Wednesday, May 20, 2015

5.18-19.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes



18, Paranoia, panic, fear of a slave rebellion and the Committee of Safety in Memphis


Flight of Four Thousand Citizens-Fears of Slave Insurrections.

From the Cincinnati Gazette:

A few months since, and the city of Memphis was enjoying an immense growth. In the rise of her real estate, the erection of splendid buildings, token of advancement she more nearly realized than any city on the Lower Mississippi, the vast strides our own city has made characteristic of her growth. That was Memphis under the Government of the United States-Memphis, loyal to the old flag.

The change that has come over that city in the short period that has intervened since the opening of the rebellion, has been a most marked one.-The change has been total. The present state of affairs there would do credit, as a supplementary page of history to follow the days and doing of Danton and Robespierre.


Memphis to-day "out-Herod's Herod," and surpasses the Gulf cities in animosity and deadly hatred to all loyalty to the Government. As a consequence there has been a wonderful Hegira from her midst. Every northern bound steamer and car has been heavily freighted with sons of the North, fleeing from tyranny in its worst form.

It is estimated that from four to five thousand have thus left Memphis, many of them under circumstances of imminent peril. A Committee of Safety has it daily sessions. It is made up of Mr. Titus, a prominent business man. They cause any they choose to be brought before them, and after a nasty ex parte examination, they give a decision from which there is no appeal. Up to this time their mandate has been, an order to leave the city on the first train or boat North.-There is reason to believe that they will soon make it death to be unfavorable to the kingdom of Jeff. Davis.


We are put in possession a voluminous array of facts, bearing on this point, from several of our former citizens driven out of Memphis. They represent the state of [?] as growing more and more rabidly hostile every day. All business is at a stand still, other than that which belongs to military outfit. Only one regiment from Middle Tennessee has gone to Virginia, and in this a Memphis company found a place. A military rendezvous has been established at Randolph, 75 miles north of Memphis, where there are about 3,000 men, well equipped, with a battery of 32-pounders, sent thither from Charleston. The town of Randolph consisted of about 700 people, and many of them have now left for refuge elsewhere. The bluff is high, and the battery commands a wide sweep of the river. These troops are those gathered to await orders from Montgomery.


The city is filled with alarms and excitements. Says one informant:-"Hundreds of women in Memphis never lay their heads upon their pillows at night without dreaming of insurrection. On every public alarm the fire bells are rung, and this brings the entire population into the street. A few nights since, a rumor spread that a large body of troops were coming Southward from the Ohio, and a fearful scene of excitement filled Memphis for hours. The fire bells rang furiously. The numerous mounted patrols dashed to and fro. Women shrieked. Mothers clasped their children to their bosoms in frantic agony-All was confusion and its greatest terror lay in the doubt whether an insurrection on Southern soil or an invasion of Federal troops."

Philadelphia Inquirer, May 18, 1861.[1]

          18, The Enigma of Civil War. An Extract from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain

~ ~ ~

To me, this deadly struggle is a mystery on the part of the North, what do they want. It cannot be possible Christians in the North wish to become usurpers of our homes and drive us as exiles into foreign lands. It cannot be to ameliorate the condition of our colored people. When every step they take but enhances the wickedness of their conditions by making them enemies to the best earthly friends they can have. It seems to me passing strange their unjust interference. May our Father enable us to see our sins as a nation and repent in deep contrition of heart. May mercy prevail and our loved ones saved from the horrors of that awful scourge Civil War.

Fain Diary.

          18, Neutrality sentiment in Tennessee


Address of Prominent Citizens to the People of Tennessee.

In the perilous times upon which our country is thrown we trust it will not be deemed presumptuous or improper in us to express our fellow citizens our united opinion as the duty of the State in this emergency.

We are threatened with a civil war, the dreadful consequences of which, if once fully inaugurated, no language can depict. In view of such consequences we deem it the duty of every good citizen to exert his utmost powers to avert the calamities of such a war. The agitation of the slavery question, combined with party spirit and sectional animosity, has at length produced the leg mate fruit. The present is no time to discuss the events of the past. The awful present is upon us, and the portentous future is hanging over us. There has been a collision, as is known to, at Fort Sumter, between the forces of the seceded States and those of the national government, which resulted in the capture of the fort by the army of the Confederate States, In view of this event and of other acts growing out of the secession seven of the Southern States, the President has issued his proclamation calling out the militia of the States of the Union to suppress what the proclamation designates as a "combination too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or in the powers vested in the Marshals by law." Tennessee is called upon by the President to furnish two regiments, and the State has, though her Executive, refused to comply with the call. This refusal of our State we fully approve, we commend the wisdom, the justice and the humanity of the refusal. We unqualifiedly disapprove of secession, both as a constitutional right and as a remedy for existing evils. We equally condemn the policy of the administration in reference to the seceded State. But while we, without qualification, condemn the policy of coercion as calculated to dissolve the Union forever, and to dissolve it in the blood off our fellow citizens, we regard it as sufficient to justify the State in refusing her aid to the government in its attempt to suppress the revolution in the seceded State, the Union,, and in view of the great questions of the peace of our distracted country, to take sides against the government. Tennessee has wronged no State or citizen of the South. She has been loyal to all where loyalty was due. She has not brought on this war by any act of hers. She now stands ready to do anything within her reach to stoop it. And she ought, as we think, to decline joining either party. For in so doing she would at once terminate her grant mission of peace maker between the States of the South and the general government. Nay,  more, the almost inevitable result would be, the transfer of the war within her own borders, the defeat of all hopes of reconciliation and the deluging of this State with the blood of her own people,.

The present duty of Tennessee is to maintain a position of Independence – taking sides with the Union and the peace of the country against all assailants, whether from the North or South. Her position should be to maintain the sanctity of her soil from the hostile tread of any party.

We do not pretend to foretel [sic] the future of Tennessee, in connection with the other States, or in reference to the federal government. We do not pretend to be able to tell the future purposes of the President and Cabinet in reference to the impending war; but, should a purpose be developed by the government of overrunning and subjugating our brethren of the seceded States, we say unequivocally, that it will be the duty of the State to resist at all hazards, at any cost, and by arms, any such purpose or attempt. And, to meet any and all emergencies, she ought to be fully armed: and we would respectfully call upon the authorities of the State to proceed at once to the accomplishment of this object.

Let Tennessee then prepare thoroughly and efficiently for coming events. In the meantime let her, as speedily as she can, hold a conference with her sister slaveholding States yet in the Union, for the purpose of devising plans for the preservation of the peace of the land. Fellow citizens of Tennessee, we entreat you to bring yourselves up to the magnitude of the crisis. Look in the face of impending calamities. Civil war – what is it? The bloodiest and darkest pages of history answer the question. To avert it, who would not give his time, his talents, his untiring energy – his all? There may yet be time to accomplish everything. Let us not despair. The border slave states may prevent this civil war – and why shall the not do it?

Neill S. Brown,                S.D. Morgan,

Russell Houston,              John S. Brien,

E. H. Ewing,                    Andrew Ewing,

C. Johnson,                      John H. Calendar,

John Bell,                        Balie Peyton

R. J. Meigs,

Nashville, April 18, 1861

The New York Herald, (New York, NY), April 24, 1861.[2]

19, "We have no spoons, knives, nor forks, but use our fingers, pocket knives & sharp sticks." Letter from G. W. Wharton of Cannon County, to his Uncle Daniel Weedon describing life at a Confederate camp of instruction in Middle Tennessee

May 19, 1861

Sunday Evening

Camp Cheatham Robertson Co.

Uncle Daniel,

I seat myself upon a pile of straw, blankets, knapsacks, etc., to write you the first lines since leaving home. We arrived at this camp on the railroad leading to Clarksville Friday evening -- pitched our tents among two or three thousand volunteers and are now spending a real soldiers [sic] life. We see nothing scarcely but volunteers and hear nothing but the sounds of drums and fifes and the usual noises of camp life.

Our camps are pitched about two or three hundred yards from the main encampment where we are to form another regiment. Our Company [sic] being the first one in the regiment which is Co. A 4th Regiment.

I will now tell you something about our fare. We are divided into messes of 8 men and our provisions are issued out to us. We have bacon, meal or flour, a little rice, potatoes, sugar, coffee & salt and then we can cook to suit ourselves.

You would have laughed to see me cooking supper this evening with my sleeves rolled up to my elbow and then washing our dishes after supper, such as tin pans, tin cups, etc. We have no spoons, knives, nor forks, but use our fingers, pocket knives & sharp sticks.

As to privileges we have scarcely any. We are bound up fast. We have a guard placed around our camp, which we cannot leave unless we go to the spring after water. The boys think it hard, but we cannot help it.

We cannot tell how long we will stay at this camp. It may be weeks, or even months. Time alone will tell, but as soon as our services are needed we will be off.

I could write you a longer letter, but [I have] no convenient place to write. I am writing this on my knee with a dim light and noise all around me and Mr. McCabe is to start to Woodbury early in the morning and will take this letter for me.

Please write to me and send it by McCabe, who will be coming back in a few days. Tell Cousin Joe to be sure to write me and give my love to her & Sally and Aunt Maria and accept a share yourself and also my friends at town (Woodbury). Bro. Sam has written to town and therefore I shall not say anything in this to them. If you can read this show it to mother or Jane or some of them and tell them I'll promise to do better next time. So goodbye at present.

G. W. Wharton

W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, p. 9.

          19, The problem of panhandling girls in Memphis

Juvenile Beggars. – The presence of a number of little girls upon our streets for some time past, who are not only importunate for alms but annoyingly impudent, has been a source of much vexation to numbers of our citizens. We have frequently seen them follow persons for a square at a time, day after day, protesting their poverty and detailing their misfortunes, yet when offered employment in some gentleman's home, it has been invariably refused, upon some pretext or another. To give in such cases is not charity, however much we may be inclined to relieve want. Rose Conner, one of these juvenile lazaroni, was yesterday before the recorder, and fined five dollars and costs, which was readily settled from a purse well filled with the gleanings of importunate impudence.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 19, 1861.





          18, "When will the day of peace come?" Mrs. Estes reflections upon the war

I attended Church today, heard a sermon by Rev. Gillespie, the minister of my childhood.

The dear friends of my childhood are scattered and gone, some to the grave, but mostly like myself have linked their fortunes with another. Yet I meet with many in our old church who are dear to me and bring back the days of my girlhood. The happiest of these I spent with my lover often wandering side by side for hours, all unconscious of the rapidly flying hours. Ah! We dreamed not then of such a time as this, that after years of labor and toil for success in life, the rude hand of war would come upon us and blast our brightest hopes. It is not a wonderful providence that we cannot see into the future? If we could have seen this dark hour we could not have been so happy with all my dear husband's care and struggles to establish himself in his profession, we have been as happy as is allotted to mortals.

I hope we may again be settled in our home with our darling around us. That will be a happy day for us. May we not forget to thank the Lord.

This has been another beautiful Sabbath. The last Friday was appointed by our President [Davis] as a day of fasting and prayer. I did not mention it in the proper place because I did not know of it, not having received any paper that gave us the information. I have no doubt many were like us, as all mail communications are quite irregular. But we pray that Our Father will hear the prayer of those who met to humble themselves before Him. Oh!! That God would say to the destroying Angel that is passing over us, "Cease, thus far shall thou go and no farther." When will the day of peace come?

Estes's Diary, May 18, 1862.

