Sunday, June 28, 2015

6.27-28.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

June 27-28


          27, The care of the indigent insane Confederate soldier or his family members

CHAPTER 5, An Act for the benefit of Insane Members of the Families of Volunteers

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That the wives or other members of the families of volunteers who are citizens of this State, and who have enlisted, or who may hereafter enlist in the service of the State, or of the Confederate States, who have been, or who may hereafter be placed in the Tennessee Asylum for the Insane, as pay patients, shall, during the time of their enlistment, or which such volunteers are in actual service, be supported by the State, upon the written certificate of the Chairman of the County Court from the county of residence of said volunteers, setting forth that he or they are unable, from indigent circumstances, to support such patient in the asylum.

Sec. 2 That any one of the Tennessee volunteers who may become deranged while in the service, and who has not the pecuniary means to enter the asylum as a pay patient, shall be received and treated as a pauper patient;

Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to cause any of the present patients of the asylum to be discharged, in order to give place to any of the above patients, as provide in this act.

W. C. WHTTHORNE, Speaker of the House of Representatives

B. L. STOVAL, Speaker of the Senate

Passed June 27, 1861.

Public Acts of the State of Tennessee…April, 1861, pp. 34-35.[1]

          27, Southern Mothers' Association report

Southern Mother's Association.

Report of the Secretary of the "Southern Mothers" of Memphis, for the week ending June 24th, 1861.

Minutes of the last meeting…


Since the fitting up of the rooms seventy-two soldiers have been received into them, receiving the best medical attention and the kindest and most efficient nursing. Seventeen have been discharged, one died, and has been buried by the Mothers, and eighteen have been removed from the rooms to private houses. It is very desirable that they should be removed whenever the ladies can accommodate them, as many of them need little more than rest, quiet, good food and good beds to eradicate the diseases which would develop in the camp. The conduct of the men has been, without exception, a manifestation of gratitude for the services, and a high appreciation of the motives of those engaged in the work. A large body of ladies relieve each other day by day in nursing, and the arrangements are rapidly approaching the perfection of system to which their officers hope to attain. Ladies in the country can aid us very materially by sending chickens, fresh meat, fruit, milk and butter to the rooms. Dr. Erskine has kindly given the most efficient attention to the sick in the house of the secretary. Drs. Hopson and Shanks have also offered to attend the sick at the houses of some of their patrons. The military board have given medicine; the ice companies have both given large quantities of ice. The gas company has given gas and put up the fixtures; many merchants have given articles in which they deal; Mr. W. P. Proudfit authorized the president to draw upon him to any amount; and the use of the rooms is the munificent donation of the Messrs. Greenlaw. All these things show that the great heart of Memphis is in the work, and that the soldier whose line of march leads him to Memphis may well look to it, as the Arkansas boys did on their long weary journey, as a haven of rest and comfort. Memphis and the "Southern Mothers," was the word of cheer to each other, they tell us, on their weary march. Can any one who visits the "Rooms" doubt that a great work is there begun of which the South may well be proud, and which every southern city may well aid in carrying on? Such a band of "Southern Mothers" in every southern city would be worth a second army to the patriotic cause.

By order of the president.

Mary E. Pope, Sec'y.

Southern papers please copy.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 27, 1861.

          27, Confederate report on misinformation about arming East Tennessee Unionists

MANASSAS, VA., June 27, 1861.


Am informed that Etheridge and Johnson sent from Washington, on Monday, 10,000 arms to East Tennessee, via Cincinnati and Lexington, Ky.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 115.

          28, Tennessean Sam Tate, President of the Memphis to Charleston Railroad, to Robert Toombs Confederate States Secretary of State warning him about conditions in East Tennessee

June 28, 1861, Chattanooga

Honorable Robert Toombs


I came through East Tennessee yesterday. Saw some of our friends but many more of our enemies. There is truly great disaffection with those people. It is currently reported and believed that Johnson has made an arrangement at Cincinnati to send 10,000 guns into East Tennessee, and that they have actually been shipped through Kentucky to Nicholasville, and are to be hauled from there to near the Kentucky line and placed in the hands of Union men in Kentucky on the line to be conveyed to Union men in Tennessee. The openly proclaim that if the Legislature refuses to let them [i.e., East Tennessee] secede [from the state] they will resist to the death and call upon Lincoln for aid. Nelson, Brownlow, and Maynard are the leaders. If they were out of the way we would be rid of all trouble. That they will give us trouble I doubt not unless they are promptly dealt with. They rely on aid from Southeastern Kentucky and Lincoln. You must see Davis and get him to order Floyd down to about Cumberland Gap to intercept these arms if they attempt to cross into Virginia. Governor Harris has ordered one regiment to the various passes on our northern border, but the people here say they are not sufficient. A number of Union companies are forming and drilling daily in the disaffected districts for the avowed purpose of resistance. Let the Government look closely to this movement. Unless nipped in the bud it may become very troublesome.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 116.

          28, Chapter 24, in eleven sections, passed by the 31st (Confederate) General Assembly, relative to the authorization of the Governor to draft free persons of color into the Army of Tennessee:

Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That from and after the passage of this act the Governor shall be, and he is hereby, authorized, at his discretion, to receive into the military service of the State all male free persons of color between the ages of fifteen (15) and fifty (50) -- or such numbers as may be necessary, who may be sound in mind and body and capable of actual service.

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted, That such free persons of color shall be required to do all such menial service for the relief of the volunteers as is incident to camp life, and necessary to the efficiency of the service, and of which they are capable of performing.

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That such free persons of color shall receive, each, eight dollars per month as pay, for such person shall be entitled to draw, each, one ration per day, and shall be entitled to a yearly allowance each of clothing.

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, That in order to carry out the provisions of this act it shall be the duty of the sheriffs of the several counties in this State to collect accurate information as to the number and condition, with the names of free persons of color subject to the provisions of this act, and shall, as it is practicable, report the same in writing to the Governor.

Sec. 5. Be it further enacted, That a failure or refusal of the sheriffs, or any one or more of them, to perform the duties required by the fourth section of this act, shall be deemed an offense, and on conviction thereof, shall be punished for misdemeanor, at the discretion of the Judge of the Circuit or Criminal Courts having cognizance of the same.

Sec. 6. Be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of officers in command to see that the class of persons who may enter the service under the provisions of this act, do not suffer from neglect or maltreatment.

Sec. 7. Be it further enacted, That in the event a sufficient number of free persons of color to meet the wants of the State shall not tender their services, then the Governor is empowered, through the sheriffs of the different counties, to impress such persons until the requisite number is obtained; in doing so, he will have regard to the population of such persons in the several counties, and shall direct the sheriffs to determine by lot those that are required to served.

Sec. 8. Be it further enacted, That the expenses incurred in this branch of the service shall be regarded as a part of the army expenses, and provided for accordingly.

Sec. 9. Be it further enacted, That when any mess of volunteers shall keep a servant to wait on the members of the mess, each servant shall be allowed to draw one ration.

Sec. 10. Be it further enacted, That the Adjutants of Regiments may be selected from the private soldiers in the line of the service as well as from the officers in the service.

Sec. 11. Be it further enacted, That this act take effect from and after its passage

W.C. Whitthorne, Speaker of the House of Representatives

B. L. Stoval, Speaker of the Senate. Passed June 28, 1861

Public Acts of the State of Tennessee, pp. 49-50. [2]

          28, Bluff City Intelligence


The Memphis Avalanche is a thunderer.-It comes down with the biggest kind of reports. A late number declares that a letter from a bearer of dispatches from the Southern Commissioners in Europe, "contains the most cheering intelligence." The substance is that the sum of $2,000,000 has been offered to be advanced on the cotton crop alone, and that the Southern Confederacy will soon be acknowledged as one of the Powers of the Earth! England and France have dispatched twenty additional ships of the line to our shores, and the blockade will be raised by the 1st of November!! The "stars and bars" will soon be recognized by England and France!!! This bearer of dispatches is said by the Avalanche to have landed in Canada, and reached Nashville by way of Chicago, "eluding the vigilance of the Black Republicans."

Gen. Pillow issued a general order at Memphis June 21st, proclaiming all Northern property confiscated. All debts, &c., due to the "enemies of Tennessee," are to be paid over to the State; and merchants, brokers, bankers, and others so indebted, are required to report the amount of such indebtedness, deposits balances, dividends in stocks, stocks owned, etc., by the 10th of July, to Gen. Pillow. This is the Southern mode of "raising the wind."

The Daily Cleveland Herald, June 28, 1861. [3]


          27, Major-General E. Kirby Smith reneges on promise to release a Federal prisoner of war


Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond, Va.

GEN.: I send to Richmond to-day upon parole Maj. W. A. Coffey, First Kentucky Cavalry, a prisoner captured some time since by Col. J. H. Morgan and paroled by him as a prisoner of war. Maj. Coffey repaired to Washington and endeavored to effect his exchange, but failing returned and delivered himself up to Col. Morgan. He has been in this city for some time past and had too much opportunity for informing himself about the affairs of this military department and the temper of the citizens for him to be prudently exchanged at this time. It is just to add that Maj. Coffey bears a very high character as a gentleman and soldier, and it is with regret that I am constrained to request that any arrangement for his exchange be for the present postponed.

I am, general, your obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, p.790.

          27, A Readyville mother's plea to free her son from the Federal prisoner-of-war camp

[Readyville, Rutherford County]

June the 27th 1862

Mr [sic] Andrew Johnson. Govner [sic] of Tennessee

I have a request to make of you which I hope you may grant[.] The favour I have to ask is that you will let Alley Abernathy come home on a parole of honor and stay 2 months as a prisoner at home, [sic]

he is my oldest child I hav [sic] a living[.] his [sic] brother got killed in blowing rock in a sister [sic] two years ago o. my [sic] husband died 15 months ago, the only son I have with me had his thigh broke, and his breast bone broke and twisted out of its natural placed, and is injured inwardly so blood passes from him whenever he fatiuegs [sic] himself [sic], he is disabled for life. it [sic] was done by falling from a swing 2 years ago, I have three little girles [sic] to rase [sic], if you would grant my requst [sic] it would confer a great favour on me, [sic] I will not sate the character of Alley[.][4] He is a study [sic] kind hearted boy and if he has an enimy [sic] on earth I do not know it. Profeser [sic] Jarmon says he is the best boy that ever went to school to him in Murfreesboro[.] he [sic] is also a Christain, and you must remember that the privates did not cause the war, theay [sic] were forced to take up arms on one side of the other and theay [sic] made their choice to go with the south[.] As to Alley he said had [sic] rather be in his grave it was the lords [sic] will than to go to war, but he said he would not go as a drafted man.

As to my own part I am not bitter at either party, as I think it a fulfillment of the bible [sic]. as [sic] the learned of all denominations admit that their [sic] is some important event to take place between this and 1866 the melenial [sic] year is to ursure[5] in it is expected by a grat maney [sic]. and [sic] if that be a correct opinion we all should be ready to appear before the juge [sic] to receive our final doom. That [sic] knows no change, [sic] here we hope for a change of our prisnors [sic] or pease [sic], that they may return to their homes. but [sic] one hope I have for my child if we meet hear [sic] on earth no more [sic] that I will meet him around the throne of god [sic] whear [sic] no harm can reach him [sic],

Mr. Johnson you have power now but recollect the bible says whatsoever measure we mete out it will be measured back again, but I must stop for perhaps I have written more than you will read by remember [sic] the feeling of a parent and grant my requst [sic].

Please answer this, and I will ever be under many obligations to you, if you would let all the boys come home on a parole of honor it is my opinion that theay [sic], would return when called for, and I do not think it would be any injury to the north for theay [sic] are escaping, and coming home and as theay [sic], cannot stay at home, theay [sic] are forced to go to the southern army, but if theay [sic] were permitted to come home on a parole of honor they would be glad to remain at home in a [sic] honorable way[.] no [sic] more at present..

Yours with respet [sic]

Narcissa R. Hall

This letter I wish to be kept private[.]

The Prisoners that I wish released was taken at Donolson [sic][.] theay [sic] are at camp Butler near springfield [sic] Illinois[.]

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 509-510.

          27, A Chicago Times, Report on Women in the Bluff City

Female Secessionists.

The feminine portion [in Memphis] are especially bitter. They confine themselves to their houses, and seldom appear in the street, but, when they do so, it is impossible not to understand the prevalent feeling among them. Walking down Main street a day or two since, I saw a naval officer, one of the most unassuming and gentlemanly men in the service, passing in such a manner as to overtake three ladies. As he approached them, the outermost quickly stepped in front of her companions, making room for him to pass, at the same time sweeping her skirts away from him with a most ungraceful and dowdyish gesture. Being a man who has seen the world, his demeanor did not indicate that he saw the motion, and she was not honored with a glance even. A short distance further on she tried it again on a calm and imperturbable gentleman, who wore the army uniform, and was again rewarded with an entire absence of recognition, unless a slightly contemptuous movement of the corners of the mouth might have been called such. The only result of all these efforts was to attract the stare and coarse remarks of the street crowd, generally accorded to a different class of women.

Women of the Town.

Of the latter class I can only say that, if Memphis suffered any diminution in numbers when the rest of her citizens stampeded, she must have been supplied beyond any chances of dearth. The streets are conspicuous with their gaudy and flowing drapery, whose amplitude is only equaled by the breadth of misapplied maternal attractions. They promenade the streets in front of their residences, in evening costume, and walk to the corner bareheaded, arm and arm, to see what is going on out of doors; and the commonest thing in the world is to see one arrayed in the fleeciest and scantiest of magnificence, sailing down the main thoroughfares, preceded by a little negro girl in all the colors of the rainbow, to carry the parasol and other small equipments--the said small African being, as a general thing, a personal investment of several hundred dollars in cash. That is the style of advertising goods in this country....


Chicago Times, June 27, 1862.[6]

          27, Prisoner of war Sallie Taylor, a Tennessee Fille du Regiment in Knoxville

A Female Prisoner.—Some excitement was created on Thursday by the arrival of a female prisoner, in the uniform of a Fille du Regiment. She is said to have been for some months following the Third Regiment of East Tennessee Renegades in Kentucky. Her name we learn is Sallie Taylor; she is from Anderson county, where she has respectable relations. She was captured somewhere in the neighborhood of Jacksonboro. An examination before the Provost Marshall, we understand, elicited some valuable information from this romantic damsel, in regard to the movement of the enemy.

[Knoxville Register.]

Savannah [Georgia] Republican, June 27, 1862.[7]

27, Editorial quip about the meaning of the letters C. S. A.

Some of our contemporaries are trying to interpret the symbolical letters C. S. A. One says they signify "Conquered States of America;" another, "Colored States of America." Possibly they mean Confounded Stupid Asses.

Nashville Daily Union, June 27, 1862.

