Wednesday, June 3, 2015

6.3.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes



          3, Provocation and reply, a battle of words [see also August 2, 1861, A West Tennessee Confederate soldier's letter home to Memphis from General Pillow's camp below]

The Pillow Guards of Memphis, challenged the bodyguard of Federal General Benjamin Prentiss, the Prentiss Guards of Cairo, Illinois, to deadly combat. According to the challenge:

"We have enlisted under the stars and bars of the Confederate States for the purpose of defending Southern rights and vindicating Southern honor. But more especially we have been selected and sworn in for the purpose of guarding the person of our gallant Gen. Pillow. Understanding that you occupy a like position with reference to Prentiss, the commandant at Cairo, we challenge you to meet us at any time, at any place, in any number, and with any arms or equipment which you may select. We wish to meet no others till we have met and conquered you and your General. Make your own terms, only let us know when and where, and be certain you will meet the bravest guard the world has ever known."

An answer came on June 17:

"The Prentiss Guards responded to the braggadocio of a challenge issued to them on June 3 by the Pillow Guards. According to Captain Joseph D. Walker of the Prentiss Guards:

'We accept no challenges from traitors, but hang them. If we ever meet, you shall suffer the fate of traitors.'"

Anecdotes, Poetry and Incidents of the War, p. 160. [1]

          3, Report on Voter Intimidation in Nashville on the Eve of the June 8 Secession Vote and Tennessee's Interference with Kentucky's Commerce

Tennessee.-A short time ago a gentleman of Davidson county addressed two written questions, anonymously, to the Union & American, the leading disunion organ at Nashville. The questions, in substance, were: First, Will the Union men be allowed to discuss publicly the issued in this canvass?, and, Secondly, Will they be allowed to vote in the election? The editor published the questions, and, with considerable circumlocution, gave the author of them and the community distinctly to understand that both privileges would be refused! [sic] He knew that it was the determination of the Vigilance Committee and the armed and organized troops at their command to crush out Union speaking and Union voting, and he didn't think it worth while to attempt to disguise the notorious fact. The Union speaker would be shot upon the stand in Nashville, and a Union voter, if such a one there be, will be shot at the polls. Nevertheless, the canvass is called a free canvass; and the election will be called a free election; and when the election is over, the disunion authorities will proclaim that all must bow before the majestic power of the popular will. It would really seem as if, when innumerable Vigilance Committees are daily and nightly at work throughout Tennessee expelling Union men and their families from the State, they might venture to permit such as shall be left on the 8th of June to exercise the right of free suffrage, but no, they are afraid, that, notwithstanding the driving of thousands into exile and the turning of the whole artillery of the late Union press of the State against the Union party, secession would still be voted down unless the polls should be girt with secession bayonets.

Tennessee is now upon a war footing, Unquestionably she menaces the Union men of Kentucky, In pursuance of an understanding with the Kentucky secessionists, she stand ready to aid them at any moment in carrying the secession cause in this state by fire and steel. She has called out 65,000 men, and she has 34,000 on drill every day. These 34,000 men are armed with Maynard's rifles, and Sharp's rifles, the Minie ball being used for all of them. A considerable number of the arms were furnished from Montgomery, and 12,000 sabres are from Georgia. Cannon are cast as rapidly as possible at two establishments in Nashville and one in Memphis. Five millions of dollars appropriated by the Legislature for the arming of the State and all the county courts are exercising the authority given them by the legislature to levy whatever tax the please upon the respective counties of the support of the families of volunteers. Twelve or fifteen thousand troops are encamped at Union City, on the immediate border of Kentucky, and seven thousand on the Nashville railroad almost on the Kentucky line, ready to be precipitated upon Louisville at any time at the shortest notice.

In the meantime, Tennessee, having made all these formidable preparations for whatever may ensue, has commenced seizing Kentucky boats and cargoes upon the Mississippi river. Twenty or thirty Louisville steamboats, bound up from New Orleans, have been seized at Memphis by order of Gen. Pillow. Everyone that comes to that point is seized. If any boat attempts to pass, she is brought to by heavy batteries and compelled to remain. Our State can no longer send a boat down the Mississippi and expect her return. Our commerce upon that mighty thoroughfare is annihilated. And yet not a disunion organ or disunion man breathes a world of complaint or remonstrance. When two or three of our boats were brought to at Cairo under order of the U. S. Government, and, after the taking out of a few articles contraband of war, permitted to go upon their way, or disunionists seems ready to burst with fury and yelled forth a thousand fierce interrogatories as to whether Kentucky would submit for even a day too such atrocious interference with Kentucky commerce. They were for rushing to arms at once and sweeping the U.S. troops and the U. S. authority at once from the Illinois bank at the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi. But now, when Tennessee goes a hundred degree further than the U. S. authorities at Cairo have dreamed of going, when she obliterates our whole commerce from the face of the Mississippi, when she brings her batteries to bear upon our boats and takes possession them and keeps possession of them assigning no reason whatever except that such is her own good pleasure of the good pleasure of the miserable vain and strutting despot[2] who is at the head of her military affairs, our disunionists are as dumb as if they had been born without tongues and as submissive as if they had been born without souls.

It seems to us that our people can have no great difficulty in rightly appreciating those miserable disunion politicians, who, whilst approving the utter confiscation, by Tennessee, of the whole of our Kentucky commerce and all of our Kentucky boats upon the Mississippi river, think it a most shocking and horrid and awful thing that there should be the slightest interference, by any power whatever, with the transportation to Tennessee of contraband articles from Kentucky upon the Nashville railroad. In the name of Heaven, which is the more important-the seeping our entire Mississippi commerce from existence or the stopping of a few bacon hams and barrels of flour upon the Nashville railroad?

Louisville Daily Journal, June 3, 1861. [3]

                    3, Tennessee War Tax explained

City Hall, Nashville, June 3, 1861.

In reply to the numerous inquiries to the War Tax, levied by a recent act of the Legislature, I will state that it amounts to 8 cents on the hundred dollars' worth of property. [emphasis added]

In other words, a man must own taxable property to the value of ten thousand dollars, in order to pay eight dollars war tax; or property valued at five thousand, to pay four dollars; or property valued at one thousand to pay eighty cents of taxes; or a hundred dollars' worth of property, to pay eight cents. The man of small means, or possessed of a small amount of taxable property, will scarcely feel the additional tax levied for military purposes. A man worth one hundred thousand dollars in taxable property, would pay eighty dollars [sic] of additional tax. [emphasis added]

Very respectfully,

A. Nelson

Nashville Union & American, June 4, 1861.




          3, Dispersal of Starne's Confederate Cavalry and capture of "the fighting Baptist Preacher," Captain A. D. Trimble[4] at Winchester

No circumstantial reports filed.

HUNTSVILLE, June 4, 1862.


An expedition under the command of Gen. Negley, consisting of troops from all the forces under my command, marched from Fayetteville on the morning of the 1st instant. On the 2d this column entered Winchester, driving thence the enemy's cavalry, under Starnes, and captured a Baptist preacher, who is a ranger, with four of his band. That column is now moving toward Jasper. A supporting column, under Col. Still, now occupies Stevenson. It is now expected that these two columns will unite before reaching Jasper. We hope that the enemy is ignorant of our strength and will make a stand at Jasper. They were undoubtedly surprised at Winchester, and I think will not expect to be followed into the mountains. I learn, from what I consider reliable authority, that on the 28th ultimo Beauregard telegraphed Leadbetter at Chattanooga to cross the river and hold the northern side, and especially Winchester, at all hazards. Some artillery has already been sent over, and possibly some infantry. I think my force is more than sufficient, even if all the troops under Leadbetter should be found at Jasper. Our entire force of infantry, cavalry, and artillery will hardly fall short of 6,000 men.