          18, Wartime Anxieties as Expressed by Lucy Virginia French in McMinnville

Monday of this past week – the 12th, was little Walter's birthday-he was 8 years old. When he was six months old I laid aside a book as the commencement of a little library for him to be given him on the day he completed his 8th year. That has come and passed – but I did not present him the books,-the times are such I could make no party or little fete for him, and I shall postpone giving him the library until he is 10 – perhaps 12. How little, when I made the resolution to collect the books for him did I imagine the state our whole country would be in when he came to be eight years of age. But so it is – and I may perhaps never see the day he is 12 – or he may never see it. During the past week I have had the children with me all the time deciding that they must not on any account make associates of the negros [sic]. [sic] I put Martha [a family servant] to working out[side]. I teach them constantly – something – devoting myself to them exclusively. It is hard work – very confining – sometimes making me exceedingly nervous – but it is my duty – and that is sufficient – it must be done, [even] if I wear out with the constant friction….On Monday evening of last week I went to see Mrs. Richardson who has just returned from Texas,-taking the children with me. That was the only visit I paid – the only time I went out during the week. I have been sewing, reading, and teaching all the time. The Federal army continues to encroach upon the Confederate limits. Norfolk is taken, the famous Merrimac or Virginia blown up by the Confederates – Lincoln I am told has opened the blockade by proclamation – but I have not seen the document. He considers the "rebellion crushed." Beauregard has ordered the destruction of cotton, sugar, and molasses, and it is being done. A convention met at Nashville on the 12th resolving on the restoration of Tenn. to the U. S. John Morgan with 200 men made a raid in Ky. On the 11th destroying cars, trains, etc., and securing some 8 to 10 thousand dollars in money!

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.

          18, "…call to mind the fact that a large majority of them have been in the field seven or ten months, and then realize the greatest privation of man's existence--the want of woman." Women at Shiloh battlefield

Special Correspondence of The Chicago Times.

Battle-field of Shiloh, May 18.

Among the peculiarities of the camp are some privations which never enter into the calculations of the uninitiated. People have heard often enough of hunger, and cold, and wet, and hard beds, and like hardships, and with these items fill the measure of a soldier's miseries. Mistaken idea! There is one more trial reserved for the gallant warrior, and, my reputation upon it, I'll prove by a vote of a hundred thousand to none at all that it is the worst of them all. Fancy an army such as this one is, without a woman in it. Imagine two hundred and fifty regiments of strong, lusty men, and never a petticoat to be seen--not so much as a bit of ribbon fluttering in the wind. Further, call to mind the fact that a large majority of them have been in the field seven or ten months, and then realize the greatest privation of man's existence--the want of woman. A considerable portion of both privates and officers are married men, who know by experience how good or how bad it is to live within a woman's influence, and in them may be found notable examples of the restive spirit which argues so much in favor of the fair sex. There is another large portion who are within the limits of that age when men are instinctively drawn towards womankind, and give way to the pairing impulse. There are others still whose warm young blood is coursing in hot veins, and will not be denied; and of all these there is a united army. If Beauregard and his men, and Halleck and his host, were as united on national topics as they are on the desire to be wrapped in calico once more, bathed in dimity, smothered in glowing womanhood, I warrant you there'd be no more fighting. Peace would reign unmolested, and, in the briefest space of time, a quarter of a million pairs of brawny arms would find occupation more congenial than carrying muskets and bayoneting each other.

It would do you good to watch the countenance of a weather-beaten soldier who, on an occasional visit to the river, gets a glimpse of a woman, of whom there are a few there. I have seen a dozen of them sit on the bank an hour, watching with intense anxiety for the fluttering of a chambermaid's dress; and if a dainty bit of calico, of that ilk, happens to get ashore, to run around the bluff a little, she is in actual danger of being gobbled up by some big lusty fellow, and carried off to the woods by main force. Perhaps she don't [sic] know it, too, although that isn't saying she fears it, for I believe women take man's homage to their hearts, be it ever so rude or untutored. They may take much of it to themselves here, for there are scores of thousands whose silent thoughts are upon them every hour in the day, whose conversation tends towards them in their waking hours, and whose dreams fondly encircle them at night. Long absence is a sharp appetizer. If the fair are as keen set as their lords and lovers, there will be a terrible coming together one of these days.

And a curious anomaly presents itself in the same connection. About the only women we have here are nurses, a class who are all very well in a humanitarian way, and not much in the line of attraction. They seem imbued, as a general thing, with the idea that there is nobody to look at them, and the customary attire is a faded calico loose gown, straight from top to bottom, ignoring waist and personifying the theory of the shirt on a bean-pole. The wildest imagination could not induce the divine admiration. If they only knew it--if they had the slightest idea how much medicine to a sick man there is in a trim, neat figure--how much relief there is in bright, sun-like colors, where all is dark and sombre [sic]--how much unutterable joy can grow under a sweet womanly smile--they'd never do it. I think Miss Dix made a great mistake when she prescribed gaunt females, over thirty, for the sick soldiers. I just think one fresh, plump little woman, with the light of kindness in her eyes, and the consciousness in her heart that she loves and pities men because they are men; because they are bold and brave, and unflinching in sickness or health; because in danger their strong arms stand between her and the whirlwind; because of the innumerable attributes that endear strength and hardihood to woman's nature, as naturally as the oak to the clinging vine, --one such woman, be she maiden, wife or matron, will do more good than all the doctors and drugs in the army dispensary.

There are a few such, spite of Miss Dix and the "aged thirty" decree, and I have seen them among the sick here and elsewhere. I have seen tears rain down a soldier's brown cheek at the touch of one of those soft hands upon his feverish forehead, and have watched his eyes following the lithe, round form the livelong day, while health and strength stole upon his shattered frame like one of her own smiles upon the gloom of his solitary repining.

 Let the fair believe that they are not forgotten. If ever their love and favors were cherished it is now, when distance, more coy than maiden modesty, renders them unattainable. Here, where we have a commonwealth of men, and away up yonder, where you have a community of women, the same desires and hopes are growing and strengthening--here a gallant array of bold, hardy men, there a host of loving, affectionate women--here a hundred thousand pretty, enticing portraits, there an equal number of well-cherished manly counterfeits. As I said before, what a coming together there will be.

W. P. I.

Chicago Times, May 23, 1862. [3]

          18, Guerrillas arrested at Wartrace

Arrests at Wartrace

Wartrace, May 19, 1862.

Editor Nashville Union:

Dear Sir: On Sunday morning [18th] last, Major Gunkel, of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, with a detachment of his command, arrested the notorious and desperate Thomas Daniels, Captain in the Rebel army, and one of his Lieutenants, named McLaughlin, who had come home for the purpose of raising a guerrilla band of robbers and cut throats, and by their threats of hanging, forcing Union men to join them. They have threatened to hang and shoot every Union man that voted against Secession, and no doubt would have done so, as soon as they were in power. Too much praise cannot be accorded to major Gunkel for his prompt and energetic course in protecting Union men, and arresting such deep-dyed villains and assassins. A few more arrests of such men, and Wartrace and the surrounding country for twenty miles, will again be safe for Union men to live in.


Nashville Daily Union, May 24, 1862. [4]

          18, Andrew Johnson's terse advice to Horace Maynard about captured Confederates

NASHVILLE, May 18, 1862.

Hon. HORACE MAYNARD, Member of Congress, Washington;

Wood should be put in close confinement in some common jail; Capt. Harris of bloodhound notoriety with him. They should both be tried by a drumhead court-martial and hung at once. Morgan and his marauding gang should not be admitted within the rules of civilized warfare and that portion of his forces taken at Lebanon should not be held as prisoner of war. I hope you will call attention of Secretary Stanton to the fact of their being a mere band of freebooters.

All is moving on here as well as could possibly be expected. I hope the Secretary of War will give the disposition of the prisoners from Tennessee to the Governor, secretary of state or such person as he may deem proper to indicate.


OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, p. 551.

          19, Mrs. Andrew Johnson delays her exile from East Tennessee

OFFICE DEPUTY PROVOST-MARSHAL, Elizabethton, Tenn., May 19, 1862.

Col. W. M. CHURCHWELL, Provost-Marshal.

DEAR SIR: A few days since I communicated with Mrs. Johnson and Mrs. Carter in reference to their departure for the Federal lines. Col. Dan. Stover called on me yesterday and stated that Mrs. Johnson's health was still very poor with no prospect of improvement shortly if ever. I have consulted with several physicians who state that Mrs. Johnson is consumptive and to remove her will probably cause her death. She is very anxious to remain here with her children and is not at all desirous to go the bosom of "Andy." I called on Mrs. Carter a few moments since. Two of her children are a little sick now but will be well in a few days. She is anxious to go to her husband and if allowed to take a nurse she will go much more cheerfully. She says she won't go a step till her children get well enough to travel and till she is allowed to carry a nurse to assist her with the children. She prefers going by Cumberland Gap. I think Mrs. Johnson's health is not likely to improve; so if she has to go now is as good a time as any. These people are very quiet now. A great many gladly circulate false rumors in relation to Federal victories but I can't find out the originators of such stories.

* * * * *

Very respectfully,

W. M. STRINGFIELD, Deputy Provost-Marshal.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 888-889.

          19, "Well, there is not much sickness in the Regiment and all that is just diarrhea. That is about all the sickness that the soldiers have had down this way yet." A. A. Harrison's letter home from Wartrace

Wartrace Tenn

May 19, 1862

Dear Wife,

I take my pen in hand to inform you that I am tolerable well at present and hope these few lines may find you and the children and all the rest well. I have not heard from you since I wrote my last letter although I have been anxiously watching the mail. It appears to be a month between times that I hear from you. I try to write once a week but sometimes I do not get time to write when I am in the notion. We are still at this place yet and doing nothing except scouting once every day or two. Everything appears to be at a standstill waiting for the fight at Corinth which will take place in a few days I think. And everybody thinks that will be the winding up of the war and I hope it may for I would feel proud to be at home once more with you and the children. I don't know whether I will get home any more until it is over without it lasts until next winter. Our boys that were wounded in that are doing very well except Wm. Smith, he is right sick yet. One of them, Henry Rose, has come back to the regiment today. He was shot in the arm as he was carry[ing] the colors and another shot struck the staff of the flag just above his head. Wm. Atcher and two others that were wounded have got a discharge and will go home in a few days. There has been some of the hottest weather that ever I saw in May. I don't know whether it has been so everywhere or not but it has been scorching down here until yesterday it turned a little cooler. I don't know when we will leave this place. Some say we will leave in a few days and others think we will stay until the war is over or until fall. I want you to write as often as possible and manage the best you can. Take good care of them sweet little children & especially the baby and if I never get back there is One who is able to protect you and I pray to Him to do it. Tell Mother and Father and the children that I would be glad to see them and that they must write to me and tell John & Kitty they might drop a few lines to Jo & me. Jo has been complaining for two or three days but he is getting better with all the rest of the Hardin boys. Well, there is not much sickness in the Regiment and all that is just diarrhea. That is about all the sickness that the soldiers have had down this way yet. We hear that Col. Boyles takes command of this reg. again and it causes a great confusion in the regiment. All the captains & lieutenants talk of resigning. The officers & men all thought there was nobody like Col. Smith. He is a nephew of old Henry Clay. I expect father has met him. He is from Bourbon County, Ky. I must bring my letter to close. So nothing more at present but remaining your affectionate husband until death.

A. A. Harrison

Absolom A. Harrison Correspondence

          19, Newspaper Report on Mrs. Major Belle Reynolds "a lady on the bloody battle-field of Pittsburg Landing." [See: May 20, 1862, "Mrs. Belle Reynolds; Rank and Marital Discord," below

Mrs. Major Belle Reynolds…is the wife of Lieutenant Reynolds, of Company A, Seventeenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers….The Seventeenth, to which her husband belongs, is one of the most popular regiments in our western army, being one of the earliest in the field, and during the whole war has been in active service. They met the enemy in a terrible encounter, and vanquished him, at Frederickstown, Missouri. They early took possession of Cape Girardeau; they also bore a prominent part, and were terribly cut up at the battle of Fort Donelson, and were in the thickest of the fight at the battle of Shiloh or Pittsburg Landing. In these last two battles Lieutenant Reynolds was Acting Adjutant. During the greater part of the campaign Mrs. Reynolds has shared with her husband a soldier's fare in camp; many a night, while on long marches, sleeping upon the ground in the open air, with no covering other than her blanket, and frequently drenched with rain; and oftimes, to the order "Fall in," she has hurriedly mounted her horse in the darkness of the night, and made long marches without rest or food except such as she might have had with her. She has at all times exhibited a degree of heroism that has endeared her to the brave soldiers of the Seventeenth and other regiments that have been associated with them and to the officers of the army with whom she is acquainted.