          27, Widowers, Young Women and Yankee Officers in Nashville

["] The Nashville Union says there are a great many widows in that city who have nothing to do. Why don't they, as a last resort, marry widowers?—Louisville Journal.["]       
Well, Sir, the fact is that men have become so scarce here, in consequence of "rights," "skedaddles," &c., that widowers hold themselves at much higher figures than formerly. We quote them at present at 97½, with an upward tendency. Good-looking fellows are in great demand and it is no rare thing to see ten women take hold of one man. In consequence of this fact, young ladies are fast abandoning the ugly practice of giving their rosy lips a crab-apple pucker on meeting Federal soldiers, and frequent inquiries are made for good-looking Yankee officers.

Nashville Daily Union, June 27, 1862.

          27-30, July 2-3 and August 28,  2d Lt. R. S. Dilworth, describes life at Fort Ewing

Fort Ewing, Tenn

June 27th, '62

Damp and threatens rain. The artillery of heaven is sounding all day today. Lieut. Wood of co. I ordered to report to headquarters. Capt. Cusac has returned to camp. His health is improving rapidly. I received one letter from my dearest Lois on Tuesday night. I had commenced a letter 24th, and finished it with the answer to the last on the 26th inst. My tent stands near the Elk river.

Fort Ewing Tenn

June 28th, '62

Rainy this morning, very damp and all appearances of rain for several days. Cars came in with the mail from Huntsville with mail but no letters for me. There were 2 or 3 due but none came. Cap. Cusac came down to visit me. He is getting better. He had the promise of a furlough but Old Jim acted as mean as he is capable of acting. He got a pass to go to Louisville and from there struck for home. This is the third time and after promising cap to act as he did was mean. When caps year is out they will lose one of their best capts. in the 21st O.V. I.J. and J.A. Dyche payed [paid] us a visit. I J brot (brought) me a nice little snatch bag sent me by my own dear one for which I return my thanks. Likewise a nice cake of maple sugar: made in camp sugar (1 1/2 miles east of the village of McComb Hancock co. O.) and sent me by one who will always be remembered as a friend for 2 reasons _________________________________________


 Isaac is trying to get his papers to get them signed, but cap did not give him any satisfaction concerning the prospect of his returning home. Altho' [although] I should love very much to have him stay, yet parental affection and brotherly love constraineth him. I think it would be better for him to return home and keep his health whilst he has it in his power to do so. The boys in camp have given me over $100 to carry for them. They said if they kept it they would spend it and if I had it it would be safe. The cars have returned and with them my visitors. I took a walk out from fort along the railroad and viewed the beauties of nature.


Fort Ewing Tenn

Mond. June 30th, '62

Five o'clock a.m. and the boys all astir. You can see the cooks busily engaged preparing the humble repast. I am going to have pone, potatoes, onions, coffee, apple sauce, stewed plumbs [plums?], black berries, ham and eggs for breakfast. Come over and dine with me will you? This is one of the most beautiful mornings of the season. The face of all nature looks gay. The birds are warbling forth their praises unto their creator. And all things are rejoicing in the rays of the rising sun. Oh how peaceful, how delightful the natural world whilst the political is distracted with wars and rumors of wars. After breakfast and I feel much better, I have got 11 chickens and 1/2 bushel of potatoes and I am going to have potpie for dinner and blackberries with cream and sugar on. If you were here we would take a car ride. We could ride (if the bridges were finished) for more than 200 miles, right along blackberries. The most and largest berries I ever saw. I give poor man (who had his house and his all burned) $15.00 cts. I keep account of everything so I will know when the war is over, what I spent and what for. I have to make a detail of 18 men to ferry the wagons over the river. I likewise sent $30 in letter to Brother Wortman to use for me. I send out $10 in silver and gold to Brother Wortman, likewise $2.00 cts to the editor of the Louisville Journal for a copy of his paper to be sent to My L.A. and $7.00 for two books, one of which I send to Miss Blakeman and the other to her brother, I. J. for carrying them. Making $64.00 cts in all and 538.00 + 64.00 = $602.00 cts . This much you will know exactly what I have done with & the balance of my 9 months wages I have used for clothing and grub. I have one months wages due me today, July 1st '62, which is $106.50 cts. I.J. left this morning for home. With him I sent, one letter, one splendid book, one plume, one Huntsville Reveille, which I send to you, Miss Lois. I know you love good books, and I know if you and I are spared we will have pleasant times, perusing them together. We are ordered to remain here by Buell. Gen. Mitchell says he loves the 21st Regt. O.V. , but he does not like secesh colonels. Lieut. Porter has gotten the boys all down on him. Every day someone comes down and says you ought to see the old clown (Porter). He has some of the boys either under arrest or on extra duty. Here is one of his tricks. He was left at Fort Wood when I came away the only commissioned officer there. Well, he left his post and went up to a house where there is a no. of girls. He found two of the boys there. Well, he ordered them on duty. Well, I. Limengrover, he refused to do duty and he put him under arrest as he called it, and Beltz he put on duty, and he himself away from his post. What do you think of that for a first Lieut.. It does not look very well for me to talk about my superiors but I know who I am talking to. He is counting big on the captaincy against the 2nd Sept. and if so, you will see me soon after that occurs. Although I will be verr loth to leave the boys, yet I cannot think of having company which will be a bore. Now your dear little heart can rest content since your brother got his discharge and has gone home. He left this morning at 11 a.m. for Pulaski, Tenn. by Locke

Fort Ewing, Tenn.

July 2nd, '62

One regt. Cavalry and one co. of infantry came in today to relieve me of my charge. Buell and Mitchell are having a big time at Huntsville, Alabama. Mitchell beats Buell in every point which he takes up. So Buell has agreed to give to Mitchell 1/2 his command. Mitchell commands 3 divisions now. We just received a dispatch that Mitchell would be here this evening, so good bye untill evening.

Evening: General Mitchell and aid [aide] has just arrived here. Mitchell on his way to Washington. He received a dispatch to report to headquarters immediately. He came in here about an hour since (earlier?). He delivered a short address to us. Commencing [commending?]Soldiers of the 21st etc. His aid [aide] parted with him with many a tear. I fear we will lose our commanding officer. Too bad, but I suppose if it is so, we cannot help it. He, I presume will receive a command in the eastern army, but if he does, he will plead hard for the 3d Division.

Fort Ewing Tenn.

July 3d, '62

Morning, clear, cool and very pleasant. Paper statement of 2 days hard fighting before Richmond & another victory in favor of our arms. The cars came in with an order for me to report to headquarters with my men. So I leave at 5 p.m. We are all ready to take the train. Good bye untill morning.

Pulaski, Tenn.

Aug 28th 62

Very pleasant today. Athens looked very desolate this morning. There had been a detail made in the 19th Ill. to burn Athens (as they passed through) & left behind. There were 30 men detailed and left night before last. They fired the amphatheater in order to attract the attention of the 21st O.V. & they intended to burn the town whilst the excitement was up: but they did not excite any thing of that kind & we put out guards all over town & kept them walking the town all night so they did accomplish nothing but the burning of the amphatheater. But they were more fortunate tonight. Just at dark the fire broke out through the roof of a deserted drugstore. The fire spread rapidly. We found the square must go. The col. called out the boys to save property, goods & c in the stores. The 1/2 of the regt was employed in the aforesaid manner whilst the ballance was watering the adjoining squares to save the town (which they did) untill the explosion of shells caught the attention. We then formed in doublequick, not knowing where they were or where they came from untill this morning. We found the shells had been hid in the building & I presume there are ordinance near town buried. The loss in buildings was $24,000, drygoods, books, queensware, drugs, & c could not have been less than $20,000. We left this morning with a heavy heart. I never thought of a retreat untill now. Shame on McClellen, Buell & c., & c. We came within one mile of the tunnel & there learned that the road had been torn up & 2 bridges burned & that the cavalry was marching on us. We went to work & unloaded a good part of the cotton & proceeded cautiously to Pulaski, a distance of 40 miles from Athens. When we learned the facts of the case: that bridges were burned but would be rebuilt against the next evening. We stoped for the night. But I must stop to good night dearest Lois.

Memorandum of R. S. Dilworth

          28, Skirmish at Sparta

No circumstantial reports filed.

          28, Foraging expedition to Powell's Valley [see June 30, 1862, Affair at Lead Mine Bend of Powell River below]

          28, Major-General William T. Sherman on "Germantown, a dirty hole"

MOSCOW, June 28, 1862.


Your dispatch received....Had we not better clean Germantown, a dirty-hole? There is were was planned the cutting the wire and destruction of road. I am told they openly boast the Yankees shall never run a train over the road.

I am preparing a car for a 12-pounder howitzer.

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.

OR Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 44.


          28, Difficulties faced by military authorities in pacification and administration of local government in Williamson County

Franklin, June 28/62 [sic]

Gov Johnson

Dr Sir-

I find Williamson County to be the hottest bed of secessionism in the state-untill [sic] yesterday-not a man in it had taken the oath-I have given notice that all persons holding office shall subscribe to it-and they are to decide at 4 P.M. to day [sic]-They have already asked to resign their offices to eve it -- but I have declined to receive their resignatins [sic]-My reasons for this course is-that their is an understanding amongst all, not to take it-and so soon as I can force some few prominant [sic] ones into it-I think there will be no trouble-as I am sure there are hundred[s] who want to take it-but fear to do so-as the balance threaten them-Judge Perkins, judge of the County Court is the most prominant [sic] one here-he posatively [sic] declines, and I send him down to day [sic]-to the Comdg. Officer with the request that he be sent south [sic]-

My principle [sic] reason for writing you-is for information in reference to what course to pursue-for carrin [sic] on the government of the county-

Judge Perkins having refused to take the oath there is no county court-no taxes have been ordered to be collected-and I may say there is no funds for any purpose in the hands of the treasurer-That for County purposes being less than 50 $ [sic]-

The Poor Fund is exhausted-and many poor are in the County-

The bridges want repairs-

I propose to levy a special tax of Some 2 or 3000$-to be collected from the most prominent and richest secesh farmers in the neighbourhood-this money to be placed in the hands of the County Treasure [sic] if he takes the oath-and if not to appoint one-From this fund, to support the poor & repair bridges and all other matters of actual necessity-under the proper officers if they take the oath-if not, to appoint-It being understood, that this is only a temporary measure-to be abandoned when the proper wheels of government can be put in operation-

The office of the Planters Bk [sic] of Tennessee is open here-I propose to close it unless the cashier takes the oath-

If these steps do not meet your approbation please advise me[.]

Resp Yours

Wm. B. Cassilly, Lt Col 69th Ohio.

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 511-512.

          28, Special Orders, No. 4

Headquarters District of West Tennessee

Office of the Provost Marshal General

Memphis, June 28, 1862

* * * *

Permits issued for persons to pass out of the city of Memphis and its immediate suburbs, kept for the purpose of retailing spirituous, vinous or malt liquors of any kind, must be closed and kept closed by and after 12 o'clock M. of this day.

Any person violating the letter or spirit [sic] of this order by keeping open drinking saloons, or retailing therein with closed doors, will subject themselves to imprisonment and the forfeiture of their entire stock.

This order applies to steamboats while lying at the landing.

D. C. Anthony, Lieut.-Col. and Provost Marshal of the City of Memphis

Memphis Union Appeal, August 10, 1862.

          28, Resistance to Federal rule in Middle Tennessee, Robert B. C. Howell informs Military Governor Andrew Johnson that he refuses to take the oath of allegiance to the United States of America

January [sic] [June] [sic] 28, 1862

Gov. Johnson-Sir: Summoned before you I am requested to take the following oath:

I do solemnly swear that I will support, protect and defend the Constitution and government of the United States against all enemies, whether domestic of foreign, and that I will bear true faith, allegiance and loyalty to the same, any laws, ordinances, resolutions or convention to the contrary notwithstanding; and, farther, [sic] that I do this with a full determination, pledge and purpose without any mental reservation or evasion whatsoever; and, further, [sic] that I will well and faithfully perform all the duties which may be required of me by law[.] So help me God

Sworn to and subscribed before me.

I have ever scrupulously conformed myself to the government under which I have lived. I do this as a religious duty. I have never knowingly violated any law of the Federal government, of the state government, nor of the military government now established. I am informed that no violation of the law is charged against me. My purpose is to pursue the same course hereafter. I intend not to resist the "powers that be," but to comply with their requisition as far as they do not come in conflict with my duty to God. Respectfully I feel myself obliged to say that I cannot do it, and for several reasons, some of which I beg permission very briefly to state.

First-I cannot take this oath, because there are some parts of it which I do not understand. When I am requested to swear that I will "bear true faith, allegiance and loyalty to the Constitution and government of the United State, any law, ordinances, resolution or convention to the contrary notwithstanding," I am at a loss as to the meaning. What law, ordinances, resolution or convention is referred to, I know not. I cannot tell whether reference is had to some exiting law, ordinance, resolution or contention which I am likely to suppose obligatory upon me, or to something of this kind which may hereafter be inaugurated. Nor do I know who is to be the judge, I myself, or some one else, whether such laws, ordinances, resolutions or conventions if there be any such, are or are not in conflict with the Constitution and government of the United States.

And, further, when I am called upon to swear "that I will well and faithfully perform all the duties which may be required of me by law," I perceive no conditions nor limitations. What laws may be adopted by the United State and by the State of Tennessee, who knows? They may be laws in conflict with my duty to God; they may be laws in collision with the constitution; they may be laws in antagonism with other laws claiming my obedience. Such compliance with them is impossible, yet it is demanded of me to swear that "I will well and faithfully perform all the duties required of me by law," without condition and without limitations.

An oath so vague, indefinite and impracticable respectfully I must decline to take.

Second-I cannot take this oath, because once having sworn to support the Constitution of the United States, and having up to this hour faithfully complied with the obligation, and receiving now no office nor privilege of any kind under the government of the United State nor of the State of Tennessee, there is nothing known to me in the Federal Constitution, nor in the constitution of this state, nor in the laws made in pursuance of either which requires me to repeat that oath. The demand that I shall do so under the circumstances in which I am placed implies that I am an offender against the Constitution or the laws, or both. That implication I respectfully decline to countenance by taking the oath.

Third -- I cannot take this oath because, since the present government of the United States, and the Constitution of the United States, are in some respects at least confessedly [sic] in antagonism, to "support, protect and defend" both is clearly impossible.

To support, protect and defend the one is necessarily to oppose and resist the other. To keep this oath, therefore, (I speak for myself only) is impracticable. Perjury is inevitable. From taking it, therefore, I must be excusable.

Fourth-I cannot take this oath because it binds me to support and protect and defend the "government of the United States," by which doubtless is meant the government of the United States as at present administered. Already the administration has done many things which I cannot support and defend, and which I cannot conscientiously swear that I that I will support and defend. What it may do hereafter, and what its successor may do, I cannot tell. This makes me swear with conditions and without limitations "that I will support, protect and defend the government of the United States."

To do this would be to "resign my right of thought" and so renounce my liberty as a free citizen of my country.

