June 4-5, 1861 - 1865
4, 1861 Montvale Springs Resort Opens
Montvale Springs, Near Knoxville, East Tennessee, Is Now Open!
This resort, for health or pleasure seekers, as its name indicates, is located in a sequestered valley, almost enclosed by mountain spurs of the Alleghany, known as the Chilhowee, and rise up on every side, and embosom a valley which cannot be contemplated by the lover of nature without much enjoyment.
Of the beneficial effects of this water on cases of Dyspepsia, Chronic Liver Complaint,
And diseases most common in southern latitudes, no more certain and effective remedy exists.
The Hotel accommodations consist of a large and commodious building, with spacious Piazzas on each story, running the entire length of the building, and numerous Gothic Cottages,All tastefully arranged on the lawn in front of the main Hotel, and accessible to both Spring and Hotel.
The lawn is handsomely covered with grass, and beautifully shaded with majestic forest trees. No Watering place presents more attractions than Montvale, and the proprietors respectfully invite the attention of those who seek a retreat in summer, either for health or pleasure.
Visitors will go to Knoxville, and thence 24 miles by stage, which connects with the trains.
Watt, Lanier & Co., Exchange Hotel, Montgomery, Alabama.
Daily Constitutionalist [AUGUSTA, GA], June 4, 1861.
4, Mail Deliveries to Memphis censored by Vigilance Committee
Mails to Memphis-We announced several days ago, on the authority of the Memphis newspapers, that the circulation of the Louisville Journal had been prohibited in that city by the Vigilance Committee. [emphasis added] We did not know whether the prohibition imposed by that little mob extended to the copies of the Journal sent by mail or was confined to those carried by the Express company.
Yesterday our pages of the Journal were returned to us from the Memphis postoffice with an official notice that they cannot be distributed by and that concern We regard this stoppage of our paper by lynch law at Memphis, Nashville, Tuscumbia, &c., as one of the very highest of all the tens of thousands of high compliments that have been paid to us. If the Louisville Journal could by any possibility be charged with containing anything calculated in any way to break up or disturb the existing instructions of any portion of this land, we should consider its suppression, no matter by what means, as justly setting a seal upon our shame, but, inasmuch as no man in all the country, however hostile to us or our paper can hold up his head and charge that aught contained in it is of an incendiary character or immoral tendency, we glory in the fact that our country's enemies, afraid of its arguments and trembling before its appeals, deem its exclusion from their communities by mob law indispensable to the success of their machinations against the Government to which they owe allegiance.
The notification that we have received from the Memphis postoffice we shall send to the Postoffice [sic] Department at Washington City. The Department will of course decide as to its own duty. We do not believe, that, with a knowledge of the facts, it will continue to carry mails for even a single day to a city where an unscrupulous and infuriated mob, having established a censorship of the postoffice, claims and exercises the power of excluding whatever matter it pleases. Memphis deserves never to have another mail till she shall have thrown her Vigilance Committee of the Bluff. [emphasis added]
Louisville Daily Journal, June 4, 1861.
4, Treaty Between Tennessee and the Confederate States of America, Munitions Manufacturing by Convicts, and Rumors of Beauregard's Intent
TENNESSEE IN THE WAR.
President Davis has issued a proclamation announcing that a treaty, offensive and defensive, formed between Tennessee and the Confederate States, was signed in Nashville, May 7, 1861, by the Hon. Henry W. Hilliard, Commissioner of the Confederate States, and Messrs G. A. Harney and Washington Barrow, on the part of Tennessee. The State turns over to the rebels her whole military force and operation during the existing war.
Nashville papers report that the manufacture of arms and munitions of war, is going on rapidly in that city. Sixty-five men in the Penitentiary turn out 20,000 cartridges a day; thirty are employed in cleaning and repairing muskets, and numerous hands are employed in making haversacks, military chests, etc.
Gen Beauregard has arrived at Memphis and is to take command of the Western Division of the rebel army. Large numbers of troops are concentrating there and along the river, which indicate a design to attempt an invasion of the Western States under Beauregard's lead.
Daily Cleveland Herald, June 4, 1861. 
5, Report on welfare disbursements in Memphis
City Almoner's Report.—The city Almoner, Mr. Underwood, in his report to Council last night, stated that he commenced his duties on the 25th of May with a donation from the city of 500 pounds of bacon, and four barrels of flour. From that time to June 4th he had distributed relief to seventy-eight families, eight of which were families of soldiers on duty left in a state of destitution. Owing to liberal gifts from benevolent citizens, there is on hand at present a quantity of meat, flour, meal, rice, potatoes and vegetables, for distribution. Forty-two persons have contributed stores, and one friend to the poor gave fifty dollars in money, with which this bacon was bought. The citizens who have been applied to have contributed most liberally—but very few have refused to contribute. Widows and orphans are the persons first attended to, other claims are allowed only when great distress is manifest.
Memphis Daily Appeal, June 5, 1861.
5, Large Unionist meeting disrupted by weapons' fire from pro-Confederate soldiers at Strawberry Plains
Cowardly and Inhuman Conduct
AN ASSEMBLY OF LADIES AND GENTLEMEN FIRED INTO BY SECESSION TROOPS
We find in the Knoxville (Tenn.) Whig., of Tuesday June 11th], the particulars of a most wanton and unprovoked assault by Southern troops upon a meeting of Unionists at Strawberry Plains, Tennessee. The Whig says:-
We have never witnessed such a scene as we beheld on Wednesday, the 5th instant, at Strawberry Plains, and we hope never to see the like again. The procession of Union men on horseback, about four deep, was half a mile long, variously estimated to contain from eight to twelve hundred men. At the head of each division the Stars and Stripes were floating to the number of six banners. Marching by the Plains, and passing the depot, there was a train of cars having on board some Alabama troops, who, strange to say, remained there with steam up for three hours.
After our procession had passed into the gap of Mr. Meek's enclosure, leading into his grove, where the stand and seats were erected, and where a much larger assemblage, among whom were several hundred ladies and children, were seated awaiting the arrival of the procession at the head of which were Messrs, Maynard, Temple and Fleming, who were to address the meeting, the train started towards us at a very slow rate. Speaking had not yet commenced, though Col. Thornburg was up making some preliminary remarks, as the remnant of the vast crowd were coming in and crowding around the stand. At the suggestion of Mr. Meek, and old man who had served in the war of 1812, and who owned the premises, the few scattering persons still at the gap were urged to come in, and did so, quietly, disturbing no one.
But here we will let Mr. Meek tell the tale just as it happened:-
At the request of Dr. Brownlow and other gentlemen, I walked from the stand down to the railroad, to hurry up our Union men, and urge them not to say or do anything to the train then slowly coming by. One man came within the [line missing from text] closure, quietly, and I was about twenty feet from the fence, inside of my field, the railroad and wagon road passing along close to the fence. There were two men in uniform on the top of one of the cars, each had a revolver in his hand, one of them a stone, which he threw at me with great force and precision, and I barely dodged it. This was followed up by one of them deliberately firing at me. One of them knew me, for he had previously come to the house and asked for water to fill his canteen, which I assisted him in filling, treating him as politely as I know how. This was the commencement of the firing, and it was without provocation whatever. A.K. Meek, Sr.
This was the greatest outrage we have ever witnessed. Why did this train remain for three hours with steam up? And why did the train start as soon as our crowd had assembled around the stand, and move slowly by our meeting, commencing a fire upon us, without any provocation whatever? It looks like a premeditated attack.
The bullets actually whistled over the heads of our crowd around the stand, cutting off leaves and sprigs, to the consternation of the ladies and men. The fire was returned by the Union men, who fired some thirty to forty rifles, besides revolvers, into the cars, but with what effect we have not learned, as the train passed on without halting.
But a wild and terrific scene occurred instantly, by the rush of one thousand men, insulted and infuriated, upon the track, with threats to tear up the track, and to burn the bridge over the Holston. Col. Thornbery, Temple,Dr. Mynatt, Mr. Meek himself, and the editor of this paper, all repaired to the tract, made short appeals to the crowd, and implored them not to disturb the road. With difficulty they were quieted. We are now satisfied that the people can't longer be held off these railroads and bridges.
If they continue to bring men armed and infuriated into the country, stop them in our towns, and along the line of the roads, to fire into crowds of women and children, the people will rise up in their might and demolish the roads. Indeed, we now have but little hope that civil war will be averted. Threats are making as to what will be done with Union leaders after the 8th of June. The people are exasperated, and they will fight to the death, and no leaders we have can restrain them, they ought to do so, which we think is questionable.
The following was presented by Col.. Thornburg and adopted without a dissenting voice:-
We, a large portion of the people of the county of Jefferson, Knox and Sevier, (men, women and children,) who have assembled to-day at Strawberry Plains, to the number of from 3000 to 5000, to consult together for our common good, having been wantonly and without provocation, assaulted during our peaceful deliberations, by a missile thrown and a shot fired from the train of cars in very slow motion by certain troops in the service of so-called Confederate States, do hereby unanimously declare to the world, that while we have ever been and still are ready to comply with every Constitutional obligation of the citizen, we can never be driven or coerced into abject and unmanly submission, and we hereby pledge to each other, our lives, our property, and our sacred honor, in the common defence of ourselves, our firesides, our wives, and our children, from any assault, no matter from what quarter it may come.
2d. That we heartily approve the determined spirit manifested by the East Tennessee Union Convention, held at Knoxville, on the 30th and 31st May, 1861, and we hereby pledge ourselves to the Union men of East Tennessee, that we will cooperate with them in whatever policy they may adopt-their course shall be our course, and their destiny our destiny.
Philadelphia Inquirer, June 13, 1861.
5, "There is some sickness in the camp." James I. Hall's letter home from his camp of instruction near Union City
(Mr. & Mrs. J. D. Hall
Mountain, Tipton County, Tenn.)
Union City, June 5 
When I wrote to you last we were at Jackson. Our company came here last Saturday [June 1]. I remained in Jackson till Monday on business for the company. It was quite a treat to spend the Sabbath in quiet. While in Jackson, I have spent most of the time in camp slept in the tents at night, have been doing the same since I came here, we are very conformably fixed [and] have a good tent, got cotton mattress, chairs, etc., We have provisions in abundance and of good quality. We were however glad to see the nice box of provisions [illegible] anything from home tastes good. There is some sickness in the camp. [O]ne or two cases of mumps, one case of pneumonia and some bowel complaints.
Dumpy Daniel has had a mild attack of the flux, is now well, the three boys from the neighborhood are well. There are five Regiments here, composed of between 5 & 6 Thousand men. We are encamped within a mile of Union City & forty miles a place Wilson Mathews lives near there, was in camp yesterday. We have received our guns-percussion muskets since we came here and are drilling with them. Mr. Wood cock has written to cousin Mattie to come up. If Jessie had not gone back to school I would want cousin Mattie to bring her & sissy up with her.
I do not know when I will go home probably not soon if my health remains good. I am now quite well. You need not send any more provisions for the present, as we are doing well enough. If you send anything, send light bread. I was glad to learn by Johns note that you are all well. My love to the children. I want them to come up soon. Mr. Wood wished to be remembered to you.
Jas I Hall
Ninth Tennessee, p. 130.
5, "There is no reign of terror in Tennessee."
"There has been no attempt at intimidation in Tennessee, there will be none * * * There is no reign of terror in Tennessee." Courier.
It is very strange that an editor of high standing can bring himself to make such statements to the world. It is astonishing. We can't account for it. To say things so notoriously unfounded is to insult the public sense.