There is but one way of ridding the country of guerrilla bands, and that is to turn out against them a sufficient force of cavalry to pursue and utterly destroy them, with orders not to return till the work is ended. I cannot obtain horses; the wagon horses have been inspected and are [of] little value. Can you send me some cavalry?

O. M. MITCHEL, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 257.

Winchester June 3-1862

To Gov Andrew Johnson,

The advance of my command Maj [sic] Wynkoops [sic] battallion [sic] of Pa [sic] Cavalry dashed into Winchester this morning scattering Col [sic] Starnes rebel cavalry in all directions and are now pursuing them, through the mountains. We surprised &captured Capt [sic] A D [sic] Trimble the fighting Baptist preacher & four of his Company [sic]. It is reliably reported that a considerable reinforcement of the Enemy are near Jasper Expecting [sic] to join Starnes regt [sic] & attack us. We shall march forward to meet them at once. You will please forward this dispatch to the Sec'y War and oblige[.]

James S. Negley Brig Gen Comdg

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 435.

          3, Conditions in northeast Tennessee [see April 10, 1864, David Crockett "Tinker Dave" Beatty requests supplies from Military Governor Andrew Johnson below]

Paducah Ky June 3d, 1862

In Haste [sic]

To Hon. Andrew Johnson

Nashville Tenn.

Dear Sir:

On yesterday I dispatched to you an abridged statement of the disturbed condition of affairs in the North Western [sic] Portion of Tennessee, and at the same time desired to be informed on some Points in relation to the Power vested in you as Brig.-Gen.-Gov-of the State. Not being able to communicate with you by Telegraph all that I desired, I have taken the liberty of writing you this letter, in which I hope to give you a more unabridged statement. Hoping that you will excuse me of my boldness I will Proceed to inform you that the Counties of Henry, Carrol, Gibson, Weakley, Obion &C [sic] are now infested with marauding bands [sic] of Rebel Cavalry very much to the annoyance of Loyal citizens-These bands are mostly made up of Soldiers whose time of service expired under the late Conscript law & Could they be removed or captured this Portions of the State in a very short time would return to its Original Loyalty. The Union cause is gaining ground here though the Loyal men at this time are greatly harassed. The Federal lines having been extended many miles South of us, which to speak plainly are now in North Ala & Miss, yet behind them we find these lawless bands as well as a Portion of the Rebel Caverly [sic] still lirk [sic] to disturb the quiet of the country-now as there is not a sufficient force of Federals at this post (Paducah) [sic] Hickman, Columbus or Fort Hindman to Protect the before named Counties: We wish to know of you, this,? [sic] as Gov [sic] of the State, have you not the Power to call upon the Loyal men in this Portion of the State to Rendesvous [sic] at some convenient Point-and Organise [sic] at some convenient Point-say for three, six, or Twelve, [sic] months for the Purpose [sic] of aiding the Federal Troops [sic] to dispurse [sic] such bands and bring the guilty to Justice [sic] so that peace [sic] and quietude may again be restored in this now distracted land-

In this Place (Paducah) & Vicinity [sic] there are several hundred Tennesseeans [sic] who are ready at a moments [sic] warning to take up arms and defend their homes from these ruthless Outlaws, [sic] Provided [sic] they can be clothed with the Proper authority-there are hundreds, yes! I may say thousands of Loyal Men in the before named Counties who are now hiding about their farms, in the swamps &c to keep out of the way of these Lawless bands as well as out of the hands of those who Propose to be Regular Rebel Caverly [sic] who frequently pass through the counties before names in small squads for the purpose of running off all the Provisions [sic] they can & arresting men for their Loyalty [sic] to the Old Govn. [sic] Some of whom a few days ago were sent to Corinth and shot & others now confined in Prison awaiting the same sad end. These men will almost to a man respond to a call to Put [sic] this thing down, but at the Present time are not willing to inlist [sic] in the Federal army for 3 years or during the war, unless they can have Posative [sic] assurance that they will be sent into some of those counties to establish a camp before being sent any other direction, so that they may be able to Put these bands down, and thereby relieve their Families [sic] from the embarrassments [sic]? which nor surround them. A large number of these men left their Homes in great haste & their families Poorly [sic] Provided for[.] They make their living be [sic] the sweat of their Brow that is a large Proportion of them-therefore they are in a very critical condition having been run from home about the middle of seedtime & it [is] now about Harvest [sic] and still always from their homes-Kept [sic] from their homes by an Organized band of Two Thousand Confederates [sic] in conjunction With [sic] a few marauders-Who could be run out of the country by Twenty five Hundred men-or Captured-which when done would free the Western District from the Ky line to a line along the Memphis & Charleston R.R. [sic] now in Pos.-of the Fed-[sic] giving us free access to all the Rail Roads and opening a way, for us to market-

At a meeting of the Tennesseeans at Presant [sic] encamped near this Place it was unanimouly [sic] requested that I should communicate to you Our [sic] condition and get your advice as to the best course to be pursued by us and at the same time say to you that (they We [sic] were willing to Organize [sic] them (our)selves [sic] into Cos. [sic] to defend their (our) [sic] homes, asking of you to authorise [sic] Some One [sic] to call them (us) [sic] together at some suitable Place of rendesvous [sic] to take command of them (us) [sic] for the term of ____ months as you think proper or untill [sic] the confederates [sic] are drivn [sic] from the state-If the Power [sic] is not vested in you to call them (us) out as above named-We as Loyal [sic] men ask of you to use your Influence to have a Federal camp or two established in some of the before named Counties [sic] so that we may be Protected [sic] while Organizing [sic] Union Citz [sic] in Obion and Humboldt in Gibson Co [sic] would be good locations.

To Organize [sic] as State Troops [sic] or Home Gards [sic] we think it would be best to be mounted on Horseback[.] the men Propose [sic] to furnish their own Horses, [sic] all we want is arms & amunition [sic] and to be Clothed [sic] with the Proper [sic] authority to act.

Shudering [sic] at the very Idea of forming Co. [sic] & acting without legal Power [sic] -

Col. Noble, the Com. of this Post (Paducah) says he can furnish us with guns and amunition [sic] such as are used by Infantry-but we wish to be equiped [sic] as Cavely [sic], at least for a while until we can get the Rebels run out of the state-

If our country was clear of this Cavelry [sic] force we would not ask to be received as state troops but would Join [sic] the service for 3 years if called upon which is a large majority of the Loyal [sic] citizens in West Tenn [sic] will do as soon as Fed. Camps [sic] can be established-for them to organise [sic] in safty [sic] [.] In the condition we are now in I think to call out the Militia or Troops [sic] as before names would be for the best-Excuse me for (boring) your Pas. [patience] so long but my Countrymen [sic] required it at my hands. Hoping that your name will ever live in the Harts [sic] of the American People I with much respect subscribe my name as, Friend & Obt Servt-

O. P. Weigart

Address me at Paducah Ky

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 435-437.

          3, Special accommodations for three rich Tennessee political prisoners at Mackinac Island

DISTRICT HDQRS., Plattsburg, N. Y., June 3, 1862.