Fifth-Nor can I take this oath as a measure of expediency. By expediency I refer to the fact that since an oath taken under duress is not binding then on those who resort to it to save their families from suffering and themselves from punishment. I have a large, helpless and dependent family; I am myself not indifferent to the ease and comforts of life, but I cannot avail myself of this plea for several reasons, one only of which need be mentioned. This oath makes me swear that I take upon me those obligations "without any mental reservation or evasion whatever;" that is as I understand it, that I do not avail myself of this expedient, but take the obligation heartily and in good faith. In me, who cannot disregard its moral binding force, this would be perjury.

Sixth-I cannot take this oath because it would be a violation of my duty to God. My duty to God requires that I shall take no oath the entire import of which I do not fully understand, that I shall not swear unless there be good and sufficient reasons for it, that I swear to do contradictory things, that I shall not do impracticable things, and that if I do swear that I shall not swear falsely, but shall truly and fully perform my oath. To take this oath would there fore be to violate my duty to God.

Seventh-Without an oath I shall in the future, as I have heretofore, perform as a religious duty every just obligation to the "powers that be," but this oath I cannot take. I cannot take it as a measure of expediency; I cannot take it at all. I must respectfully decline it and take the consequences.

January [sic] 26, 1862

R.B.C. Howell[8]

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 513-514, 516.

          28, Calliope music at the Nashville wharf

The steamer Rose Hamilton while lying at our wharf yesterday, regaled the public ear with the delicious strains of music from her splendid steam calliope [sic]. It had an enrapturing effect upon those who are accommodated with "music in their souls," more especially the African connoisseurs, whose savage breasts were soothed in a tremendous measure. One of the sable listeners was overheard to exclaim "Golly, wish dat fleetin' moosick box 'wd happen at de landin' more frekently!" It would be somewhat lively, not to say charming.

Nashville Dispatch, June 29, 1862.

          28, Flowers in Middle Tennessee, as described by 2d Lt. R. S. Dilworth.

Fort Ewing Tenn

June 28th, '62

~ ~ ~

 Oh how charming! How beautiful the scenes, nature in all her beauty unfolds herself to my vision. Whilst I am visiting, the fragrance of the rose from my loves bower greets my sense. And I hail it as a token of her fidelity, her love, her purity truth and loveliness. How gentle, how peaceful, how innocent is she who donated this rose, this emblem of purity. This badge of love. Oh couldn't I once more but sit beside the giver and from thou eyes receive the intelligence which sparks her soul…..The language of those eyes, how dear to me all the more though 9 months has elapsed since I have had the pleasure of reading, or dreaming rather the fond, the hopeful dream that I was loved. Yet coward that I was, I feared to express my sentiments untill I saw the last, long look and in those eyes, read all the world to me when alas! it was to (too) late for me to express what I felt. Oh! how well did thou conceal thy feelings untill the morning of my departure. But with pleasure I can look forward to the time of meeting with interest and feelings which cannot be described. To part was pain but to meet will be life to me.

Memorandum of R. S. Dilworth.

          28, Confederate prognostication concerning Federal forces in East Tennessee


During the past week the enemy who entered East Tennessee at Wilson's Gap, in large force, has been steadily making his way up Powell's Valley, and at our latest advices was in possession (line is cut off here). The only opposition (cut off again) that we can hear of, has been from the cavalry of our gallant Col Ashby, who has been continually skirmishing with his pickets, and harassing him no little in his progress. Henry Ashby has the right mettle in him, and bids fair to wim as high a name in the vallies of East Tennessee, as his brave cousin, the lamented Gen. Turner Ashby, did in the Valley of Virginia. We hope for him as much renown but a longer career.

The enemy's position at Tazewell is a threatening one, and if he is not attacked "at once and furiously," may result in giving him advantages that will be irretrievable ruin to us. Tazewell is immediately in front of Cumberland Gap, on the nearest route from Knoxville to that point. Powell's Valley extends into Virginia, and from Cumberland Gap, through this Valley to Moccasin Gap, is one of the best roads in the country. Thence to the Salt-works, and to the Va. & Tenn. Railroad at Abingdon, there is nothing to stay his victorious career, unless he is at once attacked and routed by the army of Gen. Smith. The possession, or even the partial destruction of the Salt works, by the enemy, would be a calamity to the Confederate Stats more serious than the fall of Richmond, for these works are now almost the sole reliance of the South for one of the most indispensable necessaries of life.

The character of the enemy in Powell's Valley is one, also, which in addition to other incentives, should rouse up our Government to every possible exertion to at once destroy or drive him back. His in part composed of the five or six regiments of East Tennessee renegades who come with oaths of vengeance on their tongues and hellish rage in their hearts not to fight for a political sentiment, nor to restore a perished Union, but to glut their revenge in the blood and ruin of their former friends and neighbors, and to indemnify themselves by pillage for their time lost and substance wasted during the self-banishment into which they were deluded by the cunning and unprincipled leaders whom the misguided leniency of this Government have spared to hound them on in this diabolical work. Their course already has been marked by outrage which (illegible) humanity, as we learn from those Southern citizens who have escaped from their hands.

Another feature of their programme, we have it plausibly hinted, is the destruction of the bridges on the upper end of the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad. If they are permitted to reach Moccasin Gap in Virginia, an easy and unprotected road through Hawkins, Sullivan and Washington counties are now swarming with armed traitors and bridge burners, who openly avow their readiness to cooperate with any force the Federals may send on this mission.

All these facts sufficiently indicate, we think the imperative necessity of at once checking the progress of the invaders up Powell's Valley Gen. Smith has a crisis to encounter which will admit of no dallying on halfway measures. We trust and believe that he will prove himself equal to the emergency. By a rapid and determined coup he may rid East Tennessee of a scourge, avert a most serious danger from the Confederacy, and at once place himself in the front rank of the heroes of this Revolution. The troops who have so long been pining in this region for want of active service, as well as those who have come from winning laurels in other fields, are all burning with noble ardor at the prospect of meeting the enemy. Let them at once be led against him, and victory is sure. If the golden opportunity is lost, and the foe has time to strengthen his columns and choose his positions, the consequences may be disastrous to us to a degree we shudder to contemplate.

Macon Daily Telegraph, June 28, 1862.

          28, "The War in East Tennessee."

The Columbus (Ga.) Sun has an editorial reviewing the position of affairs in East Tennessee, which we copy, inasmuch as, in the whirl of stirring events near home, the more distant fields of operation have to some extent been lost sight of.

It is now quite evident that the enemies are about to put into execution their long threatened inroad upon East Tennessee. From the best information we can gather of the situation of affairs in that section, we take it that fighting will soon commence there in earnest. The Yankees already have possession of Sequatchie Valley, a productive and stock growing country, and a force of perhaps not less than 5,000 men in Powell's Valley, a portion of country said more important to an army in the way of provisions. But the great valleys of the Tennessee, Hiwassee, Holston, and French Broad rivers, are still in possession of our troops, and can, we have reason to hope, be held against almost any force that may assail them. We think it altogether probable that Cumberland[,] Wheeler's and Big Creek Gaps, will be evacuated, if indeed they have not been already, and that our forces will make a stand at Chattanooga, Kingston, and Bean's Station, in order to keep the enemy north of Walden's Ridge and the Clinch Mountains. This, we feel confident, can be done successfully with the force now under Gen. Smith's command, which cannot be less than 30,000 men. There are, besides this force, which is a low estimate, several efficient guerilla bands, among which that of the famous [John Hunt] Morgan is the most conspicuous. This line of defense, should it be adopted, will save to us about three fourths of the territory of East Tennessee, including Jonesborough, Greenville, Knoxville, Athens, Cleveland, Chattanooga, and the line of railroad from the latter place to the Virginia line.

The part of East Tennessee thus defended is one of the most productive and healthy regions of country in the Confederate States. It contains, even now, bacon, corn, and flour, in great abundance. Nearly every farmer has bacon to sell, and which can be fought at not exceeding twenty seven cents per pound. It is one of the finest wheat countries in the South, and we have it from good authority that the wheat crop in that section this year will fall but little short of the average crop in that section this year will fall but little short of the average crop, particularly in the upper counties, There is, perhaps, at this time, more hogs and cattle in the thirty one counties of East Tennessee than in the whole State of Georgia, and upon this account, should be defended at any cost.

While it is true that the majority of the voting population in East Tennessee is deeply tinged with toryism, it is equally true that some of the most staunch Southern men, and many of our ablest military leaders, are East Tennesseeans. There is one fact in connexion with this disloyal section not generally known. Nearly every man and boy capable of bearing arms, who were advocated to separate State action, are now in the Southern army, and although the conscription act is not in force there, they have joined for the war. In addition to this, there are, to our certain knowledge, not less than one third of the original "Union" men now in that section -  the ultras having joined Lincoln in Kentucky – many of the m ore moderate have changed their views since Lincoln's free negro policy was promulgated in November late; while the remainder, being too indolent and cowardly to take any part in the contest  of arms, are content to remain at home, cultivating their farms, and make something to support the army.

The Semi-Weekly Raleigh Register (Raleigh, NC) June 28, 1862

28, "Who would not be a market man in Nashville?"

The jolliest and most independent dealers in our city are our market people. Whoever else fails of selling their wares, they are seen to sell out without the least trouble. The market man knows in the morning to a five cent shinplaster the sum he will take home at dinner. His only trouble is the importunity and annoyance of the customers who throng and jostle around him. The jam begins at day-break and lasts three or four hours when everything edible is swept from the market. Not a potato nor a pound of butter, nor a beet is to be seen. Not a cat-fish swings in torment from his pole; not a shin-bone remains for a blue bottle to buzz around. Nothing remains except the fragrant breath of the onion which still haunts the deserted market-house, even as the scent of the withered rose lingers in the broken vase. Who would not be a market man in Nashville?

Nashville Daily Union, June 28, 1862.


28, "A Righteous Judgment." Exile of Prominent pro-Confederate citizens from Pulaski

Five of the most prominent and active rebels in Pulaski, were sent "down South to Dixie" on last Monday, under a mounted escort of Capt. Twyman's cavalry. These men were rich and influential citizens of the town of Pulaski, and had taken a very active and decided part in the rebellion. Since the advent of our troops into the town, they had made themselves notorious by manufacturing and circulating reports detrimental to the peace of the community, and expressing sentiments of disloyalty that could not be tolerated. When arrested Col. Mundy gave them their choice, either to take the oath of allegiance, or be transported across the lines and handed over to the rebel authorities—they chose the latter, and were dealt with according to their desires. One of them was parson Mooney, a Methodist preacher, and another, Thomas Jones, Esq., who was a member of the first Confederate Congress.

Col. Mundy, the commander of the Post, is the right man in the right place, he is firm and consistent at all times; he does his duty fearlessly and conscientiously. Unlike many other of our commanders, he cannot be bribed or cajoled into a "milk and water" policy, that only works out its own destruction. He neither coaxes nor flatters; but whilst willing to pardon the repentant sinner, he punishes the hardened criminal with unsparing hand, even to the utmost limit of the law.

Nashville Daily Union, June 28, 1862.


          27, Action at and capture of Shelbyville

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., July 13, 1863.

COL.: I have the honor to submit to the general commanding the Department of the Cumberland the following report of the attack made upon the rebel forces at Guy's Gap and Shelbyville, and of the occupation of those points by the forces under my command, on the 27th ultimo:

I have not yet received, from officers acting under my direction, reports of the part taken by their respective commands in the engagements of that day, and, therefore, I am unable to make this report in detail; to mention the special action of different and distinct parts of my command, and to name the officers and men most conspicuous for gallantry and a display of soldier like qualities, and those (if there are any such) who deserve censure for bad conduct or neglect of duty; nor am I able to give, in exact numbers, the loss we sustained, although I can proximate it sufficiently to state it with reasonable certainty.

At 2 o'clock on the morning of June 23, I received orders from the general commanding the Army of the Cumberland to move at daylight with all of the forces under my command, then at Triune, for Salem, save the division of cavalry under the immediate command of Gen. Mitchell, which I sent on that morning to attack the rebels at Rover and Middleton, with directions to drive them out of those places. In accordance with this order, I marched my command, and arrived at the designated point on the night of the same day (June 23). Under additional instructions there received, I marched the next day to a point on the Murfreesborough and Shelbyville pike, near Christiana, where I halted my command, awaiting further orders.

Gen. Mitchell arrived at Rover on the afternoon of the day on which he left Triune, and there met the enemy. After a sharp fight, lasting for over two hours, he drove them out of, and 2 miles beyond, the town. On the next day he again attacked the enemy at Middleton, and succeeded in handsomely whipping them, and in driving them before him.

An Official report of the casualties in these two engagements has not yet been made to me, but Gen. Mitchell states that his loss will not amount to over 20 men, while the enemy suffered greatly in killed and wounded.

On the next day (Thursday, June 25), Gen. Mitchell joined me at my camp near Christiana. At the same time Gen. Stanley, with part of his cavalry command, also reported to me at that place. It was on the morning of this day (June 25) that I sent Lieut.-Col. Patrick, with the Fifth Iowa Cavalry and the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, to observe the enemy at Fosterville. He found them there in strong force, but, by a bold dash, he gallantly drove them beyond the town, where they again made a stand and opened upon him with artillery. In obedience to my instructions, he then withdrew his forces, and returned to Christiana.

At 6 o'clock on the morning of June 27, I received a dispatch from the commanding general, directing me to feel the enemy at Guy's Gap. In accordance therewith, in one hour from that time I advanced with part of my command toward that point, moving on the Shelbyville pike. I sent Gen. Stanley, with the cavalry, in front, and ordered Gen. Baird's division of infantry to follow in close supporting distance. Upon reaching a point about 2 miles north of the gap, we met the enemy's skirmishers in the open fields. They exhibited such strength and resistance as to warrant us in the belief that they held the gap in force, and that they would there make a stubborn resistance to our advance. After skirmishing for about two hours, however, the enemy suddenly fell back to the gap, and there showed signs of a hasty retreat. Feeling confident that we could successfully attack them there, I then ordered Gen. Stanley to bring up his cavalry and clear the gap at once. The order was promptly obeyed, and the enemy sought safety in flight, running in the direction of Shelbyville. Part of our cavalry followed them in an exciting chase, capturing about 50 prisoners, killing and wounding a number, and pursuing them 7 miles, to their rifle-pits, which were about 3 miles north of Shelbyville. Here, at the intersection of the Shelbyville pike with the rifle-pits, in a small earthwork, the enemy had planted two guns; by a well-directed fire from these our advance was for a short time stayed. I was now positively assured by the action of the enemy, and by such meager and indefinite intelligence as I could gain from citizens in the neighborhood of the gap, that the rebel forces which had been stationed at Shelbyville were then evacuating that place; and although the orders I had received did not contemplate an advance beyond the gap, I determined to push forward and strike the rear of the retreating rebel forces, which forces, I afterward discovered, composed the corps commanded by Lieut.-Gen. Polk, numbering about 18,000 men. I rapidly pushed the cavalry force of my command forward. The advance soon charged over the rifle-pits, turning the point where the enemy had planted their guns, and again causing them to rapidly retreat, taking their guns with them, following them to within three-quarters of a mile of Shelbyville, where we were again held at bay by a large force of the enemy, formed on the north side of and in the town, and by a battery of three guns, that was planted in the town in such position as to command all of the approaches thereto from the north. It was now after 6 p. m. At this juncture I closed up our advancing column, and a cavalry charge was then made. Within thirty minutes afterward the town of Shelbyville was in our possession. Three superior brass guns, one of which was rifled, were captured, and the captain commanding the battery, with all of his officers and most of his men present, were our prisoners. Over 500 additional prisoners were captured in another part of the town. This charge was so irresistible and daring, and was made so unexpectedly to the enemy, that they were unable to check it by the fire of their guns and musketry, and were also unable to save their guns by flight.