The Courier says that "there is no reign of terror in Tennessee," that "there has been no attempt at intimidation in that State," and that "there will be none." Now the Courier knows that Tennessee has seized a Kentucky steamboat at Memphis and keeps it in her own possession. The Courier knows that Tennessee will allow no upward bound Kentucky boat to pass Memphis. The Courier knows that the Vigilance Committee of Memphis, an illegal and irresponsible organization, exercises of power of driving men from the State without legal trial land of searching the express wagons and even the U. S. mails and confiscating or ruling out whatever matter it pleases. The Courier knows that the Vigilance Committee of Nashville usurps similar prerogatives and uses them defiantly and remorselessly every day. The Courier knows that the Vigilance Committees of Brownsville and other towns in Tennessee have give public notice to all men of Northern or foreign birth to leave the State by a named date or be prepared to take compulsory service in the disunion cause. The Courier knows that the greatest, the best, the most eminent Union men of Tennessee have, after being advertised to make Union speeches at particular points, been warned by public meeting that they would not be permitted to fulfill their engagements. The Courier knows that hundreds if not thousands of Union men. Leaving all their property behind them, have made their escape from Tennessee because they could not enjoy freedom of conscience in it. The Courier knows, that the Nashville Union, the chief organ of the dominant party in Tennessee, when directly questioned as to whether Union men would be permitted to make Union speeches in Nashville and whether they would be suffered to give Union votes at the polls in next Saturday's election, answere both questions substantially in the negative. The Courier knows, that, although the laws of Tennessee give to every man the right to vote by secret ballot, the Vigilance Committees of various cities and town and counties have ordained that each ballot cash shall be an open one, whilst the disunion organ proclaim that this will show who has the audacity to vote for the old Union-distinctly implying that whoever does so will do it at his deadly peril.
The Courier knows or at any rate has had the means of knowing all these things, and yet the Courier, in the face of all the world, says that there is no reign of terror in Tennessee, that there has been no attempt at intimidation in that State, and that there will be none. What constitutes a reign of terror or an attempt at intimidation in the view of the Courier, we know not, but we do know that some of the best men of Tennessee, men who, by their talents and their patriotism, have won for themselves national reputations, express their belief that the reign of terror now raging and maddening in their unhappy State is the most frightful that modern times have known.
It seems to us that he who thinks there is no reign of terror, no attempt at intimidation, in Tennessee, would think there was none even if the heads of one half the Union men of the State were brought to the block, and the other half warned of the same fate. And no doubt he would undertake to support his view by asking, what man, that's not a coward, would be terrified at the idea of having his head cut off?
Louisville Daily Journal, June 5, 1861. 
5, Report on camps of instruction, Trousdale and Cheatham encampments, desertion, conditions, and Union sentiment in Nashville
The Tennessee Soldiers.
We saw a gentleman of intelligence and veracity last evening who is perfectly familiar with the state of affairs in and about Nashville and at Camps Trousdale and Cheatham. He informed us that Camp Trousdale, near Richland, two miles from the Kentucky line, there about twenty-five hundred soldiers, and the same number at Camp Cheatham, near Springfield. Of this number about one-third are armed, and badly at that, and all of them very poorly fed. The troops are also afflicted with measles, no less than four hundred being on the sick list from that cause. He assures us that desertion from both encampments are frequent, and there is no enthusiasm existing in the ranks. A very strong Union sentiment exists in Nashville, which is suppressed by the mob spirit of secession. There were no less than twelve distinct Union meetings held privately in Nashville on Saturday evening, which were well attended. – Louisville Journal, 4th.
Daily Cleveland Herald, June 5, 1861.
No. 3.-Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army.
BOONEVILLE, June 8, 1862.
June 8.-On Thursday Gen. Negley succeeded in surprising the rebel Gen. Adams, and after a sharp fight routed and scattered the enemy in the wildest disorder, capturing camp, wagons with supplies, and ammunition. The column under Gen. Sill formed a junction with Gen. Negley's column at Jasper. Adams' cavalry fled 43 miles, without stopping at Chattanooga. The enemy were crossing the river at Shell Mound with infantry and artillery. Adams' cavalry turned them back.
On the 8th he says:
I am ordered by Gen. Halleck to push cars and locomotives across the river at Decatur. This cannot be done until the enemy's troops are driven out. I know their cavalry still remains opposite Lamb's Ferry and along the line of the railway. In my opinion a great struggle will take place for the mastery of the railway from Richmond south to Atlanta.
D. C. BUELL, Maj.-Gen.
HUNTSVILLE, ALA., June 6, 1862.
An expedition, composed of troops from all those under my command, in charge of Gen. Negley, has driven the enemy under Gen. Adams from Winchester through Jasper back to Chattanooga, utterly routing and defeating them there. Baggage wagons and ammunition, with supplies, have fallen into our hands. On to-morrow morning my troops will be opposite Chattanooga, supported, as I hope, by my new gunboat, the Tennessee. We have broken up a most important enterprise of the enemy, making the occupation of the Chattanooga and Nashville Railroad and the mountain region bordering on the road and the Tennessee River impracticable. A few more troops suffice to relieve Eastern Tennessee. Have you any orders?
SIR: By making a forced march of 20 miles over a rugged and almost impassable mountain road and by capturing the enemy's pickets we succeeded in completely surprising Gen. Adams' command of rebel cavalry encamped at the foot of the mountain. They formed in line and fired upon Col. Hambright's advance, which we replied to from two pieces of artillery, which had been placed in position unobserved. They retreated through a narrow lane toward Jasper, closely pursued by a portion of Col. Haggard's Fifth Kentucky Cavalry and Maj. Wynkoop's battalion of Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry. My escort, commanded by Lieut.'s Wharton and Funk, led the charge with reckless daring, dashing into the midst of the enemy, using their sabers with terrible execution. The narrowness of the lane and very broken ground alone prevented the enemy from being totally destroyed. They fled in the wildest disorder, strewing the ground for miles with guns, pistols, and swords. We captured their ammunition and commissary wagons and supplies. The enemy's loss, as far as we could ascertain, was 20 killed and about the same number wounded, among whom is Maj. Adams, Gen. Adams' brother. We captured 12 prisoners, including 2 commissioned officers, with a large number of horses.
Our loss, which I regret to say was chiefly sustained by my escort, is 2 killed and 7 wounded; several seriously.
Yours, very truly,
HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Four Miles beyond Jasper, June 5, 1862.
SIR: I have just captured 4 men who left Chattanooga this morning. They report the arrival of a portion of Gen. Adams' cavalry, who reached Chattanooga last night. This, with the statements of citizens living along the road, proves the total rout and disgraceful flight of the enemy to Chattanooga, a distance of 43 miles, without stopping. An attempt was made to rally in Jasper, but they cursed Gen. Adams and rushed on with their foaming horses. Hundreds of Union men have flocked into Jasper from the mountains. The enemy, who was crossing the river at Shell Mound, retreated to Chattanooga by rail this morning. Appearances indicate that they will not defend Chattanooga. There were but two regiments at Atlanta, Ga., on Tuesday last. Col. Starnes' regiment of cavalry avoided meeting us, and are now near Sparta. We will give them attention on our return. I trust you will be able to engage the attention of Starnes until we can overtake him. I shall push on to Chattanooga to-morrow.
Report of Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., June 5, 1862.
Gen. Adams surprised at 3 p. m. yesterday, 12 miles northeest of Jasper, Tenn., by reported force of 4,000 Federals. Confederate killed and missing 100, including Gen. and Maj. Adams. Enemy in strong detachments yesterday at Stevenson and Bridgeport. Avow descent on Chattanooga. Expected opposite us this afternoon. Our effective force here, 1,330. Can make stand if re-enforcements sent.
E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
Gen. R. E. LEE, Richmond, Va.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 903-905.
4, Skirmish at Winchester
No circumstantial reports filed.
....on Wednesday morning, June fourth...the line of march resumed toward Jasper, Marion County. Here Gen. Negley caused several of the most prominent secessionists to be arrested, and mulcted them in the sum of two hundred dollars each, which was appropriated to the relief of the Union people in Tennessee who had suffered injury at the hands of the rebels. This was the first practical illustration of the character and intention of Gov. Johnson's declaration that rich rebels should be made to pay for Union losses incurred by rebel predatory bands.
Rebellion Record, Vol. 5, p. 188.
4, "A Nuisance." Nude bathing in Edgefield.
While we will ever advocate that among the most wholesome sports that youth and manhood can indulge in that swimming is far superior to all the rest, we maintain that with a proper regard for the rights of others, that there are some localities not altogether suited to its use. For instance, of late we have heard many complaints from ladies, whom business or pleasure compels to cross the river from the upper wharf Ferry, that they are frequently shocked by the sight of a man or half-grown boy squirming around in the water in the neighborhood of the Ferry crossing like a Mississippi cat-fish. If the guilty parties do not seek some more secluded spot to bathe, they will probably find its indulgence, in day time, conducive to trouble. We respectfully refer the subject to the City Marshal for further consideration, and earnestly ask his attention to the matter, that this nuisance may be speedily and effectually halted.
Citizens of Edgefield.
Nashville Daily Union, June 4, 1862.
4, Foreigners and military duty in Memphis
Foreign-Born Citizens and Military Duty.- Judge Swayne of Memphis, decided a few days since, in the case of two men who had claimed exemption from military duty on account of foreign birth, that foreigners who are transient, simply pass through the country, or remaining here temporarily, are exempt from military duty. But the persons who remains here, who make this country their home, who to use a technical term, are "domiciled," are entitled to the same protection and subject to the same duties as native-born citizens; and it makes no difference whether they are, or are not, naturalized. If this county is their domicile, they may be lawfully required to do military duty."
[Houston] Tri-Weekly Telegraph, June 4, 1862.
5, Depredations committed against Confederate civilians near Jasper, June 5, 1862
Jasper, Tenn., January 6, 1863
HIS EXCELLENCY Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
I take the liberty to inform you how I have been treated by the Federal forces for my opinions' sake. On the 1st of last May  eighty-three men belonging to General O. M. Mitchell's division came from Bridgeport, Ala., and pillaged my store for any article of worth, and on the 5th of June last  sent ten soldiers (Federal) [sic] piloted by one of our tories and demanded $500 in cash and my person. The captain said he was directed by General Negley if I did not pay the $500 to take property to that amount. Not getting the case they took $900 or $1,000 of property, some relics of my deceased wife to her little son. They [arrested some of my neighbors and] took me from a sick bed and made me march with troops trained without anything to eat except crackers and bacon; no tents to lie in or blankets to cover with, but was compelled to lie on the cold ground without any covering whatever. From [there] we were marched near Chattanooga, Tenn., and put in a filthy stable; from thence to Shelbyville, Tenn., and put in a slaughter house, 140 feet deep without ventilation and a hospital above head with large cracks in the floor, and nothing to eat but crackers and hot water which they termed coffee. General Negley issued an order prohibiting the ladies or citizens of Shelbyville from furnishing us with any article of diet or citizens of Shelbyville from furnishing us with any article of diet whatever saying we were furnished with the same rations that the Federal soldiers were, which was false. From thence we were taken to the State Penitentiary [in Nashville] and incarcerated with thieves, murderers and assassins and such men as do God and man's laws at defiance set (for no crime save my love and devotion to my home and native south and her constitutional rights), where I remained near four months, while my little children were robbed of everything they had to eat and scared and insulted by a brutal soldier, they having come twelve miles to do it. I never lived in their lines. General Negley sent his cavalry six miles from his road of travel to rob and arrest me. He killed one of our citizens by marching him while sick for no cause except his opinion's sake, and other citizens of our county have been sent to Camp Chase, and are there now, if alive. Their names are William H. Ballard and Claiborn Gott. Neither of us was ever connected with politics or the army. I understand that General Negley was taken prisoner at Murfreesborough. If so, please give order concerning his case.
With sentiment of high regard, I am, President, Your, devotedly,
P.S.-for my veracity I refer you to Generals John B. Floyd and John B. Gordon; Col. P. Turney, First Tennessee Regiment; Dr. J.G. Barksdale, Shelbyville, Tenn.; Revs. E.W. Sehon, Atlanta, Ga., and William T. Smithson, formerly of Washington, D.C.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, p. 805.
5, Letter from Dresden resident Littleton W. Palmer to Military Governor Andrew Johnson seeking vengeance for the killing of John A. Ferris
Dresden Jun 4/62
His Excellency Andrew Johnson
Whereas, the so called Confederate [sic] army has taken & murdered the young & brave Farris, a citizen of ours for no other crime, than that, of a noble [sic] devotions to the Union &: Constitution of his Country I therefore appeal to you in behalf of this bereaved and distressed family to avenge his death, by arresting & hanging McLanahan the U. S. Marshal of West Tennessee who has bin [sic] Clamoring, & threatening to have union me[n] shot, hung or murdered in some way or other[.]