Gen. L. THOMAS, Adjutant-Gen., U. S. Army, Washington.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in compliance with the directions of the Secretary of War...I have visited Fort Mackinac and made arrangements for the reception and safe-keeping of some fourteen or fifteen state prisoners of war. Two one story buildings have been selected for their quarters. One was formerly used as a hospital and the other as quarters for officers. A hasty sketch of the ground floor of these buildings herewith inclosed will show the space allowed for their accommodation. I also inclose a copy of my instructions to Capt.'s Wormer, the officer in command of Fort Mackinac.

I am, general, with much respect, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Col. of First Infantry.


FORT MACKINAC, May 25, 1862.

Capt. G. S. WORMER, Cmdg. Post of Fort Mackinac.

SIR: In addition to the ordinary duties of commanding officer of Fort Mackinac you are charged with the duty of guarding and safe- keeping Washington Barrow, William G. Harding and Joseph C. Guild,[5] citizens of Tennessee, state prisoners of war, now under you control, and it is enjoined upon you adopt all such measures as may be necessary to retain these persons in your custody. For this purpose the company of volunteers under your command were mustered into the service of the United States. It is presumed that Col. Hoffman, U. S. Army, commissary-general of prisoners, will give you all necessary instructions in relation to the manner the prisoners are to be treated, the restrictions to be placed on their intercourse with citizens, either personal or through the mail, and the liberty that may be allowed them to take exercise, &c.

I am, captain, with much respect, your obedient servant,

C. A. WAITE, Col. of First Infantry, Cmdg. District.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, pp. 634-635.

3, Fostering Political Correctness in Columbia

Great Union Meeting in Columbia.

We accompanied a very large delegation of our citizens to the Union meeting on yesterday, at Columbia. The cars, thirteen in number, were crowded, and hundreds went away from the depot, unable to gain admission. The town of Columbia was thronged with citizens from the surrounding country, and many from neighboring counties. The meeting was held in the Market House. The town, the home of the late President Polk, is noted as a hot bed of treason, and we saw but few of the citizens present, the audience being almost solely made up of the sober, thoughtful yeomanry of the country, the real bone and sinew of the nation. Ex-Governor Neil S. Brown, happening to be present, was urged to make a speech, and did so for over half an hour. He pronounced the rebellion a failure. In his judgment the rebellion was played out, and the longer it was kept up, the worse in all respects it would be for the South. His only brother was a prisoner in the North, he had two sons in the rebel army, but he would be forced to declare the rebellion an utter failure even though he had been the most violent secessionist alive. Tennessee was utterly lost to the Confederacy and it was the duty of her people as men of sense to advocate her restoration to the Union. Gov. Johnson addressed the crowd in a powerful speech of over two hours. It was worthy of him every way, and we can give it no higher praise. We took copious notes of both speeches, but owing to the lateness of our return have no time to give them this morning. We will reserve them for to-morrow's issues and promise our friends that they will be well repaid by a careful perusal of the addresses. The crowd, numbering between twelve hundred and fifteen hundred, listened with profound and breathless attention, and at times manifested their approval by hearty cheers. It was a good meeting decidedly.

Nashville Daily Union, June 3, 1862.

          3-5, Fort Pillow evacuated by Confederate States Army & occupied by United States Army

MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862

Gen. RUGGLES, Grenada:

Fort Pillow is evacuated. I left the fort this morning myself. The remainder of the ammunition and 600 troops were taken by steamer Golden Age this morning to Vicksburg. The remainder of the troops, with Gen. Villepigue, are coming by land. There is neither arms nor powder here.

In view of the importance of holding Memphis, public meetings have been held and addressed by Gen. Thompson, Col. Rosser, and Capt. Baird, with the most discouraging results. Col. Foute will leave on the evening train for Grenada, and will explain to you the true condition of things here. Capt. Baird will accompany him.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 579.[6]


Fort Pillow, Wednesday Night, June 4.

Fort Pillow is fallen! The last rebel stronghold on the Mississippi is ours, and the way lies open to Memphis. The fortifications before which we have so lain so long and into which we have poured so many thousands of ponderous shells, is at our mercy. Eight weeks have we besieged it with gunboats and mortars, and it now falls without the loss of a life.

The enemy is gone, quit, scampered, run away, unable to withstand the closing jaws of our fleets and armies; he is panic-stricken and demoralized. While I write, the flaming bonfires of his stores, his quarters, are lighting the heavens, and the flashes of his guns bespeak his haste. Victory!

The immediate occasion of this desperate and ruinous step on the part of the subjects of King Cotton is no doubt the fate of Corinth, but the real victory was gained on that dread day at Shiloh, when the few stout and loyal hearts and the active brains of our freemen held back the tide of rebellion by their determined and self-sacrificing spirit. Neither Corinth, not Pillow nor Memphis was safe aver that crowning Sunday night. It became a question of who should bring up the most men and resources for the next battle. We did it and the victory becomes bloodless in consequence. The exultation, the jubilee which this auspicious day will send to the hearts of thousands of our fellow-countrymen is the first fruit of the great restoration of peace and prosperity which is to flow in upon us from this hour. We have not only applied the tourniquet [sic] to this rebellion, but changed the current of the artery which is henceforth to throb with loyal and national – life-sustaining national blood.

Flag Officer Davis must have had some intimation of the rebel purpose in abandoning and destroying the place some day or two since. There have been an unusual number and variety of reconnoissances during this week, in tugs, in rams, in yawls, in gunboats, and by overland scouting. Reports certainly reached us two days ago of the evacuation, but when our mortars were fired they met with very ready responses. This morning the mortars opened at an unusually early hour. The firing was continued with great spirit during the morning, the rebels firing a shot in return at long intervals. Probably twenty shots were received from them during the morning, all of which, however, fell short. Our tremendous shells could be seen very distinctly exploding over the bluff on which their works were situated, the white, expanding, fleecy cloud drifting slowly across the horizon long after the ponderous missiles had reached the earthy. The day was cool, with a refreshing north wind blowing and the spectacle of the mortar bombardment was witnessed with great interest until about three o'clock, when the firing ceased, the rebels having ceased an hour before.

Reconnoissance – Accounts of a Deserter.

The cessation of the mortar-firing was probably to allow a reconnaissance to be made across Craighead Point. Col. Fitch sent a lieutenant and eight men over, who reported, on their return, that there were still men to be seen about the guns, but the general appearance of the place was deserted.

A more satisfactory exploration was made, however, by Pilot Bixby, of the Benton, who took a cutter, with the boat's crew, and went down to the point, where he landed. A deserter made his way to the cutter across the point and informed us that the rebels had gone from Fort Pillow, that the fort was abandoned, except by a garrison of twenty men, who had been left behind with ten rounds of ammunition for each of the few guns still in position. So earnest and positive in his asseverations, that the offered to lead the party to the works, and if they did not find things as he described them, he offered his life as the forfeit. The deserter was brought to the flag-ship, where he repeated his story with greater detail. Pause of some three hours occurred in which there was comparative silence on both sides.

It was about six o'clock as we had just risen from supper, when a cloud of white smoke was announced as appearing over the tops of the trees. An instant more, and a jet of water splashed up fifty feet high from the surface of the river right abreast of the point. A minute had elapsed when another, and after a while a third and fourth struck nearly in the same place. These seemed to confront the report of the deserter which had just been brought in, and while we were discussing the truth of the report, a number of guns were fired from the fort, the shots from which could nowhere be discovered.