One gun, however, was hurried away, and taken as far as the bridge that crosses Duck River, on the south side of the town, on the road to Tullahoma, but its wheels broke through the bridge, and the enemy was compelled to abandon it. This served to partially blockade the bridge, thereby preventing the rapid retreat of a large body of rebel cavalry which was yet on the north side of the river, closely pursued by our forces. The retreat now became a perfect rout. Those who could not cross the bridge endeavored to swim the river, which was very much swollen by the late rains. But few reached the other side, while many were drowned. In the midst of their confusion the rebel Gen. Wheeler called upon some of his troops to form and stop our advance. The First Confederate Cavalry volunteered for this duty, and, in endeavoring to perform it, saved their general (Wheeler), who escaped by swimming the river, while the whole regiment, save those of it who were killed, was captured by our forces, including the colonel, lieutenant-colonel, major, and all of the line officers present. It was now dark, and we had destroyed all of the rebel forces in the vicinity of Shelbyville north of Duck River. Our horses being perfectly exhausted and the men worn out, I ordered a halt until midnight for the purpose of resting them, then intending to pursue and overtake the enemy's train; but even by that time, so exhausting had been our march and chase of the day, we were not in a condition to proceed farther.

In the morning, as there was no possibility of overtaking the enemy, and as our men were out of rations, in accordance with the instructions of the commanding general, I send the cavalry, under the command of Gen. Stanley, to Manchester, via Fairfield and Wartrace, while I returned with Gen. Baird's division-which remained behind the day before to hold Guy's Gap-to my camp near Christiana.

Our loss in killed and wounded at Guy's Gap and Shelbyville will amount to about 50. This number can safely be set down as the maximum. We did not lose a man by capture.

The enemy lost in killed, wounded, and drowned in Duck River, at the least estimate, from 200 to 225. Our list of prisoners captured accounts for 509. Many of the enemy when captured were hurried off before their names could be obtained for the list from which this account is taken; so that, including them, the total number of prisoners captured by our forces can be placed at 700, including about 40 commissioned officers.

We also captured about 3,000 sacks of corn and corn meal, a few animals, and a quantity of meat, whisky, ammunition, and small-arms, that the enemy could not carry off in their precipitous flight. I cannot praise too highly the bold dash and gallant conduct of our cavalry at Shelbyville. The efficiency of this branch of the service, not only in this, but in all of our late engagements with the enemy, has been established beyond a doubt. The enemy can no longer boast of the superiority of their cavalry and of its accomplishments.

We met with an enthusiastic reception from the loyal citizens of Shelbyville; our soldiers were received with tears of joy, and our flag, that had been secretly hid for months, floated from many houses.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 535-537.


Report of Capt. Alfred Abeel, Fourth Michigan Cavalry.

CAMP NEAR SALEM, TENN. July 23, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit you the following report of the incidents that came under my observation at the entrance of our forces into Shelbyville, Tenn. [9]:

After entering he fortifications, our battalion (the Third) formed on the left, facing toward the Shelbyville pike, and charged the enemy, who were in considerable force in front and to the right of us. We routed and drove them across an open field, but they formed again in the edge of the woods, our line being very much broken, in consequence of the nature of the ground which we were obliged to pass over, so much so that we were compelled to halt and reform our line, which we did in the rear of some old buildings, the enemy keeping up a brisk fire during the mean time. As soon as we could form, we charged again, and drove the enemy toward and across the Shelbyville pike, a portion of them taking the pike into Shelbyville.

The balance, which I followed, crossed the pike in an easterly direction. After pursuing them for some distance, I found myself separated from the other companies of the battalion, and with but a portion of my own command, the horses of the rest having given out. I halted my men, and from the stragglers from the various regiments of the brigade soon had a sufficient acquisition to give me about 60 men in all. With these I again started in pursuit, and followed on until we struck the Fairfield pike, about a half mile from where it terminates and is crossed by the road which leads to the Shelbyville pike. The rebels, who were at this time some distance in advance of me, which they had gained when I halted my men (but in sight), reached and took this road, but before we reached it a column of the enemy from toward Shelbyville was seen in full flight, approaching, with the evident intention of escaping by the same road, but had not as yet discovered us. The head of their column reached and crossed the pike before we could reach it, but we charged through them, cutting their column in two, and driving that portion of it that we had cut off from the main body into a high inclosure, from which it was impossible for them to escape, and capturing the entire force, together with their arms, horses, and equipments, amounting, I should say, to 160 or 170 men.

I have the honor to be, &c., very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ALFRED ABEEL, Capt. Company H, Fourth Regt. [sic] Michigan Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 563

          27, Skirmish at Fosterville [see June 24, 1863, "Skirmish at Fosterville and June 25, 1863, Skirmish at Guy's Gap" above]

          27, Skirmish at Guy's Gap [see also June 24-27, 1863, "Skirmish at Liberty Gap" above]

No circumstantial reports filed.

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Ransom's Farm, Guy's Gap, Tenn., June 27, 1863--4.20 p. m.

GEN.: We have carried Guy's Gap; met with no resistance to speak of. Our advance has reached the fortifications at Shelbyville. I have ordered the Fifth and Sixth Kentucky Cavalry, with three regiments of infantry, from Murfreesborough to Christiana. I left two regiments, one each of infantry and cavalry, with nine pieces of artillery, at that place this morning. I have not yet decided whether or not to push on to Shelbyville with the force I have here. I shall make my headquarters at Houston's Spring, on Webb's plantation, to-night. I have not yet decided whether to send Stanley to Fairfield direct by the way of Bellbuckle [sic] or around by Millersburg, but shall decide in a few hours. I did not receive your order to move until 6 o'clock this morning. We have a few prisoners. There were about 400 Confederates at this place this morning.

Will dispatch you again soon, the moment I hear from Shelbyville.

Very respectfully,

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 534.

          27, Report on skirmishing the Middle Tennessee Campaign, June 23-July 7, 1863, relative to the skirmish at Fairfield, June 24, 1863.

* * * *

The advance pushed on 2 miles farther, and captured 7 wagons belonging to the rebels. They were soon recalled, and were hardly in position before our pickets were driven in by a large force of rebel infantry from the direction of Fairfield. My dispositions were: The Seventy-second Indiana, Col. Miller, stationed to the right side of the gap, and thrown forward to a hillock on which there was a graveyard; two mountain howitzers at their front, on the point of the hillock; four pieces of 10-pounder rifled Rodmans, of Capt. Lilly's Eighteenth Indiana Battery, stationed on a secondary hill, facing toward Fairfield, on the right side of the gap, supported by the One hundred and twenty-third Illinois. Col. Monroe; the Seventeenth Indiana, Lieut.-Col. Jordan, and the Ninety-eighth Illinois, Col. Funkhouser, in rear of a high hill in reserve. I ordered two companies of the Ninety-eighth Illinois to take position on the hill at the left of the gap, and four companies of the Seventeenth Indiana to take possession of a high wooded hill about a quarter of a mile to our right, and to throw skirmishers forward to some cleared hills to their front, both for the purpose of observation and to prevent a sudden attack from that quarter. The enemy in the mean time advanced rapidly, and opened on our left from two batteries a rapid cross-fire, which killed 2 gunners and the animals of one of the mountain howitzers. They were promptly replied to by Capt. Lilly, who dismounted one of their pieces and compelled both of their batteries to change position several times. In the mean time I observed a column of the enemy moving behind some hills toward our right, and immediately ordered the remainder of the Seventeenth Indiana to take position on the wooded hill before spoken of, with orders to look well to their right, and send me word if any attempt was made to flank them. They had hardly reached the hill when a heavy and rapid fire was opened from both sides, the rebels charging boldly up the hill and cheering loudly. Not hearing from Col. Jordan, but seeing that he was hard pressed, I sent Col. Funkhouser with the remainder of the Ninety-eighth Illinois to his assistance. He reached the ground just as the rebels had succeeded in turning Col. Jordan's right flank.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 458.

          27, Occupation of Manchester by Union forces

HDQRS. ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND, Manchester, Tenn., June 28, 1863.

(Via Murfreesborough, Tenn., June 29.)

On the 26th, Gen. McCook moved across from Liberty Gap, and at noon of 27th closed up with Gen. Thomas' rear, at Beech Grove. Gen. Thomas, at the same time, drove the enemy from Fairfield, while Reynolds pushed to this place where he arrived yesterday noon, capturing 20 prisoners.

* * * *

W. S. ROSECRANS, Major-General

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 403.


HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Tullahoma, Tenn., July 1, 1863

(Via Murfreesborough, Tenn., July 2.)

I telegraphed you [about] Sunday's [June 28th] occupation of Shelbyville and Manchester....

* * * *


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I., p. 402.


The enemy fell back before us without firing a shot and beat a rapid retreat for Tullahoma. We moved on all day and encamped within 4 miles of Manchester on the night of the 26th; on the morning of the 27th our regiment started in the advance and went to Manchester on a gallop. We swept by the deserted fortifications of the town on a full run, and while the citizens were at their breakfast tables we rushed into the public square, scattered out in small parties, and in five minutes every street and alley was occupied by Yankees, the town was surrendered, and a rebel major and about 50 soldiers. Left as a rear guard, were captured and marched to the court house.

Three Years in the Army of the Cumberland, pp. 94-95.[10]

          27, "Facts and Rumors."

The city was full of rumors yesterday, concerning fighting in front and accidents and casualties by the way. Of the first we need only say that is generally conceded that fighting has been or is generally conceded that fighting has been or is going on between the advance of Gen. Rosecrans' army and the Confederates somewhere between Murfreesboro; and Shelbyville, and some assert the Federal army now occupy that town. It is also a generally conceded fact that, sometime during Thursday night, Confederate cavalry made their appearance in the neighborhood of Lavergne [sic], and secretly taking up one of the ties of the track they placed a torpedo under it in such manner as to ensure its explosion by concussion produced by the locomotive; which done, they retired to a safe distance. Soon therefore [sic] a train came along, the locomotive reached the fatal spot, and in an instant the engine and seven cars were off the track, all more or less damaged. Some suppose this train to be the one which left here about 6 o'clock Thursday evening [25th], laden with some two or three hundred mules; but another authority says the mules arrived safely in Murfreesboro, and that its as on the return of the empty cars that the casualty occurred. We have not learned that any person was injured. A construction train, sent to repair the track, was also said to have been damaged by a torpedo; but a person on said train saying he heard nothing of it until his return to Nashville, we presume this may be set down as a slight mistake. Telegraphic communications open, we believe, and the road will probably be put in running order to-day or to-morrow.

Nashville Dispatch, June 27, 1863.

          27, Voting early and often in the Memphis municipal election

Illegal Voting.

We referred yesterday to the large amount of illegal voting practiced all over the city, in the election of Mayor. "A Citizen of the Fourth ward, who was present at the election, sends us the following communication. He thinks that those who voted in that ward were legally qualified. We are free to say, that from all we have learned, the election in that ward was conducted in a fairer and more lawful manner than in some other places, and this is seen in the result wrought out. And yet, as our correspondent admits, illegal voters made an attempt to carry the election there as elsewhere. Hundreds of illegal voters – foreigners just landed here, with nothing but their oath of allegiance – tried to vote, and if the judges there had been as derelict as some of them were, they would have exercised the right of suffrage without let or hindrance. These same men, thus refused a vote because they had no right to vote, desired to compromise by voting only for general officers [sic], magnanimously proffering to pretermit the electing of Aldermen. But one of the judges of the election succeeded in making these fresh [sic] friends of misrule understand that they couldn't vote at all, and more, that they attempt to do so was illegal, and that if they attempted it again he would present their names before a grand jury for indictment! This quieted the persistent patriots, and they left, avowing their determination to vote elsewhere, where the officers were not so particular.

We cordially indorse what our correspondent says about the responsibility for illegal voting resting upon "the city authorities," who make this appointment of judges of election! The responsibility does not rest with them; but who believes that the primary object with them, under existing circumstances, was to prevent [sic] the lamentable disregard of the election law, which was everywhere so patent and shameless?

Editor Bulletin:

In your paper of yesterday, on the subject of illegal voting, you say that fraud was practices all over the city. Now, so far as the Fourth ward is concerned, allow me to suggest that you are probably in error, for in that ward only one hundred and thirteen votes were polled under the provision of this city charter, which makes it necessary that every voter shall be a citizen of the United States, a bon fide citizen of Memphis six months – and of the ward in which he offers to vote thirty days next preceding the election. It is true a good many did try to vote in the Fourth ward, by showing their oath of allegiance merely, allowed to vote early and often in the other wards, as was probably the case, merely upon showing that paper, which did not entitle them to a vote at all, but faulty was with those who conducted the election, and who were sworn to hold it according to law; and the fault also lies with the city authorities in not appointing competent judges and clerks to hold the election according to law, as the charter requires.

Citizen of Fourth Ward.

Memphis Bulletin, June 27, 1863.

          27, Confederate challenges in harvesting bountiful crops in East Tennessee


The Crop in East Tennessee.-How it is Being Secured-How the Union Men Dispose of their Wheat.

From the Knoxville Register, June 4.

Never within the memory of "the oldest inhabitant" have there been more beautiful fields of wheat than bless East Tennessee to-day. We heard it said when stampeding was going on that there would be no labor in the country to plant a crop. The Register, it was said, by its ultra course, was driving the Lincolnites out of East Tennessee, and when the Lincolnites were driven out there was no labor left to plant a crop for this season. The result is that there has been more wheat planted in East Tennessee, and, and when the Lincolnites were driven out there was no labor left to plant a crop for this season. The result is that there has been more wheat planted in East Tennessee, and, by the blessing of providence, a greater crop, than ever was known. On every plain, on every hill, the grain stands healthful and heavy-the big ears are crying for the reapers. Now, all through the land there is going up a wail that there is not labor enough to save this great crop which God had vouchsafed us. General Beauregard has been addressed in Georgia has been solicited to let the soldiers go home to reap their wheat that their wives and children may not starve. Gen. Beauregard, as far as we can learn, has not responded to the cries of the soldiers' wives.