The arrest & hanging of this infamous murelite would be a very Conselicating [sic] thing to the Loyal one of this section, I assure you[.] This man Mclanahan now lives near paris [sic] where the gallant Farris was born & raised &, where his broken-hearted wife & kind old mother now lives [.] He is the dog who done all the dirty work in his section, for that Low flung pusilanimus [sic] brainless up-start I. G Harris who by accident sneaked in-to the Chair so nobely [sic] filled by your excellency
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 439-440.
5, Governor Andrew Johnson to Major General Henry W. Halleck relative to the refugees problem in Middle Tennessee and Unionists in East Tennessee
Nashville, June 5th, 1862
Your dispatch received, and will be immediately attended to[.]
There are many refugees from the Confederate Army all through this part of the State.
Large numbers of them are coming forward voluntarily & renewing their allegiance, and seem gratified of the opportunity of doing so.
There is a great reaction taking place here in favor of the Union & restoration of the State. If poor East Tennessee could be relieved, it would produce a thrill throughout the nation. They are being treated worse than beasts of the forest and are appealing to the Government for relief & protection. God grant that it may be in you power ere long to extend it to them. If there could have been more forces left in the middle part of the state it would have convinced the Rebels that there was no chance of a successful rising up and by this time the Disunionists would have been put completely down, and the forces could have entered East Tennessee by way of Chattanooga, while general Morgan would have entered by way of Cumberland Gap, and the whole army in East Tennessee would have been bagged 7 the people relieved.
God grant that all your efforts in the noble work in which you are engaged may be crowned with success; and the hearts of the people made glad.
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 442.
5, Loyalty and the political climate of opinion in the Clarksville environs
Clarksville Tennessee June 5th 1862
Honorable Andrew Johnson Governor of Tennessee.
I do not deem it necessary to make any excuse for the liberty that I take in troubling you with those lines. Read them and if they contain any matter worthy of you attention consider it, if not Table it, the writer will be satisfied.
The writer has resided here for Several years past, and is acquainted with many of the Residents of this Citty [sic]. Humble individual as I am, it has been my fortune (or rather misfortune) to remain here an unwilling observer of Passing events, unwilling, because they were not in unision [sic] with my views and feeling on Political matters, yet being alone of So nearly alone, that it was not in my power to help myself, or do anything to help others[.]
This Citty [sic] and its surrounding for several miles have been intensely Southern-Rights-Men, many of them went in to Military service some of whom were Captured at Ford Donaldson [sic] and are now Prisoners, others are yet in service, probably in Virginia;
Citizens that Remained at Home are many of them avowed and bitter Secesh, others say they are Tired of the War and wish it was ended, they scarcely cair [sic] how, so it is ended. Others frequently give intimations of Loyal feeling yet they seem to be a fraid [sic] to express such sentiments unless they had a better guarrantee [sic] of security against Marauding Bands and Rampant Secesh at Home. The first Class swear loudly that they will never return to thir [sic] former allegeance [sic]. They also do all they Can to keep up an excitement that there by they may prevent others from doing so [.]
The second Class might and would most probably resume thier [sic] Allegiance if the first Class were rendered harmless by silence [sic] or removal from among the other two classes. The third class are not verry [sic] numorous [sic] though they would take the Oath of allegiance freely if they were satisfied of safety and Protection at all times[.]
In view of the above facts would it not be right and proper to require the Mayor, Aldermen, and all City Officers to take an Oath of Loyalty to the Government of the United States and in event they refuse to do so let the Government of the City pass in to other hands. If loyal men who are Citizens will accept of the vacated places, if not then place the City in the hands of the Military. Follow the same Course in relation to County & State Officers and adhere to the present sistem [sic] in regard to shipments &c [.]
In order to Carry out the above suggestions it would probably be nessary [sic] to have a few more Troops conveniant [sic] to this point Ready for action in Case of necessity [.] Such are my views in relation to the present state of affairs in our City & vicinity and now is most probably a good Season for such actions as they all [are] wearing quite long Faces, [sic] Those are my own views huredly [sic] pened [sic] and poorly expressed [.] if [sic] there are well if nothing verry [sic] well. All of it is Submitted to your Judgement [sic] [.]
Pr [sic] Chance I may take the liberty of sending a few lines at some other time when more at Leisure [.]
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 443-444.
5, A plea from Franklin to control pro-secessionists
Governor Genl Andrew Johnson Dear Sir [sic] I wish to communicate some facts to you which I think my duty to do[.] on yesterday [sic] Thursday morning quite early I was sitting on a corner of the public Square when I heard William Ewing Bullying [sic] James White for having swallowed the word [.] he soon left there in company with Phillip Eelbeck and came to where I was and came very near & commenced saying to me that I was a damed [sic] raschal [sic] [.] [sic] I told him his saying so did not make it so[.] he said I had a son in the army a friend of his to which I made no reply [.] he said I [was] a damed [sic] Scoundrel [.] [sic] I again told him that his say so did not make it so [.] he said he wanted to whip me to which I made no reply but I happened to take my Eye off of his & immediately he dealt me a severe Blow near my left Eye [.] it is quite a bad looking place [.] I raised to my feet & returned the blow which brought him to the e
Bricks [.] his friends carried him off [.] that's all of the fight which is certainly [a] Small matter but I wish to say something about this man William Ewing [.] he was a member of the Legislature that Voted Tennessee out of the union [.] he left there I think before the ajournment [sic] came home & made up a company of horse [.] this Philip Eelbeck was one of his privates [.] my son also Joined them [.] Ewing was elected Captain [.] he returned home just before the Battle of Fishing Creek & has been here ever since [.] I think he resigned to avoid being Court marshalld[.] [sic] he is quite intemperate and I look upon him as a dangerous man [.] he generally carries his arms and when drunk has no discretion at all [.] I am quite uneasy [.] I know nothing about the use of fire arms & am too old to learn it [.] I think Eelbeck knew what he inte[n]ded to do & secretly abeted[.] [sic] he begged me not to notice him but [I] made no effort to carry him along[.] I think or it seems to me that such men ought to give some sucritey[.] [sic] they are a terror to timed [sic] men[.] He has nothing against me except that from the beginning of this rebellion I have adhered to the union and am hated and despised and I say to you now Governor that union men can not live her [sic] again while the ariscrats [sic] are allowed to keep negroe [sic] of the army will have to be kept up every whare[.] [sic]
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 444-445.
5, Military Governor Andrew Johnson to President Abraham Lincoln with a proposal to exchange civilian prisoners with the Confederacy
Nashville June 5th 1862.
His Excellency Abraham Lincoln
There are seventy east Tennesseeans [sic] now lying in prison at Mobile [many] of them most respectable & valuable citizens of this section[.] There are there simply for being union men [.] They are treated with more cruelty than wild beast[s] of the forest [.] I have taken this day steps to arrest seventy 70 [sic] vile secessionists in this vicinity & offer them in exchange & if they refuse to exchange I will at once send them south at their own expense & leave them beyond our lines with the distinct understanding that if they recross or come again within said lines during the existing rebellion they shall be treated as spies and with death accordingly [.]
Does this meet your approval [?] It is not punishment now to send secessionist north [.] in [sic] most instances they would rather go to the Infernal regions than to be sent south at this time [.] Everything is moving on well.
We are having large union meetings which are doing the work of restoration with great effect [.]
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 445-446.
5, A Unionist plea to provide aid for tormented East Tennesseans
If there can be found on earth a people more deserving the heartfelt sympathies of every true patriot than East Tennesseans, we do not know it. Their patience, their fortitude, their deep devotion to the Union, attachment to the people, Constitution and laws, under the most trying difficulties and sever persecutions, rival the Waldeness or the martyrs of early Christianity. The pictures of the sufferings and afflictions of St. Paul, afflicted for opinion's sake, as drawn by himself, for an almost exact portraiture of the condition of these unfortunate people. They are torn from their families, and forced into a military service, against their friends and countrymen, which in their souls they abhor, and from which they shrink with instinctive horror. Nor in this resistless compulsion are heeded the cries of unprotected infancy, the lamentations of tender wives , nor the pressing necessity of poverty.- Their groans are answered with scorn, and their sorrows treated with contempt. Their complaints are passports to imprisonment, and their resistance a patheay to the gallows. Humility and obscurity, equally with honor and distinction, are made the fatal marks of a Southern despotism. Their corn-cribs and smoke-houses are made tributary to the commissary of the army whose sworn duty is their subjugation. Their fields are desolated, their fences made fuel for camp fires, and their houses razed to the ground.
If they seek personal safety, not by resistance but by flight, they are hunted down by cavalry, caught and carried through towns and villages, like prisoners at the chariot of some Roman conqueror, and made a spectacle and show, for the double purpose of wounding and humiliating their friends and gratifying the insatiate vengeance and savage cruelty of their enemies. You naturally (this line is cut off the page) pause to inquire of what heinous offence they have been guilty? The answer is easy. The laps are scarcely parted with the utterance of the interrogatory before the response is heard; they embraced the Constitution which their fathers taught them to revere, and they obeyed the laws which were unwilling to follow after strange gods; but the teaching of their early infancy became the precious lessons of their ripened manhood. This is the "head and front of their offending;" nothing more.
For this picture we have not drawn upon the imagination; it is not dyed in the hues of fancy; but the frame-work and finishing touches of confessed facts, vauntingly promulgated in the Knoxville Register, the organ of the Secession party in East Tennessee. If any one doubts, let him read. If there is so much upon the stage, what muse be behind the scenes? If the Knoxville Register unblushingly publishes these facts to the world, what sad tales of woe, wretchedness and misery would the experience of the victims tell!
But thank God, the day of their deliverance is at hand. The thunder of the artillery of the Union is heard approaching, and already its echoes and reverberations resound through their mountain fastness, informing them that succor is at hand. And ere long that old familiar flag, from which they have been too long separated, will raise like a rainbow of hope over the highest tops of their romantic mountains.-Nashville Union, May 1st.
Farmer's Cabinet, June 5, 1862.
5, Report on Fort Pillow Reconnaissance by U. S. Navy
U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Fort Pillow, Tenn., June 5, 1862.
SIR: In conformity with your directions I made a hasty examination of the works at this point, only, however, having time to pass over the more prominent portions.
The outer line of entrenchments, flanking upon Cold Creek, at a point some 600 yards above the water battery, ascends the bluff in an irregular zigzag, to a prominent and narrow ridge lying between the Hatchee River and the Mississippi, whence it trends away, at a sharp angle, along the ridge in the direction of Fulton and flanks upon the bluffs on the Mississippi above that landing, making a circuit of from 4 to 5 miles.
These lines consist of a heavy embankment, planked upon the inner face, with a dry ditch of an average of 8 feet depth and width. Considerable numbers of pieces of artillery have once been mounted along this extended line. An abattis of fallen timber is cut without the entire length.
There is an inner line of works of similar construction, though not of one unbroken circuit as in the case of the outer line, and altogether it is estimated the entrenchments are 10 miles in length.
The entire land embraced within the circuit of these works is exceedingly rough and broken, sharp ridges, deep gorges, and valleys, with small spring runs, traverse it in all directions, while the greater part of the surface is covered with a heavy growth of timber. There are prominent points along the inner line of defense from which artillery swept the outer works, while the entrenchments and rifle pits were disposed to enfilade and command the approaches effected by the broken surface.
Two crescent batteries are also erected near the summit of the river bluffs to assist in the landward defenses.
The water batteries are constructed at the base of the bluffs in the face of it, and in the gorges by which it is broken. The water battery proper consisted of ten guns, but was much injured in the late flood. A heavy columbiad was mounted in a casemated work constructed in a ravine higher up the river and above the level of the ten-gun battery. This work is destroyed by fire. To the left and higher up is a sunken battery of six heavy guns, and still higher up is a 10-inch columbiad occupying another ravine and sweeping over a large arc. On the river below the ten-gun battery, and constructed by excavation from the bluff at some elevation, is a bastioned work of six heavy guns in front and several flanks. In this is a 13-inch motar, burst, Still higher up on the bluff are other columbiads, mounted mostly in works across ravines and in batteries of one and two guns.