Not a gunboat was within range, the mortar-boats had been already towed up from their position, not a skiff nor a human being could be seen, and it was finally concluded the enemy was probably firing at some of our scouting-party in the woods. Not until later did we discover that these were the parting salutes of the fugacious revels – a vindictive leave-taking after so long and harmless a siege. So free were they with their ammunition, that they plied their guns with double and triple charges, and then left them to explode.

By half-past six or near seven we could perceive also an unusual quantity of light smoke coming as it were from the river opposite the fort, which we took at first from the flotilla. The sun was setting gloriously at our backs as we gazed at the dark bluffs. Soon the smoke grew more dense and expanded. In half an hour it burst out further to the right, and in half an hour the tops of the woods were crowned with the light reflection of fires. The principal seat of the burning material seemed to be on the river's bank, nearly at the lower turn of the river. By half-past seven the clouds had obscured the dipping sun; the illumination from the burning fort was grand. A grand and spreading column of smoke towered above the bluffs, while the leaping flames could be seen above the woods in two and sometimes three places. Several slight explosions took place during the fire. The conflagration lasted an hour and a half when all relapsed into the original gloom. It was clear enough to see that the enemy were evacuating the fort. Capt. Phelps meanwhile went down to the foot of Flour Island in a tug and watched the operation, at the distance of a mile and a half. He was, of course, satisfied of the evacuation and determined upon the landing early in the morning.

Thursday, June 5.

Early this morning the fleet got under way, and by sunrise our flag was waving from the heights of Fort Pillow. The rams under Col. Ellet, anxious, probably, to secure an equivocal notoriety in being the first to land in an abandoned fortress, proceeded with all the speed down the bend, followed by the Benton and her gallant followers - Mound City, Cairo, Carondelet, Cincinnati, St. Louis and the transports and mortar fleet – until we had rounded the Craighead Point, so long the slice which separated us from the rebels.

The approach is by a long and complete curve, in which the river runs, as at Columbus, right into the Chickasaw bluff, where the stream suddenly narrows until it becomes from two miles wide to nearly half a mile at the Fulton landing, just below the forts. The yellow sand bluff rises to the height of a hundred and fifty feet, and in general appearance is remarkably like the situation of Columbus, with the exception that the fortifications are placed lower down in the bend.

It is impossible for any one who is at all acquainted with military engineering to pass over the works without arriving at the impression that, both by natural configuration and scientific aid, they are the most formidable works of their kind in the country. Never before, probably, was any place containing so many natural advantages for purposes of defence. The difficulties of storming the place are absolutely incredible. Nothing but the most reckless and thoughtless bravery could ever have made entry into these lines if defenced [sic] by five thousand determined men.

The capabilities of the works facing the river are enormous – not only mounting the most formidable guns, but also subjecting the enemy to the most conical fire in approaching the place. Stronger than Columbus by nature, it was equally well fortified by art. Twice stronger than Island No. Ten, for the reason that the approach was barred, we could not even see the enemy, while he could look down upon our decks from his high bluff. The evacuation of so strong a place is evidence that the attempt to hold the river is relinquished.

The fact that the rebels had held us here so long, and that we had taken no extraordinary measures to reduce the fort, seemed rather like reasons for holding it all the hazards rather than abandon it.

The two regiments of Cols. Fitch and McLean – Forth-third and Forty-sixth Indiana – tired of the weary guard-duty of the Arkansas shore, among the mosquitoes and rattlesnakes, conceivably the dangers of the rebel guns would hardly be more formidable than the common enemy of mankind.

A large picket force was landed on the Tennessee shore, under Capt. Schermerhorn, who made a detour round, so as to come in the rear of the fort. A bridge was constructed across Cole Creek. The rebels, discovering this, fancied that or force was much larger than it was, and in conjunction with the movements of Gen. Halleck, left them no alternative but to abandon the position.

The mortars, as we discovered, had thrown shell into the works, and far beyond them into the woods, but could not learn whether they killed any one. The presumption is against it, as the garrison was quite small, and the places of shelter abundant.

The works at Pillow may be described most easily, as first an irregular line of earthworks running along the base of the bluffs for the distance of half a mile continuous, with but one slight intermission, at a height of twenty-five feet from the river at this stage. The embankment, part of which appears to be old, is calculated for forty-one guns, though it is doubtful if more than eighteen have been mounted there at any time.

Above this, and on plateau not quite even with the top of the range of bluffs, are two long batteries calculated for about twenty guns of various calibers. These works are of more recent construction. Besides this, there are on the heights, and in isolated positions near the top elevations, behind which a single gun was mounted, or, more correctly speaking, dismounted. The plan of the rebels has evidently been to remove most of their best guns, and to shatter the rest by over-charges. A few of them have stood the test, and may be considered amply safe hereafter.

Fort Pillow, named after the celebrated Gideon J. Pillow, of Mexican ditch and Fort Donelson notoriety, is an immense system of earthworks, situated on the first Chickasaw bluffs [sic], sixty-five miles above Memphis, and one hundred and seventy-five below Cairo. The first fortifications were, as I learned from a native, commenced about a year ago, in June, 1861, at the time when Memphis was in a ferment, and the secession of Tennessee was eagerly canvassed. The original design had been greatly enlarged, so that little or no trace of the original can be found in the numerous additions which have been made from time to time, up to within in a month ago. At first, only a few companies of confederate soldiers were kept here; but at the time of the surrender of the Island No. Ten, the garrison was increased to five thousand, which has been drained down to about two hundred and fifty by the army of Beauregard at Corinth. The length of the bluff is about four miles, three of which are skirted by the river, Cole Creek running inland along its base. It is at the debouch of this creek that the fortifications commence.

Commencing at Cole Creek, we did first in the list of works a series of charred and smoking gun-carriages and platforms, eleven in number, the guns of which have all been removed, with two exceptions – thirty-two pounders – which have recoiled by the shock, as to throw them from their carriages.

Continuing nearly in line with this work, we come upon a huge one hundred and twenty-eight pounder Columbia, cast at the Tredegar Works in Richmond, careened over so as to rest its breech upon the ground, pointing up to the heavens at an acute angle, several piles of shell, solid shot, and two or three small ovens for heating shot, more smoldering carriages, and then a blank space in the middle, which appears to have been overflown, and the guns, if ever mounted, have been displaced long ago. Toward the lower end, the tier of batteries rises so as to present a large, roomy and elaborate system of bombproofs, traverses and parapets in front of the steep bank, of the most formidable kind. Some five burst guns and two spiked remain of the twenty originally placed here. The magazines, large and commodious, with rat-holes under the embrasures, were well constructed.

At the extreme lower end of this tier were two monster mortars rent into massive fragments, which by the rusty fractures indicated they had been burst long before. These were evidently intended as imitations and offsets for the terrible engines with which we were assailing them daily. They had been cast at Memphis, and from the marks of the metal, cast from bad iron. They were only fifteen inches of rim, while those of ours have seventeen, and were cast with a chamber in which the powder is inserted. Unlike ours in all other respects, they were intended to be like our mortars. The shells were exact copies, probably obtained from some of ours, which had failed to explode.

Two of these mortars were found three quarters of a mile further down the bank, spiked. These are the mortars which they have been firing at us of late; but either through inferior powder or want of skill in their use, they have not been able to reach us, although placed at a great elevation over our own.

The principal battery of interest, placed nearly at the top of the bluff is the casemated battery, overlooking the entrance of Cole Creek, as it is the only casemated battery in the place. The rebels had burned the rook and supports of the roof, and the earth had fallen in so as to cover up gun-carriage and all, and the description of the gun must be omitted until it is exhumed. It is supposed to be a rifled-eight inch gun of superior model, from the character of the shot surrounding it.