In East Tennessee we are more fortunate. We have a large force here in our nitre and mining bureau; good trusty fellows, who, under Captain Finnie's direction have been digging villainous saltpeter out of the bowels of the earth. In consideration of their delving in caves, and boiling nitrous earth, they have been exempted from conscription. They have done good service for the Confederacy. Captain Finnie through their aid, has shipped innumerable barrels of nitre to the Confederate powder mill. But now the question arises, how is our great crop of wheat to be saves? It was suggested to the commander of this department that the nitre brigade might render essential service in this matter. General Buckner being a practical man, as well as a valiant soldier, has consented that the nitre men shall have a furlough during harvest, not only gather their own crops, but to assist their neighbors, and especially the wives and children of soldiers who are in the army.

We have no doubt that under the regulation which Captain Finnie will adopt, the nitre brigade will do good service in the ensuing harvest.

Some of our Tory friends, whose wheat fields, contrary to their expectations, give the promise of an enormous yield, have raised the cry that there is no labor to reap the unprecedented crop that blesses the land, and therefore have turned their stock into their wheat fields. They have the right to do as they please in regard to their own fields; we have only to say that we think they have not acted prudently or wisely. There was labor enough in the country to plant a great crop in spite of all the croakers, and we venture to say there is labor enough to save the crop in East Tennessee, great as it is.

General Buckner has acted very promptly in view of the emergency, and we have reason to believe that the measures he has taken will be ample to meet all the requirements of the season.

Philadelphia Inquirer, June 27, 1863.

          27–July 5, 1863, Confederate forces retreat from Tullahoma to Chattanooga

TULLAHOMA, June 27, 1863--10 p. m.

Lieut.-Gen. POLK, Near Gen. Cheatham:

GEN.: I inclose you a letter from Gen. Cleburne, and Gen. Bragg firmly and positively orders you to see that your baggage wagons move on, and that those that break down be removed instantly, as is the custom, from the road, so that the troops and trains of Cleburne may pass. His safety is now endangered by this unjustifiable course of your officers and with it that of the army.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff.


JUNE 27, 1863.

Lieut.-Gen. HARDEE:

The road in my front is taken up with trains and troops of other commands. I am making but slow progress at this moment-6.45 p. m. My rear is but 1½ miles south of Schoefner's Bridge. Some of Gen. Polk's officers, Col. [D. M.] Donnell, for one, stops his command, and, in consequence, everything in rear of him, whenever wagons which were broken down out of the road and push on. He said his orders, from higher authority, were to leave none of the wagons behind, and he would obey those orders. This policy will risk the safety of this army. I can hear the enemy's artillery and small arms on my flank and rear.

P. R. CLEBURNE, Maj.-Gen.

HDQRS. HARDEE'S CORPS, ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Wartrace, June 27, 1863--4 a. m.

Maj.-Gen. STEWART, Cmdg. Division:

GEN.: Put your command in motion at daylight this morning for Tullahoma. Move one brigade, crossing Garrison's Fork at Fairfield, via Bethsalem Church, near these headquarters, Mr. Buchanan's, and crossing Duck River at the new bridge, near Roseville, thence to Normandy, and up Gage's Creek to Tullahoma. The other two brigades will move on the pike from Fairfield to Wartrace, thence via road over new bridge across Garrison's Fork at railroad, 1 mile below Wartrace, to the new bridge over Duck River, near Roseville, thence to Tullahoma.

By command of Lieut.-Gen. Hardee

HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY DIVISION, Wartrace, June 27, 1863--5.15 p. m.

Maj. Gen. JOSEPH WHEELER, Shelbyville:

GEN.: Your dispatch received, and in reply would say that I dispatched you this morning, giving full statement of the position of my command, also through Lieut. [Marcellus] Pointer, who called on me this morning, since which time there has been no change. I will continue to advise you of my position. I was ordered by Gen. Hardee to cover his rear and left flank, and to hold this place until 12 o'clock to-day.

JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Cavalry Division.

P. S.-The enemy will not advance on us from Fairfield, and I have sent two regiments to attack them.

IN THE FIELD, FIVE MILES FROM TULLAHOMA, June 28, 1863--1.45 a. m.

Brig.-Gen. MACKALL:

GEN.: I am receipt of your note of 10 p. m. of the 27th, with its inclosure. The conduct of Col. Donnell is in the highest degree reprehensible, and entirely at variance with orders from these headquarters and the practice of this corps. From whom he has received orders I know not. The impropriety shall be stopped and the facts investigated.

L. POLK, Lieut.-Gen.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 173. HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, June 28, 1863.

* * * *

III. Lieut.-Gen. Polk will relieve, with a brigade from his corps, on the morning of the 29th instant, Brig. Gen. L. E. Polk's brigade, picketing the roads to Manchester. Brig. Gen. L. E. Polk, when relieved, will report to Maj.-Gen. Cleburne.

By command of Gen. Bragg:


Maj. THOMAS M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Polk's Corps:

MAJ.: Your order relative to building rifle-pits, &c., along our line received. I find that, during my absence this morning, Capt. [S. W.] Pressman, the chief engineer of Gen. Bragg, ordered nearly all our tools to be taken on Gen. Hardee's line. I have written to Capt. Pressman to have them returned as soon as possible, and directly they get here your orders will be carried out.

Capt. [W. J.] Morris and myself were engaged this morning in examining our front line of works, and satisfied ourselves that pits should have been built when the works were laid out; also that the timber should have been cut 300 or 500 yards, north and east, more than is now cut. I am afraid it is too late to do this work now, but the pits can be rapidly thrown up.

Very respectfully, major, your obedient servant,

EDWARD B. SAYERS, Capt. and Chief Engineer Polk's Corps, Army of Tennessee.

HDQRS., June 29, 1863--4 p. m.


It is of the very first importance that we should have positive information of the movement and extension of the enemy on our right. Gen. Bragg urges you to ascertain where their left rests to-night, what kind of force, and so to observe it during the night that it cannot make any movement more to our left that will not be reported from hour to hour, or, better, the moment it occurs.

W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff.

JUNE 29, 1863--4.15 p. m.


The important question to us now is what progress the enemy is making to pass our right and interrupt our communications. The general does not so much feel anxiety about the troops marching on Hillsborough road to this place as on the Hillsborough road to Estill Springs. Try and get it soon and accurate.

W. V. MACKALL, Chief of Staff.

TULLAHOMA, June 30, 1863.

Lieut.-Gen. POLK:

Gen. Bragg orders two of your brigades of the second line into the reserve. Let them be ready to move at once and the brigadiers report in person here.


W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff.

HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, Tullahoma, June 30, 1863.


GEN.: The lieutenant-general commanding directs you to order Brig.-Gen. Wright's brigade of the second line into the reserve. Let the brigade be ready to move at once, and you will instruct Brig.-Gen. Wright to report in person to Brig.-Gen. Mackall, chief of staff.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

[THOMAS M. JACK,] Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

HDQRS. HARDEE'S CORPS, Tullahoma, June 30, 1863.


GEN.: Gen. Hardee directs me to inform you that the enemy is reported to be pressing Bate on the New Manchester road, and advancing on the Hillsborough road. He desires you to press forward the work as rapidly as possible.


T. B. ROY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

P. S.-The note from Gen. Bate forwarded by you is received.



Read this note, and press forward with your work as rapidly as possible.

[A. P.] STEWART, Maj.-Gen.

HDQRS., Tullahoma, Tenn., June 30, 1863--1 p. m.

Maj.-Gen. STEWART, Cmdg. Division:

GEN.: You will send Johnson's brigade immediately to a point to which Capt. [Georgia M.] Helm will conduct it. It will take two days' provisions; no wagons except ammunition wagons.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Lieut.-Gen.

Gen. Hardee directs me to say that you will march the brigade above mentioned to the Hillsborough road, near the first fortification to the right of the road, where Capt. Helm will meet it.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

D. H. POOLE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


HDQRS. STEWART'S DIVISION, On the Field, June 30, 1863.

Brig. Gen. B. R. Johnson will move his command in accordance with within order.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Stewart:

R. A. HATCHER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

P. S.-An order has been sent to ordnance wagons to meet brigade on Hillsborough road. Gen. Johnson will turn over all the axes, tools, &c., with his brigade to Brig. Gen. John C. Brown.

TULLAHOMA, June 30, 1863.


I have positive information that the enemy moved to-day on the road from Manchester to Bethpage, and a portion of the command is within 3 miles of the bridge. They moved yesterday toward Hillsborough from Manchester. There are 8,000 or 10,000 troops on the Bethpage road. I started the man who knew all the facts to you this evening, but he failed to get to you. He left Manchester to-day, and came all along the road. He is reliable, and had a pass, the enemy believing he was a friend. I know the man well.


DECHERD, June [30?], 1863--11 p. m.

Gen. POLK:

Send the dispatch below to Gen. Hardee post-haste, and as soon as Wheeler's forces cross to this side in obedience thereto, destroy instantly the Allisona Bridge, and report it done to Gen. Hardee:

Give you following order, from Gen. Bragg, to Gen. Wheeler: "Cross your cavalry at once to this side of the river by the Allisona Bridge."

To you the general says, destroy the Bethpage Bridge at once, and report it done. When will the Elk be fordable?

W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff.

DECHERD, July 1, 1863.

Gen. POLK:

The general commanding requests you to send your engineer troops at once to repair the road leading over the mountain, as far as University Place.

Yours, respectfully,

H. W. WALTER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

DECHERD, July 1, 1863.

Gen. POLK:

Is the river now fordable? Is it so falling as to be fordable by morning? Is the railroad bridge destroyed? Are all the troops and trains this side?


ALLISONA, July 1, 1863.


Gen. Wheeler thinks, from best authority, the river will not be fordable until to-morrow night. Railroad bridge burned. All trains and troops are on this side, except such cavalry, as Gen. Wheeler thinks will not require a bridge.


ALLISONA, July 1, 1863.


In reply to your question, shall we fight on the Elk or take post on the mountain near to Cowan, I say take post near the mountain at Cowan. I think as many trains as possible should be sent over the mountain.



I. The quartermaster and commissary depot of this army will be immediately established at Cowan.

II. Lieut.-Gen. Polk will send a brigade to that place.

III. Lieut.-Gen. Polk's train will be parked at Cowan; Lieut.-Gen. Hardee's at Decherd.

By command of Gen. Bragg:

H. W. WALTER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, Decherd, July 1, 1863.


GEN.: The lieutenant-general commanding directs you order one of your brigades to Cowan Depot.

Respectfully, general,

[THOMAS M. JACK,] Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

MOUTH OF BATTLE CREEK, July 3 1863--1.30 p. m.

Lieut.-Gen. POLK, Cmdg. Army of Tennessee:

GEN.: The pontoon bridge broke away this morning, but will be in order by 3 p. m. The road to Jasper where it crosses Battle Creek is not fordable. A pontoon bridge is being built by Capt. [G. B.] Pickett, and Capt. Morris will be ready by 5 or 6 p. m. road fair to Bridgeport. Bridge over Tennessee River has no railing to it, and will be dangerous to trains. All wagon trains being parked in fields near crossing.

Very respectfully,

EDWARD B. SAYERS, Chief Engineer.


Lieut.-Gen. POLK or Maj.-Gen. CHEATHAM, Battle Creek:

Let Gen. Buckner's troops cross the river and move up to the railway. Report promptly the time they will reach it, that cars may be ready.


W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff.

HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, In the Field, July 4, 1863--9.30 a. m.

Maj.-Gen. WITHERS:

GEN.: The lieutenant-general commanding directs that you allow all the troops to pass over the river, following the wagons, except one brigade, and, when over, let them move forward to a suitable camp ground beyond the range of the enemy's guns on this side, and there encamp, if that be practicable. They should at least be moved forward beyond the point where the mountain comes down to the river. The brigade reserved should be so posted as to protect our left flank until the passage is complete. The forward movement should extend to a point of easy access to the railroad, by which the troops are to be supplied with provisions. Orders were issued to division commissaries to proceed to Bridgeport, draw their rations, and place them at a convenient point on the railroad. Let your own brigade commissaries proceed forward to the point on the railroad at which the depot of supplies shall have been established, draw rations, and have them cooked in advance of the arrival of the troops.

THOMAS M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, July 4, 1863--2.30 p. m.

Maj.-Gen. WHEELER:

Gen. Polk learns that there is a point 3 miles above the mouth of Battle Creek where his road and Gen. Hardee's come very near together. This is considered a pregnable point with Gen. Hardee. He desires you to have this locality reconnoitered, and to cover Gen. Hardee there until he passes, say 5 p. m. This command is moving over it or not, as you prefer; at all events destroy it.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

[THOMAS M. JACK,] Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

(To be read by Gen.'s Martin and Wharton.)

IN THE FIELD, Mouth of Battle Creek, July 4, 1863--2.30 p. m.

Lieut.-Gen. HARDEE, Cmdg. Corps, &c.:

GEN.: Gen. Polk directs me to say you can have the use of the pontoon bridge across the Tennessee River at 4 p. m. The general also directs me to say that he has notified the cavalry commanders in his rear that your road approaches his within a short distance, 2 ½ or 3 miles above the month of Battle Creek, and that it is your wish to be covered by them at that point until your trains pass, say 5 p. m., as you desired in your note to the commander of the general's rear guard.

Very truly and respectfully,

W. B. RICHMOND, Aide-de-Camp.

HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, East Side Tennessee River, July 4, 1863--4.30 p. m.

Lieut.-Gen. HARDEE:

GEN.: The lieutenant-general commanding directs me to say to you that his staff officers have just returned and inform him that you expect him to guard the bridge. His troops are all over the river; he has no further use for the bridge, and your own troops are as near to it as his; otherwise he would take pleasure in guarding it. The general has instructed Gen. Wheeler, covering his column, that he would have no further use for the brigade after 6 o'clock this evening; also that he has informed Gen. Bragg of that fact, and requested him to give orders respecting it to the engineer officer in charge. These orders are expected by steamer from Bridgeport in the course of an hour. Should you desire to interpose, he suggests your making known your wishes you the engineer officer. The general directed Gen. Wheeler to cover your column at the point at which the roads come near together till 5 o'clock, the hour at which you stated in note to commander of rear guard you would pass.

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,

[THOMAS M. JACK,] Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

BRIGADEPORT, July 4, 1863--5 p. m.

Lieut.-Gen. POLK:

Cross all your troops, with the exception of one of Cheatham's brigades. Let those that are sufficiently rested (of those that cross) move out to the railroad on the road to Chattanooga.


W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff.

EN ROUTE, FOUR MILES FROM JASPER, July 4, 1863--7 p. m.

Capt. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

CAPT.: I have received your note. I did not design, by my remarks to Gen. Polk's staff officers, to convey the idea that Gen. Polk's troops were to guard the bridge. I did not think any guard necessary. I asked that the bridge might be held-not destroyed. I have notified the engineers that I would not require the bridge.