Single guns (32-pounders) are also placed in position along the bluffs to as far as Fulton, 3 miles below the fort.
These works are constructed and disposed with great skill and with vast labor; but a fatal mistake had been made in the depression that could be given the guns in all save the water battery, since, in a moderate stage of the river, our boats could have hugged the shore and passed under their fire.
I will here mention that Colonel Fitch, commanding Forty-sixth Indiana Regiment, had constructed a road through swamps on the upper side of Cold Creek, where no such attempt seems to have been anticipated, and had made preparations for crossing the creek and entering there within the lines while the fleet should open fire in front. From thence he could easily have captured, by a rear attack, the crescent battery on the bluff above, after which the different river batteries would have been entirely exposed to his riflemen, firing from above and in rear. The movement was made in accordance with this plan, adopted and prepared for during several previous days, but the rebels had fled from the works during the night, burning everything in their power.
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,
S. L. PHELPS, Lieutenant, Commanding, and Acting Fleet Captain.
Flag-Officer CHAS. H. DAVIS, U. S. NAVY
Commanding (Pro tem.) Flotilla Western Waters.
NOR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pp. 51-52.
4, Federal scout, Carthage environs to Trousdale Ferry on the Caney Fork River
CARTHAGE, TENN., June 4, 
A scouting party, composed of the Thirty-sixth Ohio Regt. [sic], sent to Trousdale Ferry, on Caney Fork, succeeded in capturing 16 prisoners and 32 horses of Smith's command. We are now crossing the river. Have been ferrying all day yesterday and all last night. Will be at Liberty to-morrow.
GEORGE CROOK, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 386.
4, Skirmish at Snow Hill, near Liberty
JUNE 4, 1863.-Skirmish at Snow Hill, Tenn.
Report of Col. J. R. Butler, Third Kentucky Cavalry (Confederate).
HDQRS. HARRISON'S CAVALRY BRIGADE, Smithville, June 5, 1863.
GEN.: Your dispatch of yesterday is at hand, written, I presume, before mine advising of the attack made on me at Liberty at 4 p. m. yesterday was received, as no mention is made of its receipt. The enemy have made no further demonstration since the attack yesterday; but finding them in heavy force, with artillery, and trying to flank my position, I deemed it advisable to fall back to this place last night, and await orders. My scout, 130 strong, under Capt. [R. W.] Hooks, attacked the enemy at Black's Shop yesterday at daylight, and drove their pickets into their breastworks at that place, and found two infantry brigades in line to receive them. They also had artillery. After a brisk skirmish my scout retired. We found no pickets at Bone's Ford. The pickets whom I feared were captured yesterday have come in; also my forage and commissary details, with the exception of about 55 men. Four wagons are also still out, two of which, I regret to say, were captured at Alexandria.
The enemy advanced upon Liberty and Alexandria simultaneously yesterday, coming on the Murfreesborough and Auburn pike. My scout on that road had returned to camp but a short time before the attack was made. Another small scout saw the enemy as they passed a few miles from the forks of the pike, and reports them in heavy force, marching by fours at a rapid trot. They were mostly mounted infantry, and had a large wagon train loaded; also twelve pieces of artillery in the rear. My scouts report the enemy having no pickets this side of Stone's River, and learned from citizens that they had drawn their pickets much closer in toward Murfreesborough. I have sent out three scouts this morning toward Liberty and Alexandria, to ascertain the movements of the enemy.
Very respectfully, general, your obedient servant,
J. R. BUTLER, Col., Cmdg. Harrison's Cavalry Brigade.
Maj.-Gen. WHEELER, Cmdg. Army Corps, McMinnville.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 358.
4, Skirmish at Stones River Ford
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
4, Engagement (artillery) at Franklin; Forrest repulsed
There were three official reports issued concerning this engagement.
Report of Col. John P. Baird, Eighty-fifth Indiana Infantry.
FRANKLIN, June 6, 1863. (Received 6 p. m.)
GEN.: Dispatch just received. The attack commenced at 3 p. m., 4th. From information derived from prisoners, I think Forrest's whole force advanced-three brigades and two regiments. Forrest was with them. They sent Armstrong's brigade to my left and Starnes' to the right, working toward Brentwood. I know Forrest was personally in command, and we took prisoners from all the regiments in Armstrong's brigade. Below you will find a full report of amount of ammunition expended and on hand. They would not come in range of howitzers, but drove in my pickets and little force of cavalry; had two batteries; only opened with one, but soon got range, and I had to fire on them to force them to change position; also to support my pickets. I did not fire on Thursday at a range more than average of a mile; they came to town and I shelled them out. Col. Campbell came in on my left with a brigade of cavalry, sent from Triune by Gen. Granger, and drove Armstrong back, taking 10 prisoners. Friday morning, Col. Van Derveer arrived with brigade of infantry and battery from Triune, and assumed command of forces here at noon. Early in the morning yesterday quite a large force appeared on Columbia pike, and I fired a few shots to dislodge them; they finally fell back. Our loss is remarkably small, but am sorry to report Col. Faulkner, Seventh Kentucky Cavalry, was wounded mortally. Col. Van Derveer left at noon to-day, taking with him all the force Gen. Granger sent here, although Granger ordered him to send the cavalry. I am satisfied they will attack within twenty-four hours, as they are hovering around. They evidently expected to take the place, and made it hot for two or three hours; and, but for the timely aid from Granger, would have renewed the attack in force yesterday. It is impossible to prevent them from ascertaining our movements, with the force I have to picket the various roads, and I would like permission to burn up the town, so I can see the front. Reports of our loss were made while Col. Van Derveer was in command, but it will not exceed 10 killed and wounded. We took 28 prisoners, and the enemy must have lost fully as many more killed and wounded. If attacked, I will fight as long as we can fire a shot.
Report of ammunition.-Number of rounds on hand: 30-pounder Parrott, 132 rounds shell; 24-pounder rifled gun, 149 rounds shell; 24-pounder rifled gun, 140 rounds solid shot; 24-pounder rifled gun, 60 rounds canister; 8-inch howitzer, 298 rounds spherical case shell; 8-inch howitzer, 220 fixed shall, and 8-inch howitzer, 70 rounds canister. Number expended: 30-pounder Parrott, 58 rounds shell; 24-pounder rifled 51 rounds shell. There was no light ammunition used except in picket firing. I sent through report of ammunition early this morning to Granger, by signal. A mistake occurred on spherical case shell-592 reported, and we only have 298. Signal Corps has been very efficient.
J. P. BAIRD, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 361.
Report of Col. Archibald P. Campbell, Second Michigan Cavalry.
HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION CAVALRY, Triune, Tenn., June 7, 1863.
CAPT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the engagement of the First Brigade, First Division Cavalry, near Franklin, Tenn., on the evening of the 4th of June, 1863:
I was reported to proceed to Franklin with this brigade on the afternoon of the 4th of June. I meet the enemy's pickets of Gen. Armstrong's command about 1 ½ miles east of Franklin, between the river and the Murfreesborough road. The enemy made an attack on the flank of the Second Michigan. The Sixth Kentucky made a charge on the enemy's pickets, driving them across the Harpeth River and across the Lewisburg pike. The Second Michigan dismounted and deployed as skirmishers on the enemy's center; the Fourth Kentucky on the left of the Second Michigan, supported on the flanks by the Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry. The Fourth Kentucky Cavalry made a charge on the enemy's right; the Second Michigan advanced and attacked the center, pressing them hard. The enemy then fell back in great disorder, not being able to rally to form another line. Could I have had another hour of daylight, I could have taken the whole command of Gen. Armstrong, but the night was so very dark that it was impossible for me to follow me.
I captured 18 prisoners, killed and wounded 15, and killed a large number of horses, and burned one ammunition wagon. Among the prisoners taken were 4 of Gen. Armstrong's escort, with the colors of his escort.
Our casualties are as follows: Col. J. K. Faulkner, Seventh Kentucky Cavalry, severely wounded in the thigh; Col. Wickliffe Cooper, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, was thrown from his horse while riding beside the 2 men killed and 2 men wounded of the Second Michigan Cavalry, and 1 man killed of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry. Our loss in horses is not positively known. Think our number good.
The officers and men of my command fought bravely. On the morning of the 5th the enemy had all crossed the Harpeth River, and had fallen back south of Franklin.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. P. CAMPBELL, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 361-362.
Excerpt from the Report of Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Gen.-in-Chief, U. S. Army, of operations in the Departments of the Ohio and of the Cumberland, February 3-July 26, 1863, relative to a raid upon Franklin, June 4, 1863.
* * * *
On the 4th of June, the rebel Gen. Forrest made a raid upon Franklin, and on the 11th attacked Triune. His losses in these unsuccessful skirmishes were estimated at over 100, while ours were only 17 killed and wounded.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 8.
4, Confederates rob stores in Franklin [see July 14, 1863, Merchants in Franklin seek recompense for losses sustained during Confederate raid on Franklin and January 9, 1864, Petition to Military Governor Andrew Johnson seeking recompense as a result of Confederate raid below]
JUNE 4, 1863.-Operations on the Shelbyville Pike, near Murfreesborough Tenn.
No. 1 JUNE 4, 1863.
GEN.: The enemy have attacked Gen. Cartlin's pickets in front of Marshall Knob with artillery and cavalry. I have ordered him to hold on, and have advanced another brigade to the Shelbyville pike bridge.
HDQRS. SEVENTH PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEER CAVALRY, June 5, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to orders, I yesterday marched with the Seventh Regt. [sic] Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry, numbering 227 men, exclusive of officers, and one piece of artillery, under command of Lieut. Newell. I proceeded out the Shelbyville turnpike about 3 miles, and was there stopped by Brig. Gen. Jeff. C. Davis, commanding a division. The Thirty-ninth Indiana Mounted Infantry, with which I had been ordered to co-operate, was there with Gen. Davis' force, and finding that regiment employed by him, I did not deliver the order to its commanding officer with which I had been intrusted.
Gen. Davis desired me to hold my regiment in column in rear of his infantry, on the Shelbyville road, until such time as his skirmishers, operating to the right and left, should engage the enemy, posted with artillery about 3 miles to our front. I remained as directed for a short time, during which Maj.-Gen. McCook came forward, but did not apparently assume command. The enemy having moved from the road before our skirmishers reached them, I was ordered to advance. Proceeding about 2 miles down the road, and passing the deployed infantry, my advance, consisting of Capt. Davis' and Capt. Newcomer's squadrons, came within musket range of the enemy, and was briskly fired upon. I immediately ordered the command of halt, deploying portions of it to the right and left, under cover, leaving two by a small elevation in their front. At this time Gen. Davis came forward, and I informed him that I could not advance upon the enemy unsupported; that I had three times requested the commanding officer of the infantry skirmishers to advance and take possession of a wood which covered our left flank, but they had failed to do so, and at that time were falling still farther back. He directed me to continue engaged with the enemy in front, and, if possible, draw them on, as he had forces operating on both their flanks. I failed during the evening to see or hear of these forces, but I obeyed my instructions. The enemy having opened fire upon us from two pieces, I suggested the Lieut. Newell's one piece of artillery be brought into action. The general assented, and Lieut. Newell at once opened fire. His second shell caused the enemy's artillery to fall back and cease firing. The gun was then advanced to a more commanding position, and made ready for action, but the enemy had retired to the right, and could not be seen in any considerable force. Dismounted skirmishers from my regiment were then thrown through the woods to the left already refereed to, and Lieut. Dixon's squadron was deployed to the extreme right. In this position was remained until the Thirty-ninth Indiana came up, when I concentrated my command on the right of the road, the thirty-ninth Indiana taking the left, and the artillery the road, and in this order, covered by a line of skirmishers, we advanced to the house of a Mr. Lytle, where the enemy had been posted. Here we learned that the forces in our front consisted of Gen. Cheatham's division of Bragg's army, numbering 9,000; that the force with which we were engaged consisted of about 1,000 cavalry and mounted infantry, with four pieces of artillery.
My entire command behaved gallantly and coolly, executing their maneuvers under fire as steadily as on parade.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 362-364.