Gov. Yates, of Illinois, and his staff were at Pittsburg Landing to look after the Illinois troops, who suffered so severely in that fearful struggle, and learning of Mrs. Reynolds' heroic conduct on the field, and untiring efforts in behalf of the wounded soldiers, he commissioned her Daughter of the Regiment, to take rank as a Major, "for meritorious conduct on the bloody battle-field of Pittsburg Landing." Mrs. R. left Pittsburg Landing a few days after the battle to attend some wounded soldiers to their homes by the rivers, leaving the last one at Peoria--Capt. Swain, of Illinois, who died as the boat touched the wharf at Peoria. She remained at Peoria a few days to recover from her fatigue, and has left again to rejoin the army.

The following letter has been addressed to Gov. Yates by citizens of Peoria:

"Peoria, April 27, 1862.

To his Excellency Richard Yates, Governor, etc. Springfield, Illinois.

Dear Sir--Permit us to thank you for the honor conferred upon Peoria by your voluntary act in commissioning Mrs. Belle Reynolds, of this city, to take rank as Major of Illinois State Militia, showing your appreciation of valuable services so nobly rendered by a lady on the bloody battle-field of Pittsburg Landing.

And we take pleasure in bearing testimony to the high moral and Christian character of the Major, believing that in whatever circumstances she may be placed she will ever honor her commission and the worthy Executive who gave it.

*  *  *  *

Chicago Times, May 19, 1862[5]

          19, Confederate proposal to release of political prisoners upon taking loyalty oath

KNOXVILLE, May 19, 1862.

Col. W. M. CHURCHWELL, Provost-Marshal.

SIR: As per your order of the 13th instant I proceeded to Madison, Ga., and released the prisoners whose signatures are appended to the oath I herein hand you. My instructions were to "release no man who had before taken the oath;" and to discriminate between those that had or had not taken the oath, I had this oath administered to them:

That you shall make true answers to the questions I shall ask your having taken an oath to support the constitution of the Confederate States of America. So help you God.

I then asked them if they had taken said oath and in every case was answered in the negative. As soon as they had all taken and signed the oath as per orders I turned them all over to Mr. T. J. Jarnagin. In looking over my list I found that several were never there, several are dead, and some have volunteered; and I would advise that a statement be made by Capt. Calhoun of all the prisoners that are or have been there-when released and by whose order. I find also their sanitary condition to be extremely bad. There are a great many sick and no physician to attend them that is at all skilled. My expenditures on the road amounted to $8. I consulted with the prisoners before their release but could find out nothing important enough to include in this report.

The above report, colonel, is respectfully submitted.

H. M. BEARDEN, Lieut., Company D, Thirty-ninth North Carolina Troops.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 2, pp. 1426-1427.

          19, George Kryder's letter to his wife on the cost of food, his sickness and cure

To Elisabeth S. Kryder

Direct 3rd O.V.C. Co.I.

Woods Division

Pittsburg Landing,Tenn.

Pittsburgh Landing

May 19th 1862

….You was writing that if we only could be where you could cook for us. I wish it might be so but if we only had the articles to cook and the dishes to cook in we would get along very well, but things are so dear. I will give you a few prices of different articles: eggs 30 cts, butter 40 cts, dried peaches 25, cheese 25, butter-crackers 25 cts, and l0 cts for a loaf of bread not larger than my two fists and these prices we have paid when our appetites failed us that we could not eat pork and beans and hard crackers, sugar our sutler sells for only 30 cts pr pound, lemons 2 for 25 cts. Sometimes we can buy them for ten cents apiece. Now I think them are very high prices but they are correct. Yet when men are not rugged they will have them as long as they have money.

You thought that I was real sick and would not let you know, but it is not the case. I have just wrote to you how I was every time and will now tell you how I am. I am very weak. A week ago last Wednesday, our Company went out on picket-guard, and during the night it was very cold so that I got chilled through and took cold and did [not?] feel able to perform duty. So the orderly reported me on the sick list and I had to go to the doctors to be excused from duty, and the doctor gave me a dose of calomel which physicked me awful bad. And it run me into the diarrhea and I took medicine for nearly a week and it run me down so weak that I could scarcely walk. And I quit taking their drugs and I now feel pretty well only very weak, so I went and got me a quart bottle of bitters which cost two dollars but it gives me an appetite and I think in a week I will quite rugged again. Now this is the truth. You said if I could not come home to stay I should come on furlough but that will be impossible at present. But if I do not get home sometime this summer it is not as I expect for the war cannot last much longer in my opinion for they are losing every battle and this battle here at Corinth where Beaureguard has his whole force will tell the story if they are whipped here they will be likely to give it up.

….You say that I must write often. I write as often as you do and have not half as good a chance to write. To sit on a blanket beside of a trunk is not a very good writing table but still I will scribble…..

Direct Co. I. O.V.C. Buel's Army

Pittsburgh Landing Tenn.

George Kryder Papers

          19-23, Expedition down the Mississippi River to Fort Pillow

MAY 19-23, 1862.-Expedition down the Mississippi River to Fort Pillow, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Isaac F. Quinby, U. S. Army, commanding District of the Mississippi.

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Columbus, Ky., May 24, 1862.

CAPT.: I have the honor to submit for the information of the major-general commanding the following report:

On the 19th instant I proceeded to the flotilla above Fort Pillow with such troops as could safely be withdrawn for a short time from the several posts within this district. I was induced to do this on representations made me that there was a very small rebel force in and about Fort Pillow, and that our troops already there, under the command of Col. Fitch, needed to be only slightly re-enforced to enable us to make a demonstration by land, which, in connection with an attack by our gun and mortar boats, would insure a speedy surrender of the rebel works.

The force I took with me consisted of eight companies Forty-seventh Indiana Volunteers, Col. Slack; four companies Thirty-fourth Indiana Volunteers, Lieut.-Col. Cameron; two companies Fifty-fourth Illinois Volunteers; four companies Second Illinois cavalry, Lieut.-Col. Hogg; a section from each of the two companies of the Second Illinois Artillery at this post; three pieces of Capt. De Golyer's Michigan battery, from New Madrid, and one-half of the Missouri company of Volunteer Sappers and Miners stationed at this post.

These, together with the troops under Col. Fitch, made an aggregate of about 2,500 effective men.

On reaching the flotilla, I began to inform myself of the position and character of the enemy's works and of the number and disposition of his troops. A personal reconnaissance satisfied me that his position was very strong, and that a land approach with my small command was impracticable. Spies, deserters, and refugees all concurred in stating that there were in and about the fort three old and well-filled regiment, averaging at least 1,000 effective men; that there was besides near by a battery of six 6-pounder pieces, and on the Chickasaw Bluff, about 6 miles from the fort, another battery of four 12-pounders.

During my stay at the flotilla I had frequent and free consultations with Capt. Davis, commanding the fleet, and at all times found him ready and anxious to co-operate with me in any plan that might seem to give reasonable promise of success; but he was unwilling to attempt running by Fort Pillow with part of his gunboats and place them between it and Fort Randolph unless we had shore batteries on the Arkansas side of the being river, under which the boats could take refuge in the event of their being crippled either by the guns of the fort or the rebel gunboats. There was no possible means of establishing a battery on the side of the river opposite to and below the fort in the present condition of the ground, except by carrying the guns and ammunition along a levee for a distance of 3 miles, the whole of which is completely command by the rebel batteries. This, hazardous as it was, we were about to undertake, and had already repaired the breaks in the levee at those points where the brush and timber concealed the workmen from observation on the other side. The success of the undertaking required that the battery should be constructed in a single night, and that all should be in readiness before daylight the following morning.

On Thursday, the 22d, the repairs of the levee were made as far as it could prudently be done, and a strong picket was thrown out to prevent the landing of the enemy and the discovery of our work, and consequently of our intentions. During the night one of the men, who, without the knowledge of the rest went in front of the line, refused on his return to answer the challenge, and was shot dead by two of our pickets firing on him at the same instant. The noise alarmed the enemy, and a strong detachment was immediately sent over the river, which attacked and drove in our pickets. Our work must have been discovered by them, and it would be charging them with gross stupidity not to suppose our plan betrayed; besides, on Friday morning a heavy rain set in, which of itself would have rendered a delay of at least two days necessary in the prosecution of our work. In the mean time rumors were reaching me of the concentration of a strong rebel force in the vicinity of Trenton, for the object, it was reported, of attacking Hickman and Columbus. As these rumors were confirmed by the refugees from the conscription,[6] and as I saw no good that could be accomplished by remaining longer at the flotilla, I started back with my command on Friday afternoon, and the troops are now distributed in the district as they were before the expedition sailed.

In conclusion, permit me to express the opinion that with a properly-organized force of 5,000 men I doubt not the easy, and perhaps bloodless, capture of Forts Pillow and Randolph so soon as the roads leading from the river, by which the rear of their works can be gained, become practicable for artillery; but in the present condition of the country about here it would be unwise to withdraw from the different posts within this district troops enough to constitute an expedition sufficient for such an undertaking.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

I. F. QUINBY, Brig.-Gen. Volunteers, Cmdg. District.

JUNE 3-5, 1862.-Evacuation of Fort Pillow, Tenn., by the Confederates and its occupation by the Union Forces.


No. 1.-Col. Graham N. Fitch, Forty-sixth Indiana Infantry.

No. 2.-Col. Charles Ellet, jr., with congratulatory letter from the Secretary of War.

No. 3.-L. D. McKissick.

No. 4.-Brig. Gen. J. B. Villepigue, C. S. Army, with instructions and congratulatory orders from Gen. Beauregard.

No. 1

Reports of Col. Graham N. Fitch, Forty-sixth Indiana Infantry.

FORT PILLOW TENN., June 5, 1862--4.30 a.m.

Arrangements were completed for a combined assault on the fort at 7 a.m. at a weak and accessible point, but the works were last night, and the guns and commissary stores destroyed. We are in possession, but propose proceeding to-day toward Memphis. I report by mail.

G. N. FITCH, Col., Cmdg. Brigade.

FORT PILLOW, TENN., June 5, 1862--4.30 a.m.

On June 1 a laborious reconnaissance was made, which developed the fact that behind Flower Island, parallel with the chute between that island and the main shore, an approach to Fort Pillow could be made by infantry to Cole Creek, within 30 yards of the enemy's outer works and near the junction of the creek and Flower Island chute. At this point nothing but the creek offered any obstacle of moment, the earthworks of the Confederates being only from 2 to 4 feet high, they apparently relying upon the creek and adjacent swamp for protection.

The following morning this reconnaissance was renewed and its results verified, and it was also ascertained that at the point where Cole Creek could be crossed not a gun from the batteries could be brought to bear, while the ridges in the rear of and overlooking the fortifications would enable our infantry to approach and command them.

On the third morning three companies of this command, under Maj. Bringhurst, of the Forty-sixth Regt. [sic] Indiana Volunteers, was ordered to open a road parallel with the chute, secreted from observation by the timber on Flower Island and the main-land. He was like-wise instructed to make and launch into the chute, 2 or 3 miles from the fort, a rude bridge, in sections, of cypress logs, taken from a cabin convenient. The orders were to complete the work and encamp on the ground, with a view of removing the remainder of the command that night toward the fort. Unfortunately, four of Col. Ellet's rams, not knowing this detail had been sent forward, dropped around Craighead's Point, for the purpose of observation, and were fired upon by the enemy, and the shot, overreaching the boats, fell in the vicinity of the working party in the woods, whereupon the major commanding deemed it prudent to retire and abandon the work.