Very respectfully,

W. J. HARDEE, Lieut.-Gen.

HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, July 5, 1863--5 a. m..

Brig.-Gen. MACKALL:

GEN.: Your order of yesterday (5 p. m.) did not reach me in time to leave a brigade on the other side of the river. My troops are now awaiting orders. Most of them bivouacked near the railroad. I respectfully request orders, and, as I am camping with Withers' division, 6 miles in advance of Cheatham, I shall thank you to send my orders for Cheatham through him, in order to save time. Withers is at Shellmound; Cheatham between Shellmound and Bridgeport. Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Lieut.-Gen., Cmdg.

HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, July 5, 1863--5 a. m.


GEN.: The lieutenant-general commanding directs that you halt your troops near the railroad, and await further orders.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

[THOMAS M. JACK,] Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Near Shellmound Depot, July 5, 1863--7.30 a. m.

Maj.-Gen. WITHERS:

GEN.: The lieutenant-general commanding directs that you move, with you entire command, to Whiteside Depot. There encamp, and await further orders.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

[THOMAS M. JACK,] Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

PONTOON BRIGADE, Battle Creek, July 5, 1863--12.15 p. m.

Lieut.-Gen. POLK, Shellmound:

GEN.: I have received you note. I have just seen Gen. Wheeler, who is on his way to Bridgeport, and by this time is within a mile or two of the place. He thinks the brigade should not be destroyed without hearing from the commanding general, and he promised to telegraph him on the subject as soon as he reached Bridgeport, for orders for me, and to send me the answer immediately. His rear guard left the top of the mountain this morning.

Since I commanded this note, a courier has arrived here from Gen. Mackall, with a verbal message to inquire if the bridge is burned. As Gen. Wheeler's courier will be here within two hours, I suppose I will wait until hear definitely as to the disposition of the bridge before acting, as Gen. Wheeler informed me that he thought there would be time to hear from Gen. Bragg. Meantime I will have everything in readiness.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. B. PICKETT, Capt. of Engineers, in Charge of Pontoon Bridges.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 888-900.

          28, "The Situation"

There is no question but that the enemy is approaching to give us battle. Anticipating this approach, every preparation is being made to give him a warm reception. Baggage and sick are being sent to the rear and reinforcements to the front. Another brigade from Western Virginia passed up yesterday, chiefly Virginia troops in the[ir] first campaign in Tennessee. A portion of Buckner's command passed up last evening, and Jackson's will probably follow in the morning.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, June 28, 1863.


In response to several inquiries, we state that applicants for appointment as Collectors of the Tax recently levied by the Congress of the Confederate States should address D.N. Kennedy, Chief Collector, Chattanooga

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, June 28, 1863.

          28, Skirmish at Rover

NEAR CHRISTIANA, June 28, 1863. (Received 1.10 p. m.)

GEN.: I left Triune at 8 a. m. June 28. Struck the enemy's picket one-half mile south of Eagleville. Steady skirmishing until we arrived within one-half mile of Rover, and there I met the enemy in force; formed a line of battle, and drove them one-fourth of a mile beyond the town. Here they opened a battery of six guns. They had a regiment and a battalion of infantry to support them. I drove them back to their rifle-pits, within a mile of Unionville. We killed 27 horses that we counted, and, I think, killed and wounded an equal number of men. We slept on the ground that night, and the next morning moved to Versailles at sunrise; there received orders from Gen. Granger to attack Middleton and attack that place. We drove the enemy with a loss of from 50 to 60 horses. Many of them were left on the ground. I was compelled to burn part of the town. I drove the enemy 3 miles beyond the town, and then fell back in the direction of Gen. Stanley's camp. We did not lose more than 20 killed and wounded.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 543.

          28, "DIXIE'S FAST DAY"

We are thinking of ye brothers,

Of the struggle dark and deep,

Of the last day, sad and weary

That ye often have to keep

Of the toilsome march and ever

The cold and rugged bed.

And our head is bowed in sorrow.

We cannot taste our bread


We are weeping for ye, brothers,

Our injured, Dixie's friends-

Or your brave and gallant daring

Their more than life depends,

But our spirit sometimes falters,

With waiting for the day

Or redemption from these horrors,

And the tears will force their way


We are praying for ye, brothers,

the closet is our shrine-

We dare not lift our voices

Beneath he stranger's vine,

But God is ever nearer,

The poor and broken hearts,

And THIS DAY, with Dixie's daughters

We'll bear our humble part.


Bring PEACE, unto her borders

Oh! stay this bloody tide,

and bid her lift her drooping head

Once more in Freedom's pride,

And as we pass this Jordan

This doubtful, dark eclipse-

May we emerge in glory

With THY NAME upon our lips.

Written 1/27/1863 by "Estelle"

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, June 28, 1863.

          28, "Daring Robberies" in Chattanooga

Night before last, about a dozen men, apparently soldiers, armed with muskets, went to the house of Mr. Kirklin, and old citizen living a few miles from this city, and demanded his money, and upon his refusing to deliver it up, they dragged him into the yard, and beat him with the buts [sic] of their guns until some of the female members of his family procured a sum sufficient to satisfy their demands; when they released him, after inflicting severe injuries upon him. The also threatened his life and avowed their intention to rob other families in the neighborhood in the same way. We have not heard that they attempted to carry out their threats in other instances.

On yesterday forenoon, in open day, and in the centre of the business part of town, the store of Mr. Peter Marsh was entered during his temporary absence, and robbed of two hundred and fifty dollars in money and some goods.

These are not the first robberies that have been committed in and around this city by men clothed and armed as soldiers, and a stop should be put to such proceeding. We respectfully call the attention of our local military authorities to the subject hoping that if these outrages are perpetrated by soldiers that the guilty ones will be ferreted out and properly dealt with.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, June 28, 1863.

          28, Enforcement of General Orders No. 104 during the Tullahoma campaign [see May 8, 1863 GENERAL ORDERS, No. 104, relative to baggage and clothing allotments for men and officers in the Army of the Cumberland above]

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Manchester, Tenn., June 28, 1863--2.15 p. m.


The general commanding has noticed with great regret the criminal neglect to obey department orders in reference to the reduction of baggage. If this army fails in the great object of the present movement, it will be mainly due to the fact that our wagons have been loaded down with unauthorized baggage. Officers and soldiers who are ready to die in the field do not hesitate to disgrace themselves and imperil the army by luxuries unworthy of a soldier. Second. The general commanding directs that all baggage trains be reduced to the minimum. To effect this, all tents, except shelter tents and one wall tent to each regiment, will be dispensed with. The ammunition now carried in the company wagons will be turned over to the division ordnance officers, who will be furnished with a sufficient number of additional wagons to transport it. This will enable the transportation of each regiment to be reduced to 7 wagons, which reduction will be at once made. All wagons in excess of this allowance will be turned over to the division quartermaster, who will, under the direction of the chief quartermaster of each corps, organize them into a supply train for the division. Surplus baggage will be sent to Murfreesborough by the returning trains for storage.

The wagons will carry five days' rations of short forage, one tent to a regiment, and medical supplies. All commissioned officers will hereafter carry one ration on their person. Third. All knapsacks will be sent to the rear, and nothing will be carried by the men except shelter tents, blankets, 1 shirt, 1 pair of socks, and 1 pair of drawers. Fourth. Corps and division commanders will be held responsible for the throwing out of every unauthorized article of baggage. Any quartermaster whose train shall be found carrying chairs and such other needless weight, usually the fruit of thieving, will at once be arrested, and the officer claiming it be severely punished.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

(Copies to Gen.'s McCook and Crittenden.)

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 478-479.

          28, Final examination week at the Memphis junior male school

The City Schools are the most useful and creditable of all Memphis institutions. For a week past, the examination exercised preparatory to the summer vacation, have been in progress. For a short time Friday we were among the delighted and gratified auditors at the examination of the junior male school, under the charge of Miss Christine Reudelhuber. The scholars were mostly of tender years, but passed a most searching examination, conducted by Rev. Mr. Hines, in the primary branches, such as spelling, reading, arithmetic, geography, and with decided credit to themselves and their fair instructress. There were also interesting exercises in declamation, dialogues and rehearsals, which would have been creditable to older heads. Six scholars of twelve months' standing, had the highest honors conferred upon them for diligence in study and becoming deportment. There were others, not so long connected with the school, equally deserving, but their names were not read out, evidently to the chagrin of the fair teacher. Just before the exercises closed, some of the pupils very unexpectedly presented their teacher with a bible and a portfolio, as a memento of their love and esteem, and they were gracefully accepted by Miss Reudelhuber in a few touching and appropriate remarks.

Memphis Bulletin, June 28, 1863.

          28, Confederate Civil War Poetry from Knoxville

To My Wife at Parting.

By J. B. L. B, (C. S. A.)

Nay dearest, chase these tears away,

Tho' [sic] they enhance thy beauty,

My country's call I must obey—

The stern command of duty.

Unclasp these circling arms that hang

Their snowy links to bind me,

And let me think, without a pang,

Of the wife I leave behind me.


Again, the "written orders" call—

One kiss and then we sever,

And oh! believe what e'er befall,

My heart is thine forever.

I swear it, by this lingering tear,

Unchanging thou shalt find me,

As I believe the love sincere

Of the wife I leave behind me.


And when this farewell hour is past,

And hope comes gently stealing,

Like a morn's fair tints that radiance cast,

The days return revealing;

Thou'lt own how vain it was to mourn

The lot that fate assigned me,

And smiles will meet my glad return

To the wife I leave behind me.

Knoxville, Tenn., June 28, 1863.

Savannah [Georgia] Republican, July 2, 1863.[11]

          28, William G. Brownlow justifies the necessity for a state Union convention to be held on July 1

"The State Convention."

Mr. Editor: I have written to by several Tennessee soldiers in the army, to know if it is contemplated that the soldiers should be represented in the State Convention, to come off here on Wednesday [July 1]. By citizens, I have been enquired of to know what the objects of the Convention are? I am only one of fifteen Tennesseans whose names are attached to that call, and I can only say that the Convention is called in good faith – that there is no trick in it, and no intention to entrap any one, as some few persons fear, because of the phraseology [sic] of the call.

We desire a Legislature of loyal men to convene, to district the State, without which, we cannot have representatives in Congress, or Senators. We want to elect a Governor, to have Judges and Attorneys General chosen, to have Sheriffs, Revenue Collectors, Justices of the Peace, Constables, and all other officers necessary to the working of the civil machinery of the State. In a word, we are for re-organizing the State, and restoring law and order, and this we hope to be ale to do this summer and fall, while the armed rebels are driven from our borders by our Army.

As a Tennessean, anxious for the restoration of order and law, in this State, and for the overthrow of this most abominable Rebellion, and the defeat, disgrace, and punishment of the unmitigated villains who led off in the work of forming a Southern Confederacy, I look with interest to the meeting and action of the approaching Convention. Let it be well attended, and let its friends be here from every county, full of Union zeal, of disinterested patriotism, and of the spirit of harmony, and good and glorious results will follow.

It is desired that every county in the State shall be represented, and that the soldiers in the army appoint delegates to come up and consult with civilians and others, as to what will best promote the interest of Tennessee and of the Union. Let all who do come, whether from the ranks of the military or of civil life be devoted to the Union, pledging to its friends, wherever found [sic] when here in council. Unwavering support, and to it is enemies, in whatever guise they present themselves, North and South, undying hostility, swearing upon the altar of Liberty, that, God willing, they will stand by this Government, its Constitution, laws, and those entrusted with its care, both in the Cabinet and Army; and that, under this sacred shield, they will have Tennessee return to the Union, her government organized upon Union principles, and her enemies driven into retirement, and made to demean themselves as quiet, law abiding men, or leave the State, never more to curse her soil with their presence, or distract her councils with their infamous and treasonable teachings!

As an individual, I will accept of but one position in the State, and that is the position of editor and publisher of the Knoxville whig [sic]. I long to return to the home I have been driven from, and to the head of the last loyal paper that circulated in Jeff Davis' ungodly dominions, that I may tell him, and his villainous associates in crime, treason and infamy, of things past, present, and to come!

W. G. Brownlow

Late Editor of the Knoxville Whig [sic]

Nashville Daily Press, June 28, 1863.

          28, A call for home defense in Knoxville; a reaction to Sanders' Raid


We earnestly appeal to the people of Tennessee, and most especially to the citizens of Knoxville and its vicinity, to organize into companies for home defence. "Delays are dangerous,"-such is the case at this particular crisis, and it is absolutely necessary to form companies and have them well armed and ready to march to the field of action at a moment's warning incase of another raid. It is the hight [sic] of folly and crime for the people of this State to remain inactive and defenceless-such conduct is nothing more nor less than an invitation to bring about grief, despair and devastation upon our State. It is the duty of all persons between the ages of 15 and 50 years of age capable of bearing arms, to arm themselves and be in readiness to protect their homes and firesides against the ruthless invader. There are hundreds upon hundreds who are capable of bearing arms, and who are to liable to regular military duty that could with propriety form themselves into effective companies and be of invaluable service o their country should another raid occur within the lines of our State. If such was the case, raids would soon be suppressed and public order secured. There is no part of the State entirely secure against raids, and it its citizens will organized an select daring and active men for their leaders, raids in Tennessee would soon terminate and peace reign. In but few instances should exemptions and substitutes be admitted-let all be enrolled-foreigners not excepted. They should not remain in our midst and be inactive-if they refuse to stand by the colors of our flag let them dig its entrenchments [sic] or forsake its folds of protection.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, June 28, 1863.

          28, Newspaper report on harsh Federal rule in Nashville


The Atlanta Intelligencer contains a lengthy narrative, from the pen of Mr. J. Tovell, formerly the secular editor of the Tennessee Baptist, of the atrocious Federal outrages in Nashville. Mr. Tovell is a British subject, but was incarcerated in the penitentiary under the circumstances which he details as follows:

Some seven or eight weeks ago a highly respectable citizen, who, for upwards of twenty years had been a magistrate of Nashville, and whose name was John Corbitt, was awakened by the barking of a dog some time after he had retired to bed, and suspecting that somebody was on the premises, got up and went our into his stable yard, where he found three federal soldiers trying to drive off his cow and calf.-He remonstrated against their theft, and one of them immediately with a huge stone struck him on the side of his head, completely smashing his skull. He survived but a few days, and was buried on Sunday, in the Cherry street Cemetery. He was seventy-three years of age, and had resided in Nashville, I believe, upwards of fifty years. Having been on terms of intimacy with the old gentleman almost ever since my residence in the city, I was requested by the family to deliver the funeral oration at his interment. The circumstances of the old man's death, and the high estimation in which he was held by his fellow citizens, brought together a large concourse of people to witness the obsequies, among whom were perhaps some fifty Federal soldiers.

As I stated, rapine, murder and theft had been desolating our city for several weeks previously. Accordingly in the course of my address, I adverted to this phase of our social existence as being a strange anomaly in a community where extraordinary measures had been adopted professedly for the more effectual maintenance of law and order, nor was I careful to repress indignation of the crime which had been committed nor of the men who had been committed nor of the men who had perpetrated it.