4, Skirmish at Liberty [see June 4-5, 1863 Scout to Smithville below]
4, Skirmish, Marshall Knob [see June 4, 1863, Operations on the Shelbyville Pike above]
4, Bragg issues General Orders, No. 19, relative to refugees from Union lines
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 19. HDQRS. DEPARTMENT No. 2, Tullahoma, Tenn., June 4, 1863.
I. All helpless people expelled from the lines of the enemy will report to the general commanding the army, department, or district nearest the place first reached by them. Upon their request, the inspector-general of such army, department, or district nearest the place first reached by them. Upon their request, the inspector-general of such army, department, or district will furnish, at Government expense, to those who come with certificates of expulsion, transportation to some convenient point in the rear near the line of a leading railroad, and subsistence in kind until they reach their destination. Such inspectors-general will make out and send to these headquarters a list of the persons so sent, the points to which they are sent, and such other information as they may deem important.
* * * *
By command of Gen. Bragg:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 861.
4, Civilian anxieties expressed about Nashville as an army ammunition depot
Whether justly entertained or not, there is no little uneasiness among the citizens of Nashville in regard to the large quantity of powder and ammunition of various kinds believed to be stored in the city for the military authorities. Only those who are entrusted with its custody know the real danger, and doubt they correctly estimate the danger connected with it, and exercise all proper and possible care to prevent the terrible consequences which would ensure from its ignition. But is it possible to prevent its combustion by lightning? and is due precaution taken against such an event? do those in authority feels secure on this point? It is understood that the material referred to is contained in one or two tall buildings prominently situated-most eligible marks for the artillery of the heavens. No one can contemplate such an occurrence, with the horrible destruction of life and property which would ensue, without a shudder. If all human means have not been adopted to escape it, should not steps looking to that object be taken immediately?
The alarm felt by our citizens on this score may be groundless, but if it is not known to be so by those competent to judge, we think that, in case of an accident, a fearful responsibility will rest somewhere. In advertising to this subject-which we do for the purpose of calling the attention of the authorities to the matter, in order that they may quiet the apprehensions of the community, or take steps to guard against the possibility of combustion, if such has not already been done. We would suggest the building of a subterranean magazine beyond the suburbs, as the base of some adjacent hill, as affording greater protection from electricity than the present ordnance depot in the heart of the city. The fact that our city suffered terribly from the explosion of a powder magazine ignited by electricity a few years ago, will sufficiently explain the uneasiness that exists on this subject at present.
Nashville Dispatch, June 4, 1863.
June 4, 1863
My Dear Young Ladies,
It pains me very much to learn from our brave Soldiers [sic] at Vicksburg, Who are now bravely defending the beautiful valley of the Miss [sic] from the Ruthless invader of our soil, to be informed by them that you had deprived them of their rations Such [sic] as sweet bread, more commonly called Ginger Cakes, which was [sic] prepared for them by their wives, mothers and sisters. It is with regret that I shall and do order you one and all to appear before me at these head quarters [sic] to answer the charge made against you viz.,: Sweet bread thereby trying to make yourselves Sweet at the expence [sic] of the Poor Soldiers. [sic]
1st for eating said ginger bread without butter
3" Eating as much as 2 rations each without water
Maj. Gen. S. B. Buckner, Commander Dpt. East Ten [sic]
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 2, p. 174.
4, "A Rebel Mortally Bayoneted."
If it hadn't been for the sensation kicked up by an audacious rebel on the wharf yesterday, we should have left that part in the city in disgust. By some hook or crook, a young and vicious rebel (in search of butter of some other kind of nuts) ran the gauntlet and got into the city unobserved. How long he had been ratting [sic] and prying around is not known; but he was bold enough yesterday morning to come out of his hole [sic], and made his appearance in the midst of a squad of convalescents on the wharf. The armed guard was not in sight, and the ablest of the convalescents determined to capture him (the rebel.) Rebel [sic] fled at first attempt to gobble up. [sic] Convalescent pursued, and after a double-quick run of several hundred yards, grabbed at Rebel's rear file [sic] just as he (Rebel) made himself scarce under a big pile of lumber. Convalescent tore away abbatis [sic], and gave a thrust with his naked bayonet, which brought forth a piteous token of surrender. Another charge by the exasperated bayonet, and Rebel dried up. The lumber was removed more effectually, on oh, horror! the bleeding, lifeless form of a prodigious rat [sic] was dragged forth, and left to bleach upon the wharf-side, a warning to all future generations of mealtub depredators. It was ascertained, by flag of truce, that the exterminated enemy was a Brigadier-General in the regular service, commanding the underground forces in the Department where he fell, and that the Rat Brigade [sic] will be terrier-ably [sic] revenged, on account of his most sacrilegious murder.
Nashville Daily Press, June 5, 1863.
4, "Sent South."
Captain John Conover, of the 8th Kansas, yesterday, accompanied the following names persons beyond the lines of this department: Mr. Nicholas C. Branch, his wife, Mrs. Bethenia Branch, and six daughters, Misses Mary A., Bethenia, Susan W., Martha A., Sallie J., and Virginia T.
Nashville Daily Press, June 5, 1863.
4, "A SHARP ANSWER."
A conversation between two interesting little juveniles, one a lad, the other a missie, was overheard yesterday. They had congregated about their playground, in the suburbs, it seems, to discuss the state of the nation, and war matters generally:
Polly-"What side are you for?"
Polly-"Which side is that?"
Billy (still evading)-"Oh, you know which side I'm for. What side are you for, I'd like to know, very well?"
Polly-"Well, I am for the Union! Now what are you."
Billy (bravely)-"Me? Why, I am for the side that whips-that's what I'm [sic] for!"
Exit, all satisfied.
Nashville Daily Press, June 5, 1863.
* * * *
Early in the morning we arose and after performing our ablutions at a neighboring spring, took a view of the scenery. First, we are 15 miles in the rear of the grand army, just half way from Nashville to Murfreesboro. The town of Lavergne [sic] has suffered the extreme rigors of war. It is burned to the ground, but three houses remain which are used as hospitals. It was there that the great battle of Stones River began. All around us lay the remnants of wagon trains which the rebels burned and the decayed remains of mules and horses while little piles of bricks and crumbled masonry are significant of the terrible fate and swift destruction that overtook a rebellious city. It's a terrible sight to contemplate and though it was just a retribution, I cannot help feeling sad at the fate of the misled inhabitants once as happy and joyous as those of our Northern villages, now exiles, with no home on earth. [emphasis added]
* * * *
Letters of George F. Cram
4, "It was very curious to see three hundred horses suddenly emerge from the wood just in front of us…." Fremantle's observations on the Army of Tennessee.
4th June, Thursday.-Colonel Richmond rode with me to the outposts, in order to be present at the reconnoissance which was being conducted under the command of General Cheatham. We reached the field of operations at 2 P. M., and found that Martin's cavalry (dismounted) had advanced upon the enemy about three miles, and, after some brisk skirmishing, had driven in his outposts. The enemy showed about 2000 infantry, strongly posted, his guns commanding the turnpike road. The Confederate infantry was concealed in the woods, about a mile in rear of the dismounted cavalry.
This being the position of affairs, Colonel Richmond and I rode along the road so far as it was safe to do so. We then dismounted, and sneaked on in the woods alongside the road until we got to within 800 yards of the Yankees, whom we then reconnoitered leisurely with our glasses. We could only count about seventy infantry soldiers, with one field piece in the wood at an angle of the road, and we saw several staff officers galloping about with orders. Whilst we were thus engaged, some heavy firing and loud cheering suddenly commenced in the woods on our left; so, fearing to be outflanked, we remounted and rode back to an open space, about 600 yards to the rear, where we found General Martin giving orders for the withdrawal of the cavalry horses in the front, and the retreat of the skirmishers.
It was very curious to see three hundred horses suddenly emerge from the wood just in front of us, where they had been hidden--one man to every four horses, riding one and leading the other three, which were tied together by the heads. In this order I saw them cross a cotton-field at a smart trot, and take up a more secure position; two or three men cantered about in the rear flanking up the led horses. They were shortly afterwards followed by the men of the regiment, retreating in skirmishing [emphasis added] order under Colonel Webb, and they lined a fence parallel to us. The same thing went on on our right.
As the firing on our left still continued, my friends were in great hopes that the Yankees might be inveigled on to follow the retreating skirmishers until they fell in with the two infantry brigades, which were lying in ambush for them; and it was arranged, in that case, that some mounted Confederates should then get in their rear, and so capture a good number; but this simple and ingenious device was frustrated by the sulkiness of the enemy, who now stubbornly refused to advance any further.
The way in which the horses were managed was very pretty, and seemed to answer admirably for this sort of skirmishing. They were never far from the men, who could mount and be off to another part of the field with rapidity, or retire to take up another position, or act as cavalry as the case might require. Both the superior officers and the men behaved with the most complete coolness; and, whilst we were waiting in hopes of a Yankee advance, I heard the soldiers remarking that they "didn't like being done out of their good boots"--one of the principal objects in killing a Yankee being apparently to get hold of his valuable boots.
A tremendous row went on in the woods during this bushwhacking, and the trees got knocked about in all directions by shell; but I imagine that the actual slaughter in these skirmishes is very small, unless they get fairly at one another in the open cultivated spaces between the woods. I did not see or hear of anybody being killed to-day, although there were a few wounded and some horses killed. Colonel Richmond and Colonel Webb were much disappointed that the inactivity of the enemy prevented my seeing the skirmish assume larger proportions, and General Cheatham said to me, "We should be very happy to see you, Colonel, when we are in our regular way of doing business."
After waiting in vain until 5 P. M., and seeing no signs of any thing more taking place, Colonel Richmond and I cantered back to Shelbyville. We were accompanied by a detachment of General Polk's body guard, which was composed of young men of good position in New Orleans. Most of them spoke in the French language, and nearly all had slaves in the field with them, although they ranked only as private soldiers, and had to perform the onerous duties of orderlies, (or couriers, as they are called.) [Emphasis added] On our way back we heard heavy firing on our left, from the direction in which General Withers was conducting his share of the reconnoissance with two other infantry brigades.
After dark, General Polk got a message from Cheatham, to say that the enemy had after all advanced in heavy force about 6.15 P. M., and obliged him to retire to Guy's Gap. We also heard that General Cleburne, who had advanced from Wartrace, had had his horse shot under him. The object of the reconnoissance seemed, therefore, to have been attained, for apparently the enemy was still in strong force at Murfreesboro', and manifested no intention of yielding it without a struggle.
I took leave of General Polk before I turned in. His kindness and hospitality have exceeded anything I could have expected. I shall always feel grateful to him on this account, and I shall never think of him without admiration for his character as a sincere patriot, a gallant soldier, and a perfect gentleman. His aids-de-camp, Cols. Richmond and Yeatman, are also excellent types of the higher class of Southerners. Highly educated, wealthy and prosperous before the war, they have abandoned all for their country. They, and all other Southern gentlemen of the same rank, are proud of their descent from Englishmen. They glory in speaking English as we do, and that their manners and feelings resemble those of the upper classes in the old country. No staff officers could perform their duties with more zeal and efficiency than these gentlemen, although they were not educated as soldiers. [Emphasis added]
Fremantle, Three Years, pp. 86-88.
Good. – Capt. john Conover, of co. F, 8th Kansas, the modern "Putnam," was yesterday installed into office as Chief of Army Police, vice Col. Wm. Truesdail, Capt. Conover goes into his new position with a proud reputation for the efficient discharge of every duty assigned him, and he will prove a most worthy auxiliary to the Police system of this District, and show himself an able and dignified co-laborer with the handsome and talented Col. John A. Martin.
Nashville Daily Press, June 4, 1863.
4, "REBEL MARAUDERS."
It was rumored yesterday that a gang of rebel cavalrymen made their appearance in Neely's Bend, about ten miles up the Cumberland river, and captured two hundred and seventy four government mules that were on their way to this Department, and made off with them. We heard no particulars. Col. Cahill with one hundred mounted men of the 16th Illinois, started in pursuit of the marauders immediately after hearing of their exploit. It is rather likely that the Colonel will make them drop their game.
Nashville Daily Press, June 4, 1863.
4, Editorial urging voter participation in the Confederate State elections
To the People of Tennessee.