It being too late after this unfortunate movement to do anything more that day, Capt. Schermerhorn, of the Forty-sixth Regt. [sic] Indiana Volunteers, was ordered the next morning, with a detail from that regiment and the Forty-third Indiana Volunteers, to finish the contemplated works. This he promptly accomplished undiscovered by the enemy, constructing the bridge and laying out a substantial road to within 200 or 300 yards of the enemy's intrenchments. All the troops were ordered on board the transports the same evening, with the intention of surprising and storming the fort, and all arrangements perfected for having a combined attack between the land forces and the gunboats last evening; but appearances, as well as the statement of a deserter last evening, made us apprehend that the enemy was evacuating. Therefore, instead of marching by the contemplated route, I dropped down at 3 a.m. with a small party on one of the transports (the Hetty Gilmore), preceded by open row-boats, containing Capt. Sill and Lieut. Troxell, with a few men. We dropped directly but cautiously toward the fort, and found our apprehensions verified. The enemy was gone, having left at about 1 or 2 o'clock this morning. We found they had destroyed or carried away nearly all the property of the fort; the gun-carriages were burned and burning, and many of the guns that could not be removed were burst. The Hetty Gilmore, in passing the ram fleet and Benton, gave notice what her signal would be if the enemy had left and what if they remained, and was followed very soon by Col. Ellet's rams, and after an interval by the gunboats and the other transports, the signal that there was no enemy in sight having been given.

I am not able to state at this time the amount of property in the fort, but my impression is that it cannot be properly garrisoned without a new armament and a corps of artillerists. For all practical purposes one or two gunboats would be more effective than my command of infantry. I propose, therefore, to proceed directly toward Memphis this p. m., leaving one company here to collect the property. Capt. Davis, commanding flotilla, leaves also one gunboat. I await orders.

Yours, respectfully,

G. N. FITCH, Col., Cmdg. Brigade.

No. 2

Reports of Col. Charles Ellet, jr., commanding Ram Flotilla.

MISSISSIPPI RIVER, ABOVE FORT PILLOW, June 4 (via Cairo, June 5), 1862.

SIR: For the purpose of testing the temper of a doubtful crew and ascertaining the strength of the enemy's position, I determined yesterday to take the Queen of the West and try to reach a rebel steamer lying around Craighead's Point, under the guns of Fort Pillow. The captain, two out of the three pilots, the first made, and all the engineers, and nearly all the crew declined the service and were allowed to go off with their baggage to a barge. Hastily forming a new crew of volunteers, I took command of the boat, and directed Lieut.-Col. Ellet to follow in the Monarch at supporting distance. The captain, David M. Dryden, and all the crew of the Monarch, stood at their post. The rebel steamer slipped lines and escaped before I could reach her. The firing of the fort was at short range and quite brisk, but I think only revealed about seven or eight guns, corresponding with the count previously made in two land reconnaissances by Lieut.-Col. Ellet. My boat was not hit. While the strength of the rebel batteries seems to be greatly overrated, their fleet of rams and gunboats is much larger than mine. It consists of eight gunboats, which usually lie just below the fort, and four others at Randolph, a few miles farther down. Commodore Davis will not join me in a movement against them nor contribute a gunboat to my expedition, nor allow any of his men to volunteer, so as to stimulate the pride and emulation of my own. I shall therefore first weed out some had material, and then go without him.


CHAS. ELLET, Jr., Col., Cmdg.

OPPOSITE RANDOLPH, 12 MILES BELOW FORT PILLOW, June 5 [via Cairo, June 8], 1862.

SIR: To my mortification the enemy evacuated Fort Pillow last night. They carried away or destroyed everything of value. Early this morning Lieut.-Col. Ellet and a few men in a yawl went ashore, followed immediately by Col. Fitch and a part of his command. The gunboats then came down and anchored across the channel. I proceeded with three rams 12 miles below the fort to a point opposite Randolph, and sent Lieut.-Col. Ellet ashore, with a flag of truce, to demand the surrender of the place. Their forces had all left-two of their gunboats only an hour or two before we approached. The people seemed to respect the flag which Lieut.-Col. Ellet planted. The guns had been dismantled and some piles of cotton were burning. I shall leave Lieut.-Col. Ellet here in the advance, and return immediately to Fort Pillow to bring on my entire force. The people attribute the suddenness of the evacuation to the attempt made night before last to sink one of their gunboats at Fort Pillow. Randolph, like Fort Pillow, is weak, and could not have held out long against a vigorous attack. The people express a desire for the restoration of the old order of things, though still professing to be secessionists.

CHAS. ELLET, JR., Col., Cmdg. Ram Flotilla

No. 3

Report of L. D. McKissick.

MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.

I telegraphed Gen. Villepigue to-day, asking him if he could hold Fort Pillow three days, until we could get telegraph wire and instruments down. Just received following reply:

Will endeavor to do so, but fear disaster; have sent off all my troops. Cavalry from above have not arrived as ordered. A great number of desertions; and the enemy captured 4 men this morning, and of course know everything.

JNO. B. VILLEPIGUE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

No. 4

Report of Brig. Gen. John B. Villepigue, C. S. Army, with instructions and congratulatory orders from Gen. Beauregard.

FORT PILLOW, June 3, 1862.

SIR: Am ordered to Grenada, to take command, organize, fortify, &c. My troops have all left; am remaining behind to cover their retreat.

My cavalry have not yet arrived from above.

Enemy captured 4 men this morning; fear they understand my situation.

JNO. B. VILLEPIGUE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 897-902.




          18, Action at Marrow Bone Creek

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.[7]

          18, Skirmish on Horn Lake Creek

MAY 18, 1863.-Skirmish on Horn Lake Creek, Tenn.

Report of Capt. Arthur M. Sherman, Second Wisconsin Cavalry.


May 18, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to submit this my report of the result of the expedition under my command, which left our camp at 1 p. m. To report to brigade commander, Col. Moore, Twenty-first Missouri Infantry.

I received instructions to proceed upon the Hernando road 10 or 12 miles with 75 men, and dispatch 25 men by the Pigeon Roost road to intersect the Hernando road and form a junction with me again, and, if the enemy were discovered in any force, to hold them in check, and report the fact to brigade headquarters.

After proceeding some 4 miles beyond Nonconnah, the advance discovered two pickets and gave chase. After running half a mile, one of them abandoned a United States horse and saddle and fled into the woods, the horse falling into our hands. We proceeded then near unto Horn Lake Creek, and discovered a picket of some 8 or 10 men, who seemed reluctant to abandon their post; whereupon I halted my command, without showing its strength, and advanced Lieut. Showalter, with 20 men, for the purpose of charging them, after becoming convinced they had no reserve to support them; but, if such should be the case, to feint being unsupported, and fall back and draw them out. He advanced upon them, they retreating beyond Horn Lake Creek. He discovered at this time a squad on his right and left, which he immediately engaged, they as soon giving way, and returning into the timber. He immediately communicated to me the facts of his engagement, whereupon I advanced with one-half of the 50 men I had left, the 25 sent by the Pigeon Roost road not yet having overtaken us. About the time or a little before my arrival to the front, the enemy had all fled and abandoned their post.

It being now nearly dark, and my men without either food or blankets, I decided to return to camp.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

A. M. SHERMAN, Capt., Commanding Company L, Second Wisconsin Cavalry.

P. S, I met one of our spies coming in from Hernando, who reported Gen. Chalmers' presence there with 400 men, and that Maj. [G. L.] Blythe is this side with 300 men.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, pp. 144-145.

          18, Captain John Connolley's letter home, his general impressions of Middle Tennessee and its inhabitants

Murfreesboro, May 18, 1863

Dear wife-

Here it is the middle of May and I am not reported killed, wounded or missing. I am back safe from my first trip in command of a mounted force and am feeling better than I have since I have been in the army. The first "ma[y] day" of our wedded life came to me "with healing on its wings." Indeed I felt particularly good that day....I see this war in a different aspect from any in which I saw it before. To some extent I have had a peep behind the rebel curtains, and have been surprised at the very little honesty and very great ignorance to be found behind those curtains.

I have been at their houses and talked with the women while I dandled a dirty faced, half clad infantile rebel on my yankee [sic] knee; I have gone dashing through their corn fields, their wheat fields, their cotton fields, meadows and door yards with a hundred good yankee [sic] "vandals" sweeping along in my train; have eaten at their tables and slept in their feather beds; I have gone to their stables and taken my choice of their horses, to their pastures and taken my choice of their mules, to the granaries and hay stacks and fed my hungry horses, while my men went to their smoke houses, milk houses and hens' nests gathering material for high living in camp, and while engaged in this kind of ranging, as you may readily suppose, I came in close contact with the inhabitants, and was compelled to listen to an entreaty from grey haired matrons and rosy cheeked maidens to spare their last horse that they might raise a little crop to save them from starving but in most cases the last horse had to go, and with it generally went every "likely nigger boy" [sic] on the plantation, who had any aspiration for freedom, leaving the women to do their own work as do the blessed yankee girls far away at my Northern home. Now what do you think of your husband degenerating from a conservative young Democrat to a horse stealer and "nigger thief" [sic] and practising [sic] his nefarious occupation almost within gun shot of the sacred "Hermitage" and tomb of Andrew Jackson? Yes, while in the field I am an abolitionist; my government has decided to wipe out slavery, and I am for government and its policy whether right or wrong, so long as its flag is confronted by the hostile guns of slavery.

Three Years, pp. 56-57.

          18, One White County woman's theological differences with Confederate preaching

It is unpleasantly cool for a day or two. It seems like warm weather will never come. We went to church yesterday but did not hear much preaching. Mr. Dillard is rather a poor preacher anyway, and since the war begun [sic] it is no use going to hear him preach religion, for the great part of his preaching will be about the "invaders of our homes" and the greater part of his prayers, petitions for their defeat. It seems to me rather strange that a man who says he is called to preach the religion of Christ should think of any political topic whatever worth to be even introduced while taking on that important subject, but the preachers must all seem to consider the war of more interest and importance than religion. I must differ from them in opinion, though I guess they would not consider my opinion worth much if they knew....

Diary of Amanda McDowell.

          18, "Even now women come to the very Guard line with their bodies strung round with Whisky under their Clothes to sell themselves and a bottle of Liquor for a Dollar." A 39th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment corporal's first impression of Memphis; an excerpt from George Hovey Cadman's letter to his wife

* * * *

We reached Memphis by six P.M. [May 12th]. The last 30 miles of Country we passed through seemed as fertile and beautiful as any thing I ever saw in England. When we arrived in Memphis our trouble began. Women and Whisky are plentiful here, and the men had been so long debarred from both that it did not take them long to raise Hell generally. Never did I see such a scene before in my life, and hope to God I never may again, for some days, in spite of all the Endeavors [sic] of the Colonel who did his utmost to preserve discipline, the Camp was one wild scene of Debauchery [sic]. One Copy [i.e., "company"] got all its men in the [Irving] Block but three. Our men were not quite as bad as that, but the biggest part were drunk, in fact drunkenness was the order of the day, so you may form some idea of what the Camp was like, and with some Hundreds of the most Abandoned women in the world to add their evil influence, I thought the habitués of Wapping and Shadwell[8] were bad enough, but the Harpies of this place beat them all hollow. I shall be glad when we get our orders for Vicksburg which I expect is our ultimate Destination, for here we are nothing but prisoners. We cannot go more than 50 yards from our Camp without a pass, only in consequence of the misconduct of our Regt. [sic] We have now about 30 of our Regt. [sic] in the Guard House, for offenses committed while Drunk. Even now women come to the very Guard line with their bodies strung round with Whisky under their Clothes to sell themselves and a bottle of Liquor for a Dollar. For the first few nights we could get no sleep for the cursing of the men [and] screaming of women and the firing of pistols outside our Camp.

* * *

George Hovey Cadman Correspondence.[9]

          19, Scouts from LaGrange

MAY 19, 1863.-Scouts from LaGrange, Tenn.

Report of Col. Edward Hatch, commanding Cavalry Brigade.

HEADQUARTERS CAVALRY BRIGADE, LaGrange, Tenn., May 19, 1863.

CAPT.: The colonel commanding directs me to say that he has the honor to submit the following report from the scouts this day:

One company Second Iowa Cavalry found on Ripley road, 10 miles south of this, a party of rebel cavalry of 60 to 100 men. Had quite a sharp skirmish, in which two of our men were quite severely wounded. Rebel loss unknown, but supposed to be much greater than ours. The rebels retired to the southeast. Patrols followed but a short distance farther.

One company (Second Iowa Cavalry) found about 70 of the rebels, supposed to be Mitchell's men, drawn up in line of battle in a field on the right and three-fourths of a mile distant from the road, 13 miles from this place, on Salem road, 2 miles this side of Salem. On our men deploying as skirmishers, the rebels withdrew at the trot, not firing a shot, in a westerly direction. The officer in command of this company reports sending to your headquarters a prisoner just from Jackson.

About 100 of the Seventh Illinois Cavalry went to Mount Pleasant by the way of Early Grove. They saw nothing. Heard of 6 men passing one hour in. Advance of them through Early Grove, but found or heard nothing of them at Mount Pleasant. They got rumors of 200 rebels at Alexander's Mills, on the Coldwater, south of Mount Pleasant, but nothing reliable.

No other forces or movements of the enemy are reported.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. SCOTT BELDEN, Lieut. and Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 145.

          19, U. S. S. Robb fired into near Duck River shoals [see May 17, 1863- May 31, 1863, Naval Operations on the Tennessee River, relative to operations at Savannah and Clifton above]

          19, Special Orders, No. 131, relative to easing shortage of laborers and mechanics in Nashville

Headquarters, Department of the Cumberland

Nashville, Tenn. May 19, 1863

Extract * * * *

II. Owing to the impossibility of having a sufficient number of laborers and mechanics, within the Department, authority is hereby granted Lieut. C. H. Irwin, A .A. Q. M. to send one agent to Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, Ohio, to hire such a number of men as may be necessary.

The Quartermaster Department will furnish the necessary transportation to said agent, also transportation for the men hired by him from the place from which they may be hired to Nashville.

* * * *

By Order of Maj. Gen. Rosecrans

Simon Perkins, Jr. Papers

          19, A Chattanoogan announces his candidacy for the Confederate Congress.

Editors Rebel-Gents: You will please adorn your columns with my patronymic. I am a candidate to represent Arizona Territory in the next Confederate Congress. By recent act of Congress, I discover that I can be voted for by my grateful fellow-citizens at any point between Chattanooga and the port of Nassau. It is true, I am not a resident of Arizona, but I have frequently declared my intention to become a citizen of that loyal section. It is true, I have no claims upon that ground of having been thrown into a Yankee prison, but I have been in the county jails of the country several times previous to the war. Being a refugee, and with no other "visible means of support," I think there ought to be room enough in the Congressional halls for another "heavy member," and will serve at as low as "any other man."

Hon. Kwort Keg

Nashville Dispatch, May 29, 1863.

          19-24, "For my part I think I would have killed all, and taken none…." Six Day Scout by the 5th Iowa Cavalry

Just got home [Fort Donelson] this noon from a scout of six days. Had very fine weather, lost a horse from Co. A killed by the rebels. Lt. Batey of Co. M had his finger shot and his horse severely wounded. Also two men for Co. M severely wounded. Captured seven prisoners, killed none. For my part I think I would have killed all, and taken none, for I think a man that does not join the army but lies around in the woods watching an opportunity to shoot any man he sees wearing a blue coat is a murderer and ought to be treated as such. I think it will be the case hereafter with whatever guerrillas we catch hold of.

Was kept in pretty good health and out of all danger on the trip. Lord may I ever be truly grateful to Thee for thy goodness to me.

Alley Diary, entry for May 24, 1863

          19-June 2, Clement L. Vallandigham, anti-war Democrat from Ohio, convicted of sedition and sent south of Federal lines

WASHINGTON, [May 19, 1863.]


The President has directed Burnside to send C. L. Vallandigham to your headquarters to be put by you beyond our military lines and that if he returns he be arrested and put in close custody during the war. The President also directs that when C. L. Vallandigham reaches your headquarters you keep him in close custody and send him beyond our military lines and that if the returns within your command you arrest and keep him in close custody during the war or until further orders.

By order of the President:

E. R. S. CANBY, Brig.-Gen. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

10 P. M.

Acknowledge receipt of this and report time when received is request of Gen. Canby.


Brig.-Gen. CANBY:

Your telegram respecting C. L. Vallandigham received. The President's orders will be obeyed. Burnside must send with secrecy or he will be shot by some lawless person.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.



The President orders me to receive C. L. Vallandigham from you at my headquarters and put him through our lines. Send him with great secrecy and caution or he will run the risk of a stray shot from some lawless person.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

CINCINNATI, OHIO, May 19, 1863.


Vallandigham is still here under guard. Will not be sent till to-morrow. He is sentenced to confinement in Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, during the war.

A. E. BURNSIDE, Maj.-Gen.

WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, May 19, 1863.

Maj.-Gen. BURNSIDE, Cincinnati.

SIR: The President directs that without delay you send C. L. Vallandigham under secure guard to the headquarters of Gen. Rosecrans to be put by him beyond our military lines and that in case of his return within our lines he be arrested and kept in close custody for the term specified in his sentence.

By order of the President:

EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, May 19, 1863.

Maj.-Gen. ROSECRANS, Cmdg. Dept. of the Cumberland, Murfreesborough, Tenn.:

The President has directed Gen. Burnside to send C. L. Vallandigham to your headquarters to be put by you beyond our military lines and that if the returns to be arrested and kept in close custody during the war. The President also directs that when C. L. Vallandigham reaches your headquarters you keep him in close and send him beyond our military lines and that if he returns within your command you arrest and keep him in close custody during the war or until further orders.

By order of the President:

EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 657-658.


OFFICE PROVOST-MARSHAL-GEN., Murfreesborough, May 25, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff, Department of the Cumberland.

GEN.: As directed by the major-general commanding I proceeded at 11 p. m. yesterday with a guard of six men to the railroad depot and received the person of C. L. Vallandigham, a prisoners from the Department of the Ohio, conducted him to my office and after furnishing him with refreshments I in company with Col. J. C. McKibbin, aide-de-camp, and with two companies of the Fourth U. S. Cavalry as escort conveyed him to the house of Mr. Butler, five miles south from Murfreesborough on the Shelbyville pike, where the prisoner was kept under close guard until daylight when we proceeded as far as to our cavalry vedettes. Here the escort was halted and the prisoner left in charge of Lieut.-Col. Ducat, inspector-general of the department. Col. McKibbin and myself proceeded under flag of truce to the Confederate cavalry vedettes, when Col. McK. sent a note to the officer commanding outpost informing him of the object of our visit. We remained there nearly two hours when the officer in command (Col. Webb, Alabama cavalry) appeared and stated that Mr. Vallandigham would not be received under a flag of truce or in any official manner, but that if he were set beyond our lines and approached those of the Confederate Army to request admittance he would be received and treated as any other citizen.

Feeling that it was necessary to dispose of him within the rebel lines I insisted upon the permission and it was granted to take him within a short distance of their lines where I delivered him to an orderly sent from the rebel lines to receive him. In the presence of Capt. Goodwin and myself Mr. Vallandigham delivered himself up as a prisoner stating that he was a citizen of the State of Ohio and the United States of America.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. M. WILES, Maj. and Provost-Marshal-Gen.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 705-706.


Mr. Vallandigham, the Ohio traitor, started from here last night across the lines, on the Shelbyville pike. This was a good job, for if he passed here at day-light he would never escape, notwithstanding the good discipline of our army. The traitor is now among his friends, where we hope he may remain. Several members of different Ohio regiments were at the [Murfreesboro] depot this morning anxiously awaiting to see the traitor-but he was gone. He took a few bottles of "Robinson's county," and a trunk of clothing along, "good riddance to bad rubbish."

He was escorted nine miles from town by Major Wiles, Provost Marshal General; Col. McKibben, Lt. Col. Ducal, and two companies of the 4th Regular Cavalry. The escort was halted by our videttes and he was taken three miles beyond our lines by Major Wiles and Capt. Goodwin, where he was left at a house in charge of a rebel cavalry officer. He delivered himself up with the following expression:

"I am a citizen of the State of Ohio, United States of America. I have been sent here against my wish to your lines; I deliver myself up to you as a prisoner; do with me as you wish."

Nashville Daily Press, May 27, 1863.


HDQRS. DEPARTMENT No. 2, Shelbyville, Tenn., May 26, 1863.

Hon. C. L. VALLANDIGHAM, of Ohio, Shelbyville.

SIR: I inclose you the passport desired and congratulate you on your arrival in our land of liberty where you will find the freedom of speech and of conscience secured to all. Your sojourn amongst us as a private citizen, exiled by a foreign Government with which we are at war, will of course impose some restraints upon you which our people will fully appreciate. But I am satisfied you will ever receive the courtesy due your unfortunate position and the respect of all who learn the quiet and retired position you have determined to occupy.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

BRAXTON BRAGG, Gen., C. S. Army.


SHELBYVILLE, TENN., May 26, 1863.

Mr. Vallandigham, the bearer, a citizen of the State of Ohio, is permitted to pass as any citizen of the Confederacy within the limits of this department.


OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, p. 958.


SHELBYVILLE, June 1, 1863. Gen. S. COOPER,

Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond:

Hon. C. L. Vallandigham is here on parole. He was brought under guard by the enemy and abandoned in front of my lines with orders from his Government not to return under penalty of imprisonment for the war. Fearing assassination by a licensed soldiery he made his way to my outposts and surrendered as an alien enemy owing allegiance to the State of Ohio and the United States but exiled by the present Government for maintaining his civil rights as a freeman. He awaits orders but desires to make his way be the most expeditious route to Canada. I suggest a conference with him personally or by a confidential agent.


(Copy sent to the President.


RICHMOND, June 2, 1863.

Gen. B. BRAGG, Shelbyville:

Your dispatch to Adjutant-Gen. received. Send Hon. C. L. Vallandigham as an alien enemy under guard of an officer to Wilmington where further orders await him.


SHELBYVILLE, June 2, 1863.

JEFFERSON DAVIS, President of Confederate States:

Upon Mr. Vallandigham's earnest request he was permitted to go this morning to Lynchburg to confer with a distinguished friend of Virginia. He reports from there on parole to the War Department.


OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, p. 117.[10]




          18, Report relative to position of Federal troops in Tennessee

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, Tenn., March 18, 1864.

Maj. Gen. W. T. SHERMAN, Cmdg. Mil. Div. of the Mississippi, Nashville, Tenn.:

GEN.: I have the honor to report for your information the following as the position of the troops of the Army of the Cumberland:

The Twelfth Corps (Scolum's) at Fort Donelson, Clarksville, Gallatin, Nashville, and on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad as far south as Bridgeport.

Two regiments of negro infantry and a regiment of Tennessee cavalry on the Northeastern Railroad.

Stokes' Fifth Tennessee Cavalry at Sparta, operating against the guerrillas, who, under Hamilton, Ferguson, Carter, Murray, and Hughs, have infested that country since the war commenced. The Eleventh Corps (Howard's) on the railroad, between Bridgeport and this place.

This place is garrisoned by eight regiments of infantry, one regiment of negro troops (Fourteenth U. S. Colored), one company of siege artillery, and six batteries of field artillery, dismounted. The post is commanded by Brig. Gen. James B. Steedman.

Two divisions of the Fourth Corps, under Gordon Granger, and the Tennessee brigade of infantry, are on detached service with the Army of the Ohio in East Tennessee.

One division (Stanley's), Fourth Corps, is stationed at Blue Springs (5 miles in advance of Cleveland, on the railroad between that the place and Dalton) and at Ooltewah.

* * * *

Two brigades of cavalry are at Cleveland...

The troops occupy strong positions, and are favorably placed to guard the railroad to East Tennessee and the Charleston railroad, so far as occupied.

Signal stations are established in the most favorable position for observing the roads and the country for 6 or 8 miles in advance of the camps, and the officers on duty have instructions to report immediately all movements of the enemy which they observe. I have telegraph and signal communications with every camp, as well as by courier....

* * * *

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 89-90.

          18, "Relief Meeting;" assisting war refugees in Nashville

In pursuance to a previous call, a number of prominent citizens of Tennessee assembled at the office of the Secretary of State at ten o'clock yesterday morning, and organized by the election of Hon. David T. Patterson, President, and John M. Gant, Secretary.

The President announced the object of the meeting to be, to devise some means for the relief of those families who have been driven from their homes by the devastations of the war, and are temporarily residing in this division of the State. After a short time spent in mutual consultation, the Hon. Horace Maynard Offered the following resolution which was unanimously adopted:

Resolved [sic] That the President, Secretary Jos. S. Fowler, Gen. Alvin C. Gillem, H. Maynard, J.R. Dullin, S.C. Mercer, and J. M. Hinton, be a committee to receive clothing, provisions, money, and other means for the benefit of the many refugees now in this vicinity and constantly arriving; and see that the same are properly disbursed; also to provide temporary shelter and employment for such as are destitute in respect to either.

After the adoption of a resolution requesting the city papers to publish these proceedings, the meeting adjourned.

David T. Patterson, Pres't.

John M. Gaut, Sec'y.

Nashville Dispatch, March 18, 1864.

          18, "Our City Fathers Brought Up at Last;" General S. A. Hurlbut censures Memphis municipal government for failure to take action on crime and sanitation

A called meeting of our very worthy Board of Mayor and Aldermen was held at their usual place of gathering, under the persuasive request of General Hurlbut, who appeared among them and stirred up their stagnant intellects in a quiet, genteel manner. The first subject he touched upon was one which has become so common that people who have business in the streets at night expect to get robbed any how, and make up their minds for it. The General said that garroting and robbery were growing up as recognized institutions, and he would request the refulgent Fathers to throw the scathing glances of their beaming countenances upon such practices and scorch them like dried chaff. The sly look which he cast around the room convinced him that there was more than one warming-pan phiz[11] [sic], and the suggestion of the scorching process was, we think, peculiarly happy. The next point he alluded to was one upon which the press has rung the changes so often that it began to despair of anything being done until pestilence had made its appearance in the city. So little did Hurlbut think of the removal of dead animals-a task which has hitherto been considered herculean [sic]-that he intimated pretty plainly that if our rulers could not accomplish this duty, he thought he could find those who were capable of performing the work. Some of the Alderman attempted to get up the usual fuss of regulations and ordinances, but that hard headed old worthy, [Alderman] Mulholland, told them that there was a great [illegible] many ordinances which are dead letters, and they should put in force what they had already on the minute-book. The [remarks?] of the General were so far repeated as to have a committee appointed drawn from each ward to devise a plan for the proper carrying out of this work, and [most likely?] some [means for providing for the levy of] taxation [?] [to enhance the] sanitation and salutary medical [?] [conditions for] Memphis' people can present their plan on Saturday night [?], at three o'clock.[12]

Memphis Bulletin, March 18, 1864.


General Hurlbut made a speech to the Common Council of Memphis on the 17th, in which he threatened that if they did not clean the city he would stoop the collection of taxes and do the work himself….

Pittsfield Sun, March 24, 1864.

          18, Carrion Road

The Chattanooga Gazette states that between the point of Lookout Mountain and Bridgeport, down the Valley of the Tennessee, lie twenty five miles of dead mules in one continuous string.

Daily National Intelligencer, March 18, 1864. [13]

          19, Skirmish at Beersheba Springs [See March 11-28, 1864, "Counter-insurgency operations around Sparta, including skirmishes on Calfkiller Creek and near Beersheba Springs" above]

No circumstantial reports filed.

          19, "Is that any way for him or any Federal officer to do?" Complaints about Federal depredations in West Tennessee

at [sic] my farm Haywood County, Tennessee, 19 March 1864

Honble Andrew Johnson

Military Governor of Tennessee

Nashville, Tennessee

Dear Sir [sic]

Last evening I brought home from my office at Brownsville 2 of the writing Desks & a Chest containing part of my letters & papers all battered in by some of the Command of Col Hurst [sic] you can see the prints of their guns on the folding door of my little Secretary & many of my papers are gone & feathered to the four winds of heaven [sic]

Col[.] Hurst burned 3 establishments belonging to 3 of the best Union men about Brownsville. Is that any way for him or any Federal officer to do? some of these sufferers has [sic] left since and settled in Peoria Illinois, [sic] I learned yesterday & one had before gone & opened an establishment in Memphis Tenn [sic]

It appears that old Satan has been turned loose to go about and injuring the innocent [sic]

Previous to the advent of Col. Hurst I had shipped all of my Law Books & the most valuable papers to a place of safety, not knowing when one or the other of the Armies might enter and Destroy-I was always opposed to the war never was infavor [sic] of secession & never expect to be so and I have suffered more than the secessionists and it looks hard and both sides have taken from me horses & mules &c [sic] but show the consolation of Job when his friends told him "to curse God & die" he told them " I know my redeemer Liveth" and so do I-[sic]

In the summer of 1862 the Federal soldiers in passing would ride up to the field where my negroes [sic] were ploughing & try to take out their mules or horses & go with them that "they would pay them $8 to 10$ pr month" [sic]

My property before the war was estimated at about two hundred thousand Dollars & I would willingly give it all to close the war satisfactorily now as I am young enough to make more but it appears that his majesty "Old Satan" is revelling [sic] in great luxury North & South & that if this war should end before he shall have been thrashed out of the people both North & South, it will soon brake out [sic] anew like an old Canser [sic]

If Mr. Lincoln had had the nerve of Genl Andrew Jackson or Mr. Filmore or Col James J. Polk [sic] our difficulties might have been ended ere this [sic]

When Genl Lew Wallace went from Corinth to Memphis in 1862, he knocked the wind out of the sails of the secessionist & made Union men out of secessionists & when the 7 Kansas Regiment [sic] went from Columbus Ky passing Jackson Tenn [sic] in 1862 robbing and hanging people they made Secessionists out of Union Men [sic]

What Caused our arms to Conquer Mexico so soon or easily in 1846, 47 & 1848? [sic] it was the mild & Gentle policy pursued by our President Col James K Polk who would not permit the Soldiers to rob pillage & plunder the Mexicans & paid for what they got [sic] But Louis Napoleon landed his forces in Mexico in Novb [sic] 1860 & he suffered them to plunder & devastate the country & he is not nearer conquering them now than he was 12 mos ago [sic] Notwithstanding he has more men there than James K Polk had in 1846, 47 & 1848 [sic] But it appears that Mr Lincoln [sic] cannot resist the outside pressure of these heavenly sanctified preachers nor Could Mr Buchanan resist the outside pressure of Floyd Toombs, Thompson & others & now where is Mr. Buckanan? [sic] Had the policy of James K. Polk & Genl Scott been adopted-peace now might perhaps "have been restored" [sic] & then "those who danced could have been made to pay the Fiddler" and I am fearful peace is far off from our once happy Country [sic]

History proves that a different policy towards our enemies will produce a different & better result [sic] Look at the policy to Spain towards the United Provinces in a war which lasted nearly fifty years & in which Spain lost those Provinces [sic]

Look at the Policy of Charles II of England & his parliament-he pardoned all his rebels with a few exceptions & he did not enter into this wholesale destruction & Confiscation of private property or he never could have maintained his head on the throne & those difficulties lasted 18 years before his restoration & Some of your old substantial Union friends in this part of the Country say-(I dont [sic] mean such men who are "pig today & pork tomorrow." [sic] Union when the Federals are about & Secessionist when the Confederates are nearby such as have always been the same from the Orient to the Occident) that unless a different policy be pursued this war will last 30 years & that there is only one way to settle it in order to have a permanent peace of which it is not my purpose now to write you [sic]

My relative the Honbl John Reed of Jackson Tenn who has always been a Union man & is now in his 77 [sic] year of his age has suffered from the Federal Army more than any other man according to his property or about as much as any in that County according to his property-This is no way for officers & soldiers & a Government to treat their peaceable quiet and orderly Citizens [sic]

Some times I get out of hear [sic] & think that our Dear Country is gone to old Satan or is fast on the verge & that the old maxim that "the people are incapable of self Government" has been realized [sic]

I write you thus plainly because you are our Military Govenor [sic] & you were a Breckenridge Democrat and so was I and I wished to inform you how matter have been managed in portions of this Country [sic]

What do you think of the English papers calling us a nation of thieves and Robbers? That is tolerably tall talk [sic]

Some times [sic] it does seem to me that the whole Country will get into a general row from one end to the other from the Lakes to the Gulf and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, like it was in England during her civil wars and it so much distresses me some times [sic] that it almost sickens me [sic]

Several of my negroes [sic] left me in 1863 & are in the Federal Army or waiting on the Army [sic]

Please have the kindness to inform me what course should I pursue in order to get a Voucher for them [sic]

If you think proper to address me, you can direct your letter thus

Yours Respectfully Edward J. Read

Of Brownsville Tennessee

Care of Farmington & Howell Memphis Tennssee [sic]

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 648-650.

          19, Confederate situation report for East Tennessee

HDQRS., Greeneville, East Ten., March 19, 1864.

Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond, Va.:

GEN.: The supply of corn promised us from Virginia comes in so slowly that we shall not be able to keep our animals alive more than week or two, unless some improvement may be made in forwarding supplies. Our rations, too are getting short, so that we will hardy be able to march to any point at which we may be needed unless we can received orders inside of a week, and then we must receive corn by railroad in order that our animals may make a march.

We have suffered more or loss since we have been here in this department for want of proper supplies, but have been able to get along very poorly clad through the winter months, and could, now that the weather is be coming [sic] more mild, do very well if we could get food and forage. Without either of these our army must soon become entirely helpless.

The enemy is in front of us at Morristown, with three army corps and could be struck to great advantage were it possible for us to move. The greater part of his force could probably be captured, but animals cannot work without food. The only corn in this country is far out upon our flanks, and is barely sufficient for the cavalry there, and the cavalry is necessary there to prevent its falling into the hands of the enemy.

I beg that you will send us supplies at once, in sufficient quantity at least to enable us to march to some point where our troops can be partially supplied and where they may be useful. These perhaps the troops in the Confederate armies, and should not be left where they starve, and at the same time be of no service to the country.

The enemy is in much poorer fighting condition than he has been since the beginning of the war, and we should have but little difficulty in breaking him if we can be furnished the means of getting at him. I respectfully urge, therefore, than no more time may be lost in making the necessary arrangements for active operations. If our armies can take the initiative in the spring campaign they can march into Kentucky with by little trouble and finish the war in this year. If we delay and give the enemy his full time the war will, in all probability, be prolonged for another four years.

I remain, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

J. LONGSTREET, Lieut.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 655.

          19, "To Be Confiscated." Federal seizure of property of alien enemies in Clarksville

The Clarksville Gazette of the 19th inst. says: "The military authorities here gave notice, several days ago, to the occupants of the following named house to vacate the same, preparatory to their being confiscated as the property of alien enemies, and appropriated to military occupancy: Residence of James E. Bailey, Franklin street, occupied by Mrs. Howard; residence of Geo. B. Fleece, Franklin Street, occupied by Mrs. King; residence of residence of D. N. Kennedy, corner of Madison and Second Streets, occupied by Mrs. Kennedy"

Nashville Dispatch, March 22, 1864.

          19, "SACRILIGE."

It will be remembered that the Government has for some time past occupied the Church of the Holy Trinity, South Nashville, as a powder magazine. On Thursday or Friday of last week, we are informed, the powder was removed, and the guard taken from the building but no notice give the vestry that the church property had been relinquished by the Ordnance Department. On Saturday morning, Mr. Campbell, who reside near by, saw the front door open and closed it, and informed one of the vestrymen of the circumstance. Supposing that if the military had determined to return the church to its owners, the proper officer would send the keys, no further notice was taken of it, except to fasten the doors, until Wednesday morning, when Mr. Campbell discovered that the door had been broken open, and a brief inspection convinced him that some malicious wretch or wretches had been committing the most wanton outrages in the building. The beautiful and valuable organ was entirely destroyed-broken to pieces, the pipes taken out and broken to pieces over the backs of the pews, and the case and everything connected with it utterly demolished. The Sunday School library, also, was destroyed – the case broken and the books torn or carried away. The furniture met the same fate, and the church left a complete wreck.

Nashville Dispatch, March 19, 1864.

          19, The Federal Army's Persecution of Confederate Women and Children in East Tennessee

Affairs In East Tennessee.

A refugee from Tennessee, who has just left our lines there, gives the most deplorable account of the situation of the unhappy people of that State. Both classes, Unionists and Confederates, have come under the ban of the two armies, and what property has been spared by one has been appropriated by the other. Most of the residents consist solely of women and children, and these have been stripped of all save what they have upon their backs, and the few blankets that protect them from the cold at night. They are clad in cotton rags, bare foot and hungry, and live only on the meagre allowance they have managed to bury or otherwise secrete. Negroes, once the property of well-to-do farmers, have returned to their homes, backed by Yankee troops and bayonets, and perpetrated unnamable enormities. The wives and children of "rebels" are debarred from the purchase of even the necessaries of life, unless they first take the hated oath of allegiance, while hundreds and thousands have been driven into exile, and are now scattered through the army and through the more Southern States where they seek the liberty denied them at home.

A favorite occupation of these blue-uniformed wretches, of late, has been, and still is, to march abruptly upon some quiet residence, occupied by women and children, give them twenty four hours notice to leave, and then send them, under guard, across the lines where they arrive penniless, friendless and alone.

God only knows the sufferings that have been endured in this struggle, but as sure as He over-rules the destinies of mankind, just so certain is the hand of avenging justice to fall with blighting weight upon these more than diabolical oppressors.

The Daily South Carolinian, March 19, 1864. [14]

          19-20, Federal scouts, Cleveland to across the Hiwassee River

CLEVELAND, TENN., March 21, 1864.

Brig. Gen. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Cumberland:

I have the honor to report that Maj. D. A. Briggs, in command of the Second Indiana Cavalry, returned from the vicinity of Waterhouse's farm at 9.30 p. m. of the 20th instant; reports no enemy on that road excepting scouting parties. Eighty rebels were at that place on the 19th, and remainder during the night. One of my scouts left Sumac creek south of Waterhouse's farm at 12 o'clock last night, and reports having heard drums in a southeast direction from there in the evening. It has also been reported that a cavalry force from Longstreet's command crossed the Hiwassee at Taylor's Ferry, and marched via Ducktown to join Johnston at Dalton. I have also information, which I deem reliable, that a considerable amount of corn and wheat sacked up in sacks marked "C. S. A." has been accumulated at Callway's Mill, 4 miles from Waterhouse's farm. These stores might be removed to within our lines by sending a considerable force for that purpose. I do not think it would be safe to attempt it without taking all or the greater part of my effective [force] with artillery, but can easily destroy it by burning it. I have communicated this information to Gen. Stanley.

The scouting parties sent out this morning have not yet reported.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. P. CAMPBELL, Col., Cmdg. Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 101.




          18, Report on status of mopping up exercises in Purdy environs

EASTPORT, May 18, 1865.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Cmdg. Department of the Cumberland:

Your dispatches of the 18th are received. Moreland's regiment of cavalry Roddey's brigade, is being paroled at Iuka to-day. The Nineteenth Tennessee Cavalry is now at Corinth to be paroled. A number or irregular bands have surrendered at this place. There are, however a number more gangs that infest Northern Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, in the vicinity of Purdy. I sent notice too all bands to surrender, and unless the demand is complied with I shall mount all the men possible by using train mules and hunt them down as outlaws. Using mules is the only way I have of keeping up a mounted force by which to keep the country quiet. I send dispatch this day received from Mobile. The line is now completed via Decatur.

EDWARD HATCH, Brevet Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 830-831.

18,"The New School Assembly."

The General Assembly of the New School portion of the Presbyterian Church held its session in the city of Brooklyn, N.Y., opening on the 18th day of May [1865]….

The second day of its sessions was occupied with reports on Foreign and Home Missions, three reports from the Committee on Bill and Overtures, and one from the Publication Committee. The following Overture on Disloyalty was also reported and discussed at lengthy the overture is signed by Rev. T. Spears and some twenty others:

The undersigned, being members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, beg leave to submit the following overture to the General Assembly about to hold its sessions in the city of Brooklyn, expressing their belief that treason is a most grievous sin against sin as well as the highest crime against the state, and referring to the undoubted fact that the ministry resident in the States recently in rebellion, have largely shared in the guilt of treason against the government of their country, abiding and abetting the same, and thus bringing great scandal upon our holy religion – the undersigned respectfully ask the General Assembly to give its testimony on this subject, and take some order suggestion to the Presbyters un what terms, and in what way ministers who have been guilty of treason should, if at all, be received by them in the event of their making an application for this purpose. The undersigned feel that this is a subject of the highest practical importance to the honor of Zion, and also the welfare of our common country; and hence they submit it for consideration to the assembly.

Attached to the Overture is a Minute, (prepared, it appears by some one of those who signed it, the adoption of which the Committee recommend, and that its consideration by the Assembly be made the special order for Monday at 3 P.M.

"The Assembly views the ministers in what have been designated as the Rebel States, most grievous sinners against the God of heaven!"

The Assembly advised the Presbyteries not to admit any ministers of members, or recognize then "as ambassadors of the Cross of Christ until they have given satisfactory evidence that they have sincerely repented of their sins!"

The present, perhaps, is not the time to discuss these new doctrines, or to exhibit the folly of ecclesiastical action of this sort the authors are evidently groping in the darkness in their theology. The notion that the avowal of political opinions, held at the avowal of political opinions, held by some of the most prominent statesmen of the country ever since the Constitution was adopted, is a sin! is too preposterous for debate.

Union and Kingston Presbyteries

When the Federal troops took possession of Knoxville and the surrounding country, some of the ministers were sent beyond the military lines, and others (one of whom was barbarously beaten with rods for preaching the Gospel in contravention of an order given by an officer) deemed it proper to leave that section for a season to labor in other fields where their services would be less liable to interruption. – A meeting of three ministries of the Presbyters of Union, five ministers being absent, resolved to join the N. S. Assembly; and appointed Rev. Thomas J. Lamar to its present meeting. – Jno. J. Dixon, Elder from Kingston Presbytery, appeared with a paper showing that he too was appointed a Commissioner to the Assembly. – Rev. Mr. Sawyer, who was present also in connection with this paper, had taken action similar to the Presbytery of Union, signed by the designated clerk of the Presbytery had been committed to him to present to the Assembly.

The case of these three commissioners and these churches of East Tennessee was sent to the standing committee of the Polity of the Church, which [was] presented, on the third day… May 3, of the Assembly's sessions, the following minute:


Whereas, the Presbytery of Union…and the Presbytery of Kingston…by the unanimous vote of all those present, to connect themselves with this general assembly, from which they withdrew in 1857 have requested us to receive them;


1. That the Presbytery's hereby recognize that the Presbytery of Kingston and Union, as constituent parts of the Presbyterian Church in the United States;

2. That the name of Rev. Thomas J. Lamar, from the Presbytery of Union, and the name of Elder John Dixon, as commissioner of the Presbyter of Kingston, be enrolled in the list of members of the Assembly.

3. That this assembly determine the Synodical relations of said Presbyteries.

Your committee further  state that a paper has been placed in their hands, containing the action of several ministers and elders representing the interests of the Presbytery of the Holston. – In this paper the wish is expressed that the ministers and churches of this Presbytery would put themselves in an attitude of decided loyalty to the government of the United States, and also with their former connection with this assembly. The ministers composing this body were connected to the two bodies of Holston, of both schools, and with several other Presbyteries. It appears that at a regular meeting of the Presbytery of Holston, formerly in our connection, three ministers were present, all of whom were loyal men, and desirous of union again with this Assembly; but one of them, who resides on the line, and has been exposed to much difficulty from his loyalty, was afraid to vote for such action, lest it should expose him to make trouble. No action was therefore taken.

The Committee have also papers from the Church at Greenville, independent, and the Church at Timber Ridge, requisition to be take in into connection with this Assembly.

It further appears that the Presbytery of New River is largely disloyal, and that the Synod of Tennessee, with which these Presbyteries are connected, was prevented, by the state of the country, from meeting last Fall, and taking action on the question of a return to this body.

Now, in reference to the reconstruction of our Church in Tennessee, three courses are open to us:

1st. , To refuse to act at all at present on the application of the Presbyteries of Union and Kingston, advising them to wait and secure next Fall a meeting of the Synod of East Tennessee in favor of a return to this assembly.

2d., To adopt the minutes of the Committee, and connect these Presbyteries to the nearest Synod. This would be according to our rules, but it would virtually leave them alone, out in the cold. The nearest Presbytery is that of Cincinnati, and it would not be possible for them to attend a meeting held at such a distance.

3d,. The Assembly in virtue of its own power may proceed to constitute the Presbytery of Holston out of such loyal materials as are on the ground. This is the action the Committee recommend the Assembly to take, and for this purpose submit the following minute for adoption:

Whereas, It is exceedingly desirable the Presbyteries of Kingston and Union should have their syndical relations within the State of Tennessee, and in consequence of the disorganized state of many of the churches formerly in this connection, it is impracticable to secure this object at present by the ordinary methods of ecclesiastical action; and whereas, the following minister and churches not belonging either of the aforesaid Presbyteries have expressed to this Assembly a desire to be in connection with us, therefore,

Resolved 1st. That Rev. Samuel Sawyer, now laboring in Tennessee, but at present a member of the Presbytery of Fort Wayne, as soon as he shall obtain a dismission [sic] form that body, for the purpose, together with the Rev. R. P. Wells and Rev. N. Bachman, are hereby constituted the Presbytery of Holston; that the churches of Greenville and Timber Ridge be placed under its care, and that the bonds of said Presbytery be the same a those of the former Presbytery of Holston ____that the Presbytery meet at ___ on___ and be opened by a sermon from ____; who shall be the Moderator until another be chosen.

Resolved 2d. That the Presbyteries of Kingston and Holston are hereby erected into the Synod of Tennessee, and that a the boundaries of said Synod as the former Synod of Tennessee, and that the Synod shall hold its first meeting at ____ on ____ at ____ o'clock and shall be opened by a sermon by ____, of in case of his absence by the senior minister present, who shall preside until a Moderator be chosen.

Resolved 3d That these Presbyteries be directed not to recognize or admit as a member to their respective bodies any minister known to be disloyal to the government of the United States.

Resolved 4th. That in case the Presbytery of New River, now in connection with the United Synod, shall elect to belong to the Synod as thus constituted, said Presbytery shall be recognized as a constituent part of said Synod; and, in case it does not, then the bounds of the Presbytery of Holston be so enlarged as to embrace any churches and ministers within the bounds of said New River Presbytery that may elect to unite with us.

The New York 'Observer" says:

The report called forth a warm response on the part of the Assembly, especially that part of it which referred to disloyal ministers.

At the suggestion of the Committee, the Rev. Mr. Sawyer was invited to address the Assembly in relation to the churches of East Tennessee. I suppose, he said, that most members of this Assembly are looking with great interest upon East Tennessee. I am convinced of this by the way in which myself and my associates have been met by all of you. I am here now glad to answer any inquiries which may be addressed to me in relation to the difficulties in my section. One thing I will say. Brethren have asked me whether we, in Tennessee, are willing to accept the Proclamation of Emancipation. I went up to the State constitutional convention at Knoxville and my vote went with the unanimous one which forbade property in man. This decree had been endorsed in a free election of the people by a majority of 30,000 votes, legally taken. We are ready for the abolition of slavery. In the name of all that is patriotic, of all that is just and true, we do not want our children to listen to the preaching of ministers who have been traitorous to our country. And, even if this Assembly could recommend their re-installation, I doubt in Tennessee you could get a corporal's guard to listen to them. We know what treason is and we know that these men have encited [sic], and abetted it. Near Knoxville a few days since, I met a man by the name of Vineyard – who told me his father, and old man had been drowned by guerrillas, with six others  -  thrown into the river, and those who tried to swim were riddled with bullets.

This is the thing these disloyal ministers have encouraged. It is estimated, and justly, that every disloyal minister in Tennessee to-day their hands reeking with the blood with the blood of at least twelve murdered men. – The speaker described the spirit in which the slaveholders had always treated them. He alluded to the "Ross" Assembly at Richmond in 1857, from which he had been excluded. He then traced the previous history of the churches of East Tennessee. Some of them, in order to avoid uniting with the sectional United Synod South, had joined the Old School body. When this was also divided, and the Southern branch had seceded from the Northern joined with Southern branch New School, the loyal men found themselves adrift, without any resting place or head. These were the men who wished to renew their connection with this Assembly. As to their prospect of maintaining their standing, he could not doubt it. Most of the disloyal ministers had left the State. The disloyal elders were without hope, energy, and influence. A new class had sprung up which had overawed them – the great middle class and the freedmen. Providence had accomplished the revolution, and there now appeared an active, powerful, loyal class to supplant the place of the band and broken-down aristocracy.

Rev, Mr. Lamar followed with an earnest and interesting address, fully confirming the statements of Mr. Sawyer.

These two speakers were greeted with applause and thanks were unanimously voted by the Assembly.

Rev. Dr. Adams wished that some peculiar expression of our sympathy with our brethren from East  Tennessee should be added to the formal recognition of their regularity, and an acknowledgment made that our eyes were turned with special interest toward to that field, , the seeds of whose theology, and, he believed, of their loyalty came from the East.

Rev. Dr. Fisher explained that the work of the Committee was rather an ecclesiastical one, and that the expression of sympathy would come most forcibly form the Assembly.

The Rev. Dr. Adams, at the suggestion of the Moderator, recognized the hand of God in this return of these brethren in an earnest prayer, rendering special thanks for their deliverance from the trials to which they had been submitted in these years of violence, and falsity, and treason, and that when His waves and billows went over them, and bringing them out, had established them on sure foundations.

The prayer was followed by the doxology in long metre.


Fourth Day.

Monday morning was occupied with a report and speeches on foreign missions.

In the afternoon the first business of the Assembly was the hearing of the reports of the Committee appointed to answer the inquiry, and in what manner ministers guilty of treason to the Rebel States should be dealt with by the Presbyteries? The report was again read, and after a slight amendment, was adopted unanimously, as follows:

The Sin of Disloyalty

The Assembly regards the matter referred to in the overture in the gravest and most solemn character. Civil society is in the Scriptures, expressly declared to be an ordinance from God. Its agency in some sort of human government, and to this government the subject thereof, is bound to yield obedience, except those cases in which the higher law of God directly intervenes to cancel the obligation. To disobey the civil law, unless required to do so by the law of God is alike a crime against the State and a sin against God, rendering the offender justly amenable to punishment.

These principles, so expressed in our Scriptures, and so obviously true at the bar, of right reason apply, with special emphasis to that form of disobedience which is treasonable, which seeks to subvert government, which attacks the very life of a nation, and gives rise to disorder, anarchy, and civil war among the people. Resistance to the civil authority in this form and for this purpose is, in the judgment of this Assembly,the highest crime against the State as well as the most grievous against God. The Specific case referred to in the overture presents the crime and sin of treason under its most aggravated positions. It is treason against the popular government, containing within itself the most ample means for the peaceful redress of all possible for all possible grievances. It is treason without provocation, justification, or excuse. It is treason designed to perpetuate and extend the iniquitous system of human bondage. It is treason, too, historically attended with barbarities and outrages, on the part of its officers and abettors, alike shocking the civilization of the age and repugnant to the principles of Christianity. To suppress and destroy this treason with the sacrifices of thousands and tens of thousands of human lives and filled the land with a deep wall of affliction and sorrow. Such a treason this Assembly regards as involving criminality in its most appalling form. The justice of God, the honor of law and the safety of civil society demand that it should be suitably punished by the judicial power of the nation in the affliction of penalty of the guilty authors.

That the ministers of the Gospel resident in what have been rebel States  -  men professing to believe in the Bible  -  should have shared in the guilt of treason, making them parties thereto, giving it to their public influence, aiding and abetting the same, seems to the Assembly one of the most astonishing moral perversions to be found in the history of this fallen world; and yet that such has been the fact in the States hitherto in rebellion is too obvious to admit of reasonable doubt or denial. These members of the Assembly can view only as in this thing most grievous sinners against the God in heaven. In view of the principles and opinions thus expressed, the Assembly most earnestly exhorts all the Presbyteries under its care to consider this subject, and take such action thereupon as shall accord with the Word of God. In the event that any of the ministers referred to in the above Overture, shall apply for admission into these Presbyteries, the Assembly advises not to admit them, or in any way recognize them as ambassadors of the Cross of Christ, until they have given satisfactory evidence that they have sincerely repented for their sins. The details of this advice, the means and ways of giving it practical effect, the Assembly for the present must leave with the direction and wisdom of the Presbyteries; yet the Assembly cannot forbear the hope that the Presbyteries in the spirit of true loyalty to their country and their God, will so act in the premises as to convey, the clearest and most undoubted condemnation of the treason which has clothed this land with the habiliments of sorrow. Let the religious sense of the Church, in her pulpit ministrations, through the action of her judicatories; mark this sin as of the deepest dye.

The Assembly in thus answering the Overture, has no specific case before it with a definite and special judgment, and has therefore submitted the answer in this general form.

Sending Pastors to Tennessee.

There being no further business ready for the action of the Assembly, the Committee on Devotional Exercises reported in favor of listening to Messrs. Sawyer and Lamar "on treason and the condition of the churches in East Tennessee." These gentlemen made interesting addresses, together with an earnest appeal for men and means to aid them in their great work of reorganizing and rebuilding the waste places in the of Zion in the South. At the close of their remarks it was, on motion,

Resolved, that to enter and occupy the field in East Tennessee, now reopened by Divine Providence, is the positive duty of the Presbyterian Church, and as a commencement of the work, The Home Mission Committee designate, as soon as practicable, ten pastors in this communion to spend the ensuing three months in serving the Church in that desolate field, and that said Committee is hereby authorized to advance the necessary traveling expenses of such pastors out of the funds of the Committee, and if necessary, appeal to the churches to re-imburse the requisite amount.

The Committee on Bills and Overtures, reported on an overture submitted to them respecting the admission of members to the Church, pending the consideration of the same, the Assembly adjourned….

 The Christian Observer, (Richmond, VA) Thursday, June 22, 1865

18 - 24, Correspondence relative to the arrest of the officers of the Bank of Tennessee and the return of the archives of the archives of the State of Tennessee

ATLANTA, May 18, 1865.

Maj.-Gen. WILSON:

Battle and Dunlap have reported here. Shall I arrest them? The archives of Tennessee are at Buzzard Roost on the Southeastern Railroad; weight about 3,500 pounds. Will they be sent here?

E. UPTON, Brevet Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 830.


HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., May 19, 1865--9.30 a. m.

Brevet Maj.-Gen. UPTON, Atlanta, Ga.:

Your telegrams of yesterday are just received. You are directed to retain in your custody the special, books, property, and persons alluded to in your dispatch, particularly Battle and Dunlap, whom you were ordered to arrest. The archives of the State of Tennessee are here and will be held to the orders of Governor Brownlow. I wish Winslow to push operations on the railroad, but would prefer all work to be done by the troops rather than by contract. Make no movement till I see you. Come down at once. Send to Washington for all valuable public stores and have them stored at Atlanta.

J. H. WILSON, Brevet Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 842.



Col. R. H. G. MINTY, Cmdg. Second Division, Cavalry Corps:

COL.: The brevet major-general commanding directs that you detail an officer to take charge of and deliver the archives of the State of Tennessee to Brevet Maj.-Gen. Upton, at Atlanta. The officer can obtain the archives by reporting to Capt. Kneeland, provost-marshal, Cavalry Corps.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. B. BEAUMONT, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 871-872.


ATLANTA, May 23, 1865.


Telegram about Mallory and Hill received. Will send assets of Bank of Tennessee and archives of the State, under charge of Capt. Gilpin, to-morrow with instructions to telegraph Governor Brownlow when he arrives at Dalton. Will send Dunlap and Battle with him.

Col. Merrill and train arrived to-day.

E. UPTON, Brevet Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p.884.


ATLANTA, May 24, 1865.

Maj.-Gen. WILSON:

Upon the understanding between you and Gen. Winslow, in regard to the completion of the railroad, upon his application I ordered twenty-five wagons belonging to the train just arrived to be turned over to Capt. Simpson. Capt. Carling states his orders are promptly to load all the wagons with cotton and return with them to Chattanooga. Shall the wagons be returned to Capt. Wetherell? Ten wagons belonging to this train were sent to Dalton with archives and assets of Bank of Tennessee, and fourteen were turned over to hospital department. Carling is anxious to have reply to-night. Will leave for Macon by morning train.

E. UPTON, Brevet Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 891.

          19, Champ Ferguson declared an outlaw


Capt. HENRY SHOOK, McMinnville, Tenn.:

SIR: ....Champ Ferguson and his band have been declared outlaws by Maj.-Gen. Rousseau. The major-general commanding therefore directs that you do not accept the surrender of Ferguson or any member of his band, and that you treat them as outlaws. You will immediately make a list or roll of all those how long in service, age, rank, and when and where, surrendered, to whom surrendered, and where they live.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. O. CRAVENS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 843.

          19, Observations made by an ex-Confederate soldier from the Army of Tennessee while on his way home to his home in Dyersburgh; the trip from Greeneville to Knoxville

Cloudy and warm-Health improving. We were ordered to be ready to get aboard the [railroad] Cars [sic] by 9 oclk [sic]. [sic] A.M. about [sic] 9 oclk [sic]. [sic] we were ordered aboard the cars and were apportioned 100 men to the box car which crowded us very much both inside and on top-We left a little after 10 oclk [sic]. [sic] A.M. and reached Knoxville about 5½ oclk [sic]. [sic] P.M. where we remained until about 8 oclk [sic]. [sic] when we went on without reshipping. It rained smartly during the evening.

Alfred Tyler Fielder Diaries.

          19, Account of Negro revenge for the Fort Pillow massacre in Memphis

Memphis, Tenn., Friday, May 19.

The influx of paroled rebel troops into Memphis has caused a great excitement among the negro troops.

They got up a plot to assassinate every rebel soldier in Memphis in revenge for the Fort Pillow massacre.

The plot was discovered last night, and the white troops were put on guard to watch the movements of the negroes.

At a given hour the negroes attempted to come out of the fort to carry out their purpose, when they were ordered back again by the white troops.

The negroes refused to obey the order and a fight fortheith ensued.

After a sharp conflict, twenty of the negroes were killed and wounded and driven back in confusion into the fort. A strong guard is not kept over them.

New York Times, May 23, 1865


The Negro Plot to Murder Rebel Prisoners Declared to be a Hoax.

Cairo, Thursday, May 25.

Gen. Washburne [sic] states that the report from Memphis, telegraphed a few days since, giving an account of a plot among negro troops there, the contemplated massacre of paroled rebels, and the subsequent shooting of the colored troops, is false in every respect.

New York Times, May 26, 1865.


[1] See also: Bangor Whig & Courier, May 21, 1861 and North American and United States Gazette, May 18, 1861.

[2] GALEGROUP -TSLA 19TH CN   . See also in Ibid., Boston Daily Advertiser, "John Bell's Position To the People of Tennessee," May 6, 1861.

[3] As cited in:

[4] As cited in:

[5] As cited in:

[6] Confederate draft dodgers.

[7] OR, I, Vol. 30, pt. II, p. 544 indicates the site is in Kentucky, as does OR General Index, Vol. 1, p. 615, and that the skirmish occurred on September 22, 1863. If Dyer had information verifying that the action took place in Tennessee he did not cite it. Nevertheless, because Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee is a long-venerated source the "Action at Marrow Bone Creek" is included here as having taken place in Tennessee.

[8] A waterfront-warehouse district in London which in the Victorian era had a reputation as a place of debauchery and prostitution.

[9] TSL&A, Civil War Collection, Federal Collection,Letters, Box F, folder 24, George Hovey Cadman, 1857-1864. [Hereinafter cited as George Hovey Cadman Correspondence.]

[10] See also: The Boston Herald, May 26, 1863.

[11] Probably slang for "physic," or laxative.

[12] Parts of this article are illegible.

[13] TSL&A, 19th CN

[14] TSL&A, 19th CN.

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