I had scarcely left the ground when I was arrested by a band of soldiers belonging to the 10th Michigan Volunteers and taken to the headquarters of the General commanding the post (Gen. Negley.) After a detention of three or four hours in the guard room, I was summoned into the presence of the General who informed me that he understood I had been abusing him and speaking disrespectfully of the military authorities. I assured him that I had neither done the one or the other. That I was persuaded that among the numerous Federal soldiers present at the funeral, their was no one in whose veracity he ad any confidence, who would state I have made the most distant allusion either to hi or to the military authorities. I owned that I had spoken not merely disrespectfully but in the strongest terms of detestation of the atrocities perpetrated by those en who in the garb of federal soldiers, prowl about the streets at night breaking into hen roosts stealing pigs and cow, and then knocking peaceful citizens on the head for resenting the lawless proceeding.

The result was that  he was marched off, without trial or further investigation, to the Penitentiary. He states that his case has been presented to Lord Lyons, and he expects confidently the protection and justice which Breast Britain proverbially commands for her subjects.

But, as showing the men and malignant spirit that seems to actuate the federal authorities, I will state an occurrence which took place some three or four weeks ago, in relation to five of my own associates. Two of them were lawyers, one a merchant, and the other two were proprietors of large plantations and a full force of negroes. All of them were men of mark and of high social position in their respective  neighborhoods. Well, the Provost Marshal sent a guard to bring these men to his office at the capitol. This was about noon. The functionary I have mentioned, after a few  interrogatories, told them that he should send them north, and they might expect to start toward Louisville next morning. And, on account of it lying directly in the route of their march, he would have them lodged for the night at the work house, to which they would at once proceed.

Now these five gentlemen, with five others, who were prisoners of war, having at the work house, were thrust into a low cell, fourteen feet by eight, without a since article of furniture, or even so muc as a bench to sit on. There were no windows, but in their stead were three openings  in the wall, each about eighteen inches by six in measurement. These were at best but contracted quarters for ten men but the evil was increased tenfold by the fact that in an open shed opposite were posted a guard of Federal soldiers, who kept fire continually burning, the smoke of which soon filled the cell, being driven by the wind through the opening in the wall. The effects of the smoke became so intolerable that they began to fear suffocation, and besought the Lieutenant to open the door, and grant the access to the open air. But his he refused them, and kept it locked. They had then no other alternative but to lie flat on the floor, filthy and saturated with urine as it was, from four o'clock in the afternoon until five the next morning.

The Federal authorities, in prosecuting  the barbarous enterprises in which they are engaged, have been very fortunate in securing fitting instruments for executing their purposes., Their soldiers are such adepts at theft, rapine and murder, that they would evidently feel themselves out of their of their natural element were they pleased in circumstances which tended to obstruct them in their favorite pursuits. Their brutal excesses almost surpass belief, and are many of them of a  nature that scarcely admit of their being chronicled by the journalist. I will, however, give as a sample one well authenticated instance.

A few Sunday ago a number of them entered a negro Sunday School, as a set of pious visitors, who took a benevolent interest in "Sabbath" schools in this city. After catechising with the pupils for a short time they took upon themselves to dismiss the school, requesting, however, on some pretext, purporting that the older more advanced scholars might be successfully initiate into the more recondite mysteries of the faith, that certain "young sisters" whom they pointed out should remain for this purpose a short time longer. There were from twenty to thirty young women thus indicated, and no one of them was allowed to escape till these fiends had fully satisfied their brutal lusts upon their person.

There are no words in our language strong enough to apply to fiends of this stamp. During the dark ages acts were perpetrated that makes one's blood fairly run cold to think of.-But the acts of the Lincoln hordes of the nineteenth century far exceed in barbarity those of the uncivilized nations of the past. And what makes these deed the more infamous, the men who commit them are lauded for their "zeal in the cause of liberty" from hundreds of Northern pulpits, and are  bid "God speed" in their savage and brutal work by the Abolition occupants of the same. A worse condition of morals could not exist in Satan's dominions.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, June 28, 1863.

          28, Editorial comments on recent Federal raids in and around Knoxville[12]

MILITARY RAIDS.-Well, we have had the benefit of a Renegade Yankee raid. We have, as it were, seen the giraffe—caught a glimpse rather close than comfortable, of the mongrel monster alive and hideous. We abhor it and all lathe breed. We remember to have read somewhat of such tings away back in the dim eras of history, before there was either Christianity or civilization, and near indeed to the Deluge. But how our eye hath seen it, and we pronounce and denounce it as neither christen, heathen nor human; but fiendish, satanic and devilish and upon the whole profitless.

It certainly profits us nothing who suffer it; that's axiomatic. Nor is it worth the while and toil and peril of our enemy who make it. Such an incursion weighs nothing and determines nothing as to the great final result of the war. A marauding party has caused individual suffering; ruined here and there a private citizen; may even have occasioned a momentary inconvenience to the Government-but this is the sum. The energies of an invaded people and government rising with the emergencies of the occasion, follow close in the path of the destroyed to rebuild, repair and restore, like the returning waters to smoothe [sic] and obliterate the furrows of the ocean-plowing keel, leaving no trace behind save the bare hateful memory of the moment.

War at best is inhuman, but such a war is our enemy wages against and forces upon us is worse than savage or demonic; it is pure, unminced, dephlegmated Yankee.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, June 28, 1863.

          28, Governor Isham G. Harris's call to the citizens of Tennessee

All of our readers have doubtless read the call of Governor Harris, published in the Rebel of the 26th. It calls out six thousand of the militia men of the State, from the ages of forty-five, and is specific of detail and full of minute information. It is also patriotic in spirit and eloquent throughout, a document to [next half paragraph illegible] formed by volunteering on or before the [illegible] of August.

We commit the entire document to the careful perusal and patriotic thought of our fellow citizens. That it will be answered by acclamation before the time appointed, we have not a doubt. The honor of Tennessee has never yet been involved by her good people, who know as well as they ever did, their duty to State and country. They will respond with quiet fervor.

We can not better enforce our earnest feeling upon the subject than by quoting the words of Governor Harris himself:

Men of Tennessee! If you would resist these raids, predatory bands, and incendiaries of the enemy, organize at once and stand ready to repel or crush them.

If you would protect your private property, defend your wives and children, your personal liberty, your national independence, and your lives, organize at once and stand ready to strike for them.

Let the beardless boy and the hoary-headed father organize for the defense of their altars, their homes, and all that is dear to freemen.

Let the gallant men who have been disabled by the exposure and hardships of the camp or the casualties of bloody fields give to these new organizations the benefit of their experience and example.

Let every man who can wield a musket or draw a sword, who is so situated that he cannot swell the ranks of our Army for constant service, organize at once for home defense and special service.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, June 28, 1863.

          28, Drenched in Chattanooga

The Rain.

Well may we exclaim with Clarence Mangan

"Oh! the rain, the weary, dreary rain."

For seldom has the season known a period of such protracted, uninterrupted, sunless weather. We remember, indeed, the old distich,

"It rained continuously through January,

And as for sunshine-we hadn't nary;"

But this refers to winter. To fall upon four live long days in the heart of Summer, with nothing but one blank sky of deaden clouds, one wide waste of water, and one burst after another of thunder, varied by no other sight nor sound, 'nor ray of sun nor song of bird," day by day.

"From morn to noon, from noon to dewey eve,"

presents us certainly a miracle of the thermometer, of bad luck and of mud. As we look out of our window now upon the swollen current of the Tennessee, pouring its mighty torrent along as if to welcome a gunboat, or swallow a yankee, the ridges of black mist boil up from behind old hills, and a gust of wind murmurs, "the rain! the rain!" In truth we do not need the warning voice, for we see it. It comes not gently like the tears of woman, but noisily like those of a naughty boy-pitching, splashing against sash and sill. Look Out Peak is quite obscured by it. The cupola of the Presbyterian church looks like the ace of hearts through the mist. Why, even the market house is invisible. Alack the day! If we were not promised no more deluges, we think we should begin to play Noah and build an ark. We have already had to play the mechanic, for only the last night three of our window panes were broken out by the pelting drops, and all the morning we have been endeavoring to patch them up with paper. This has proven a fruitless labor thus far, for as fast as we put on the sheets another storm blows them off again. They are like some of our postage stamps, and won't stick. The failure teaches one good lesson, however, and that is the inefficacy of a paper blockade. It also invokes the old lesson of, "try, try again." We shall proceed as a distinguished friend of our often remarks, upon a familiar occasion with our usual dignity to do so. Meanwhile, beseeching the prayers of all the well disposed men and women for our ultimate success, we extend our sympathy to all who like ourself, have been confined to the house by having no water proof soles, or like some of our neighbors, have wheat in the field cut, but not gathered, and wishing heartily

____"The rosy cheek

Of a laughing hoyden, sunny day."

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, June 28, 1863.

          28, Newspaper editor's reply to a Confederate soldier in Shelbyville concerned about the value of Confederate money and bonds

"A Tennessee Soldier" writes us from Shelbybilloe, as follows:

"We are informed that Treasury Notes dated prior to December, 1862, will not be funable after the firstr of Aust, and perhaps will not pay debts hereafter. We wish to ask you what provision, if nay,has [made?] to enablke the soldier on duty, who cannot go to Chattanorg or other depository, to fund his Treasury notes, (which we would all be glad to do,) or to exchange for notes of a later date."

We have heretofore explained and now repeat, that the [Confederate] Treasury notes dated prior to 1st December, 1862, if not funded on or before the 1st day of August, will still be receivable for all dues to the Government except export dues, though no longer fundable-that a large proportion of them would be converted into bonds, and that the taxes already levied was [sic] sufficient to absorb the rest. Even if they are not thus absorbed, being less desirable than subsequent issues which are fundable, they will take their place in circulation and still [be used] in ordinary transactions as formerly. We see no reason why they should materially depreciate, as the Government is as much bound to redeem them as any other notes. There is, therefore, no real cause for uneasiness on the subject.

In reply to the question, what provision has been made for the soldier on duty who is unable to visit a depository in person, we can only state that we know of none. The [Confederate] notes, however, can be sent, by express, or by some friend of the person who desires to exchange them for bonds. The depository at this place will receive money by express, and issue certificates or bonds, (the bonds not having reached him) and return them according to the directions of the party interested. He receives deposits frequently in this way. The bond, when they are issued, will date with the date or the certificate which is not being issued, and draw interest from the date of the depository. The soldiers in camp may send, either by express or hand, their [Confederate] Treasury notes to Jesse Thomas, the depository at Chattanooga, and he will return them a bond or its equivalent, as they may direct. The name of the person making the deposit, and of the person to whom it is desired the bond should issue should accompany every remittance.

Bonds will not be issued for fractional parts of an hundred dollars. Therefore, remittances should be made in so many round hundreds or thousands. Bonds may be of any denomination desired, from one hundreds to one thousand dollars, counting by hundreds.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, June 28, 1863.

          28-July 5, repair of railroad and bridges, Murfreesborough to Tullahoma


COL.: In accordance with instructions received from department headquarters by telegram this morning, I have the honor to make the following report concerning the operations and movements of this regiment since leaving Murfreesborough, Tenn.:

Late in the evening of June 28, orders were received from the general commanding for the regiment to repair and open the railroad from Murfreesborough to Tullahoma, and, in conformity with these directions, the regiment marched from Murfreesborough June 29, at 10 a. m. Lieut. Col. K. A. Hunton, with a detachment, proceeded down the line of the railroad, thorough examining the track to note any repairs that were needed. Between Bellbuckle and Wartrace they found 2½ miles of iron had been taken up and carried off. Col. Anderson having been ordered to replace the iron, the regiment proceeded to Duck River Crossing and commenced immediately to rebuild and repair the bridge at that point, 350 feet in length, which had been burned and chopped down by the enemy. A detachment was sent forward to Normandy, and rebuilt 150 feet of trestle which had been destroyed at that point. Having completed these bridges, the regiment moved toward Tullahoma, and a portion of the regiment chopped out and opened 1½ miles of new road, leading into Tullahoma, a greater portion of which was covered with corduroy, rendered necessary to assist the wagon trains with supplies to proceed.

Lieut. Col. K. A. Hunton, with a detachment, marched near the vicinity of Concord, on the branch of the McMinnville Railroad, and rebuilt two bridges' trestle-work; the first 55 feet in length, and the second 120 feet in length.

The regiment went into camp at Tullahoma, Tenn., July 5, 1863.

I have the honor to remain, colonel, with high respect, your obedient servant,

WM. P. INNES, Col., Cmdg. First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 582-583.


          27, Orders No. 28, Office of Inspector of Fortifications

Headquarters District of Tennessee

Office of Inspector of Fortifications

Nashville, Tenn., June 27th, 1864

Order No. 28

Quartermasters of troops garrisoning the blockhouses along the lines of the railroads, will make requisitions immediately for the tools and materials necessary to complete the block houses, and to keep them in good order.

Each block house commander will draw the tools from the proper quartermaster.

Every block-house must be considered as depending wholly upon itself in case of an attack. Every block-house will have a permanent garrison and commander assigned to it who will be held responsible for its safety and condition. The practice which prevails at some points of sending a new guard and relieving the old none every day from some other point will cease.

The work on the block-houses will be carried on by the garrisons under the direction of the Assistant Inspectors who will give all necessary instructions to that end.

The work on the block-houses will be carried on by the garrisons under the direction of the Assistant Inspectors who will give all necessary instructions to that end.

The Assistant Inspectors will make reports to this office on the 1st and 15th of each month stating the amount and kind of work done since last report. In case there is any infraction of the rules and regulations, the Assistant Inspectors will report the name, rank, &c. of the officer responsible therefor and state the particulars.

The following list will serve as a guide to the tools required in each block-house:

3 Shovels                       3 spades

3 picks                           1 adze

2 broad axes                            1 large cross-cut saw

1 hand saw                    1 rip hand saw,

2 axes                                      1 hammer (claw)

1 hatchet                        10 lbs. each, 10-penny and 20-penny nails

1 2-inch auger                1 2-inch framing chisel

1 1-inch auger                1 1-inch framing chisel

2 mallets                        2 Wheelbarrows

1 lb. chalk                      2 chalk lines

1 steel square

By command of Maj. Gen. Rousseau

Jas. R. Willett, 1st Lt., 88th Ill. Inf'ty, Inspector of Fortifications, Dist. Tennessee

Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 28, 1864.

          27, "I went into where the corpse lay and raised the covering but the face was covered with cotton there being quite a discharge from the mouth and nostrils. I did not remove this cotton." Attending the funeral services of a local man killed by bushwhackers.  An entry from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain

O What sad news does this morning bring to us. Jesse Courtney is dead-murdered yesterday evening by bushwhackers. He, wife and a little boy whom he had adopted had eaten their suppers and Mrs. C. asked him if he had brought in the axes. He replied he had not and started to go after them. He went to the kitchen door and opened it partly. A man stepped forward saying surrender and before he had time to say a word he was shot in the right side. The bullet not coming out but supposed to have lodged in the region of the heart. He walked across the kitchen into their room then turned and went back into the kitchen. He made an effort to step into a little room on their porch, when he fell.