The time is rapidly approaching when by the constitution and laws of Tennessee, we are to be called upon to elect a Governor, Congressmen, and Members to the Legislature.
It is more important that this duty should be performed now than at any other previous period in our history. We must [sic] exhibit to the enemy our unalterable firmness of purpose and determination to preserve and perpetuate our free institutions.
It is confidently believed the people everywhere are ready to sacrifice personal preferences, and personal claims, so far as may be necessary to produce perfect harmony and unity of action.
In the present condition of the country, this can only be done by securing a meeting of the largest number of citizens possible, from every part of the State, for the purpose of consulting and determining who shall be our candidates.
For this purpose we request the voters of the State, but public meeting, or such other mode as they may deem best, to appoint delegates to meet at Winchester, Tenn., on Wednesday, the 17th of June, 1863, to nominate a candidate for Governor, and a general ticket for members of Congress.
Regiments are requested to hold primary meetings, and to appoint delegates.
Exiles and refugees from counties within the enemy's lines, are requested to attend as delegates from their respective counties.
Fayetteville Observer, June 4, 1863.
4, On Van Dorn's demise
The Late Gen. Van Dorn.
The staff of the late General Van Dorn have published a card, which the Atlanta Confederacy [sic] pronounces "a very lame effort to relieve him of some of the odium which attaches to his name in connection with his death." That paper adds: "Van Dorn has been recognized for years as a rake, a most wicked libertine – and more especially of late. If he had led a virtuous life, he would not have died the death of a dog – 'unwept, unhonored, and unsung.' [emphasis added]
"Think of the universal respect paid to the lamented Jackson. The whole country is filled with mourning and tears at his death, while no man expresses even a regret [sic] at the fate of Van Dorn. Here is a striking illustration of the difference between sin and righteousness – between the devotion of a man's life to the most infamous and debasing of all human vices and the most commendable and elevating Christina virtues. The country has sustained no loss in the death of Van Dorn. It is a happy riddance. He was unfit to live, let alone having charge of such important trusts as he had. [Emphasis added]
Fayetteville Observer, June 4, 1863.
4, Sermonizing in Lincoln county
Elder John M. Watson [sic] will preach, Providence permitting, as the following times and places:
Kelly's Creek, 1st Sunday in June – McCulloch's Creek, Monday – Camargo, Tuesday – Church near Elder Towery's, Wednesday – Stewart's Creek, Thursday – Fayetteville, 4 o'clock P.M., Thursday – Rocky Point, Friday – Shilo [sic], Saturday and Sunday – Lynchburg, Saturday and Sunday, embracing the 3d Sunday – Flat Creek, Monday – Concord, Tuesday – Mt. Olivet, Wednesday – Mt. Carmel, Thursday – New Hope, Friday – Sulphur Spring, Saturday – Buckeye, Sunday.
Fayetteville Observer, June 4, 1863.
4, Petersburg Sharpshooters give thanks
The officers and privates of Co. C., 8th Reg[iment]. Tenn. Vols, desire to express to the ladies of Petersburg, and Mrs. John Edminson, of the vicinity, their full appreciation of their kind efforts for the comfort and entertainment of the soldiers on the evening of the 20th. Thank God, we have some friends at home who desire to render the way; of the soldier less rugged and cheerless!
Fayetteville Observer, June 4, 1863.
4, Death of a Confederate prisoner of war, prognostication about Vicksburg and fearless discourse
June the 4th, 1863
Sullivan County E. Tenn.
Dear Sir – Having just learned of the fate of your son Ja's [James], I decern [sic] it a duty I owe to his relatives to inform them concerning him, & therefore embrace this opportunity & devote it to that purpose. We received by flag of truce this morning a report of all the members of our Regiment who died in the Yankee Hospital at Murfreesboro while prisoners & I am sorry to say that your son James' name appears on that list, he died on the 9th day of February 1863….Both armies have been maneuvering for some time. Yesterday we made a reconisance [sic] in force, went within four miles of Murfreesboro when we encountered the enemies pickets when a sharp skirmish ensued[;] no loss on our side save some three or four horses. All is again quiet & I think both Bragg & Rosencrans [sic] are willing to wait the Result [sic] of "Vicksburg" which all admit is the turning scale of the war & should the southron arms be crowned with a signal victory at that point, while their army is in a demoralized condition troops can be massed here and hurled upon Rosencrans [sic], in such overwhelming numbers that he will be forced to give away [sic], but his army is not considerably weakened by Reinforcing Grant in Mississippi & it is to be hoped that before long the Stars and bars [sic] can be carried triumphantly & transplanted upon the banks of the turbid wartrers [sic] of the Ohio that should ever be as a gulf of fire between us. Should we be victorious at Vicksburg the Reconstruction Candidates (& I understand there is not a few of them in East Tennessee) had better try to ride into office upon some other hobby for it would be just as impossible to get gallant hearted Mariners into a dispute about Sea water or fellow soldiers into an envious Quarrel about plumes & collors [sic] while storming side by side some Sebastipol [sic] or breasting shoulder to shoulder the fierce tieds [sic] of battle as to get them to agree to a Reconstruction of the Union after having stood side by side with friends & relatives & seen them fall fighting for their homes their fire sides for liberty & to avenge the wrongs & insults heaped upon innocent [sic] women in every City town or Parish that has fallen into their hands as did New Orleans when it fell into the hands of the beast "Butler" that odious wretch & black hearted villain [sic] whose name should ever be a curse upon the lips of every Southron [sic] freeman The health of the Boys is generally good and all anxious to heare [sic] the news from upper East Tennessee. You will still direct your letters to Wartrace as it is the nearest point to the Rail Road though we are stationed at Beach Grove some ten miles of more distant, let us hear who are the Candidates for Representative & the platform upon which they ask for the sufferage [sic] of the people, nor more at present,
4-5, Scout to Smithville
JUNE 4-5, 1863.-Scout to Smithville, Tenn.
No circumstantial reports filed.
Abstract from "Record of Events," Second Brigade, Second Cavalry Division, Department of the Cumberland, commanded by Col. Eli Long.
June 4, Col. Paramore, with the Third, Fourth, and Tenth Ohio Regt. [sic]'s, went on a scout, accompanying Col. Wilder's brigade of mounted infantry. Skirmished with rebel cavalry at Snow Hill, 25 miles from Murfreesborough. Drove them from their position and encamped near Liberty.
June 5, Col. Paramore moved with his brigade and two regiments of mounted infantry toward Smithville, 12 miles from Liberty. Just below Liberty, encountered rebel skirmishers. Met no heavy resistance until reaching Smithville, where [Thomas] Harrison's brigade of rebel cavalry was encountered and fought for some hours. Drove them back a mile, when they again formed in the woods and resisted stoutly, but were again defeated and fell back in confusion. Col. Paramore lost 2 men of the Third Ohio, wounded. Rebel loss unknown, they carrying off their wounded.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 364.
NEWS FROM ALL POINTS.
* * *
Skirmish Near Murfreesboro.
* * * *
Murfreesboro, June 7. The force went out a few days since under Colonel Wilder, of mounted infantry notoriety, for the purpose of pressing up the remaining small command of cavalry under Colonel Harrison, at Liberty, returned to camp to-day. Colonel Wilder's force consisted of his brigade of mounted infantry, Colonel Paramon's [sic] cavalry brigade, and ten pieces of artillery.
Near Liberty our forces came unexpectedly on the camp of the enemy, who fled precipitately at their approach, leaving a large number of horses, wagons, guns, pistols, swords and other articles usually found about a camp.
The supper cooked and prepared by the enemy, was eagerly dispatched by the captives, who found eggs and ham in sufficient quantity to feed the whole crowd. Parties were immediately sent out in every direction after the fleeing rebels, who brought in a large number, with four officers. The Fifteenth Indiana mounted infantry, was sent down to Alexandria, to cut off the retreat of the party who captured the mules in the vicinity of Nashville, a few days since. By arrangement, Gen. Cook, with his command camped up from Carthage and joined the Seventeenth at Alexandria. The rebel detachment in charge of the captured mules, 105 in number, were intercepted, and the whole party and booty was taken in charge, when the whole force rejoined the main body at Liberty.
Colonel Wilder then moved up to Smithville, where a brisk fight, in which the artillery was called into action, ensued, the rebels retreated, leaving on the field eight killed and quite a number of prisoners on our hands. The result of the expedition is fifty prisoners, four of whom are commissioned officers, one hundred and thirty mules, over one hundred horses, about fifty stand of arms, and eight serviceable wagons.
Captain Arnold, in charge of the guard accompanying the train between this place and Nashville, was yesterday [6th] accidentally killed while the train was passing over the bridge across Stewart's creek.
Captain Hazlet, of the Second Ohio, formerly residing at Zanesville, who was dangerously wounded at the battle of Stones River, died very suddenly last night from the effects of his wound.
* * * *
Memphis Bulletin, June 12, 1863.
4-ca. 12, Federal scout to Liberty environs
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, June 4, 1863--1 a. m.
GEN.: Direct Col. Paramore to march at 6 o'clock this morning, with the mounted men of the Third, Fourth, and Tenth Ohio, to Liberty, on the direct road. He will take eight day's rations-three in haversacks and five in wagons-with 60 rounds of ammunition per man. Col. Wilder marches his command on the same road at the same hour, and Col. Paramore will report to him. The quartermaster of each regiment will be left behind, and the dismounted men, for the purpose of getting their horses to-morrow. Orders to direct these detachments will be issued hereafter. At Liberty the command will be reported to Gen. Crook. The tents will not be taken, but an officer will be detailed to take charge of the baggage in case the camps are broken up. The pickets now on from these regiments will join the detachments in camp as soon as they can be relieved to-morrow by the First Brigade.
D. S. STANLEY, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 386.
5, Skirmish at Smithville [see June 4-5, 1863, "Scout to Smithville" above]
5, Confederate foraging expedition seeks corn after Federal cavalry ceases pursuit
Maj.-Gen. WHEELER, Cmdg. Army Corps, McMinnville:
GEN.: The enemy ceased to press me shortly after my dispatch at 3 p. m.; but, having no corn, and there being no possibility of getting any between Smithville and McMinnville, I deemed it advisable to move on to the vicinity of the latter place to-night. My command has had no corn since last night, and I respectfully request you to telegraph to Tullahoma for 300 bushels to be sent up on the cars. Please advise me if it can be obtained, and at what hour.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. R. BUTLER, Col., Cmdg. Harrison's Brigade.
Maj. [Col.] Butler's command should have corn to-morrow. You will please direct him (Gen. Wheeler agreeing) to move here to-morrow for corn, sending a force to watch the enemy. This is in case the enemy do not advance; if they do, he must hold his own. He should stay where he is until scouts report in the morning the movements of the enemy. Please ask Maj. [O. P.] Chaffie to procure corn.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 863.
5, The cost of living in occupied-Nashville; "...the laboring classes have been ground to the earth, almost, beneath the oppression."
The people of Nashville, for fifteen months past, have been the helpless dupes of every countryman that could obtain access to the city with a wagon-load of market stuff. During all this time, prices have been fabulous in the extreme, and the laboring classes have been ground to the earth, almost beneath the oppression. Never before were our men of small means so harassed by all-devouring prices for articles necessary to sustain life. In the hands of merciless harpies, they have been forced to abandon every luxury, and live on the scantiest rations, with no preparations for "a rainy day." This state of deprivation is traceable to many minor causes, but all dependent upon the prime one which has made Tennessee the theatre of war. At last, our stinted people are experiencing relief. Marketing is coming down to a point of reason, as a sequence of the augmented facilities offered countrymen and hucksters, for bringing in supplies. The leading articles for table use have undergone a reduction; for instance, butter is sold at 30 cents, eggs at 20 cents per dozen, spring chickens from 30 to 50 cents each, while vegetables of every variety are as cheap as could be expected. Beef is yet scarce, and rules high, from 12 ½ to 25 cents per lb [sic]; no improvement in this article can be anticipated, as the immense consumption by the armies place marketable beef out of the reach of butchers, except in small purchases. The country around us is teeming with vegetables and poultry, better, eggs, etc., and it is to be hoped that nothing may occur to place us on the verge of famine as we have lately escaped.
Nashville Daily Press, June 5, 1863.
5, "New Building."
We are glad to note that our fellow-citizen, John Johnston, Esq., has resumed the erection of his new building on Cedar street, nearly opposite his present place of business. He designs it as a wholesale and retail liquor store of the first class, and we trust it may reach completion at an early day, as it is to be of splendid architecture. Contrary to all precedent in the history of Nashville, this, we believe, is the only business house in course of construction in the city. We present a very unenterprising appearance, as a populous city, compared with some of our neighbors.
Nashville Daily Press, June 5, 1863.
5, The execution of three murderers in Murfreesboro as witnessed by a Wisconsin soldier
June 5th 1863
I just witnessed the hanging of three citizens of this County, for a murder that occurred about the first of March last. It seems that four scoundrels, in their attempt to compel an old man to tell them where he kept his money, used every means of torture conceivable, and upon failure to secure the desired information, finally killed their victim. The murderers fled within the confederate lines, were there arrested tried for the crime and one was hung. The three others escaped to our lines and were arrested as spies, and being recognized by the son of the murdered man, was [sic] tried by a military court and hung today. One of the men was over seventy years of age. All of them protested their innocence. A son and daughter of the man murdered as well as ten or fifteen thousand soldiers witnessed the execution. I believe these men justly deserved their fate, but I have no desire to witness another like execution.[Emphasis added]
J. M. Randall
The James M. Randall Diary
Camp in the field near Memphis, Tennessee
June 5th, 1863
My Dear Fannie
The drums have sounded Tatoo [sic] but I am not yet sleepy enough to go to bed so I will just set here and talk with you a little while although you are hundreds of miles from here I can just imagine you set at my desk and are answering questions as I write them down though as I look up I miss your sweet face though I am well aware that your thoughts are now with me. Fannie do you believe that one mind can influence another though miles apart or in other words do you believe in the communion of thought? I know this is part of the spiritualists theory yet I believe it. I am perfectly well satisfied that at certain times the thoughts of my absent loved ones are dwelling on me as, much so as of my existence. You need not think from this that I am inclined towards spiritualism, I am willing with that as with any other ism to accept the good it teaches and reject the bad.[Emphasis added]
We have had a very stormy afternoon and the wind has been very high it played sad havoc with some of our tents, blowing them down and into all kind of shapes one of the largest trees of our grove which had defied a thousand storms was blown down and came very near killing one of our boys he was laying down in his bunk when the wind was blowing the hardest and for some reason got up and steped [sic] out of his tent just as the tree fell. A large limb struck his bunk which would probably have killed him, had he been a few seconds later there. This evening is so cool and quiet that one would hardly think that a few hours ago there was such a comotion [sic] here. There has nothing of importance hapened [sic] since I wrote you before, we are a very peaceable and orderly lot of men and are contented to "Let the wild world wag as it will", though there was a few of us had a little fun a few days ago, in the shape of a little scout after the Rebs [sic]. which came neare [sic] costing me pretty dear. We got word one afternoon that there was a force of about one hundred Rebs [sic] about three miles out. The Lieut. Co. (Smedley) ordered me to have two companies fall in and we would go out and give them chase or fight. We started from camp about two oclock [sic] in the afternoon and marched out about five miles before we found any track of the enemy. The first sign we saw was their trail as they had crossed the road in the woods. The Col. ordered a halt and sent me forward with only one man to reconoiter [sic] and to find out if possible in which direction the Rebs [sic] were to be found. I rode on perhaps a mile in advance of the troops and found a citizen who informed me that the Rebs [sic] had passed about an hour before on their way to Rolla. They were all well mounted and as our boys were on foot the Colonel (when I reported to him) ordered an about face and we took up our line of march for camp again, having had a brisk march without a fight. I was mounted on a very high spirited horse, and on our way back the Col. sent me on ahead to find if possible some scouts who had been sent out with orders to report at a certain point. I was riding along on a good round gallop when my horse became frightened at something, and jumped to one side of the road. It was a very foolish move in him I thought, for as he struck he sliped [sic] and down he went, with my leg under him. We were going at such speed that the horse, Frank and all slid about ten feet in the mud. My appearance when I got up was not perhaps what a young lady would have admired in a gentleman but I assure you I was very well satisfied when I found that my leg was not broken nor my horse injured notwithstanding my appearance. I remounted my gallant steed and was soon as good as new. The Col. wanted to know "where in the world I had been to get so muddy". I told him "in the mud". It was almost a miracle that my leg was not broken, or otherwise injured, but I escaped almost unhurt. I was lame for a little while but am now entirely over it. I guess that I will now bid you good night Fannie dear, and finish this to-morrow.
Saturday evening: Well Fanny this letter is not finished yet. We have had a greate [sic] time in town to day. The anniversary of taking of Memphis was celebrated with becoming style. I will send you a paper containing the particulars if I am lucky enough to get one in the morning. I have the evening edition but it does not contain a complete description of the affair.
I received a good long letter from Mrs. Richmond, my mother and Mrs. King this morning. Mother and Kate were visiting Mrs. R. in Guilford so they all put their heads together and wrote me a joint letter on a sheet of fools cap [sic] which was filled full. Kate is enjoying herself hugely among her old friends. She thinks that there is no place on earth quite as good or as lively as our old home. Teen says, "Give my love to that little Fannie and tell her how happy I am that she has chosen Christ for her portion for now I shall some day meet her if we are faithful to our vows, if not here in a fairer clime where friends need never be seperated [sic] more". She is a good sister if there ever was one and I am proud of her.
Fannie, it appears that victory is about to perch again on our dear old Flag. God grant that it may be so. We think here that Grant has got a sure thing on Vicksburg [sic], it is only a question of time with him now. Port Hudson is also closely besieged and I am strongly of the faith that before this reaches you, those two Rebel strongholds will be among the things that were, but how many of our brave boys have been sacrifised [sic], and how many sorrowful homes but these things must need be in was. I am confident that when we get Vicksburg and Port Hudson our campaign in the west will be virtually at an end, then we can send a lot of our western troops east, and take Richmond, for I guess the western army has got to take it if taken at all. There is to much fancy soldiering done on the Potomac, they are not satisfied to take to business as we have to do here fancy soldiering does well enough in times of peace, but has been played out in time of war.
Well Fannie I don't believe you will want to hear from me again in a month after reading this letter, for I presume it will tax your patience as much as you can stand at once. I didn't know but you would scold because I had not written before, and I took this as the best method to make up for my fault, and now good by. Please give my love to all your people and keep a good lot for yourself. I remain as ever-Yours affectionately – Frank M.G. –
P.S. Fannie what are the initials of your Father's name. I would like to send him papers occasionally.
5-6, Execution and a railroad fatality in Murfreesboro
OUR CORRESPONDENCE FROM MURFREESBORO
Special Correspondence of the Daily Press
June 6th, 1863
Yesterday, Wm. A. Selkirk forfeited his life on the scaffold, for the murder of Adam Weaver, of Wilson co., Tenn., in the presence of a large concourse of soldiers and citizens. The unfortunate man was taken from the jail at 1 o'clock P.M., and placed in a wagon, drawn by six horses, the 37th Ind. acting as guard. As the convict walked out from the jail, with hands manacled, and viewed the vast concourse by which he was surrounded, his lips quivered and his whole frame shuddered. He was placed on his coffin and probably then for the first time he realized that before the setting sun he would be summoned before the august throne of Him who gave him life. The solemn procession marched slowly through Lytle street to the place of execution, in the following order: Colonel Stoughton and Captain Cosper, Provost Marshals, on horseback, accompanied by Surgeon J. C. Dorr, Medical Purveyor of this Department, and several surgeons, officers and correspondents, also on horseback; next the 37th Ind., with Col. Hull in command. Then followed the wagon containing the prisoner and his spiritual advisers. As the solemn procession reached the scaffold, there must have been at least 10,000 persons present, in fact, nothing could be seen for yards but a perfect sea of heads, and as the prisoner gazed upon the vast multitude, his whole appearance changed from an almost rose color to an ashy paleness. The recollections of the dreams of happiness he had once found all seemed to vanish when he gazed intently on the assemblage and the rope which hung carelessly over his head. He gave but one solemn, melancholy, dejected look of acute anguish at the rope and scaffold, and then turned and looked abstractedly [sic] towards the guard which escorted him. His philosophy soon restored him to self-command, and he looked rather cheerful. It seemed to occur to him that if it would be the last time he would be privileged on earth to behold the faces which now surrounded him, and that he had better prepare himself with fortitude to meet the coming hour. As the wagon entered the square formed by the 27th [sic] Indiana around his scaffold it halted just under the structure. His hands were loosed and he turned round to father Cooney of the 35th Indiana, who sat in the wagon with him, and whispered a few words which I afterwards ascertained to be that he wished to be baptized before his death. Father Cooney went immediately and procured some water and baptized him. After the baptism was over, Rev. Mr. Patterson of the 11th Michigan made a most fervent and eloquent prayer, the prisoner on his knees with eyes uplifted to heaven and seemingly praying with all the fervor of his whole soul. After Mr. Patterson had finished praying the Adjutant of the 11th Michigan stood up in the wagon and read the "General order...and then told the prisoner that he had five minutes to live and make any remarks he wished. He then stepped out slowly and dejected-looking on the scaffold, and with faltering voice made the following remarks: "Gentlemen, I am here about to meet my saviour. I am here to give up my life for a crime I am not guilty of, and when you and I meet again before the bar of Justice you will know that I am not guilty of the crime.
"It is true I was there when the murder was committed, but I did not do it; good bye; may the Lord have mercy; Jesus take me into Thy hands and keeping."
He then knelt down and joined in prayer with a gentleman, whose name I could not ascertain. After prayer was over, he stood up and stepped on the scaffold again, to have the fatal rope placed around his neck. While the rope was being adjusted, he prayed audibly, and his last words on earth were: 'Sweet Jesus, take me to Thyself. O, Lord, forgive me for all my sins; ' and again, as the person who escorted him was tightening the rope, he said, 'For God's sake don't choke me before I am hung.'Then, when the black cap was drawn over his eyes, he then seemed to know that in a few seconds he would be consigned to 'that bourne from whence no traveller returns;' and said, 'Lord have mercy on my soul.' The words were scarcely uttered, when that which was a few moments before a stout, healthy man was nothing but a cold, inanimate form. I forgot mentioning that as the 'black cap' was about being put on him, Sarah Ann Weaver, the youngest daughter of the murdered man, Adam Weaver, made her appearance inside the square, and quite close to the scaffold. She asked Capt. Goodwin and Maj. Wiles the privilege of adjusting the rope around his neck, but they would not grant it. [Emphasis added] She is a young lady of about seventeen years, rather prepossessing and intelligent looking; she stood there unmoved while the body lay dangling between heaven and earth. She seemed to realize that the murderer of her father had now paid the penalty with his life. Your correspondent asked her what she thought of the affair, and she curtly remarked, 'He will never murder another man, I think.' After the body had remained alone for fifteen minutes swinging in the air, and surgeon Dorr pronounced life extinct, it was cut down and put in a coffin. The assemblage departed, some laughing, some crying, and some thinking of the fate of the deceased. Mr. Bettis constructed the scaffold and had everything arranged in proper style."
Capt. Carlton of co. E, 22d Michigan, was instantly killed this morning on the train from Nashville to this place at the bridge across Stewart's creek. He was standing on top of a car and got knocked down under the cars. His left arm was entirely severed from his body.
Nashville Daily Press, June 8, 1863.
4, "The City Elections" [see November 4, 1863, A Plea to Military Governor Andrew Johnson to dismiss the Memphis Mayor and Board of Aldermen with loyal Union men above]
The day appointed four our municipal elections in now close at hand, and we deem it important, in view of the great changes required in the administration of this municipality, to say a few words to those who intend voting. It has been suggested by our cotemporary [sic] that party issues be entirely ignored in the contest and that every candidate run upon his own individual merits.
This would do very well if it could be carried out in good faith, but the utter impossibility of such being done, entirely precludes the matter from receiving any attention on the part of the people. Parties are in existence in this city, and as a matter of course, every candidate whose sympathies rest with them, will appeal and look to them for support.
What should be done at this time, is this, let the true Union men, that is those who are positively known to be such, organize immediately, and place candidates in the field who are men of business capacity, and whose election to the various offices will reflect honor upon our city, and rid us of the incubus of the present officials, that we may stand in a true light, in the eyes of the loyal men of the country. Let us elect men whose devotion to the Union shall not be bought in question, and thereby secure to ourselves, as citizens of a great and growing city, the advantages due us from the government, and which would, in all probability, be afforded if we would show more conclusively to its representatives here, that we are determined to stand by it in thought, word and deed for all time to come.
We are satisfied that there is a strong element of loyalty among the people of this city and State. It has always been in existence to a greater or less extent, and has been growing daily since the National troops first set foot upon the soil of Tennessee, and will continue to grow till treason is entirely uprooted from our midst. Let the people now consider and take advantage of their knowledge of our past history, and let them show where we stand in the present crisis. We are disposed to look with distrust upon any scheme that has for its object the placing of men in positions and power without the endorsement of those who are truly loyal at heart. The citizens of Memphis owes a paramount duty to the government, and while the affairs of the State and city should always command his closest attention, he must at the same time use his utmost caution in doing anything detrimental to the great interests of the nations; for this reason, we hope the Unconditional Union [sic] men of this city will select, from among their number, those who are best fitted to fill the offices soon to become vacant, and to unite in solid phalanx against all opposition.
We trust after what we have said, the Unconditional Union [sic] men will go to work at once, and not allow another such ignominious reign as that which has cursed our city for the past two or three years.
Memphis Bulletin, June 7, 1864.
4, Richard Carney Escapes Captivity in Clarksville [see May 3, 1864, "Montgomery County News." above]
The Clarksville (Tenn.) Gazette of the 28th ult. says: Richard Carney, of this county, who was convicted by a Military Commission, convened here last Fall, of the murder of Lawson J. Murphy, and who was under sentence of death therefor, escaped from the jail of this city one night last week and is now at large. Of the manner and circumstances of his escape we have not been informed. The jail is now, and has been for some two years past, in charge of the military here, and we suppose the customary precautions to secure prisoners were observed, but the ingenuity and resources suggested by love of live overcame them."
Nashville Dispatch, June 4, 1864.
4, "…the evils of slavery are apparent and more horrible to me than ever; but believe me, to-day the white man is the greatest sufferer." A Northerner's Observations on the Effects of Emancipation in Tennessee
We commend the following extract from a letter from East Tennessee, published in the N. Y. Evening Post, to our correspondent who argues that the Constitution is all right as it now stands, so far as it's prohibition of slavery is concerned. The writer of the letter is doubtless is concerned. The writer of the letter is doubtless right in saying that the only chance for the slave is in the despair which an amendment of and Constitution would produce. Slaveholders, at least, the great mass of them, will never favor emancipation if they can avoid it.-And when forced upon them the present generation, as has been the case in the British West India Islands, will theart the operations of freedom forced upon them in all the ways they can. But with the Constitution unamended, as slavery has existed under it for three-fourths of a century and all the decisions of the courts for that period; and the administration of the Government having proceeded upon its lawfulness, how can emancipation ever be carried into full operation.
Murfreesboro', May 3, 1864.
"It is not always true, coelum non animum. [Latin for "heaven doesn't mind."] I doubt if any one can cross the Ohio river for the first time without being very much changed in all his views. For myself, I find so many things different, and much worse than I had supposed, that the evils of Southern society no longer hold the same relative position in my mind or interest.
"The condition of the blacks is worse than I had imagined; but I never began to understand the condition of the whites. The generally low standard of knowledge' the intellectual stagnation among even the most advanced; the narrow sphere of thought and conservatism in which my own associates move; the ignorance in the middle classes of the ordinary democratic ideas of progress; the absence of any thought of any thought of right to opportunity on the part of those who need it most; the deplorable darkness of the lower whites, are to me evils so new and appalling that I no longer burn with indignation at the wrongs of the negro, without being calmed and sickened by the universal degradation. My Northern blood boils oftener at the contemptuous tone of the privileged classed towards the underprivileged than at the unquestioned domination of color; and when I see a white man without property, education or hope, I feel that if I could but inspire him with a conviction of his rights, I should be kindling a fire which would burn in him, perhaps, longer than in me. No one who has not seen it can understand the depths of debasement in which the underprivileged whites are steeped. Do not suppose that I am less anti-slavery: the evils of slavery are apparent and more horrible to me than ever; but believe me, to-day the white man is the greatest sufferer.
"If you have any influence at Washington use it to promote an amendment of the Constitution-nothing less can save this State. There is but little loyalty here. Regret for the war became unsuccessful, and a wish to return to former avocations in peace, are the most favorable feelings. An earnest desire to retain their slaves, t keep them together until peace returns, and an abiding faith that the State will never consent to the abolition of slavery, are the strongest incentives of the masters.- They will not hire their slaves themselves; they prefer to sit in solitary destitution. They will not consent to others hiring them they prefer to see a general embarrassment of all parties, and predict with pleasure the hoped-for failure of the new experiment. They will do nothing recognizing that the negro is entitled to anything.
"The only chance for the State is in the despair which an amendment to the Constitution would produce. Once let them see that Slavery is impossible, that no power within or without can re-establish it-be their negroes ever so willing, or the system ever so beneficial-and the masters will give up the contest in despair. Their children and grand-children may then become industrious men, and their posterity will raise the State to the proper place to which its natural resources entitle it-but from this generation nothing is to be expected.
"Therefore, if you can do anything to promote the amendment of the Constitution, do so; and your success will, in my opinion, accomplish more for mankind, without regard to color, than any effort in any other direction."
Vermont Chronicle, June 4, 1864. 
4- ca. 9, 13th Tennessee Cavalry conducts anti-guerrilla mission south of the Cumberland in Wilson county [see June 11, 1864, "The William H. Robinson affair" and June 17, 1864, "Captain James B. Wyatt, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, Co. M, defends himself from charges of thievery" below]
5, Marauders and insecurity in Madison County
....Bands of robbers & thieves infest many portions of the country. A man cannot...with any assurance of safety go 5 miles from home.
4- ca. 9, 13th Tennessee Cavalry conducts anti-guerrilla mission south of the Cumberland in Wilson county [see June 11, 1864, "The William H. Robinson affair" and June 17, 1864, "Captain James B. Wyatt, Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry, Co. M, defends himself from charges of thievery" below]
5, Marauders and insecurity in Madison County
....Bands of robbers & thieves infest many portions of the country. A man cannot...with any assurance of safety go 5 miles from home.
5, Amos L. White murdered in Henry County
Murder of Amos L. White, a native of Rhode Island, in Henry County, Tenn.-On the 5th of June, about midnight, four armed men, disguised with blackened faces, entered the house of Mr. Amos L White, in Henry County, Tenn., and demanded $10,000 booty as a ransom for his life. As so large a sum could not be found by them after a thorough search, they seized Mr. White and dragged him from his bed, carried him a short distance form the house and shot him dead, three bullets entering his body. What conversation passed between these fiend assassins and their victim is unknown, as Mrs. White, his wife, who started after them, was driven back upon peril of sharing the fate of her husband. Mr. White is a planter, and had resided in the area but a few years. He was raising corn and one hundred acres of cotton. He was born in this State [Rhode Island], was the son of John White, and was about 42 years of age. He resided several years in Johnston, and was educated in the manufacturing business at Simmonsville, under the guidance of Benjamin Piroe, Esq. After becoming prepared for the management of a mill, he and his family removed to Bahia, Brazil, where he was engaged in cotton spinning for about two years, when he returned to his native State and took charge of the Simonsville mills for a short time. Thence he removed to Barnesville, Ohio, where he built a mill and engaged in the manufacture of wick, twine, yarn, batts, bags and wadding.. The business was very successful and his mill was the only one of the kind in the vicinity, and the articles were readily taken home for consumption. He removed thence to Tennessee where he was brutally murdered.
His reputation was unspotted, his character without stain. He was genial in his intercourse, and much loved and esteemed by all who knew him. Many there are who will mourn his untimely death. He leaves a wife and five children. Two of them were in this city attending school at the time of their father's death; the other three-one an infant a week old-were at his home in Tennessee.
The body of Mr. White has been brought to this State, and buried by the side of friends him Burrillville.-Providence Journal, June 30.
New York Times, July 3, 1864.
5, Federal policy regarding passes, the carrying of fire arms and the surrender of former Confederate soldiers and guerrillas in and around Nashville, Tennessee and Huntsville, Alabama
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, Tenn., June 5, 1865.
Maj. Gen. L. H. ROUSSEAU, Cmdg. District of Middle Tennessee:
GEN.: Col. John W. Horner, commanding the post of Huntsville, has issued an order (General Orders, No. 15, of May 12, 1865) which contains the following objectionable paragraphs:
No passes will be required of citizens passing to and from this city or through the adjacent country.
The right of citizens to keep and carry arms for self-defenses will be recognized, and no permits or protection from these headquarters will be required.
Citizens can pass through the adjacent country, hunting and gaming without fear of molestation.
No scouting or raiding parties will be sent into any peaceable or quiet neighborhood. Past offenses must be forgiven, old hatreds buried, animosities laid aside, and a spirit of reconciliation rule.
The policy set forth in this order is not the general policy which is to prevail throughout the department or in the region around Huntsville. All rebel soldiers, guerrillas, and bushwhackers who are being paroled and becoming citizens by hundreds have not the right to keep and carry arms and to pass through the country hunting and gaming. Passes will still be required by these headquarters of citizens traveling through the country. All past offenses, such as robbery, murder, arson, theft, and rape, are not forgiven and to be passed over by the military authorities in regions where there is no civil law to punish the offenders. The country is not yet ready for such a state of affairs as Col. Horner's order presupposes. The bars are not yet thrown down and all military restraint removed from the country. Will you please regulate the matters referred to in Hunstville and vicinity.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I., Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 960-961.
5, "Several things have operated to cause me to be an emancipationist."A Carroll County resident on emancipation
It is an old adage there is luck in seizure but the reverse comes up, there is danger in delay. Well this is it: I have thought for several years I would like to live in a country where slavery did not exist and I used to talk about moving to a free state. But all the free states lying North [sic], and consumption being hereditary in our family, I thought it best not to move North [sic]. It seems now I am about to get to a free state without moving. I am an emancipationist and have been from boyhood, but I am opposed to the way in which emancipation is now seemingly to be brought about. [emphasis added] Several things have operated to cause me to be an emancipationist. First, the cruel treatment I have seen in some sections of country. This had a powerful effect on me when a boy. I was quite a close observer. Second, the bad effect slavery has on the white population of the slaveholding states. Third, I have doubts about the right of holding slaves in any such way as the Negroes have been held. I think the great national wrong has been in not having them taught. There might be volumes written on this subject. [sic]
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 As cited in PQCW.
 GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN .
 The Louisville Courier, a rival of the Louisville Daily Journal and a pro-secession newspaper.
 As cited in PQCW.
 GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN
 See May 2-9, 1862, "Expedition from Trenton to Paris and Dresden, Tenn., Report of Col. Thomas Claiborne, Sixth Confederate Cavalry" above.
 Hampden McClanahan, a native Tennessean with property in West Tennessee. He was appointed U. S. Marshal 1857; he was replaced by Thomas J. Gardner in March, 1861. See Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, fn 5, p. 440.
 After John Murrel, a well-known highwayman in West Tennessee in the 1830s.
 According to the editors of the Papers of Andrew Johnson, this dispatch reported that two hundred Tennessee refugees encamped near Paducah, Kentucky, desired to organize a Tennessee regiment. Halleck suggested that Johnson authorize them to do so, for 'from their local knowledge they will be exceedingly useful." Halleck to Johnson, June 5, 1862, Johnson Papers in the Library of Congress. See Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, fn 1, p. 442.
 Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee claims it was the "Edgefield Pike, near Murfreesborough."
 There is no evidence in either the OR or Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee to corroborate this story. The number of mules allegedly taken seems rather an exact count. The event may have been true or a rumor of war.
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
 This event is not referenced in the OR or Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
 This event is not referenced in the OR or Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
 See also: Bangor Daily Whig & Courier, July 4, 1864.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214