised [sic] first,) leaving the middle of the earth low in the center, fill the hopper with water, let it stand twelve hours, then drain it off, as in making lye. The "beer" or drippings of the nitrous earth can then be put in a kettle, and add strong lye to the "beer" (stirring it well) as long as it will curdle, let it settle, then add more lye slowly, if it does not curdle, until enough lye has been added, let this compound liquor, settle perfectly, it may take several hours. Pour off the clear liquor into the boiling kettle, boil it down to the consistence of thin molasses, drop a few drops on a plate, if it is "done" it will harden immediately and slip off like tallow by the least pressure, when in this state pour off the liquor carefully, (leaving the sediment or dirt to be returned to the hoppers) into tubs to cool. If there is nitre in the earth it will shoot off into needles or crystals, like icicles, this it will do in from twelve to fifteen hours; this is called "grough" of crude saltpeter. Scrape out the saltpeter and dry it thoroughly on smooth plank or table cloth. The beer or liquors, and lye will require less boiling, if passed through the hoppers several times or through a series of hoppers, say four or six. This crude saltpeter should be boxed and shipped to the nitre agents, in the States in which it is made, or to the ordnance officer, Dr. D. R. Lemman, Jackson, Mississippi, who is the government agent for Mississippi. The government pays, at present, seventy-five cents per pound, deducting for all impurities over ten per cent. Will the patriotic planters of the Confederacy make nitre for the government in this our hour of necessity?


Memphis Daily Appeal, May 29, 1862.

29, General Mitchell, a flag of truce and the people of Fayetteville

Insulting a Flag of Truce.-As the advance were approaching Fayetteville, Tenn., before occupying Huntsville, [7] a flag of truce was sent forward with two rebels who had been ordered out of our lines. On arriving at Fayetteville the escort grossly insulted in the streets by a mob of Southerners. General Mitchell was highly indignant when he heard of the outrage that had been committed upon his flag of truce. He rode rapidly into the town, and found a large number of the citizens assembled in the public square to witness the entrance of our army. "People of Fayetteville," cried the General in a voice of thunder, "You are worse than savages! Even they respect a flag of truce, which you have not done. Yesterday the soldiers whom I sent to your town upon a mission of courtesy and mercy were shameful insulted in your streets, and it was you who gave the insult. You are not worthy to look in the face of honest men. Depart to your housed, every one and you, and remain there until I give you permission to come forth!" At the conclusion of this speech, the skulking cowards scattered to their house like frightened rats to their holes.

New Hampshire Sentinel, May 29, 1862.

          29, "I never think of this incident that I do not fill up as if he were my own child." General Rousseau's poignant memory of the Battle of Shiloh

Something for Secession Ladies.

Gen. Rousseau relates the following incident in a letter from Shiloh, which we commend to the perusal of those ladies who have perverted their influence in society to the untimely destruction of many a thoughtless boy, the breaking of many a sister's and mother's heart, the arraying of brother against brother, and the inhuman murder of many, the morning of whose life was so bright with the roseate and golden hues of unclouded promise. No wonder the gallant Rousseau, who had just bared his breast to the fiery storm of battle with undaunted courage, wept freely, as he stood by the side of the dying boy who had fallen into the snare of rebellion. He writes:

"Two days after the battle of Shiloh I walked into a hospital tent on the ground where the fiercest contest had taken place, and where many of our men and those of the enemy had fallen. The hospital was exclusively for the wounded rebels, and they were laid thickly around. Many of them were Kentuckians, of Breckinridge's command. As I stepped into the tent and spoke to some one, I was addressed by a voice, the childish tones of which arrested my attention: "That's Gen. Rousseau! General, I knew your son Dickey. There is Dick? I knew him very well." Turning to him, I saw stretched on the ground a handsome boy about sixteen years of age. His face was a bright one, but the hectic glow and flush on the cheeks, his restless manner, and his grasping and catching his breath, as he spoke, alarmed me. I knelt by his side and pressed his fevered brow with my hand, and would have taken the child into my arms, if I could. "And who are you, my son?" said I. "Why I am Eddy McFadden, from Louisville," was the reply. I know you, General, and I know your son Dick. I've played with him. Where is Dick?" I thought of my own dear boy, of what might have befallen him; that he, too, deluded by villains, might, like this poor boy, have been mortally wounded, among strangers, and left to die. My heart bled for the poor child, for he was a child; my manhood gave way, and burning tears attested, in spite of me, my intense suffering. I asked him of his father? He had no father. Your mother? he had no mother. Brothers and sisters? "I have a brother," said he. "I never knew what soldiering was. I was but a boy and they got me off down here." He was shot through the shoulder and lungs. I asked him what he needed. he said he was cold and the ground was hard. I had no tents nor blankets; our baggage was all in the rear at Savannah. But I sent the poor boy my saddle blanket, and returned the next morning with lemons for him and the rest; but his brother, in the Second Kentucky regiment, had taken him over to his regiment to nurse him. I never saw the child again. He died in a day or two. Peace to his ashes. I never think of this incident that I do not fill up as if he were my own child.["]

Nashville Daily Union, May 29, 1862.

29, Mayor Smith's description of occupied Memphis

We are indebted to Mayor Smith for a copy of the Memphis Appeal of the 22d last. It contains several paragraphs which will be of interest to our readers. It speaks in this mournful style of

The City.

The city is a dull place. The lamp post committees and street corner congregations are poorly attended; change has become a myth; the landing is well adapted for a solitary walk by any sentimentalist wishing to meditate undisturbed upon the mutability of human affairs; our stores close of their own accord every afternoon; the coffee houses are all shut up by the Provost marshal, and the only lively spot that greets the wanderer's eye is Court Square, which is now a beautiful place to spend an idle hour in and is much frequented by the juveniles in the evening, who make it gay with their ringing laughter and their innocent sports. Persons disposed to the blues should frequent the square before sunset each fine day. The streets were in their best trim yesterday, the rain having laid the dust and purified the gutters.

Nashville Daily Union, May 29, 1862.

29, General Orders No. 7 in Memphis to prevent smuggling items through Confederate lines

Important Order—Look Out!

The following order just issued by Gen. Dumont is one of much interest to merchants of all kinds and their customers from a distance:

Headquarters, U. S. Forces,}

Nashville, May 29, 1862}

General Orders No. 7.

Whereas, it is represented to me that salt, bacon, coffee, iron, leather, medicines and other goods, are being sold in this city and finally find their way to the enemy:

It is ordered that no goods shall be sold in, or taken away from this town or vicinity, towards the enemy's lines, without a written permit from the Provost Marshal of the city, which permit shall specify and contain an accurate list of the articles that may be bought, sold and shipped; but this prohibition shall not apply to necessary articles, not contraband in small quantities absolutely necessary for family use, sold to citizens of the town or neighborhood, the person selling and buying and transporting being held to a rigid accountability that no improper use is made of the same.

Any person violating this Order, or in any way aiding or consenting to its violation, will be held as an enemy and punished accordingly.

All guards and officers are charged with the arrest of any and all persons violating this Order, and will examine wagons and other vehicles of transportation, to see that it is enforced.

By order of

Brig. Gen. E. Dumont     

D. Braden, A. A. G.

Nashville Daily Union, May 30, 1862.



          29, Federal train derailed by Confederates at La Vergne

LA VERGNE, May 30, 1863.


Guard at Mill Creek Bridge No. 3 reported a small body of rebels, about 30, crossing the railroad track early this a. m., at the point where train was captured on 10th of last month.[8] A small party was seen yesterday by trackmen near same place. I have notified Gen. Steedman. Engine was thrown from track here last night. Have it now on. Will not delay trains much. Engine not damaged.

J. B. ANDERSON, [Railroad Superintendent.]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 372.

          29, Report of Federal spy on Confederate forces in Knoxville, Clinton, Kingston, Loudon, Cumberland Gap, Big Creek Gap, Chattanooga, Shelbyville, Farmington, Lewisburg, Wartrace and Tullahoma

NASHVILLE, May 29, 1863--8.50 a. m.

Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

I left Knoxville on Wednesday of last week, 20th instant, for Nashville, via Chattanooga and Shelbyville. Gen. Buckner was in command of Knoxville. He has considerable force stationed on the road to Cumberland Gap Mountain, Big Creek Gap, Clinton, Kingston, and Loudon. Gen. Buckner came to Knoxville and took command about one week before I left.

From their conversation, they deem themselves quite secure at Chattanooga. I saw but few troops. The fortifications being poor, the bridges and roads from Chattanooga to Tullahoma are all guarded; but I see no considerable force at either of the guard posts.

At Tullahoma I saw quite a number of troops; I saw a greater number at Wartrace; the fortifications at both points being strong. At Shelbyville, on Friday evening and Saturday, there was a movement of troops across the river, going, as I learned, in the direction of Murfreesborough, to meet Gen. Rosecrans, who, it was stated, had made an advance movement. Between Farmington and Lewisburg there is a force of several regiments.

I saw no more troops until I reached the picket lines, where Cox's regiment of cavalry is stationed. On Friday there was great excitement at Shelbyville, and great stir among the troops. On Saturday the troops. I did not see even the picket guard. I did not go out of the town to gather information.

M. B. LEE.


Mrs. Lee is the wife of Mr. Lee, of $10,000 notoriety. [9]


Capt. of Police.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 371.

          29, Skirmish at Hamburg Landing

Report of Capt. Eagleton Carmicheal, Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry.

HDQRS. 1ST BATTALION 15TH ILLINOIS CAVALRY, Corinth, Miss., June 2, 1863.

SIR: After leaving the main command, we camped on the Waynesborough and Florence road, 5 miles north of Lowryville.

On the morning of the 29th, moved on the Waynesborough road to Indian Creek, near Martin's Mills. Learning there that the enemy were on our left, we moved in that direction, traveling a road leading to Gerald's, on the Pinhook and Savannah road, where they had camped the previous night, but did not come up with them. Distance from Savannah, 12 miles. From thence we went to Oldtown, on the Savannah and Waynesborough road, the first place we found enough forage for our stock, and from thence to Savannah.

On the morning of the 29th, after ferrying our ambulances and pack train over the river, we left Savannah about 7.30 o'clock, and moved out on the Clifton road, expecting to form a junction with Col. Breckenridge, of the First Tennessee Cavalry, it being necessary to have a larger force to operate successfully in that direction, I having learned that [J. B.] Biffle was in that vicinity with his own regiment, a part of Cox's, and all the guerrillas he could collect. This he did so effectually that we found no men at home, except very old ones, and no blacks, except the women and children. We struck Indian Creek 8 miles above its mouth, and went up it, burning corn on both sides of the creek to the amount of 30,000 bushels, and captured nearly 100 horses and mules. That valley we found to be very rich, every foot of arable land being under cultivation, mostly in wheat and corn, but very little cotton. After going 12 miles, I learned that a portion of Biffle's command was within a mile of us, and, turning to the right, I went across the hills, striking the Waynesborough and Savannah road 1½ miles from Oldtown. I there found that a part of the enemy's column was in my front and a part in my rear. Had a slight skirmish with a small squad. They skedaddled. I then turned to the left in the direction of Pinhook, up Turkey Creek. Night coming on, and being compelled to travel over a very rough road, I lost nearly all the stock that was captured that day. I struck the Savannah and Hamburg road, 8 miles from Savannah, at 1 a. m., having traveled nearly 55 miles.

On the morning of the 30th, the enemy appeared on the Hamburg road, and were driven back by the pickets after a small skirmish. They soon made their appearance on all sides of the town in small squads, but were driven back at all points. At 10 o'clock Col. Biffle sent a flag of truce, demanding an immediate surrender of the forces under my command. I replied, "If Col. Biffle wants us, he must come and take us, if he can." After the return of the flag of truce, they made no demonstration except on the left, which was repulsed by a squadron which was in position on that flank.

* * * *

Number of horses and mules confiscated and brought in, and in possession of the regimental quartermaster, 17 mules and 5 horses. We took 4 prisoners during the expedition, two on this side of the river and two on the other side.

The above is very respectfully submitted.

E. CARMICHAEL, Capt. Company B, Cmdg. Detachment of Fifteenth Illinois Cav.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 352-353.

          29, "Murfreesboro' News and Rumors."

Correspondence of the Louisville Journal.

Murfreesboro', May 27.-A force from Gen. Negley's division under the command of Col. Raffin, of the 19th Illinois, made reconnaissance to-day in the direction of Hoover's Gap. A brisk fight occurred for about eleven miles with 300 or 400 of the enemy from a Georgia regiment of mounted infantry stationed at Trace Creek. The rebels made a stand at Alaman's, using the house for a defense and fought desperately. Two of their number are known to have been killed, and a large number wounded, who were carried off by their comrades.

A brigade of rebels undoubtedly occupy that Gap. The enemy has extended his lines evidently, since the ground fought over today is occupied by the rebel videttes.

Twenty-seven persons went South today under flag of truce. The party consisted mostly of ladies, all of whom took an oath not to reveal anything they may have learned while within our lines; which divulged, would prove detrimental to the Federal service.

Correspondence of the New York Herald.

Murfreesboro', May 26.-The rebels have fallen back all along their lines. They have little or not force this side of the Duck river. Very recent intelligence indicates the rebel force at Tullahoma and vicinity to number 58,000 men of whom 45, 000 are infantry and 6000 cavalry.

Gen. Forrest has been made a Major General, and has gone with his cavalry to Mississippi. Gen. Wheeler takes his place at Columbia, and Gen. Morgan has charge of the line of Cooley Fork and Cumberland river.

* * * *

[Confederate] Engineers have been engaged for two months in laying our works at Chattanooga, but as yet have done little on them.

But few rebel troops are in East Tennessee.

The mountains are full of refugees, who on Thursday, at a turn-out, repulsed a considerable force sent to arrest them. The rebels have supplies for six weeks at Chattanooga.

Nashville Dispatch, May 29, 1863.

          29, John Fremantle's observations on southern women and the Army of Tennessee

29th May, [1863] Friday.-I took a walk before breakfast with Dr. Quintard, a zealous Episcopal chaplain, who began life as a surgeon, which enables him to attend to the bodily as well as the spiritual wants of the Tennesseean [sic] regiment to which he is chaplain. The enemy is about fifteen miles distant, and all the tops of the intervening hills are occupied as signal stations, which communicate his movements by flags in the day time, and by beacons at night. A signal corps has been organized for this service. The system is most ingenious, and answers admirably. We all breakfasted, at Mrs.---'s. The ladies were more excited even than yesterday in their diatribes against the Yankees….They reproved Mrs. ______ for having given assistance to the wounded Yankees at Wartrace last year; and a sister of Mrs.-'s, who is a very strong-minded lady, gave me a most amusing description of an interview she had had at Huntsville with the astronomer Mitchell, in his capacity of a Yankee General. It has often been remarked to me that, when this war is over, the independence of the country will be due, in a great measure, to the women; for they declare that had the women been desponding they could never have gone through with it; but, on the contrary, the women have invariably set an example to the men of patience, devotion, and determination. Naturally proud, and with an innate contempt for the Yankees, the Southern women have been rendered furious and desperate by the proceedings of Butler, Milroy, Turchin, &c. They are all prepared to undergo any hardships and misfortu[n]es rather than submit to the rule of such people; and they use every argument which women can employ to infuse the same spirit into their male relations.

At noon I took leave for the present of General Hardee, and drove over in his ambulance to Shelbyville, eight miles, in company with Bishop Elliott and Dr. Quintard. The road was abominable, and it was pouring with rain. On arriving at General Polk's he invited me to take up my quarters with him during my stay with Bragg's army, which offer I accepted with gratitude. After dinner General Polk told me that he hoped his brethren in England did not very much condemn his present line of conduct. He explained to me the reasons which had induced him temporarily to forsake the cossack [sic] and return to his old profession. He stated the extreme reluctance he had felt in taking this step; and he said that so soon as the war was over, he should return to his episcopal avocations, in the same way as a man, finding his house on fire, would use every means in his power to extinguish the flames, and would then resume his ordinary pursuits. He commanded the Confederate forces at the battles of Perryville and Belmont, as well as his present corps d'armee at the battles of Shiloh (Corinth) and Murfreesboro'.

At 6.30 P. M., I called on General Bragg, the Commander-in-Chief. This officer is in appearance the least prepossessing of the Confederate Generals. He is very thin; he stoops, and has a sickly, cadaverous, haggard appearance, rather plain features, bushy black eyebrows which unite in a tuft on the top of his nose, and a stubby iron gray beard; but his eyes are bright and piercing. He has the reputation of being a rigid disciplinarian, and of shooting freely for insubordination. [emphasis added] I understand he is rather unpopular on this account, and also by reason of his occasional acerbity of manner. He was extremely civil to me, and gave me permission to visit the outposts, or any part of his army. He also promised to help me towards joining Morgan in Kentucky, and he expressed his regret that a boil on his hand would prevent him from accompanying me to the outposts. He told me that Rosecrans' position extended about forty miles, Murfreesboro' (twenty-five miles distant) being his headquarters. The Confederate cavalry inclosed him in a semi-circle extending over a hundred miles of country. He told me that West Tennessee, occupied by the Federals was devoted to the Confederate cause, while East Tennessee, now in possession of the Confederates, contained numbers of people of Unionist proclivities. This very place, Shelbyville, had been described to me by others as a "Union hole." [emphasis added]

After my interview with General Bragg, I took a ride along the Murfreesboro' road with Colonel Richmond, A. D C. to General Polk. About two miles from Shelbyville, we passed some lines made to defend the position. The trench itself was a very mild affair, but the higher ground could be occupied by artillery in such a manner as to make the road impassable. The thick woods were being cut down in front of the lines for a distance of eight hundred yards to give range.

During our ride I met Major General Cheatham, a stout, rather rough-looking man, but with the reputation of "a great fighter" It is said that he does all the necessary swearing in the 1st corps d'armee, which General Polk's clerical character incapacitates him from performing. Colonel Richmond gave me the particulars of General Van Dorn's death, which occurred about forty miles from this. His loss does not seem to be much regretted, as it appears he was always ready to neglect his military duties for an assignation. In the South it is not considered necessary to put yourself on an equality with a man in such a case as Van Dorn's by calling him out. His life belongs to the aggrieved husband, and "shooting down" is universally esteemed the correct thing, even if it takes place after a lapse of time, as in the affair between General Van Dorn and Dr. Peters.

* * * *

I slept in General Polk's tent, he occupying a room in the house adjoining. Before going to bed, General Polk told me an affecting story of a poor widow in humble circumstances, whose three sons had fallen in battle, one after the other, until she had only one left, a boy of sixteen. So distressing was her case that General Polk went himself to comfort her. She looked steadily at him, and replied to his condolences by the sentence, "As soon as I can get a few things together, General, you shall have Harry, too." The tears came into General Polk's eyes as he related this episode, which he ended by saying, "How can you subdue such a nation as this?"

Fremantle, Three Months, pp. 73-76.

          29, "Tried to Escape."

A young and very interesting girl, to all appearance not more than 17 years of age, was captured a few days since for attempting to get through the Federal lines under the disguise of boys clothing. She was convicted and ordered out of the Department. She went quietly on board of the Imperial, but while the officer was looking in another direction she escaped on the Silver Moon and the Rock, and finally back on the Silver Moon where she was recaptured. Her destination is St. Louis. The name she gives is Annie Patterson.

Memphis Bulletin, May 29, 1863,


          29, Minor patrols from White's Station

MEMPHIS, TENN., May 29, 1864.

Col. G. E. WARING, Jr., Cmdg. First Brigade, White's Station:

Your inspection reports show that your horses are fast running down. You will concentrate your entire command at White's Station, and you will send out no expeditions, except small patrols of twenty-five men each, until you receive orders from these headquarters.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 55.

          29, "In about three days after the body of the old man was found dead and horribly mangled near his home." Reports of Confederate depredations in West Tennessee

WHITE'S STATION, May 29, 1864.

Brig. Gen. B. H. GRIERSON, Memphis, Tenn.:

DEAR SIR: Allow me to trouble you with some facts of great interest to me and my friends, and to which I desire to call your serious attention: Within the last two weeks and since I had a conversation with you a band of rebels, calling themselves Forrest's men, have arrested and carried from their homes four or our best, most peaceable, and quiet citizens, and brutally murdered them in cold blood without the slightest provocation--Mr. B. A. Crawford, age fifty years, and William Bowlin, age fifty-five years, of Weakley County, Tenn.; John C. Huddleston, age fifty-two years, and William Hurst, age eighteen years, the latter of McNairy County, Tenn. These victims of this murderous band we the friends and relatives of the families of soldiers now in the U. S. service, who were at home endeavoring, by labor and economy, to make a support for and, to some extent, alleviate the distressed condition of the wives and children, widows and orphans, of Union soldiers. I have presented these cases as mere specimens of the various outrages to which loyal men and their wives and children are daily subject; and to ask of you, in the name of our friends, and in the name of the blood of our murdered relatives, in the name of honor and patriotism, and, lastly, in the name of high Heaven, to assist us in giving our friends and country some aid, some assistance to protect and save life and the shedding of innocent and defenseless blood by thieves and murderers. The plan that I would suggest and ask for your adoption is to remove my regiment to some point on the Tennessee River where they can obtain their supplies from Paducah and give us authority to arrest the fathers, brothers, and sons of these murderers, and hold them in prison as hostages for the safety of and good treatment of our citizen friends. We think this may be done without injury to the service. We know we cannot bring to life our murdered friends, but we hope in this to prevent a repetition of such crimes upon friends equally as dear to us and whose veins are filled with blood from the fountains of our own hearts. Since writing the above a friend has laid on my table an account of three more horrible murders in Gibson County, one a very old man, under the following circumstances: A party of Forrest's men went to the residence of Francis Crawford, who, from age and infirmity, was unable to walk; they said to the old man they understood he was a damned old Union, and he must go with them to Forrest's headquarters. They then placed him on a wagon and started off. After they were gone some half hour some of the party returned and informed the lady that if she would give them $200 they would release her husband. The old lady set about and by borrowing raised the sum demanded, which they pocketed, then cursed and abused her; said they had her money and would kill the damned old tory besides. In about three days after the body of the old man was found dead and horribly mangled near his home. This old man has two sons in my regiment. I love my country and am too proud of her flag to ever disgrace it by that mode of warfare that Tennesseeans [sic] must and will adopt if such outrages are not suppressed. Hoping you will give this your serious attention and let me hear from you soon,

I remain, your obedient servant,

FIELDING HURST, Col. Sixth Tennessee Cavalry.



Respectfully forwarded for the information of the major-general commanding District of West Tennessee.

Instances of this kind are constantly brought to my notice, where not only citizens but soldiers of my command have been brutally murdered after surrender by these fiends calling themselves soldiers. I earnestly trust that some summary and retaliatory measures may be taken to put a stop to this cruelty.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 56-57.


[1] Meaning unknown. Possibly from the French, meaning "haunt your"?

[2] The fastest speed a horse pulling a wagon or sleigh could go in a mile, 2 minutes and 40 seconds. This is a reference often used in  Federal newspaper stories to indicate the quickness of a Confederate retreat.

[3] Two popular fictional characters appearing in a number of stage productions in the 1850s.  "Mose" was a rowdy volunteer fireman in New York City's bowery district, and "Lize" was his girlfriend.


[5] As cited in:

[6] See also Nashville Dispatch, May 30, 1862.

[7] Huntsville was occupied by U. S. forces on April 11, 1862, and evacuated by them on August 31, 1862. This story, if true, would have taken place most likely in late March or early April. The evacuation resulted from Confederate troop movemets in East Tennessee prior to the invasion of Kentucky, August 28, 1862 to October 8, 1862.

[8] See April 10, 1863, Affair at Antioch Station above.

[9] Apparently Mr. Lee had posted a $10,000 bond to insure his loyalty to the United States.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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