Next in order comes a battery of six guns, all thirty-two pounders. Three of them have been removed, two burst, and one dismounted. A large number of Read balls and shells are left behind, significant of their worthlessness. Further down-stream we come upon a single gun, also a mammoth one hundred and twenty-eight pounder, completely reversed by the recoil, so as to be pitched back over, vent down. A compact and admirable magazine is constructed in the bank close behind it. Further down we come upon two separate excavations, evidently designed for a single gun each, but bear no appearance of having any mounted.

Here also we met with those immense piles of dirt to which we have become so accustomed, the invariable earthworks and rifle-pits. The trenches and breastworks back from the river, of which there are in some places two lines, and in others detached pieces, are of the most stupendous kind. Deep and wide rifle-trenches have been dug around the brows of every commanding hill, backed by a stout line of earthworks, behind which field-pieces are indented to be placed.

The line of intrenchments running from one end to the other is estimated at six miles long, which, on account of the broken and abrupt face of the country, renders an attack in the rear almost suicidal. Ravines, spurs, ridges, and jutting points are intermingled in the most fanciful order.

On the extreme east of the Fort, and above Cole Creek, we found the remains of the camp all charred and in ruins. Here was the usual assortment of bottles, biscuits, playing cards, Bibles, utensils, and letters, a few coarse tents and some coarser clothing. The remains showed the soldiers to have been living in great discomfort.

Strange to say, no shells had been directed to this spot, lying as it did too far to the left of us for our attention. Accommodations were there for perhaps two thousand men.

In a ravine at the lower end we found the commissary storehouses burnt to the ground. An immense pile of smoldering port on one side of the road, and an immense pile of corn and beans and peas on the other, told us the secret of the illumination of the previous night. Some twenty or thirty barrels of molasses were left, which our forces quickly appropriated to their use. All the barracks, houses, and stores in the place had been consumed previous to our departure. The quantity of shot and shell left behind was unusually small, and the magazines were entirely empty. The evacuation was complete, clean and entire, nothing worth the carriage was left behind.

From a farmer, living three miles from the Fort, we learned that our land force had moved the day previous to our arrival to Mason's station, on the Memphis and Nashville road, where they would take the train to Corinth, as they said, not knowing that Corinth was in our hands. Before leaving they had assigned their stores to the residents as perquisites. A detachment of Fitch's men, finding them will large quantities of molasses, sugar, and provisions in their possession, ordered them to haul it to the Fort so soon as they discovered its origin, which the owner did.

He professed to be a Union man, and had been in Memphis only three days previously. The evacuation of Corinth was not then known publicly, and our flotilla was still at Vicksburg. Memphis he described as being deserted; gave some account of the history of the Fort from its commencement, in which he described the actions of the rebel commanders as exceedingly tyrannical. "An intelligent contraband" also backed up the asseveration of his master by various statements. He was anxious to get North, and declared himself fully persuaded of the superiority of the Lincoln cause.

As the clear result of this masterly operation we have secured ten uninjured guns of various calibers. The enemy had destroyed at least an equal number and has removed a larger number. He has sacrificed an immense amount of stores. He has abandoned a magnificent position, from which we could hardly ever have driven him with the fleet alone, and has shrunk for a contest with his flotillas.

The State of Tennessee is abandoned. In less than a week we shall have no enemy in the State. All the labor expended upon works becomes useless. For the hundredth time the rebels have fallen back as a matter of pure strategy, abandoning guns, ammunition and stores. The gain is not much to us, but the loss is great too the rebels. Most of the guns they have left behind they can never replace. All the guns which they took away are supposed to have been put on board the gunboats; those which burst are, of course, a dead loss to the enemy.

Rebellion Record, Vol. 5, pp. 164-167.





          3, Federal scouts about Carthage

HDQRS. FOURTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY REGT., Trousdale Ferry, June 3, 1863--Sundown.


A courier has just arrived from my picket stand. He reports the Yankees leaving Carthage. One of Capt. [J. W.] Nichols' men, who is [sic] in the advanced picket post, was in the vicinity of Carthage, and says their wagons were going toward Gallatin, guarded by their cavalry. The infantry were this side of the Cumberland, on the Rome road, and reliable citizens report six pieces of artillery with them. The scout did not see the artillery. Another scout, coming in late this evening, reports the Yankee infantry near Rome on the march. I have two other scouts out, and when they return I will, perhaps, have more definite information.

Very respectfully,


P. S.-Maj. [W. S.] Bledsoe went off this evening with three companies, for the purpose of burning a steamboat which was grounded about 4 miles above Rome. I am fearful he will not be successful, as the enemy are moving on the Rome road. Their destination appears to be Murfreesborough.


GEN.: This force of the enemy is being watched, and, when its destination is definitely ascertained, it will be promptly reported to you. When it reaches Lebanon, will report to you whether it takes the Nashville or Lebanon road.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Cavalry Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 860-861.

          3, Skirmish near Murfreesborough

Report of Maj. Frank W. Mix, Fourth Michigan Cavalry.

HDQRS. FOURTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY, Murfreesborough, Tenn., June 4, 1863.

SIR: On the 3d instant, about 1.30 p. m., I received orders from the colonel commanding to take 100 men and go immediately to our pickets on the Wartrace road, as our pickets had been attacked and driven back.

I arrived on the ground about 2 o'clock. I found the cavalry reserve of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, under Lieut. Vanantwerp, on the ground occupied by the reserve, but that we had been driven back two or three times, and were then skirmishing with 200 or 300 of the rebel cavalry. After taking a look at them, I sent an orderly back to brigade headquarters, and immediately sent forward two companies, under Capt. Leach, mounted, as skirmishers. He drove them a short distance, when they dismounted, and, getting behind a fence, they had the advantage of us. I recalled my men and sent forward two other companies, dismounted, under Capt.'s Pritchard and Hathaway, who drove them about three-fourths of a mile and across the river. The enemy now opened on us with two pieces of artillery at short range.

Their firing was so accurate that I was obliged to move the rest of my command under cover of a hill. I called the most of my skirmishers, leaving only enough to watch their movements. In the mean time I had sent Capt. Robbins to the Manchester pike to ascertain the cause of the firing in that direction. He soon returned with the information that about 500 of the rebel cavalry were drawn up in line a field lately occupied by our vedettes.

I was now joined by Lieut.-Col. Pike with the balance of the regiment. We sent out scouts in different directions, but before they returned Col. Minty came up, bringing the Seventh Pennsylvania, Third Indiana, and Lieut. Newell's section of artillery. The artillery soon drove them from the old buildings on the opposite side of the river where they had taken shelter. I was sent across the river to burn the buildings and scour the country. [emphasis added] I found the enemy had all fallen back, so I burned the buildings and rejoined the command, arriving in camp about 9 o'clock.

We wounded 3 of the rebels; no casualties on our side. As near as I could judge, they had about 300 men on the Wartrace road; but from information I obtained on the opposite side of the river, they had more than that, with six pieces of artillery.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

FRANK W. MIX, Maj. Fourth Michigan Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 358.

          3, Mule drive captured on Gallatin Pike

NASHVILLE, June 3, 1863.

G. GODDARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

Drove of 175 mules on Gallatin pike captured. Guerrillas crossed the Cumberland at 12.30 p. m. to-day. Stated they would be at Lebanon before dark, where Wheeler would be met with his cavalry division. Cavalry sent from here on both sides of river in pursuit, but have not overtaken them.

R. S. GRANGER, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 384.

          3, "…I experienced a disagreeable sensation, like screwing up my back…." Fremantle's observations on the Army of Tennessee

3d June, Wednesday.-Bishop Elliott left for Savannah at 6 A. M., in a down pour of rain, which continued nearly all day. Grenfell came to see me this morning in a towering rage. He had been arrested in his bed by the civil power on a charge of horse-stealing, and conniving at the escape of a negro [sic] from his master. General Bragg himself had stood bail for him, but Grenfell was naturally furious at the indignity. But, even according to his own account, he seems to have acted indiscreetly in the affair of the negro [sic], and he will have to appear before the civil court next October. General Polk and his officers were all much vexed at the occurrence, which, however, is an extraordinary and convincing proof that the military had not superceded the civil power in the Southern States; for here was an important officer arrested, in spite of the commander-in-chief, when in the execution of his office before the enemy. By standing bail, General Bragg gave a most positive proof that he exonerated Grenfell from any malpractices.

In the evening, after dark, General Polk drew my attention to the manner in which the signal beacons were worked. One light was stationary on the ground, whilst another was moved backwards and forwards over it. They gave us intelligence that General Hardee had pushed the enemy to within five miles of Murfreesboro', after heavy skirmishing all day.

I got out of General Polk the story of his celebrated adventure with the -- Indiana (Northern) regiment, which resulted in the almost total destruction of that corps. I had often during my travels heard officers and soldiers talking of this extraordinary feat of the "Bishop's." The modest yet graphic manner in which Gen. Polk related this wonderful instance of coolness and bravery was extremely interesting, and I now repeat it, as nearly as I can, in his own words.

"Well, sir, it was at the battle of Perryville, late in the evening--in fact, it was almost dark when Liddell's brigade came into action. Shortly after its arrival I observed a body of men, whom I believed to be Confederates, standing at an angle to this brigade. and firing obliquely at the newly arrived troops. I said. 'Dear me, this is very sad, and must be stopped; so I turned round, but could find none of my young men, who were absent on different messages; so I determined to ride myself and settle the matter. Having cantered up to the colonel of the regiment which was firing, I asked him in angry tones what he meant by shooting his own friends, and I desired him to cease doing so at once. He answered with surprise, 'I don't think there can be any mistake about it; I am sure they are the enemy.' 'Enemy!' I said; 'why, I have only just left them myself. Cease firing, sir; what is your name, sir?" "My name is Colonel --, of the -- Indiana; and pray, sir, who are you?"

"Then for the first time I saw, to my astonishment, that he was a Yankee, and that I was in rear of a regiment of Yankees.-Well, I saw that there was no hope but to brazen it out; my dark blouse and the increasing obscurity befriended me, so I approached quite close to him and shook my fist in his face, saying, I'll soon show you who I am, sir; cease firing, sir, at once.' I then turned my horse and cantered slowly down the line, shouting in an authoritative manner to the Yankees to cease firing; at the same time I experienced a disagreeable sensation, like screwing up my back, and calculating how many bullets would be between my shoulders every moment. I was afraid to increase my pace until I got to a small copse, when I put the spurs in and galloped back to my men. I immediately went up to the nearest colonel, and said to him, 'Colonel, I have reconnoitered those fellows pretty closely--and I find there is no mistake who they are; you may get up and go at them.' And I assure you, sir, that the slaughter of that Indiana regiment was the greatest I have ever seen in the war."

It is evident to me that a certain degree of jealous feeling exists between the Tennesseean [sic] and Virginian armies. This one claims to have had harder fighting than the Virginian army, and to have been opposed to the best troops and best generals of the North.

The Southerners generally appear to estimate highest the northeastern Federal troops, which compose in a great degree the armies of Grant and Rosecrans; they come from the States of Ohio, Iowa, Indiana, &c. The Irish Federals are also respected for their fighting qualities; whilst the genuine Yankees and Germans (Dutch) are not much esteemed.

I have been agreeably disappointed in the climate of Tennessee, which appears quite temperate to what I had expected.

Fremantle, Three Years, pp. 83-86.

          3, Federal instructions relative to guarding the Charleston to Memphis railroad from Collierville to Pocahontas, Tennessee

MEMPHIS, TENN., June 3, 1863.

Maj. Gen. RICHARD J. OGLESBY, Jackson, Tenn.:

GEN.: It is of very great importance that your troops should be moved rapidly upon the new line.

Pocahontas, LaGrange, Moscow, and Collierville are the prominent points to be held by garrison; the lesser stations will be outposts from these. You can patrol the road from LaGrange to Jackson with your battery car so as to keep up the telegraph.

A wire will be placed from here to Corinth on the main road. Gen. Smith will leave at LaGrange equipments and mules for mounting two regiments of infantry. The whole cavalry force will be left as now stationed, at LaGrange, Collierville, and Germantown. You will bring the Third Michigan, and locate them at Pocahontas. I should think you will require artillery at the points named, and, if you choose, I will send one regiment of infantry to Germantown. The negro regiments will be armed and put on duty. Smith will leave his, now 60 strong.

The cavalry must be kept moving far in front, so as to cover our line by distant patrols.

Send everything to Corinth and LaGrange that needs transferring by railroad, and march all troops that are not too distant to the new line.

Get a force down, and relieve Smith at the earliest practicable moment. Use all the railroad stock you want and can use. Grant is pressing, and must be supplied.

Your obedient servant,



MEMPHIS, TENN., June 3, 1863.

Maj. Gen. RICHARD J. OGLESBY, Jackson, Tenn:

You will as speedily as possible throw your force over to the Charleston and Memphis Railroad, relieving Gen. Smith, and occupying the entire line from Corinth to Germantown.

The cavalry at LaGrange, Germantown, and Collierville will remain. This movement will be executed with the greatest promptness, as it is vitally important that Smith's division go below at once.



CORINTH, MISS., June 3, 1863.


You will proceed, with your brigade, to Pocahontas, and then distribute your troops from the east, so as to protect the brigades on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad to Grand Junction. It will be best to keep your mounted force together at Pocahontas, as within 2 miles of it are the most important bridges on the railroad, which, when finished, you will also have to guard. Two of them are in sight of the town. They are the Tuscumbia, Hatchie, and Muddy. Whenever you post detachments, you will immediately have them intrench themselves, by earthworks or stockades, in commanding positions, and so that they will cover the works they are to defend. You will also have to scout and closely watch the country south of you, and be very vigilant in watching the approach of any enemy. You will employ two or three reliable scouts and closely watch the country south of you, and be very vigilant in watching the approach of any enemy. You will employ two or three reliable scouts or detail men for that purpose. As soon as the railroad is running it must be patrolled at least once in night and day, and strict orders must be given to all officers commanding detachments in relation to holding their men in camp, and not letting them straggle out.

The engineer regiment is now encamped and intrenched at Pocahontas, building the bridge, and the commanding officer of it can give you much valuable information in relation to the road, bridges, &c. The road from here to Tuscumbia River will be protected by troops at Chewalla at present. The guard at Tuscumbia and Hatchie are sufficient.

You will make your headquarters at Pocahontas.

By order of Brig. Gen. G. M. Dodge:

GEO. E. SPENCER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 381-383.

          3, Running skirmish, Liberty to Smithville

Camp near Murfreesboro Tenn.

June 8th, 1863

Dear Wife

*** Now I will tell you about our duty. Last Tuesday we got orders for our company to go to Murfreesboro for Provost Guards to stay a week. Well, on Wednesday [3rd] morning we went down and were there 24 hours when we got orders to go on an eight day scout and Wednesday morning we started with our Reg. the 14th and 10 Ohio. We went to liberty and to Snow Hill. There we startled a small squad of rebels and we followed them on toward Smithville about 13 miles from Liberty and when about two miles this side of Smithville, skirmishing became quite brisk and they wounded one of Co. B's men quite serious and from there they fell back beyond the town where they made another stand and our men brought up their two pieces of artillery and threw about 10 or a dozen shells amongst them and they fell back to Liberty with about 5 or 6 prisoners and we layed there on Saturday [6] and yesterday [7] we came back to camp. There are some prospects that the Rebels will attack us here and if they will they will get the nicest little whipping they ever had, for Rosecrans is getting Murfreesboro very strongly fortified and the men all have full confidence in him as a commander. And I have seen him several times and he is a Noble looking man. Lieutenant Col. Murry has resigned and Major Howland has command of the regiment. I think I wrote to [you] that Henry had gone to General Turchin's [?] headquarters and this morning he came back to the Co. again. He is pretty rugged again. Those three men that were taken the time that I run such a narrow escape have been exchanged and are back here again. I expect we will get our pay before long again. Charley Benham says his money got home all right and mine must be there too for it was all in one envelope. Last Friday there was a man hung in Murfreesboro for deserting and murder. He deserted our army and went to bushwhacking and robbed a union man of his money and then shot him in the face and then cut the man's tongue out before he was dead. Horrible! Horrible!

I believe I have given you about all the news that I can think of, so I must bring this to a close. In hopes of hearing from you soon. No more at present, but remain as ever your true and devoted



George Kryder

George Kryder Papers.

          3, Excerpts from a Texas Ranger's letter relative to the religious revival in the Army of Tennessee

Letter from the Rangers

Texas Ranger's Camp,

Sparta, Tenn., June 3d, 1863

~ ~ ~

…it is gratifying to state, that the Lord of Hosts continues to pour out his Spirit in different portions of our army, and through the instrumentality of means to convert souls. For some weeks past, there has been considerable interest manifested in the  "army of Tennessee," [sic] both at Tullahoma and Shelbyville, which has resulted in the conversion of several hundred souls, whist many more are inquiring the way of life. This blessed work is confined principally to the infantry, who have been mostly stationary for some months. The cavalry, occupying the front, and being much more scattered, and often changing locality, has not an opportunity for a united or protracted effort, and hence we cannot record the visible tokens of his presence and power in a revival. [emphasis added] We must still lament that, although

'"The dew lies thick o'er all the ground,

Yet our poor fleece is dry."

The Christians of different denominations are waking up to the importance of this work, and agencies are being established for supplying the soldier with suitable reading. The Methodist and Presbyterian Churches, in their late spring meetings, have made arrangements for sending some of their most eminent ministers as missionaries to the different armies in the Confederacy; whilst the lower church judicatories are undertaking the work of supplying chaplains for the brigades and regiment in the service. [emphasis added] Other denominations have doubtless taken similar action, but it has not met my eye. There has heretofore been a lamentable deficiency in chaplains, and it all doubtless owing to the early legislation of Congress on the subject. But it has at length pleased the law makers to give the office a notice, in some degree commensurate with its dignity and importance, and now men of talent and reputation can enter upon its duties; and, with the cooperation of the different braches of the church, we hope that soon every regiment will be blessed with the means of grace. The soldier appreciates the preaching of the Gospel, and it has an elevating and hallowing influence upon his heart and life, it reminds him of other days, of brighter scenes, and the loved ones at home. It cheers the heart, too, to know that he is not forgotten in prayer by those who are far away. I know that multitudes of devoted Christians every where will join us when we pray, "Lord, revive thy work in the army and navy." [emphasis added]

~ ~ ~

Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph, June 17, 1863.

          3, Confederate scout repulsed in Readyville environs [see June 3-5, 1863, Confederate scout activity in Readyville environs" below]

          3, Guard duty and dogs in Memphis: excerpts from Corporal George Hovey Cadman's letter home

My Dear Wife,

I once more take my seat to write to you hoping these few lines will find you quite well. I am happy to inform you that my health is very good, never better, except that I am getting too fleshy….One of our boys in Co. F after coming off guard yesterday morning, got a pass from the Colonel to go to town, and drinking too much, got in a fuss with the provost guard, he was being taken to the Guard house, when he broke from the Guard, and ran off. He would not Halt, when ordered, and the Guard Fired. The ball passed through his left shoulder and out at his left breast, killing him almost instantly, as well as wounding a man in front of him….It is a most foolish thing to trifle with guards in the army, Only on Sunday night I was with one second of cutting a Niggers Wind.[7] [sic] I had Halted him twice and was in the very act of springing the trigger when the fool stopped, one more second and it would have been too late….

We have plenty of guarding, it takes us half our time. Our Regiment guards about half a mile containing two of the Main Roads and several blind paths. We have a reserve on each road, and a chain of posts, at every two or three Hundred [sic] yards. A rat could not get through without being seen day or night. The Citizens do not like us at all. Last Friday a memorial was presented to Genl Hurlburt [sic] signed by 500 citizens, praying for our removal, not on account of bad behaviour [sic], but because we were too strict in the performance of our duty. [emphasis added] They did not make much by it for the General told them, we were the sort of men he had been looking for for some time, and he was glad that he had men who knew how to do their duty. We recd [sic] marching orders for Vicksburg on Saturday, but from this or some other cause the Order was Countermanded. There is very little real [sic] Union feeling in Memphis nothing but the Bayonet in my opinion keeps it loyal. No person can go out through our lines without a pass and before they can obtain one, they have to take the oath of allegiance, if they refuse to take it they are put beyond our lines with orders never to return. Every day some pass through on their way South…. [emphasis added]

It would amuse you to see the manner of people we have to deal with on the Roads, some, afraid almost to speak to us, others turn up their noses, as if they very air the Yankees Breathed was poisonous. Some of the Ladies, when asked to stand up in their Buggies, or get out, that we may see if they have any thing [sic] underneath the seat, fling themselves round as if the Devil was after them. There is plenty of fun on such occasions, after they are gone mimicking their airs. One Woman was so Drunk and Abusive the other day, the Officer of the Guard had to tie her to a tree till she got sober. [emphasis added] God forbid, my Dear, that ever you should live in a country subject to Military rule. However kindly the rules issued by the authorities are carried out, there must of necessity be great hardships to bear. On Monday night I was acting as sergeant on picket, when I was ordered to take two Men, and search a house near for a man who had broke from the Guard house of the 5th O.V.C. It was after midnight and we had to search every room in the house, no odds who occupied them. I saw Phil Trounstine on Monday, at the 5th Ohio Camp. Coming back from there I saw a squad of the 5th searching the houses for whisky. Nearly every house keeps whisky for sale, although it is illegal and such stuff I never tasted in my life. It makes those who drink it perfectly crazy.

Our Boys are cooling down considerable, and behave pretty well now. We only had two men sent to the Guardhouse last Sunday, and three fights (that is in our Company)….When I woke this morning I looked like a Drowned dog. This is the greatest place for dogs that ever I saw. Every White man has two dogs and a slut, and every nigger double the number. At night when they commence barking, sleep is impossible. The noise they make joined to the noise of the Mocking Birds and Whip-po-wills, the Braying of Mules and Croaking of Frogs, cannot be described. [emphasis added] When we are out on picket at night the row is sometimes horrible. But you must excuse me leaving off now as I have to go and cook supper and Clean up ready for Guard in the morning….

Your affectionate Husband

G. H. Cadman

Co B, 39th O.V.I., Memphis, Tenn. [sic]

Please send me some stamps.

George Hovey Cadman Correspondence.

          3-5, Confederate scout activity in Readyville environs

HDQRS. BRECKINRIDGE'S REGT. , June 5, 1863--2.15 a. m.

Maj. E. S. BURFORD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

SIR: Col. [W. C. P.] Breckinridge directs me to say he has just received your dispatch, with a copy of dispatch from Gen. Bragg, and will say in reply that a heavy scout sent out by him to drive the enemy's pickets in was, on day before yesterday (3d instant), driven back from Readyville by a force of the enemy's cavalry. This was just at dusk, on the 3d instant (Wednesday). A scout has just returned from the neighborhood of Readyville and reports the enemy still there, but that Gen. Wilder's brigade was moved on yesterday (Thursday, June 4) morning to Triune. Furthermore, that the enemy have not left Readyville at any time since this regiment has been on duty here in the front, unless they were driven from there on Wednesday about 1 p. m.; and, if such be the case, they certainly returned and occupied the place by 4 o'clock the same day, for the scout spoken of above drove his pickets immediately into their camp, and was then fired upon by the sentinels around camp, and chased by 150 cavalry from that point through Woodbury, 7 miles. The colonel directs me to say he will send a heavy scout out immediately, and advise you immediately upon the receipt of word from it.

I am, major, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOS. M. JONES, Adjutant.


Maj. E. S. BURFORD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., McMinnville:

I am directed by Col. Breckinridge to inform you the scout sent out on this morning at 2.15 a. m. has returned. The enemy's pickets were driven in. The information gained is that the force at Readyville is the same that has been stationed there during the whole spring and part of last winter, one brigade, commanded by Gen. Hazen, consisting of four regiments of infantry and one battalion of cavalry, numbering in all about 1,600 men.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOS. M. JONES, Adjutant.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 863-864.

          3, 24-25, Efforts by Provost Marshal for the Army of Tennessee to publish misleading information in the Chattanooga Daily Rebel

June 3, 1863, Tullahoma. The Provost-Marshal for the Army of Tennessee, Colonel Alexander McKinstry, sent the following communication to Franc M. Paul, the editor of the Chattanooga Daily Rebel:

Please publish an article conveying this idea in your first issue: "We are at a loss to comprehend why General Johnston should have sent Breckinridge's corps back to Middle Tennessee. He must be in a secure condition, either from his position or from an abundance of troops.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 860.


SHELBYVILLE, TENN., June 24, 1863.

FRANCIS M. PAUL, Editor Rebel, Chattanooga, Tenn.:

Publish an article to this effect: "We are happy to see that re-enforcements continue to arrive for Bragg's army. Our trains to-day are loaded with troops," &c. Don't mention the names of the commanders.

ALEX. McKINSTRY, Col. and Provost-Marshal-Gen.

SHELBYVILLE, TENN., June 25, 1863.

FRANCIS M. PAUL, Esq., Chattanooga, Tenn.:

DEAR SIR: I telegraphed to you last evening, requesting you to publish an article to the effect that we were receiving re-enforcements, &c. You will have seen by the Northern press the dilemma they have been in concerning Breckinridge, on account of your notice of his return, and you will see by this, too, how much the press can assist us, and how much they look to it for information. They now (he knowing ones) know that he is with Johnston. To save your credit with them, let me ask you to put in something to the effect that Gen. Johnston recalled him, or could not spare him-whatever may suggest itself to you-to account for his being there now. They get all of our papers. Yours being the nearest, and, of course, the latest, appears to be looked upon by them as the best information. I am frequently in the receipt of Northern papers, and will take great pleasure in sending them to you.

Yours, truly,

ALEX. McKINSTRY, Col., &c.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 885.





          3, "Lewd Pictures" [see August 16, 1864, "Bawdy Books and Pictures" below]

The display of highly colored daubs and photographs of naked women, obscene groups, etc., in the windows and upon the stands of our stationers, booksellers, and news dealers has become most noticeably common and deserving of public attention and censure. We have long been accustomed to see such, upon a larger plan, hung about the walls of grogshops, club rooms, and places visited only by the male sex, but when they are to be introduced into the street windows and compiled into albums, it is certainly carrying the thing a bit too far-altogether too far. Such pandering to vitiated taste is at least unbecoming many of those who have been guilty of the practice, and in our opinion the city ordinance, prohibiting the publication or sale of obscene books, would apply as well to the sale of obscene pictures.

Memphis Bulletin, June 3, 1864.





          3, Poem, "Lookout Mountain," by Alon. D. Austin

Where Lookout's summit proudly rise

Bathed in the blue atherial [sic] skies,

And glorious immortality

O'er space illimited [sic] by gaze

To yearn for woodland's misty haze

And dream of sad reality


Again I see the bayonet's gleam

On Chickamauga's deadly stream.

The flashing red artillery

The dread battle's sulphur's glare,

The charging shout of loud despair,

Midst the death shots rattling fearfully


How Mission Ridge and Lookout glow,

With camp-fires of the haughty foe;

And rebel flags fly tauntingly

But Grant is marshaling his host

To drive the traitor from his post

He swore to hold, so vauntingly.


Hark, 'tis the bugler's sound I hear!

Ring through the valley shrill and clear,

In wild free notes of harmony.

And now the rattling drum and fife,

It is the signal for the strife,

The strife which leads to victory.


Up o'er yon craggy rock, steep,

The dreadful crash of battle sweep,

And surges on remorselessly,

And now the rebel legions flee,

Before the banners of the free.


Borne by the brave resistlessly,

Bright beams the sun o'er Lookout's brow,

Its rock-ribbed caverns silent now;

And water falls dash musically.

No more the bugles sound will wake

The echoes o'er sweet Luvih lakes [?]

Reposing ever peacefully


Far, far below the shinning plain

Now blooming into life again

Beside the noble Tennessee.

And gallant sons and daughters fair,

Will bless their freedom over thee,

The land of liberty.

Chattanooga Daily Gazette, June 3, 1865.


[1] Hereinafter cited as Anecdotes, etc.

[2] Gideon J. Pillow

[3] As cited in PQCW.

[4] There is no mention of Captain A. D. Trimble in the OR. Trimble, was the founding minister of the Missionary Baptist Church of Winchester. He possessed $7,000 in real and 8,000 in personal property in 1860. After service with the 8th co., Tennessee Provisional Artillery, and his capture and release, he returned to Winchester. As cited in Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 435, from Thomas F. Rhoton, "A Brief History of Franklin County," MA Thesis, Univ. of Tenn., 1941, p. 76.

[5] These three wealthy and privileged Tennessee prisoners of war were kept prisoner at Mackinac Island, the only prisoners that prisoner of war facility ever held. The three are today memorialized as wax mannequins as a tourist attraction. See Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. xlvi, as cited from Walter Havighurst, Three Flags at the Straits: The Forts of Mackinac, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: 1966) pp. 185-186. Guild would be released in August 1862 after taking the oath of allegiance; see Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 587-588. Apparently Harding and Barrow remained resolute rebels and spent the war years in prison.

[6] See also May 19- 23, 1862, above.

[7] Meaning unknown.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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