His wife had a candle in her hand but in some way perhaps by Jesse falling against it was put out. She then had to light it whilst doing this Jesse had turned himself around with his head on the doorsill. What moments of horror these must have been to that poor suffering woman. When she got to him he breathed two or three times and all was over. What horror, what anguish seized the soul of this woman with no one near her but that little boy of 6 or 7 years.

A husband dead lying in his blood which had flowed profusely. The murderer still lurking for ought she knew around her dwelling. She told me she tried to hallo but could not. She then tried to blow the horn but could not. At length she started the little boy to go to Mrs. Lawsons who lived some two or three hundred yards or so from them. After the little fellow started his heart failed him and he hallowed back to her "Mama I am afraid." She talked to him a little and told him to go. He then went on.

Mr. L. had heard the report of the pistol organ but could not leave his wife as she was sick and every much alarmed but when the little boy told him his papa was killed and his mama wanted him to come and blow he horn for her-he came and blew it. Ms. Biggs heard it and she and Mr. Biggs started (I think). When they got there they heard the wail of woe from the distressed-were afraid to go in at first but Mr. Biggs at length went in and what a sight met the eye. There sat the stricken wife and her little boy over the dead body of her beloved husband gory from the work of the dark-hearted assassin.

Two of Mr. Biggs little boys went up to Mrs. Harlans. Rachel went about 1 to Mrs Cs. There she and Mrs. B and C. exerted themselves and succeeded in getting him laid upon a bed and straitened [sic] out. They then had to wait until 3 before any men could come to them. Neal Harlan and Mr. Hendricks came down to J. Millers and got him and Mr. Hicks (a soldier) to go with them and just here let me say I do think he men who were with Capt. Gibbs acted cowardly. There were about 20 of them that night at Sensenbaughs when the alarm was given. They sent out to the 2 little boys mentioned before and asked them what was the matter. They told him Mr. Courtney was killed. They asked what he was and the children said a rebel. They put spurs to their horses and were at Mr Sensabaughs in a short time. But not one of them was willing to go back and stand a guard until Neal and some others could was and dress him. I feel this is a lasting shame on the name of those men.

I intended going p early but had nothing t ride and felt I was so warm I could not walk well. Between 10 and 11 Lizzie Miller came after me. I made ready and we were soon off. L. stopped at home. I went on and got there just as they were finishing their dinners. I found Mr. I and his daughter Rachel Saunders. Matilda Wells and some three or four others. I went into where the corpse lay and raised the covering but the face was covered with cotton there being quite a discharge from the mouth and nostrils. I did not remove this cotton.

Fain Diary.

          28, Letter from Robert Cooper to J. M. Cooper [McMinn County]

Mr. J. M. Cooper,

These few lines will inform you that we are all well at this time. We Rec 'd [sic] your line the other day without date. You said you want some corn and Bacon. Your own corn has not been troubled since you left, the robbers stold [sic] your Bacon all except seven peaces [sic] & Critz has been robbed of all his & Bed clothes & Dished & Bees & a great many other things. there [sic] has not [been] a springhouse [that has] escaped the robbers, the woods is full of Lyouts, [sic] some Bush whacken [sic] going on, a few killed on Both [sic] sides. There is several comp[any [sic] of Robbers [sic] in this county stealing horses and & Robing [sic] houses. I suppose you have heard of Yankee Raid, [sic] bean [sic] about the middle of this Month. Some 250 Yanks came from Knoxville & through Rogersville to Kingsport[13] the stage road [sic] taking negroes [sic] & horses. Ned & Lize is [sic] both gone & Dan I suppose. When they got to fall Branch that they had 50 negroes [sic]. say [sic] 2 G. M. Lyons John H. Ellis, Isom, Mrs. Besson some James Johnson, some Robt. Neatherland [sic] & with a promise to come back and take them all. So you can see how things is working hear. [sic] If our negroes [sic] are brought home they would all runn [sic] off sure. You can read this and not know how many is gone nor nothing [sic] about it to make them dissatisfyed. [sic] I am trying to fix for harvest. I think I will be able to save all the wheat and Rice. [sic] Your wheat is tolerable good, the Hamiltons [sic] is very good, no smut, the quaker wheat is bat [sic] smutted, some in the Rest [sic] of your wheat. Your own is all over the 3 time [sic] and looks tolerable well. This is the 4 letter that me and Rachel has rote [sic] to you & Recd [sic] one from you.

Rachel & the children is all well & getting along very well considering. Tht [sic] Damd [sic] Roges [sic] stole her bacon, most of the bacon that was left was sids. [sic] The boys complains [sic] that they have no ham to eat but a plenty of milk and butter.

You say Wm [sic] Ellis left you some time ago, he got home, come by Russell & your mare was all stolen, and gone sometime before he got Back. Your gray filey [sic] &: mule is still in the pasture up thare [sic] yet. Ellis started back some time ago but he returned back again & says he will start again as soon as the harvest is over. He said that he was taken up twist while gone the last time.

There is a few soldier hear now scouting round no regiment all scouts. We get no news from the army for some time. I am in hope it will be good when it comes.

Robert Cooper

When you receive this write to us and rite [sic] all the news, it will be all news to us.

W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 2, pp. 160-161.

          28, "She wore a stout pair of No. 9 brogans, and her stockings and gloves were made of rabbit skins—fur side next to the flesh." A Confederate Martial Marriage at Bull's Gap

An Army Wedding.

There are very few soldiers who have been in the Western army who will not recognize in the following picture, drawn from the Montgomery Mail, a great similarity to many army weddings which he has seen. The marriage took place at Bull's Gap, Tenn:

["]An Alabama soldier, who to name would be too personal, but who is uglier than the renowned Suggs—in fact so far diseased with the chronic big ugly as to have failed procuring a furlough from Brig. Gen. Law solely on that ground—woed [sic] and won a buxom Tennessee maid of doubtful age. Whilst "Special" was out that day with his gun on a porcine scout for the purpose of reinforcing his haversack, he was interrupted in his reconnoissance [sic] by a husky voice emitting from a ten by fifteen pen inviting him to halt.

Entering the low door he found the wedding was on the tapis, en route to a happy termination. A mirthful Texan—not necessary to name—had a copy of the Army Regulations in his hand, and his throat was decorated with a piece of white bandage, such as is used by our army doctors—all ready to tie the hymenial [sic] knot [sic] so tight that it could not be undone by the teeth. The bridegroom stood largely over six honest feet in his socks, was as hairy as Esau, and pale, slim and lank.—His jacket and pants represented both of the contending parties at war. His socks were much the worse for wear, and his toes sticking out of the gaping rents thereof, reminded one of the many little heads of pelicans you observe protruding from the nest which forms the coat of arms of Louisiana. The exact color of his suit could not be given. Where the buttons had been lost off in the wear and tear of war, an unique substitute, in the shape of persimmon seed, was used. The bride had essayed to wash "Alabama's" clothes, while he modestly concealed his nudity behind a brush heap, awaiting there until they were dried.

The bride was enrobed in a clean but faded dress. Her necklace was composed of a string of chinquepins [sic], her brow was environed by a wreath of faded bonnet flowers, and her wavy hair was tucked up behind in the old fashioned way. She wore a stout pair of No. 9 brogans, and her stockings and gloves were made of rabbit skins—fur side next to the flesh. On her fingers were discerned several gutta percha and bone rings, presents at various times from her lover. She wore no hoops, for nature had given her such a form as to make crinoline of no use to her.

All being ready, the "Texas Parson" proceeded to his duty with becoming gravity. "Special" acted the part of waiter for both bride and groom. Opening the book afore mentioned, the quandam parson commenced, "Close up!" and the twain closed up. "Hand to your partner!" and the couple handed. "Atten ti-on to-o-r-ders!" and all attentioned. Then the following was read aloud: "By order of our directive General Braxton Bragg, I hereby solemnly pronounce you man and wife, for and during the war, and you shall cleave unto each until the war is over, and then apply to Governor Watts for a family right of public land in Pike, the former residence of the bridegroom, and you, and each of you, will assist to multiply and replenish the earth."

The ceremony wound up with a regular bear hug between the happy mortals, and we resumed our hog hunt, all the time "guffawing" at the stoic indifference manifested by the married parties on the picket line at Bull's Gap.

On our falling back from the gap we observed the happy couple perambulating with the column through the mud and snow, wearing an air of perfect indifference to observation or remark from the soldiery.—Should this soldier, who captured the maid of the gap, obtain a furlough for the purpose of locating in Pike, will not our friends of the Mail oblige them with an introduction to our gallant Governor Watts?

Richmond [VA] Whig, June 28, 1864. [14]

          28, Canine Refugee in Chattanooga

A refugee dorg[15] -a magnificent animal, of the St. Bernard breed-may be seen at the office of the Refugee Relief Commission, where he will be sold for the benefit of the refugee fund, having been sent here from Smithland, Tennessee, by a gunboat officer, as a donation.

Chattanooga Daily Gazette, June 28, 1864. [16]


          27, Circular No. 9, addressing "complaints arising from the new relations of the colored people with the owners of the soil, and praying for his authoritative action in the adjustment of the difficulties complained of." The new race interactions in West Tennessee



Memphis, Tenn., June 27, 1865.

The major-general commanding is daily in receipt of petitions from the people, which the reports of the various post commanders confirm setting forth complaints arising from the new relations of the colored people with the owners of the soil, and praying for his authoritative action in the adjustment of the difficulties complained of. Not alone are the freedmen responsible for the state of things which exists. The planters themselves, too reluctant to practically accept the passing away of slavery, do in numerous instances awaken and confirm that disaffection among the negroes [sic] which renders them so unfaithful and unreliable as employes. First of all, the people must acknowledge and act upon the full and permanent emancipation of the colored race. Without the cordial acceptance of this inevitable fact the military authorities can afford but partial relief to existing evils. Any other course of conduct, of the manifestation of a different spirit in dealing with the freedmen, will surely inflict upon them the punishment of their own willful blindness and injustice. The negro [sic] must be made to understand that the freedom proclaimed to him involved the care of his own support and that of his family, which he has never before known. The demands for labor are sufficient to afford employment for all able-bodied freedmen, and such will be compelled to work for the means of living. They are free to make their own contracts, and they will be fully protected in all their rights under them, but they will be compelled to the honest and faithful performance of such contracts when made. Negroes from the country will not be permitted to visit the military posts without a pass from their employer, and those unemployed must remain where the means of employment exist, namely, among the fields. Post commanders are authorized and instructed to enforce as far as practicable the principles and requirements herein contained, and they will, until the establishment and location of officers connected with the Freedmen's Bureau have removed the necessity of such interposition, compel the freedmen to the performance of all fair and equitable contracts with their employers, whenever it is apparent that there has been no oppression or unjust treatment toward the employe, and no compulsory action will be used until a full investigation has determined the rights of the particular case.

By order of Bvt. Maj. Gen. John E. Smith:

W. H. MORGAN, Brevet Brig.-Gen. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 1043-1044.

          28, Removal of military authority from civil litigations in West Tennessee

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 71. HDQRS. DIST. OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., June 28, 1865.

No cause of dispute or litigation between civilians respecting property, and in which the United States Government or some person in its service is not a party concerned, will be adjudicated or in any manner entertained by any officer of this command.

By order of Bvt. Maj. Gen. John E. Smith:

W. H. MORGAN, Brevet Brig.-Gen. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 1049.



[1] Public Acts of the State of Tennessee, passed at the extra session of the Thirty-third General Assembly, April, 1861, (Nashville: J. G. Griffith & Co.: 1861.)

[2]Public Acts of the State of Tennessee, passed at the extra session of the Thirty-Third General Assembly, April 1861 (Nashville: J.G. Griffith & Co, Public Printers, Union and American Office, 1861), Chapter 24, pp. 49-50. See also: OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, p. 409. It is difficult to imagine what they were thinking.


[4] Albert or Alben A. Abernathy, Narcissa's second son, was a private in Co. C, 18th Tennessee Infantry. He was captured at Fort Donelson and imprisoned at Camp Butler. In September 1862, he was exchanged with his regiment at Vicksburg. In December 1862, he was killed at the battle of Murfreesboro. See Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 510. fn2.

[5] Usher.

[6] As cited in:

[7] As cited in:

[8] Howell was imprisoned in the state penitentiary in Nashville. Military Governor Johnson pardoned him later, on a "day to day" basis on account of his poor health. Apparently then, Howell did not take the oath, but lived an exemplary life thereafter.

[9] As a result of the rapid and panicked fall of Shelbyville a Union spy was spared the death sentence. Pauline Cushman was sent behind Rebel lines to spy for General Rosecrans to gain information on the location and strength of the Army of Tennessee. She was caught by Confederate authorities, court martialed and sentenced to death hanging. She was awaiting execution when the Federal cavalry smashed through the town and so literally saved her neck as the Rebel forces hastily retreated, leaving her behind. Cushman was an actress born in New Orleans and had spied for the Union in Louisville and later in Nashville. Ms. Cushman was fondly regarded by the soldiers who gave her the nickname "Major." She was said to have worn "the accouterments of that rank." There appears to be no information about the exploits of "Major" Pauline Cushman in the OR. See: Francis Trevelyan Miller, ed. in chief, Robert L. Sanier, managing ed., Semi-Centennial Memorial, The Photographic History of the Civil War In Ten Volumes; Thousands of scenes photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, vol. 8, (NY: The Review of Reviews Co., 1911), p. 273. (Photograph on p. 273 also.) See also: Ferdinand L. S. Armiensto, Life of Pauline Cushman, the Celebrated Union Spy and Scout, (NY: United States Book Co., 186?), pp. 151-155, and; James D. Horan, Desperate Women (NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1952), pp. 118-119; and, Agatha Young, The Women and the crisis: Women of the North In the Civil War, (NY: McDowell, Obolensky, 1959), pp. 234-244.

[10] Paul M. Angle, ed., Three Years in the Army of the Cumberland. The Letters and Diary of Major James A. Connelly, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1959, renewed 1987 by Vesta Angle), pp. 94-95. [Hereinafater: Three Years.]

[11] As cited in:

[12] The editor is referring to Sanders' Raid in East Tennessee, June 14-24, 1863, part of which involved a raid upon Knoxville and surrounding territory. The Knoxville attack was repulsed.

[13] There is no reference to any such raid in the OR. This may be a reference to the raid from Morristown into North Carolina, June 13-15, 1864, but it seems unlikely. Perhaps this is a legitimate entry for this work, but without independent verification it is best to be skeptical.

[14] As cited in:

[15] A comically vernacular pronunciation of "dog."

[16] TSL&A, 19th CN.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


No comments: