Monday, June 8, 2015










          6, Call for daily interdenominational Christian prayer meetings to shield soldiers and the Confederacy

Editors Appeal: Allow me, through your columns, to make a suggestion, that I trust will meet with the approbation of at least every Christian in the city. In this, our time of trial and need, would it not be well to organize a daily prayer meeting, having for its object, our country, and the young men who have left their homes to fight our battles. If the Lord be for us, who can prevail against us? Let us, therefore, invoke his guidance and protection for the husbands, brothers and sons that are not only exposed to the bullets of the enemy, but to all the temptations that necessarily surround a camp life. I therefore propose that all those who favor the suggestion, would meet on Saturday morning at 9 o'clock, at the Second Presbyterian Church, and take such measures as are necessary for the organization of one or more daily prayer meetings in this city. Should this meet with the approbation of the various denominations, the ministers will please make the announcement in their regular weekly meetings, or from their pulpits on Sabbath morning. City papers please copy.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 6, 1861.

          6, Shortage of forms delay relief to volunteers' families in Memphis

Relief of Volunteer's Families.—The veterans of the names and families of volunteers have not come to hand completely, and a delay must ensue in consequence, in allowing assistance to destitute families in many cases. As distressing results must follow, Esq. Hill last night generously undertook a journey to Randolph for the purpose of obtaining the necessary documents.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 6, 1861.

          ca. 6, "TRUE MEN OF THE SOUTH TO THE RESCUE;" Secessionist propaganda poster text in Memphis on the eve of the vote on secession

Whereas, Abraham Lincoln, President of the Northern States, has seen fit to make a call upon the States of the Union for 75,000 men, for the declared purpose of subjugating the States of the Southern Confederacy, and make them subservient to his will; and whereas such a call is repugnant to the feeling of the people of the border States, and must, therefore, be treated with contempt. And whereas, also, the Republicans of the North are heaping insult and injury upon friends of the South in their midst, and have forced them to leave their homes. in the north in consequence thereof;

We, loyal citizens of the South, who have pledged our lives, our property, and our sacred honors, in support of the Government of the Confederate States, deem it incumbent upon us to urge immediate arming of all our able-bodied men who are willing to resist the cohorts of the North; we also urge all friends of the South to be vigilant, and use their utmost efforts to preserve the honor and integrity of our United South. Our safety requires that those living in our midst, who do not wish to abandon their allegiance to Lincoln's Government, who are in favor of negro equality and the degradation of the white race, should leave this city as soon as possible. That a number of men from the North, who have made their homes in this city, are true to the South, there is no doubt; but there are others whom it will not do to trust.

They are men who, notwithstanding they have made all they are worth from Southern patronage, are recreant to the South, and in her hour of peril will prove themselves traitors. Those men must be compelled to leave here. We do not counsel force for this purpose, unless a refusal is gent to comply with such a demand.

Let the proprietors of business houses, machine, carpenter, and cabinet shops, foundries, printing-offices, paint and tailor ships, hotel and boarding houses, report immediately the names of all those who they know cannot be trusted as friends to the South. It is important that this be done -- the security of our property and the safety of our families demand it. Our gallant sons, who are anxious to march wherever the service of the South requires them, wish to carry with them the consoling though that they have not left behind them the lurking enemy, who, while lingering around their homes and firesides, would incite our negroes [sic] to insurrection, and bring the worst calamities upon our wives, our mothers, and our daughters.

"Those who are not with us are against us." Let every citizen remember that "Eternal vigilance is the price of Liberty."

Rebellion Record, Vol. 2, p. 58. [1]

          7, Miss Molly Thompson's address to the "Southern Confederates" at Camp Clopton, Tipton County

And now, Captain Wood, permit me, in behalf of the rest of my sex, to present you and you gallant band this flag, as a testimonial of our admiration, heart-felt gratitude and entire confidence in your undertaking. May it never be trailed in the dust, but be borne triumphantly in every battle. Unfurl it to the breeze and may it inspire you with fresh courage, and incite others to join you in this holy cause...And when at last the flag has been shredded by the stormy elements, my your names be handed down through future generations as your country's honor and your nation's glory.

West Tennessee Whig, June 7, 1861.[2]

          7, Secession atmosphere in Cleveland

....I went to hear Hon. John Bell and Col. Campbell deliver the secession address this evening in the courthouse yard....

Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p.98.

          7, Tennessee bullets and rifles; experimental ballistics in Nashville

Experiments with the Minnie Ball.

Experiments, says the Nashville Banner, conducted for several days by direction of the military and financial board, demonstrate that the Minnie ball in the Tennessee rifle, with the same charge of powder used with the round ball, has a range and force of three-fold that of the round ball.

A rifle carrying 100 balls to the pound, used with the ordinary sight is, at 300 yards, a most deadly weapon, projecting the ball with greater accuracy and force than the rifled musket. The rifle of larger calibre has greater range and force.

The ball should be of less diameter than the round ball, so as to admit of grater rapidity in loading. The cartridges should be dipped; or if a cartridge is not used, the ball should be dipped in a compound of beeswax and tallow, and a patch should not be used. A rifle thus used may be fired one hundred times without cleaning.

It is thought proper to call the attention of the people of the State to this fact, so that they may know the value of the weapon which all possess.

Newspapers throughout the State will please copy it.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 7, 1861[3].

          7, East Tennessee spa opens for the season

Montvale Springs, Near Knoxville, East Tennessee, Is Now Opened.

This resort for health or pleasure seekers, as its name indicates, is located in a sequestered valley almost enclosed by mountain spurs of the Alleghany known as the Chillnewee, and rise up on every side and embosom a valley which cannot be contemplated by the lover of nature without much enjoyment.

Of the beneficial effects of this water on cases of Dyspepsia, Chronic Liver Complaint, and diseases most common in southern latitudes, no more certain and effective remedy exists.

The Hotel accommodations consist of a Large and Commodious Building, with spacious Piazzas on each story, running the entire length of the building, and numerous Gothic Cottages, all tastefully arranged on the Lawn in front of the main Hotel, and accessible to both Spring and Hotel.

The Lawn is handsomely covered with grass and beautifully shaded with majestic forest trees. No watering place presents more attractions than Montvale, and the proprietors respectfully invite the attention of those who seek a retreat in summer, either for health or pleasure.

Visitors will go to Knoxville, and thence twenty-four miles by stage, which connects with the train.

Watt, Lanier & Co.,

Exchange Hotel, Montgomery, Ala

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 7, 1861.

          7, Thirty-nine families apply for public assistance in Memphis

Volunteer's Families.—Esq. Richards has thirty-nine families filled out, and a large number partially complete. On receipt of the complete certificates any magistrate can show to Judge Pettit that they have received the necessary proof, and the applicant is entitled to assistance. The Judge grants the order for the money which the county tax collector pays. The Captains of the companies will report the men under their command each month, when the name of the head of a family that has once handed in the proper certificates appears upon that list his family will receive their pay. This system ensures against fraud and secures to the families of volunteers the offered aid.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 7, 1861.

          7, Fooling the Nashville Vigilance Committee

Good.-It is well known that the Vigilance Committee of Nashville are in the habit of overhauling the letters in the Nashville post-office to present anything from going abroad that might tend to theart their machinations. Well, we got a letter yesterday from our brave friend John Lillyet of that city, with these words superscribed on the envelope with his initials; "Nothing inside worth the attention of the Committee. Please let it go forward by first mail, and it will come back in the Journal."

John Lillyet, we like you. We love you. We long to shake your gallant hand. Do you think we might venture to Nashville for that pleasure? Why not? Has Nashville ever had a truer, steadier, an honester friend than we have been?

Louisville Daily Journal, June 7, 1861. [4]






          6, "We are completely defenseless. We have not a piece of ordnance. We are without small arms, and destitute of ammunition." Editorial justifying secession in Memphis on the day of its occupation by Federal forces

Memphis—Her Position, Sacrifices and Duty.

The course of the war has probably brought us to a crisis in our fate, so far as the present is concerned; but can the sad events apprehended by us be laid at our own doors, through selfishness or imbecility? Have we not discharged our whole duty to the cause to which we pledged our faith? In response to those self-questionings of every patriotic man, let us review our course, and determine our duty for the present and the future.

Located midway on the great highway of the Central Valley, whose trade met by consent of all regions upon her Levee for mutual exchange and benefit, Memphis knew no North and no South; she was allied by interest and commercial and social relations equally with both sections; she was national, in all her interests and impulses. No community felt a deeper pride in the common legacy of the historical glories of the old Union, or rejoiced so sincerely in the wonderful material prosperity of all sections of the country, of whose prosperous commerce she was a favored and happy foster child. Therefore, when the first threatening mutterings of this terrible political tempest were heard, and she saw portentous and lurid clouds of war gathering, she attempted to allay the fury of the elements. She counsel [sic] ed peace and lifted her voice in February, 1861, loudly and distinctly for the Union. She had faith in the conservatism and loyalty to the Constitution, of the Democratic masses of the North, through whose aid, it was hoped, the mad fanatics in the ascendant for the hour might be arrested and controlled in their career. In this belief she trusted, till the usurper and his reckless counsellors [sic], casting aside all restraints of the Constitution and laws, summoned by an imperial edict all the masses of his Northern partisans, to rally for the conquest and subjugation of the sovereign States of the South. When she saw the Northern Democracy cower before the Republican clamors, and the chief leaders yield to the embraces of the tyrant; perceiving she had been deluded and deceived by her own hopes, our city, rending every tie of interest, and of social and commercial alliances, with one loud, unanimous acclaim, pledged herself to resist to the last the power of the oppressor.

Has she redeemed her pledges?

Making no vainglorious boasts of loyalty and patriotism, she has listened in silence to the upbraidings of enemies and the reproofs of enemies and the reproofs of friends for her apparent indifference and apathy, satisfied that when the records of the sacrifices and labors in the struggle were fully made up, her page in its history will contain not a line to cause her to blush, and not one which her children would, by the clear light of the future, read without exultation and pride.

Notwithstanding the villainous slanders that have been propagated in every form through the Northern press, with apparent special malignity against this city, every resident can testify that no man has suffered here in person or property for his opinions; no mob violence, even for a moment, has disturbed our streets; in all the exciting and exasperating events through which we have passed, the disloyal have been permitted with their effects to remain undisturbed. Happily there is not one act, in all the ebullition of popular feeling, of illegal personal oppression, for us, in calmer moments, to regret, or to excite vengeance in our enemies.

By the census of 1860, Memphis and suburbs had a population of less than 35,000—at the beginning of hostilities her loyal population remaining, was not more than 30,000. She has sent into the field, beside her home legion, seventy-two companies—about 7000 men—comprising the spirit of her youth, the flower of her manhood [sic], the sterling worth of her professional, commercial and industrial character, and imbracing [sic] nearly one fourth of her entire population. She has not only given physical strength, her best blood, and her intellectual power and riches to the cause, but she has poured out her financial means without stint. These seven thousand citizens have been abundantly and liberally fitted for the campaign at their own cost, or by the aid of their fellow-citizens, with little expense to the government. Among them are several corps of cavalry, mounted and equipped at great expense. After equipping the husbands and sons for the field, our citizens have provided abundantly a comfortable support for the family of every soldier in the field. They have had access to a free market, where all their wants have been generously supplied without price. Not only have their past and present wants been supplied, but in prospect of coming events, their necessities for the four approaching months have been provided for.

Beside what Memphis has done for her own soldiers, she has been the rendezvous for the forces from the States west and south of us. In their passage they have been fed, clothed, entertained and nursed here. Our city has been the principal hospital depot of all the Confederate armies operating west of the Alleghanies [sic]. We have had our ardent sympathies kept upon the stretch by daily and hourly witnessing the heroic sufferings and deaths of the martyrs in our cause. The most selfish and heartless people could not withstand such eloquent and heart moving appeals to their generosity and aid. To these hospitals, the most spacious structures in the city have been devoted, almost rent free. They have been sustained in a good degree by the free will contributions of our citizens; and what has been a greater and holier sacrifice than money giving, and what has been far more precious and acceptable to the suffering recipients than all the luxuries money can procure, was the angelic ministering of our noble women to the wounded and sick. They have stood by the couch of the helpless soldiers, by day and night, doing all that mothers and sisters could have done to soothe the spirits and allay the pains of the sick and dying strangers. A character for active benevolence that a few years ago awakened the admiration and plaudits of the world, have been illustrated in hundreds of fair forms moving unpretendingly through our streets to the military abodes of suffering and death. Florence Nightingales have for months past shed the gentle and animating influences of their presence through every ward of our hospitals, imparting blessings as holy and sweet as the whisperings of approving angels to the dying.

We have not only given to the cause the spirit of our youth, the strength of our manhood, and clothed and fitted them for the war, and supported and nursed the sick and dying of a large portion of the army, but we have at last opened our stores, warehouses and workshops, and given up to the government, almost without price or pay, all that it demanded. Without a murmur we have yielded for its use all that we had, not only to supply its present need, but also the future, in food, clothing, medicines, machinery and munitions. It has stripped us of all we possessed that it needed. All has been resigned without complaint.

But now comes the most painful sacrifice of all. Having parted with our last gun, cartridge and shot, without a single weapon of defense, we are in all probability about to be yielded defenseless to the tender dealings of an invading foe. The exigencies of the common cause demand that we be given up for the good of the whole. Bitter and humiliating as the fate may be, let us remember it is still a sacrifice for the common weal—that what we yield here will be reconquered at other points, perhaps tenfold.

If any think Memphis is not patriotic, let them point to the communities, in proportion to number and wealth, that have done more, or borne their sacrifices more cheerfully and uncomplainingly. If all the people of our infant Republic have done as well, the history of this struggle, when written, will present proof of as lofty patriotism and moral heroism as were ever displayed by any people who have drawn the sword for the acquisition or defense of civil and political liberty.

Having done our whole duty and made the last sacrifice in our power to offer, let us await coming events with composure and dignity. We are completely defenseless. We have not a piece of ordnance. We are without small arms, and destitute of ammunition. Any futile attempt to oppose or annoy the invader will but display our utter helplessness, and only incite aggression and insult. Equally unwise will be any popular manifestations of impotent hatred and malice—it will only incite retaliation, and bring down vengeance and abuse, from an unbridled soldiery, upon women and children. If it be our inexorable fate to submit to the desecration of our streets by the foot-prints of the invader, let us bear it as a gallant people who have done all in their power to avert the calamity, endure it as patiently as possible, looking hopefully for a speedy deliverance in the final triumph of our cause. Let such of us as are obliged to remain to witness the fall of our city, and yield to the rule of the invader, keep aloof from him—quietly pursuing such affairs as we may have to attend to—giving him no countenance, and fearlessly maintaining our loyalty to our own government and State. To his offers to renew commercial relations no response should be made, beyond the intercourse that may be necessary to accomplish our own purposes in the procurement of supplies now beyond our reach. They are our enemies, and would profit from what they suppose to be our necessities. But we can be almost entirely independent—we can keep aloof, and by doing so, without giving just cause of complaint to our enemies, we will not be misunderstood. Our brothers, fathers, husbands, sons and friends are still of the Confederate armies, and our friends, although cut off from us, will know as well as our enemies where our hearts are in every battle and struggle that may occur. Though in the power of the enemy we may contrive the means of essential help. We need make no sacrifice of principle, and can remain hopeful for the future. Disappointed but not subdued, let none despair. The right, which is with us, must assuredly triumph in the end!

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 6, 1862.

          6, "The police will continue zealously to perform their functions." Preparing the citizenry of Memphis for the city's occupation on the day of the battle for Memphis

The Peace of the City.—At a time like the present it is necessary that our citizens hold themselves prepared to preserve the public peace, and to protect life and property, during a period in which we shall be under no other protection than that of our city government. We have no fears of the occurrence of those lawless scenes that were witnessed in New Orleans and elsewhere, in circumstances similar to those in which we are now placed; but disorders that have happened the last day or two show that, though there is no reason to dread wholesale violence, it will be necessary to be on our guard against stray deserters and other unknown intruders who are ready to seize opportunity to pillage and do mischief. We have the example of other cities to guide us, and we know that the disorders that have broken out there have been the doings of a few wild-minded persons. When at such a time as this a man talks of burning property, and of committing outrages upon individuals he may choose to consider on the wrong side in politics, that man requires watching. He will be found to be some worthless individual who has nothing to lose himself, and who would like to make something by a dishonest investment in the property of others. We are glad to learn from the Mayor that he has ample arrangements made for the crisis, and that he can quickly put down any tendency to disorder. The Home Guards are now patrolling the streets night and day, and will continue to do so until other authority introduces the regular operation of the laws. The police will continue zealously to perform their functions. It will be the duty of the good, order-loving citizen to hold himself in readiness to promptly give his aid and his countenance to those who are watching over the safety of the city, on any occasion in which any attempt at disorder may prevail. It is the law in some places, during times of public difficulty, to prevent the collection of crowds in the streets, by requiring any little knot of persons who congregate for conversation, to "move on," and arrest them if they refuse. This explanation of the preparations made, and the watchfulness exercised, will convince the helpless and the timid that their safety is cared for, and that they will be unremittingly and amply protected.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 6, 1862.

          6, Battle for Memphis on the Mississippi River, and occupation of the city by Federal forces

Telegraphic of Report of C. H. Davis, Flag Officer, U. S. Navy, on the Battle of Memphis, June 6, 1862.


Sir: I arrived here last evening at 9 o'clock, accompanied by the mortar fleet under Captain Maynadier, the ordnance steam storeships, etc., and anchored a mile and a half above the City. This morning I discovered the rebel fleet, which had been reinforced, and not consisted of eight rams and gunboats, lying at the levee.

The engagement which commenced at 5.30 a.m. and ended at 7, terminated in a running fight. I was ably supported by the ram fleet, under command of Colonel Ellet, who was conspicuous for his gallantry, and is seriously but not dangerously wounded.

The result of the action was the capture or destruction of seven vessels of the rebel fleet, as follows: General Beauregard, blown up and burned; General Sterling Price, one wheel carried away; Jeff Thompson, set on fire by shell, burned, and magazine blown up; [General] Sumter, badly cut up by shot, but will be repaired; Little Rebel, boiler exploded by shot and otherwise injured, but will be repaired. Besides this, one of the rebel boats was sunk in the beginning of the action: her name is not known. A boat, supposed to be the Van Dorn, escaped from the flotilla by her superior speed. Two rams are in pursuit. The officers and crews of the rebel boat endeavored to make the shore; many of their wounded and prisoners are now in our hands. The mayor surrendered the City to me after the engagement. Colonel Fitch came down at 11 o'clock and has taken military possession [of Memphis].

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pp. 118-119.



June 6, 1862. Confederate Gunboats.

1. General Van Dorn, escaped.

2. General Price, run down by rebel boat, wheel knocked off; sunk

3. Colonel Lovell, sunk by Queen of the West.

4. General Beauregard, sunk by Queen of the West.

5. General J. Thompson, captured by our fleet, and blew up.

6. General Bragg, captured by our fleet; prize

7. General Sumter, captured by our fleet; prize.

8. Little Rebel, captured by our fleet; prize.

"The number of prisoners taken ranges from 70 to 100, about 20 being officers. We can not get any details about the enemy's loss in killed, though enough is known to induce the belief that it was fearful." -- Memphis Daily Avalanche, June 9, 1862.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, p. 123.


[The date of the memorandum, June 6, 1862, and the date of the newspaper citation, June 9, 1862, do not jibe. Perhaps it was an error in transcription and/or editing.]

The Little Rebel, the flagship of the Confederate Mississippi River Defense Force, was taken north to Cairo, Illinois, for repairs. Flag Officer C. H. Davis wrote to Captain Pennock, U. S. N., on June 16, 1862, concerning his wish to change the name of the Little Rebel to the General Pillow. Davis wanted to do so, he wrote, "in honor of that gigantic military genius. The only objection to the name is that the little thing is sound in her hull, which can't be said for General Pillow. However, she resembles the general in another particular; she has a great capacity for blowing and makes a noise altogether disproportionate to her dimensions."

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, p. 210.


Report of Brig. Gen. M. Jeff. Thompson, [C. S. A.] Missouri State Guard, relative to the Battle of Memphis.

GRENADA, MISS., June 7, 1862.

GEN.: I am under the painful necessity of reporting to you the almost entire destruction of the River Defense Fleet in the Mississippi River in front of Memphis. I regret that I have to state I think the misfortune was occasioned by a misapprehension of orders or misinformation as to the surrounding circumstances.

The evacuation of Fort Pillow was, from all accounts, well and orderly conducted, after once determined upon, by some means my men were sent to Memphis on a transport instead of being placed on the gunboats.

The circumstances which may have caused the evacuation of Fort Pillow did not surround Fort Randolph, and I am satisfied that, even with the few troops that were at Pillow, Randolph could have been held for several days, with a sure and safe retreat when necessary, if ever. Our fleet, for want of coal, as represented, fell back to Memphis on the 5th, with the intention of returning to Island No. 40. The arrangements for this purpose were being made, but before 10 o'clock p. m. on the 5th the tugs which were on picket above the city reported the enemy's tugs in sight. This was discredited, but our boats anchored in the channel of the river, prepared for a battle.

At 12.30 a.m. on the 6th your telegram, giving Commodore Montgomery and myself the joint command of the river defense, was received. I immediately wrote a note to the commodore, inclosing your telegram, and asking what I should do to co-operate with him. He requested two companies of artillery to be sent aboard at daybreak. [All of my men were at the depot, awaiting transportation to Grenada.] I at once ordered the companies to hold themselves in readiness. At the dawn of day I was awakened with the information that the enemy were actually in sight of Memphis. I hurried on board to consult with Montgomery. He instructed me to hurry my men to Fort Pickering Landing, and sent a tug to bring them up to the gunboats, which were advancing to attack the enemy. I hastened my men to the place indicated, but before we reached it our boats had been either destroyed or driven below Fort Pickering, and I marched back to the depot to come to this place to await orders.

I saw a large portion of the engagement from the river banks, and am sorry to say that in my opinion many of our boats were handled badly or the plan of the battle was very faulty. The enemy's rams did most of the execution, and were handled more adroitly than ours-I think, however, entirely owing to the fact that the guns and sharpshooters of the enemy were constantly employed, while we were almost without either. The Col. Lovell was so injured that she sank in the middle of the river; her captain, James Delancy, and a number of others, swam to shore. The Beauregard and Price were running at the Monarch [Yankee] from opposite sides when the Monarch passed from between them, and the Beauregard ran into the Price, knocking off her wheel and entirely disabling her. Both were run to the Arkansas shore and abandoned. The Little Rebel, the commodore's flag-boat, was run ashore and abandoned after she had been completely riddled, and, I am satisfied, the commodore killed. The battle continued down the river out of sight of Memphis, and it is reported that only two of our boats, the Bragg and Van Dorn, escaped.

It is impossible now to report the casualties, as we were hurried in our retirement from Memphis, and none but those from the Lovell escaped on the Tennessee side of the river. So soon as more information can be collected I will report.

Yours, most respectfully,

M. JEFF. THOMPSON, Brig.-Gen., Missouri State Guard.

Report of Brig. Gen. Daniel Ruggles, C. S. Army.

HDQRS., Grenada, June 6, 1862.

Memphis surrendered to the enemy at 10 o'clock yesterday morning. Six of Montgomery's gunboats were destroyed by the enemy in front of the city and two escaped.

I have just returned from Memphis. All public supplies were removed.

DANIEL RUGGLES, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 912-914.


Correspondence relating to the occupation of Memphis, Tenn.

UNITED STATES RAM SWITZERLAND, Opposite Memphis, June 7, 1862.

SIR: Yesterday, after the engagement with the rebel fleet had nearly terminated and the gunboats and one of my rams had passed below, I was informed that a white flag had been raised in the city. I immediately sent my son, Medical Cadet Charles R. Ellet, ashore with a flag of truce and the following note to the authorities:


To the Civil or Military Authorities of Memphis:

GENTLEMAN: I understand that the City of Memphis has surrendered. I therefore send my son, with two United States flags, with instructions to raise one upon the custom-house and the other upon the court-house, as evidence of the return of your City to the care and protection of the Constitution.

CHAS. ELLET, JR., Col., Cmdg.

The bearer of the flags and the above note was accompanied by Lieut. Crandall, of the Fifty-ninth Illinois Regt. [sic], and 2 men of the boat guard. The following is the reply of the mayor of the City:

MAYOR'S OFFICE, Memphis, Tenn., June 6, 1862.

Col. CHARLES ELLET, JR., Cmdg., &c.:

SIR: Your note of this date is received and contents noted. The civil authorities of this City are not advised of its surrender to the forces of the United States Government, and our reply to you is simply to state respectfully that we have no forces to oppose the raising of the flags you have directed to be raised over the custom-house and post-office.


JNO. PARK, Mayor.

On receiving this reply the small party proceeded to the post-office to raise the national flag, and were there joined by the mayor. It is proper to say that the conduct of the mayor and some of the citizens was unexceptionable, but the party was surrounded by an excited crowd, using angry and threatening language. They ascended to the top of the post-office and planted the flag, though fired upon several times and stoned by the mob below. Still, I believe that this conduct was reprobated by the people of standing in the place. Indeed, many evidences reach me of an extensive Union sentiment at Memphis.


CHAS. ELLET, JR., Col., Cmdg. Ram Fleet.


Raising the Union Flag atop the Memphis Post Office and Customs House.


HDQRS. INDIANA BRIGADE, Memphis, June 7, 1862.

GEN.: A strong force patrolled the City last night, the populace having evinced a hostile disposition during the day and threatened to destroy certain public and private property.

The amount of the former is not yet known, but must be very considerable, including commissary stores, hospital furniture, and transports and ordnance.

On my arrival I was informed by Flag-Officer Davis that the following correspondence had taken place between himself and the mayor of the City:

U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Memphis, June 6, 1862.


SIR: I have respectfully to request that you will surrender the City of Memphis to the authority of the United States, which I have the honor to represent.

I am, Mr. Mayor, with high respect, your most obedient servant,

C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Cmdg., &c.

To which the mayor replies:

MAYOR'S OFFICE, Memphis, June 6, 1826.

C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Cmdg., &c.:

SIR: Your note of this day is received and contents noted. In reply, I have only to say that as the civil authorities have no means of defense, by the force of circumstances the City is in your hands.


JNO. PARK, Mayor.

Subsequently the following correspondence took place:

U. S. FLAG-STEAMER BENTON, Off Memphis, June 6, 1862.


SIR: The undersigned, commanding the military and naval forces in front of Memphis, have the honor to say to the mayor of the city, that Col. Fitch, commanding the Indiana Brigade, will take military possession of the City immediately.

Col. Fitch will be happy to receive the co-operation of his honor the mayor and the City authorities in maintaining peace and order, and to this end he will be pleased to confer with his honor at the military headquarters at 3 o'clock this afternoon.

The undersigned have the honor to be, with high respect, your most obedient servant,

C. H. DAVIS, Flag-Officer, Cmdg. Afloat.

G. N. FITCH, Col., Cmdg. Indiana Brigade.

MAYOR'S OFFICE, June 6, 1862.

To Flag-Officer C. H. DAVIS and Col. G. N. FITCH.

SIRS: Your communication is received, and I shall be happy to co-operate with the colonel commanding in providing measures for maintaining peace and order in the City.

Your most obedient servant,

JNO. PARK, Mayor.

In accordance with the above, the mayor and common council called upon me at 3 o'clock p. m., and by mutual arrangement it was agreed that the municipal functions should continue, and the military to be used whenever and wherever necessary to aid the enforcement of the proper ordinances for the preservation of peace and protection of life and property and the maintenance of the supremacy of the laws and Constitution of the United States.

In addition to the threatening attitude of the mob, there is known to be a considerable body of cavalry 15 or 20 miles in the rear of the city, threatening a descent upon it.

In view of these facts, cannot a small re-enforcement, including a squadron of cavalry and a battery, be sent to this place?

G. N. FITCH, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 909-911.

          6, Confederate orders to burn and destroy all boats between Kingston and Chattanooga on the Tennessee River

No circumstantial reports filed.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., June 6, 1862

Brig. Gen. D. LEADBETTER, Chattanooga, Tenn.

Send a steamer up the river, with orders to burn or otherwise destroy all the boats below Kingston.[5]

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 593.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., June 6, 1862

Col. JOHN B. McLIN, Cmdg. Post, Kingston, Tenn.:

* * * *

....You will take every precaution to secure all the boats upon the river, and if necessary to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy, you will effectually destroy them.

The steamer Lookout has been ordered from Chattanooga up to Kingston, with instructions to collect and destroy all the boats between these two places. When it arrives at Kingston you will send it to Loudon, from which point information of the fact will [be] telegraphed to these headquarters. A detachment of 6 men will leave to-day for Loudon, from which point they will act as couriers to Kingston. You will telegraph important information from Loudon.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 592-593.

          6, Nashville Provost Marshal, Colonel Stanley Matthews, suggests policy for maintaining order in Middle Tennessee

Nashville Tenn June 6 1862 [sic]


In compliance with your request of this morning I proceed to state the military dispositions which in my opinion are immediately indispensable to the successful progress of your mission as Military Governor, in restoring the authority of the Federal Government and the sway of its Constitution and Laws over Middle Tennessee. This general purpose embraces several result, which may be briefly stated as follows:

1. The dispersion of the armed forces of the enemy, particularly bands of marauding cavalry, and the suppression of all such incipient organizations.

2. The full and complete protection of all Union Men, in every neighborhood, in the free expression of their sentiments and in all steps they may see fit to take, for giving them legitimate, practical operation. This involves the arrest and punishment of those, who not actually in arms, are still continuing to adhere to the Confederate Government and keeping alive hostility to the Government of the United States.

3. The rigid execution of orders regulating trade between the portions of the State under control of the military authority of the United States, and those beyond the lines of the U. S. forces.

Successfully and promptly to accomplish these results, I would advise, as essential, the following military dispositions:

1 The posting of a large force at Nashville, to consist of not less than a brigade, with a large proportion of cavalry.

This is necessary, 1. To protect the large amount of public stores, necessarily concentrated here, 1. To give assurances of the stability of the authority of the Government at the Capital of the State, & 3. As a reserve, from which detachments can be sent to other threatened points.

2. The posting of a brigade on the frontier between Middle and East Tennessee, with its Head Quarters at McMinnville, extending its defences from Sparta to Tullahoma. This would furnish the opportunity for opening and operating the railway communication with Nashville, and would cover the whole District of Middle Tennessee, from the guerillas [sic] that are now infesting and disturbing that mountain region, and disquieting the whole central portion of the state. A glance at the map with a slight knowledge of the country, I think, will abundantly sustain the value of this suggestion.


Stanley Matthews, Col. & Provost Marshall

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 448.

          6, Brigadier-General James S. Negley to Andrew Johnson relative to Union refugee families

Four Miles East of Jasper

June 6, 1862

To Gov Andrew Johnson

Sir. I have the honor to transmit to you the following particulars of our engagement with the enemy.[6] I have reli[e]ved a number of poor union families by imposing a tax for that purpose upon which their rich oppressors and at the same time shall bring you several violent secission [sic] representations[.]

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 449-450.

          6, A country woman's plea to Military Governor Andrew Johnson to free her son from prisoner of war camp in Chicago[7]

June 6 [1862]

State of Tennessee Stward [sic] Cty [sic] fifth destrick [sic]

Mr Ander [sic] Jonson [sic] Govner [sic] of the State of tenn [sic]

I want to rite [sic] you a fue [sic] lines to lete [sic] you no [sic] of my trobles[.] the lord hath give my my sone [sic] and now he is takin [sic] a way a prisner [sic] at Chicharago[.] he was a union boy[.] he took no part in goin [sic] to ther Speakins [sic] nor where they beat for volinters [sic] for he syad [sic] he never would fite [sic] against the union[.] We can prove that he was a good union boy by owre [sic] nabors [sic] if nessary [sic] [.]

Geovner [sic] I Wish you grate Suckcess [sic] in gaining the union as it Wonce [sic] has ben[sic] [.] I am as much for the union as you are and So was my little Son[.] he was forced to go be cause [sic] he was for the union and he never fird [sic] a gun at the fourt [sic] durn [sic] the battle[.] he [sic] is my baby 18 years old[.] I am trobled [sic] all but to death about him[.] if you have got any Children make a Self Case of it[.] I want you to have him brawt [sic] to you and then send him home if you please and he never shall rase armes [sic] against the north no more let times be as tha [sic] will be [illegible] Six more respectable Citizens belonge [sic] to the Sam [sic] famly [sic] hat Saye [sic] they will go his Security and they are all union men and they Saye [sic] they will be nothing out of your favor if you only will Send him home[.] I begd [sic] govner haris [sic] for him but he headed not to the cries of the pore [sic] trobles [sic] mother and he may crie [sic] yet and not be herd [sic][.] I want you to simpathize [sic] with me and if you have any Wife you and her converse about this troble [sic] and make a Self case of it[.] I never nowd what troble [sic] was tel latly[.] I feel Some times like I can't live and I can't die tell [sic] it is god [sic] will[.] If Stward county belongs to the north why not let my child come home to his own county[.] govner [sic] I Shall depend on you to do the best you can for me for I don't know what other sorce [sic] to looke [sic] too but you[.] if you no [sic] of anything els [sic] that I can do let me no [sic] it if pleas for I dont[.] if I could redeem my child with money I would do So but I am pore[.] I can do nothin but beg and the lord loves a beger [sic] that truly begs in deed[.]

I will give you my Son's name [Meavenows?] R Williams[.] he belongs to the fiftyath [sic] Tennessee rigment[.] he is a prisner at Chichargo[.] if you have a mind to Send me a fue [sic] lines direct it to cumberland city[sic] to Lucy Williams[.] no more at present[.]

remains a trobled [sic] Mother[.]

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 451-.452

          6, On the occupation of Memphis

Our Memphis Correspondence. Occupation of Memphis-Feeling of the People-Appearance of the City-Decrease of Population-Confederate Money in the City-The First Through Steamer

Gayoso House, Memphis

Friday afternoon, June 6, 1862

Memphis is taken – emphatically taken [sic]-not captured. The impregnable city, the valiant people "who knew not how to surrender," have yielded without a struggle. National civilians, and officers in National uniform, walk its streets as quietly and as free from insult or molestation, as if they were in their own homes.

Transports at the levee, laden with Union troops, bear afloat the banner of the Union, and fifes and drums are making the air resonant with the strains of Hail Columbia, and the Star Spangled Banner, yet neither sign nor sound of indignation or displeasure can be seen or heard among the crowd on the levee.

A motley throng it is which has gathered to gape and stare and wonder at the invaders. Clergymen and courtesans, laborers and ladies of fashion, students and stevedores, clerks and contrabands, American, Irish, Dutch and Ethiopian men, women and children, on horseback, in carriages and on foot have come down to see the show. While there is little indignation displayed at our presence, there is as little show of a general welcome. The prominent feeling seems to be one of overwhelming surprise, almost of incredulity, at our being there. The totally unexpected abandonment of Fort Pillow, followed so immediately by the arrival here of our fleet, and the seemingly almost magical destruction of their own appears to have dumfoundered [sic] them, and they have scarcely begun to consider as yet whether they really ought to be the more glad or sorry; whether the restoration of their city to the Union is to be regarded as a calamity or an advantage.

The truth is, Memphis has suffered so severely under the Confederate rule, her business has been so crippled, her supplies cut off, her people cannot help feeling, even while they do not acknowledge it openly, that they were sadly the losers by the change.

At the same time, the avowed public sentiment of the city has always been in favor of the rebellion. Their newspapers have been among the most bitter and malignant in the South in their vilification of the National Government and those who supported it. Their leading public men have assumed the same tone.

It is impossible for any one [sic] to remain for a length of time entirely unaffected by the current tone of popular sentiment around him, and it is perfectly natural, therefore, that a majority even of those who felt the disastrous effects of the rebellion most deeply, should come at last to feel a sort of National of rather local pride, to be involved in the struggle, and feel somewhat hurt at being defeated, even though they knew their own condition would assuredly be bettered thereby. After the laps of a few days, however, when this soreness shall have partly worn away, I am satisfied that a large majority of the people of Memphis will heartily glad of the restoration of the old order of things. At no time since our arrival at the city have there been any of those manifestations of dejected grief, which the rebel newspapers assert were so prominently visible. The statement of the Evening Argus, about the "many ladies who were seen" among the crowd that witnessed the gunboat fight from the bluff, "with tears of humiliation trickling down their cheeks," and men "turning away in speechless sorrow" at the triumph of the National fleet, is bosh of the of the rankest kind. If I am any judge of the expressions of the human countenance, especially when coupled with the remarks of the wearers, the majority of that crowd regarded the battle as a very good spectacle, but one in which they had no personal interest, and were only willing to hurrah [?] on the winning side.

[Some readers (?)] will ask why did you not tell us the particulars of the surrender? Simply because it is very difficult to obtain any definite notion of the matter, so loosely and janglingly[sic] were negotiations conducted. There seems to have been no one among the various commanders of the different branches of the National force who considered himself authorized to demand the surrender of the city, nor any one there who was really empowered to deliver it up. Memphis was some time since declared to be under martial law, yet, when our fleet reached there, no military authority was to be found.

About an hour after the conclusion, one of our rams, the Lioness, approached the wharf under a flag of truce, with the avowed purpose of conferring with the citizens, but as it appeared that she had no official authority nor any definite object, of course her attempt resulted in nothing. I know not who is responsible for the piece of inane folly, but someone certainly deserves a reprimand.

Soon after this a certain Dr. Dickerson, accompanied by one or two other citizens of Memphis, came out in a skiff, to confer with the Flag-Officer, and ascertain what were his intentions in regard to the city. It finally resulted in a virtual surrender, of the details of which your readers must have already been apprised by telegraph.

The present appearance of the city is desolate enough. Scarcely one store in a hundred appears to be doing any business, and by far the greater part of them appear to have been permanently closed long ago. In fact, ever since the interruption of its trade with the North, the business of Memphis has been steadily declining until scarcely its semblance is left. In wandering about its almost deserted streets, one would imagine a perpetual Sabbath reigned here.

A very large number of its citizens have left the town, and many of its finest dwellings are unoccupied.

Between those who have at different times been driven from the city for holding Union sentiments, and those who later fled from the prospective occupation by our troops, in addition to the large number which the war has drawn from the city, the population of Memphis has probably diminished one-half during the past year. For the last few especially the stampede has been immense, all the railroad trains have been crowded to their utmost with those who felt that their prominence in treasonable acts might make a residence in the city uncomfortable when law and order should be once more restored there. A large number who had remained until this morning to witness the result of the final struggle, on the river. left town immediately after the termination of the battle. The various railroad companies. The various railroad companies have for several days been removing their rolling stock southward, and this morning the last trains left Memphis, and railroad communication was officially announced as suspended.

I cannot resist the impression that the majority of the people remaining in Memphis regard the Confederacy as essentially "played out." For some time past there has been perceptible there an obvious disinclination to accumulate any considerable among of Confederate money, and, so far as possible, to avoid its use in trade. Some weeks ago the Memphis papers complained that the ladies of the city were buying all sorts of useless articles, for the sake of getting rid of their Confederate money.

So prominent has this disposition become, that about four weeks ago, the military commander of the city issued the following stringent order in reference to the matter:

Headquarters, Memphis, May 10, 1862

Special Orders, No. 340-The following order, in compliance with orders from Gen Beauregard, is published for the information of the public.

I. The Civil Governor and Provost-Marshal will arrest all persons who refuse to take Confederate money in ordinary business transactions. No mere subterfuge on the part of the person or persons refusing will suffice to screen the offender from the penalties of the order.

II. Banks, banking-houses, and all incorporated companies are hereby required to take Confederate notes as currency in the transactions of their business.

III. All persons will distinctly understand that nothing in the least degree calculated to discredit the operations of the Government will not be tolerated, or treated as anything else than what it is-DISLOYALTY [sic]

IV. A rigid compliance with this order is expected, and will be vigilantly and promptly enforced,

By command of THOS. H. ROSTER

Colonel commanding post

Thomas W. Crowder, Acting Post Adjutant.

The order was printed in all the newspapers of the city, on the very morning of our entrance, yet in the afternoon of the same day, I was purchasing some copies of the evening Argus from a newsboy, and offered some Confederate money in exchange, which he declined.

"But," said I, "don't you know that you are liable to be arrested if you refuse to take that money?"

"Well, but they won't' take it from me at the office," whimpered the boy.

Think of that-the Memphis Argus; the most ultra pyrophanous of fire-eating journals, refusing to receive Confederate money on the very first day after the arrival of the National forces. Is it not ominous of the financial reputation of the Confederacy among its friends?

The tradesmen of the city have endeavored to avoid the military order by charging three or four prices for every article for which they expected to receive payment in Confederate paper. A pair of boots cost in Memphis $25; a pair of common cassimere pants, the same; a common broadcloth coat, $75. But these are prices in Confederate money. Let the purchaser lay down one-third the price asked, in gold, and it is taken eagerly.

I think the stories we have had in reference to the destruction of cotton in Memphis have been greatly exaggerated. From the most reliable information I could obtain, I do not believe the total among destroyed within the bounds of the city will exceed five hundred bales. Many of the citizens put the quantity at a much higher figure, but I have good reason for believing the former statement to be very near the truth. Some sugar and molasses have also been destroyed, but large amounts still remain concealed in the city, which will be brought forth as soon as it is safe to do so.

Commerce with the city has again been opened. The steamer Platte Valley, of the St. Louis and Memphis Packet Line, had the honor of being the first private boat to reach Memphis from the North after thirteen months blockade of the river by the rebels. The public are indebted to Capt. Conrad Fine and Mr. Jewett Wilcox, clerk of the Platte Valley, for the kindness and energy which they displayed in conveying the correspondence of the various newspapers, containing particulars of the engagement, to Cairo, in advance even of the official dispatches.

New York Times, June 13, 1862.

          6, Confederate scorched earth tactics and conscription in Fayette, Shelby and Tipton counties, Tennessee, and northern Mississippi

HDQRS. PORTER'S PARTISANS, Holly Springs, June 6, 1862


Cmdg. Western Department:

GEN.: Acting under your orders I have caused to be burned in Fayette, Shelby, and Tipton, Counties, Tennessee, and Marshall and De Soto Counties, Mississippi, upwards of 30,000 bales of cotton. My men have met with but little opposition. In obedience to your order I caused to be removed from Somerville, Tenn., to this place, when I felt constrained to fall back, two loads of harness and four wagons and teams belonging to Confederate States.

My scouts have just returned from the vicinities of Somerville, Bolivar, and Grand Junction. They report the enemy advancing from Bolivar toward Grand Junction.

The operator at Grand Junction telegraphed late this evening that the head of the column was at Middleburg, advancing on Grand Junction. It occurred to me their purpose was to get possession of the Government Armory at this place. I have advised the officer in charge of the armory to pack up all guns on hand to be ready to remove the machinery at a moment's notice.

The president of the Mississippi Central Railroad will afford every facility for the removal of all valuable property.

Shall I continue to burn cotton likely to fall into the hands of the enemy? In case the enemy advances toward this place shall I burn bridges on the Mississippi Central Railroad? If they advance from Grand Junction toward Memphis, shall I burn bridges on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad?

Since my company was raised, by authority of the Secretary of War, issued before the conscript law, I have been so constantly occupied with carrying out your orders that I have had no opportunity to draw clothing, arms, or equipments. May I draw them at the first place I find them?

I have 150 men, almost all large planters. I have applications every day for membership. May I increase my command to 300 or 500?

For character, qualifications, and energy, I respectfully refer to Col. Thomas Peters, brigade quartermaster to Gen. Polk: Brig. Gen. Jones M. Withers (as to faithfulness); Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge (for character). It necessary I can multiply references.

Hoping that the responsibilities I have assumed may meet with your approbation and that you will give me definite instructions as to what you wish me to do, I remain,

ED. E. PORTER, Capt.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 591-592.

          6, Faulty Confederate military intelligence regarding Negley's raid and proposed tactical modifications to meet it


June 6, 1862 Brig. Gen. C. L. STEVENSON,

Cmdg., &c., Cumberland Gap, Tenn.:

GEN.: The enemy are advancing in the direction of Chattanooga in two columns; one, composed of twelve regiments and artillery, left Winchester on Wednesday; the other column, which also has artillery, is moving up from Jasper. In view of this fact, Col. Reynolds' brigade has been ordered from Powell's Valley to Chattanooga and Brig.-Gen. Barton directed to move with his command to Clinton, where he will await further orders.

It is thought that the enemy contemplates a concentrated movement upon East Tennessee, and may advance upon Chattanooga, and by cavalry in the direction of Kingston. Col. Allston has been directed to send such force as can be spared to Kingston, to report and oppose any movement from that point that may be made; at the same time he will leave a sufficient force in Powell's Valley to watch and give information of the approaches over the mountains.

The major-general commanding directs me to further inform you that this concerted invasion may involve the fall of Chattanooga and the evacuation of East Tennessee. In the event it becomes necessary to abandon Chattanooga, Gen. Leadbetter has instructions to retreat to Cleveland. It may be that a like demonstration by the enemy may be made upon Cumberland Gap. If it should, the major-general commanding feels confident that you will hold that position as long as it is tenable. Should retreat become necessary, you will go to Abingdon, Va., to which point stores will be forwarded.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 592.

          6, Confederate Command's preparatory tactical shifts anticipation of perceived invasion of East Tennessee by Negley's force

KNOXVILLE, TENN., June 6, 1862

Col. JOHN B. McLIN, Cmdg. Post, Kingston, Tenn.:

COL.: Information has been received from Col. Starnes, 10 miles north of Winchester that 2,000 of the enemy are advancing from McMinnville on Chattanooga. The column may contemplate an invasion of East Tennessee in the direction of Kingston, and the major-general commanding directs me to repeat that you will exercise the utmost vigilance in discovering their movements and intention, and caution in preventing any surprise of our forces at your post. He wishes you to send out as far as possible scouts who will observe the movements of the enemy. You will send such important information as you may receive to these headquarters, and also to Brig.-Gen. Barton, at Clinton. Col. Allston has been directed to send such disposable force as he may be able to spare from Powell's Valley to Kingston. You will take every precaution to secure all the boats upon the river, and if necessary to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy, you will effectually destroy them.

The steamer Lookout has been ordered from Chattanooga up to Kingston, with instructions to collect and destroy all the boats between these two places. When it arrives at Kingston you will send it to Loudon, from which point information of the fact will [be] telegraphed to these headquarters. A detachment of 6 men will leave to-day for Loudon, from which point they will act as couriers to Kingston. You will telegraph important information from Loudon.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 592-593.

          6-8, Movement of Confederate and Federal cavalry through McMinnville, excerpt from the Diary of Lucy Virginia French

*  *  *  *

On Friday [6th] the Yankee cavalry rode into town-took some horses and two prisoners from Starn's [sic] cavalry now camping at Martin's. They only remained an hour or two in town-passing back again at a rapid pace. About an hour and half later, about 180 of Starn's [sic] cavalry came thundering in pursuit. On Saturday [7th] they came back, bringing back all the yankees [sic] but three who escaped and 7 whom they killed. They overtook them on Saturday morning below Woodbury-getting their breakfast at Jetton's, Barton's, and Major Talley's. Two were shot in Mrs. Barton's parlor, it is said. They shot at our men from the parlor windows. Some were killed in Maj. Talley's rye-field- On yesterday-Sunday-the Yankees passed down the road again on foot-being released on parole by Col. Starnes-We may look for new forces up here soon-to harass us as they are doing the people about Jasper. Mrs. Read brings shocking news of their outrages over in the Sequatchie Valley.

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, June 9, 1862.

          6-10, Matters in Memphis

Union Sentiment

From the Memphis Argus of June 10

If any Union sentiment exists in Memphis, today, other than among a few of the lowest classes, it has not yet been developed. The almost utter abhorrence of anything akin to sympathetic feeling for the old Union cannot fail to be remarked by the Federal rulers themselves, while it has only proved what we have said time and again. Our people, unable to resist force to force, quietly submit to a power at present too strong for them, and in doing so conduct themselves with that calm, quiet dignity, so benefiting their condition. Thus far the Federal commanders and soldiery have conducted themselves in a manner unexceptionable to the people. So long as their present conduct is maintained, there will be no clashes with the citizens. A spirit of riot existed in Memphis, and can only be called into life by persecution.



From the Avalanche of the 10th.

There has been but little Union sentiment expressed, or manifestations of partiality for our present rulers exhibits, since the occupation of the city. Even less feeling has been displayed than was expected by them we doubt not, and by many of our own people.

It is due to frankness to state that our present rulers have acted with marked propriety since their arrival in our city. They are orderly, disciplines, and well behaved. In this respect our people have been much disappointed.


An Important Order.

From the Avalanche of the 10th.

We direct the attention of our readers specially [sic] to the order of Gen. Fitch, upon the subject of slaves. This is a step in the right direction, and cannot fail to quiet the apprehensions of many of our people upon a subject of vital interest to the South. With candor and truth we can say that Gen. Fitch, while in the councils of the Nation, always stood by the constitutional rights of the South.


General Order [sic] No. 19

Headquarters on Steamer Von Paul

Second Brigade, Third Division, Dist. Miss.

Memphis, Tenn, June 8, 1862

All negroes [sic], except those who came with the command to this place, and of whom descriptive lists are filed at these headquarters, will be excluded from the lines and boats.

Any officer or soldier violating, or conniving at a violation of this order, will be severely and promptly punished.

This order will be read at the heads of companies to-morrow, 9th inst., and at guard mounting every morning for a week.

G. N. Fitch, Colonel Commanding Brigade


Correspondence of the Chicago Tribune.

Memphis, Tenn., Monday, June 9-10 A.M.

Matters at this point remain in much the same condition as reported yesterday. The citizens continue quiet, and although they do not as a city welcome the National representatives, they do not comport themselves in a cold or disrespectful manner. There is none of the hauteur and insolence which characterized our entrance into Nashville. The men are courteous, except in rare instances, where whisky has usurped all the functions of manhood. The women are curious and inquisitive, but thus far perfectly respectful in demeanor and language.

On the part of the Federals there have been rare instances of bad behavior, confined principally to the mortar-boat men and common soldiers. These have been promptly punished by Col. Fitch. A Northern man connected with the fleet in a subordinate capacity was, on Saturday, found in a state of intoxication, walking in a public street, with a colored woman hanging of each arm. Of course the populace followed him. The man was arrested and most severely castigated by the proper officers. As a general thing the men have done themselves credit for forbearance and good behavior when on shore.

No soldier is allowed to land unless when on duty as provost guard. The absence of all liquors and the strict law made and enforced by the authorities against this traffic have had much to do in attaining the desirable end.

* * * *

The people of the city are to be left to arrange their currency matters for the present as suits them, and they will probably do this in a few days. Meanwhile, some of the business houses are beginning to open, and there will be no lack of customers.

Rev. Dr. Grundy, a Presbyterian minister, who has all the past year advocated the evils of war, and defended the actions of our General Government, preached at Odd Fellows' Hall yesterday to a large audience. He was particularly earnest in counseling submission to his people. He prayed zealously for the ending of strife, and the triumph of whichever party was in the right, and whichever side the Almighty in His wisdom chose to have prevailed. He was listened to with marked attention. Several navy officers and gentlemen connected with the flotilla were present, as well as many of the best citizens. Mr. Grundy has been sustained covertly and open by subscriptions, sometimes from men professing secession sentiments almost equal to the salary he lost by adopting a conservative course in the pulpit. He is an eloquent and able divine, and his influence has been and will be felt for the good of our country.

The prisoners captured in the gunboat fight off Memphis on Friday morning, were yesterday sent to Cairo on the Champion No. 3, to the number of over one hundred.

New York Times, June 15, 1862.






          6, Skirmish (artillery) on the Shelbyville Pike

JUNE 6, 1863.-Skirmish on the Shelbyville Pike, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, U S. Army.

JUNE 6, 1863.

COL.: I advanced as far as Col. Lytle's house, and ran upon a rebel battery; got up artillery and drove it away, after a brisk skirmish. Col. Lytle says Gen. Cheatham's division, with Gen. Martin's cavalry, was on our front to-day. He saw both generals, and understood from them that there was a move of the whole army, the direction being toward Triune. This is confirmed by many citizens, as well as negroes [sic]. Gen. Stanley joined me at Col. Lytle's; he had pushed the enemy to within 10 miles of Middleton; had 3 men wounded.

He confirms the report of rebels moving westward. I have left Cartlin's brigade here, the other two at Stone's River Bridge. My loss is 1 killed and several wounded. Will be at my headquarters in an hour.

JEF. C. DAVIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 365.

          6, Skirmish at Waitsborough

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee. [8]

          6, SPECIAL ORDERS, NO. 90 and refusal to obey orders

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 90. HDQRS. ARMY OF KENTUCKY, Triune, Tenn., June 6, 1863.

First Lieut. H. C. Wharton, U. S. Army, chief engineer, will proceed to Franklin, Tenn., and superintend the reorganization of the garrison at that place. He will see that the Seventy-eighth Illinois Volunteer Infantry is posted in and around the large fort, and that 150 men from the remainder of the command be stationed on Roper's Knob. He will personally superintend the posting of the guards and pickets, and the instruction of the artillerists. All orders given by him will be by authority and in the name of the general commanding.

By order of Maj. Gen. G. Granger:

The Seventy-eighth is on Roper's Knob, and the balance in the fort. This order changes my whole disposition of the forces, and I don't feel satisfied at all, and ask you to entirely relieve me. I will command my own brigade, but will not obey this order. If I have not done my duty, say so. My brigade consists of the uncaptured force of the Eighty-fifth and Thirty-third Indiana, Nineteenth Michigan, and Twenty-second Wisconsin, amounting to about 400. There are 242 convalescents, and this force is in the main fort. The Seventy-eight Illinois numbers about 400, and only 332 for duty. Granger knew before he left here how I had disposed the forces, and approved it.


J. P. BAIRD, Col., Cmdg. Post.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 388-389.


FRANKLIN, June 7, 1863. (Received 3.25 p. m.)

Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

No enemy seen to-day. No firing, but the bridge at Brentwood was burned by the rebels.

This morning a company of cavalry came through from Nashville; just arrived. They report a party of 12 rebels who cut the telegraph this morning and burned the bridge. Maj.-Gen. Granger has sent me two regiments of cavalry, and I feel entirely safe for the present.

Gen. Granger's orders have been complied with.

I was moving camps when your dispatch came. I will send you a full explanation of my last night's dispatch, and you will see I neither intended to disobey orders or treat Gen. Granger with disrespect, for there is no officer in the service for whom I have a higher regard that Gen. Gordon Granger.

J. P. BAIRD, Col., Cmdg. Post.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 390.


FRANKLIN, June 7, 1863.

Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

My dispatch should read that I could not obey that order. My only objection was to that portion respecting the change of position, and while an attack was impending I could not change camps. I was carrying out the order when your dispatch came. Col. Van Derveer came here and reported to me, and when I sent him an order, he took command, as he said, by Gen. Granger's order, when he left. I got nothing from the general until the staff officer came. The other reasons, connected with my difficulty with some officers at Thompson's Station, led me to think Gen. Granger was not satisfied with my manner of conducting the defense, and I asked you to relieve me for [these] reasons, and I because I could not get an answer by signal from Gen. Granger.

I have no desire to shirk duty or responsibility, and never disobeyed an order in my life. So far as meaning disrespect to Gen. Granger, there is no officer in the service for whom I entertain a higher regard both as an officer and a gentlemen, and shall obey his main order to the letter, viz.,: to hold the post at all hazards.

Hoping this may prove satisfactory,

J. P. BAIRD, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 391.

          6, "The Cyprians in Trouble;" concern expressed for the plight of Nashville prostitutes

On Thursday evening lower College street was thrown into a state of unusual excitement in consequence of an official notification received by some of the Cyprians to vacate their premises. The order required Captain H. C. Hodges, A. Q. M., to take possession of the houses occupied by Mary Combs, Mary Stratton, Lou Hulse, Maggie Seats, Jennie Rogers and two or three others, and directed the said occupants to vacate their several buildings before 12 M. on Monday, the 8th of June, 1863, and hand over the keys to Captain H. C. Hodges.

On Friday morning [5th], nearly all the hacks in town were brought in requisition, and Post Headquarters, the Capitol, and other places, were besieged, with the hope of having the order countermanded. At length it was whispered around that the house could be retained if the proprietors would dismiss all their girls, and not allow soldiers to visit the places. This made matters worse for when all expected to be turned out of doors, there was a consolation in all going together; but for each girl to look out for a home for herself, to be cast among strangers, perhaps be compelled to wander all night in the streets, was more than they could bear, and the wailings and lamentations of the unfortunate creatures were pitiable in the extreme. Like other human beings [sic], these poor [sic] girls have their loves and ties of kindred, of home, and of friends; many of them are as helpless as children, and totally unfit to take care of themselves; and there are none to give them a helping hand to reform, none to give them a helping hand to reform, none to give then shelter in time of need, none to say "daughter, you are forgiven; sin no more."

These facts were represented to the proper authorities during yesterday, and we learn that the order has been suspended for the present, but requiring all of them to hold themselves in readiness to vacate when called upon, and holding the proprietors responsible for any disorderly conduct in their homes, until further orders.

While upon this subject, we may as well allude to the indelicate practice of soldiers riding in open carriages with these girls through the street in broad day; and would suggest that the Provost Marshal make an endeavor to put a stop to it. The girls are not to blame. The neither pay for the carriages nor induce men to ride in them. The fault lies with the men, and to them alone the military and civil authorities ought to direct their attention in suppressing this practice.

Nashville Dispatch, June 6, 1863.

          6, "The Anniversary Celebration."

Grand Procession of Loyal Men.

* * * *

Yesterday morning, June 6th, the anniversary of the battle of Memphis, the era when the Federal Government overthrew usurped authority, and once more assumed its just sway over the city, was welcomed by every loyal heart. The morning was cloudy, but as the crowds wended along the streets in the direction of the gathering place of the masses, the veil that hid the blue sky parted, and the vaulted heavens and beaming sun looked down auspicious on the hundred[s] of flags and streamers that moved in graceful folds from as many windows. The rain of the previous day or two had laid the dust, and the streets were in favorable condition for the ceremonies of the day.

At the appointed hour, Second street, in the neighborhood of Court Square, was thronged with a large multitude, which watched with intense interest while the marshals of the day ranked the proceedings into order. At length the moment of starting arrived. Then, music in stirring strains broke on the morning air; national airs, breathing joy to every loyal bosom, resounded in the echoing streets. The vast train set off on its appointed way, and a glorious display it was, of "beauteous ladies and of gallant men." On foot and on horseback, in cars and carriages, with flags and banners displayed, and with hurrahs of joy, on it went.

The procession was a beautiful one. The number of persons on horseback and carriage was unusually large. The flags and banners were numerous, and on an immense and beautifully ornamental car stood thirty-four young ladies in white, showing the Union colors. They represented thirty-four States of the Union. Several ladies also appeared in the procession on horseback. Three cars bore immense paintings, illustrative of the battle of Memphis and the events of taking possession of the city. A very large number of banners, bearing appropriate mottoes, were carried among the long train of footmen in the procession.

The streets named in the programme were passed through, and all along the route the Stripes and Stars waving from numerous windows, showed how many of the citizens sympathized with the pleasing ceremonies of the day.


The procession was arranged in the following order:

Grand Marshal of the Day, G. P. Ware, Esq., and Assistant Marshals on horseback.

Carriage containing the President of the Memphis Union Club, the Chairman of the Committee on Invitations, and the Orator of the Day. The carriage was decked with a beautiful flag.

Officers of the United States Army, on horseback.

Splendid Temple of Liberty, with interior dome; a magnificent structure of the National red, white and blue, drawn by twelve horses. Within the temple were thirty-four young ladies arrayed in white and wearing circlets of flours upon their heads. Beneath the dome a tall young lady, (Miss LELIA BURBANK,) appeared as the Goddess of Liberty. Her robe was the stripes of the national flag; on her forehead was a golden circlet and she bore on her head a staff surmounted with the cap of liberty. Her supporters, right and left, were Miss Lizzie Johnson and Miss Louisa Miller.

Large silk flag, presented to the Washington Club by the ladies of Memphis.

Band of the Hundred and Nineteenth Illinois regiment.

Members of the Memphis Union Club, wearing their badges and carrying banners with mottoes.

Three cars with emblematic paintings of large size, in colors. The following are the subjects of the pictures:


"The fight on the river in front of Memphis on the morning of June 6th, 1862.

The landing of the U. S. gunboats at the foot of the bluffs after the battle, with officers on board to take possession of the city.

The scene of chopping down the staff on the bluff on the summit of which was hoisted the Confederate colors.

The scene of hoisting the United States flag on the Postoffice [sic] Building.

A locomotive and cars dashing along a railroad. One of the cars bears the inscription, "Appeal, for Dixie."

Emblematic painting of the Union. The Union typified by a beautiful woman with sword in hand, and bearing a shield on which is displayed the Stripes and Stars, and word "Union." She is attacking a couple of hideous copperhead snakes, one of which proclaims himself in favor of "A vigorous prosecution of peace." To which she replies; "not in your way." On the same painting, to the right, appears an earnest radical Unionist, who is slinging an axe with which he is cutting down a dead tree. On the remaining braches of the tree a few withered leaves still linger. The trunk of the tree bears the word "slavery." Among the branches a shrinking, terrified slaveholder is clinging with the death grip. Radical Unionist is exclaiming: "Now, if you don't' come down, I'll cut the tree from under you."


Band of music – Citizens carrying flags and banners.

Citizens on horseback. This part of the procession presented an imposing appearance, which was hightened [sic] by the graceful addition of some ladies appearing in the cavalcade.

The procession closed with a large number of carriages, ornamented with flags. Many ladies were among the citizens in the carriages.


Among the mottoes displayed on the banners were the following:

"The old flag, with not a single star erased."

"Andrew Johnson, Tennessee's noblest son."

"The legacy of our fathers shall be transmitted to our children."

"The 6th of June, a bright day in the history of our navy."

"The last ditch. Let it be the Gulf of Mexico."

"The reign of terror of the Safety Committee has passed away for ever."

"The United States has one Constitution, one history – let her have one destiny."

"The preservation of the Federal Government, in its whole constitutional vigor as the sheet anchor of our peace at home and safety abroad."

"Washington Union Club (a splendid portrait of Washington on the reverse side.")

"[illegible] (Liberty, and with a brotherly love.") [sic]

"Ussers aremee and flotte, (One army and navy.") [sic]

"Be true to our country, and fear not."

"The Federal Union must be preserved."

"Omnipotence is with us, who shall be against us?"

"Our voice is for peace, but with the Union."

"Give us still the Government of our fathers."

"Our Government as it is, uniting republican freedom with National strength."

"The Mississippi can never secede from the Ohio."

"The thirty-four States, their number may be increased, but never diminished."

"The President of the United States, he must be sustained."

"This unholy rebellion, may it speedily be put down."

"The Star Spangled Banner! Oh, long may it wave!"

"England encourages disunion from base motives."

"Union is prosperity and happiness, Secession is ruin."

"Tennessee's star shall never be blotted from the old flag."

"Liberty and Union, one and inseparable."

"Tennessee was forced out; she will return willingly."

"If Kentucky – and who will doubt my love for her – unfurls the banner of resistance, I will not fight under it." (Clay)

"A house divided against itself cannot stand."

"Emerson Etheridge, Tennessee's faithful champion."

"The army and the navy, they have covered themselves with glory."


The temple containing the young ladies was escorted by the National Union Memphis Guard. They were fully armed and equipped, and made a good appearance in their neat uniform. Of this company M. T. Ryder is captain, D. S. Ouden First Lieutenant, Joseph Tagg, Second Lieutenant.


When the procession reached the northern portion of the city, it was welcomed with the loud booming of cannon, fired at the navy yard by direction of the Commandant, whose residence on the promenade was beautifully ornamented with flags. Suspended from a cord extended across the promenade, was a splendid full-length portrait of Washington. The route on the programme was so far departed from as to pass down the promenade for the purpose of resting opposite the Commandant's house, where the band performed some beautiful music, and the order of route was resumed and continued until Court Square was reached.


Within Court Square, immediately north of the enclosure containing JACKSON'S monument, was the stand for the speakers.

The speakers and officers of the day mounted the stand, also the young ladies personating the States. The President of the Union Club, W. H. Fitch, Jr., took the chair and announced the order of the exercises, after which he proposed the following resolutions"

We, the loyal citizens of Memphis and vicinity in mass-meeting assembled, to commemorate the anniversary of the overthrow of Confederate misrule and despotism in our midst, do unanimously declare:

1. That we believe the existing rebellion is causeless, unjustifiable and infamous; that its suppression is a sacred duty, imposed through the Providence of Almighty God upon our generation, and that the whole moral and physical force of the Nations should be concentrated in the hand of the Government to accomplish that duty.'

2. We cordially and emphatically endorse the action of Congress and the President in each and all the measures to crush the insurrection and cripple its supporters.

3. While in theory we recognize a distinction between the Government and the men constitutionally appointed to administer it, yet, practically, every denunciation hurled at the Administration now, [sic] is a stab in the Nation's life.

4. Men who profess loyalty to the Union, but unceasingly denounce the Administration and its war policy, are dangerous hypocrites, at heart false to the country, unworthy to be called Americans, and should be rigorously death with by the arm they seek to paralyze.

5. We are unequivocally and irrevocably, now and forever, opposed to all compromises and concessions to rebels in arms, and we believe that no permanent, honorable peace is attainable except upon the basis of full and complete submission throughout every seceded State to the authority and laws of the United States.

6. We heartily approve of General Hurlbut's Order No. 65, and earnestly hope that it will be rigidly enforced. People should not seek ease, comfort and protection away from their starving friends under a flag they openly ignore and inwardly detest.

When the resolutions approving the order of Gen. Hurlbut, which requires all citizens to enroll themselves, and the loyal ones to take the oath, were read, there were cries of "Good! Good!!" and loud applause.

The Chairman put the resolutions to the meeting when they were adopted with vociferous applause. On calling for the nays, a voice exclaimed: "They're not here!" a remark received with applause and laughter.


Memphis Bulletin, June 7, 1863.


It is with peculiar feelings we refer to the celebration of this day. We recall the incidents of one year ago. Frantic meetings were held in the Mayor's office and in Court Square at which it was loudly declared that if citizens would only meet and organize, carry with them pokers from the kitchen, and carving knives from the dining table, and "pitch in" with a genuine "Southern yell," they could drive the Yankees from the "sacred soil of the Confederacy" by the force of irrepressible valor and unconquerable will. Then came the last night of Confederate sway in Memphis. Crowds collected on the bluff to gaze at the light of a boat burning in the river above the city. The murmur of anxious expectation was heard among the multitude, and many who never uttered their thoughts, and had not been allowed to do so for many months, felt their hearts throb high with the expectation that with to-morrow's sun they should once more behold the flag of their country; the never-forgotten, always-loved Stripes and Stars.

The night was one of thrilling expectancy. Few eyelids were visited with sleep. On one side there was hope and joy, on the other despair and hate. The morning came. Booming canon, shrieking shells, and the inspiring rattle of quick musketry told that the final struggle for Memphis had come – that the hours of deliverance – so watched for, prayed for – had arrived.

The battle of Memphis was fought on the bosom of the Mississippi, her citizens gazing on. The false idol of the Confederacy was vanquished – the faith of the revolutionary sires was triumphant – the "Stars and Bars" had fled in terror down the river, or were floating, torn and polluted, down the turbid streams. The days of safety committees, forced contributions, traitor speeches, and head shavings were gone by.[9] The victorious Stars and Stripes were borne into the city; and the old strains of our country once more sounded with thrilling effect through our streets. How that music made the blood riot [sic] in the veins with strange emotion! Strains so loved, yet so long so strange to loyal and waiting ears!

Then came the crowning scene – the hoisting of the National flag over the post office. How that scene recalled mind another time – the last on which that honored emblem had been carried through the streets of Memphis before the time when the abomination of desolation stood in the hold place! Many who read these lines will, on this glad day, call to mind the last Union procession that was made before our noble State fell a prey to intrigue and treason. They will call to mind the wailing in the streets that night – the time when weeping men, "with tears in their voice," called out: "Look at the old flag." - "God Bless the old flag." That is a time never to be forgotten, an occasion ever to be held sacred.

We have recalled these remembrances this morning as the best of all ways of awakening a right spirit for the celebration of the day. The harp no longer hangs on the willow, no longer do strange songs strike our ear. We are again in the Union. Again the broad aegis of her protection lies spread over us. Again we can recall the memory of WASHINGTON without a blush. Again we can utter the sayings of the martyrs of American liberty, without awakening the compunctions of an approving conscience. We are in the Union. The Stripes and Stars wave on our flag; the Star-spangled [sic] Banner is music to our hearts. We will celebrate this anniversary of our deliverance with rejoicing, and we will rejoice the more because treason is at its last gasp, and the moment is at hand when the entire Mississippi river will be restored to loyalty and the glorious Union.

Let every loyal man and woman honor the day. Let them encourage their little ones to gather loyal and true sentiments on the occasion. Let the enemies of the Union see how you prize your privileges, and honor the glorious institutions of your country. Let festivity and joy, waving banners and glad strains of music welcome the day, and let the Union procession be swelled by the presence of exulting thousands, shouting for joy that their rights, their liberties, their glorious privileges of American citizenship, are restored to them. [10] [added emphasis]

Memphis Bulletin, June 6, 1863.

          6, Juvenile Thieves in Memphis

Young in Years, Old in Vice.

In our perambulations around town yesterday, we dropped into the station house, where we saw three boys who were confined for robbing the broker's office which we referred to at the time it was done. We were very forcibly struck with their bold demeanor. Although not over ten or twelve years of age, the seemed to bear their confinement with all the fortitude of veteran law-breakers. 'Tis a sad thought to remember that these boys have mothers, who, doubtless, have lavished upon them all the untold affections of a mother's heart. Yet, we see them, tender as is their years, confined as felons. We are informed that the mother of at least one of these young Claude Duval[s][11], is a quieter and industrious woman. Here we see a plain and direct appeal to parents to be careful of their children's associations. Let them be with the virtuous and good. It may save many a regretful sigh.

Memphis Bulletin, June 6, 1863.

          6, Night Life in Occupied Nashville

The editor of the Nashville Press indulges in a few speculations about Nashville by gaslight:

Nashville by gaslight, and Nashville by day light, are as widely different as secesh and Union; in the latter attire, our goodly city looks very much like a disappointed politician, for whom nobody has a kind word or look, and who is to himself a comfortable bore. But when the garment of night is thrown about her, and the rays of gaslight fall brilliantly upon her features (!) the City of Rocks has a pleasant way, which is productive of anything else than growlery.[12] With evening comes activity and crowded streets--music and jollity; and sometimes as we contemplate the surging masses, from one point to another, we forget that we are in ancient Nashville, and unconsciously inquire, with our optics, for Fifth avenue, City hall park, Broadway, Thompson's, Niblo's, Laura Keene's etc. The charm might be lasting, if it were not that the female figure is so unfrequently to be seen in the midst of the human ocean of which we speak.

Memphis Appeal [Atlanta, Georgia], June 6, 1863.[13]

          6, Resolution of the Public School Predicament in Memphis

The School Question, about which there has been some discussion, has been decided, so far as the Board of Aldermen is concerned. The Mayor, who is so much opposed to common schools, has been instructed, by formal resolution, to issue scrip[14] for the support of the teachers of the schools, as heretofore.

Today there is to be an election of School Visitors, on whom it will devolve to conduct the public schools for the nest twelve months. Let every voter see to it, that in the excitement of the day, this important matter is not neglected.

Memphis Bulletin, June 6, 1863.

          7, Sergeant Charles Alley, 5th Iowa Cavalry attends religious services for slaves in Clarksville [Montgomery County]

Today we reached Clarksville [from camp near Fort Donelson] after a rather dusty march of about 25 miles. The country improved a good deal as we advanced and was better settled and cultivated. Passed through a couple of villages, one named Indian Mound, I suppose it was built in a very deep hollow; but the mount was not in the village. There was a very large one just back of it, I would not venture to say it was raised by the Indians though. This was about 10 miles from Fort Donelson. Another was called Oak Woods, for a very good reason – oak woods all around it.

Providence was the name of a flourishing town about two miles from Clarksville.

Clarksville, a town of about 8000 inhabitants is a fine looking place. The site is high rolling but not bluffy [sic]. It has 10 or more churches. P.E.; M.E.; Presbyterian; Baptist; etc. I got leave from the captain to go up in town to go to church if there was any. Found on inquiry there was no service for "white folks" in the afternoon. But there was for "Niggers"[sic]. I concluded to go to the M.E. church as it was then (3 o'clock) open. The sermon by a white minister was from Isaiah 1-19-20. "If ye be willing and obedient ye shall eat of the good of the land. But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured by the sword for the mouth of the lord hath spoken of it." And there followed a thing – the speaker would probably call a sermon – that was enough to disgust any man. He told the congregation that the land meant Heaven. That they must not look to eat of the good things of the earth; they were not for them. That God required them to be obedient to their masters and if they were treated all their days even with the oppression and violence they must not think to resist but must be patient looking to God to reward them. What Angels the fellow would have the slaves to be, he a rebel against the just laws of his country. After I left the church I found patrols were being placed in every street and that orders had been given to arrest every man of the 5th Iowa found in the town with a pass but the guards would not arrest us.

* * * *

Alley Diary

          7, Nashville, according to the New York Tribune.

A Picture of Nashville.

The army correspondent of the New York Tribune seems to have visited Nashville recently, and the picture he draws of the place would set off the pages of Vanity Faire admirably. We make the following extract, that our city readers may see how Nashville looks through the columns of the New York Tribune:

Fully one third of the old inhabitants--mostly representatives of the wealthier class--are in voluntary or compulsory exile in the loyal or rebellious States. The high costs and scarcity of every requisite of physical life renders the existence of the remaining population precarious….A more profound humiliation of the disloyal citizens than that imposed by the order referred to could not well be devised. All of them, rich and poor, old and young, male and female, were mercilessly required to report and be sworn before the Provost marshal in person. The sensations of the purse and blood-proud Southrons of both sexes, particularly of the venomously hostile women, while whiling sometimes for hours in the promiscuous crowds gathered during the day at the Provost headquarters and while going through the form of swearing, may well be imagined....Many of the families whose male heads and supports are identified with the rebellion, have been reduced to want, owing to the prohibition of all intercourse with the South. Even those who were but last year in affluent circumstances are now upon the verge of complete destitution, and dependent upon the charity of neighbors.

Nashville Dispatch, June 7, 1863.[15]

7, "Amanda let me assure you that this place bears the marks of battle." Letter of Jacob W. Bartmess,[16] Co. C., 39th Indiana, in Murfreesboro, to his wife

Camp Drake.

Near Murfreesboro Ten.

Sunday-June 7th. 1863

My kind affectionate Wife---.

Amanda let me assure you that this place bears the marks of battle. Where once stood the nice dwelling of the rich planter and the negro huts, and the good fencing which enclosed the large rich farm and separated it into fields. Now is a vast ruin. there [sic] are no houses, no negro huts, no fencing. One vast desolation exists for many miles around. The trees are wonderfly [sic] marked with minie-balls. Some of them from the thickness of my body down are entirely cut down with canon balls. But what is more: the many little boards which stick in the ground in regular rotation, marking the spot where lies the boddies [sic] of hundreds of our brave men. who [sic] fell a sacrifice on their countries, altar on stoneriver's [sic] bloody field. My thoughts ask me where are the many little orphans calling and crying for pappy, while his body is mouldering [sic] in this vast grave yard. And where is that widowed, and heartbroken wife, who when the question is forced on her mind where is my husband? and [sic] the answer come that he fell and was burried [sic] by careless hands on stonerivers [sic] battle field. Writhes in desperate and indescribable anguish. O, who will answer for the sin of this most dreadful and calamitous war. But why should I continue this. God bless the right.

From your son,



          7, The Knoxville Register's war correspondent's report from Middle Tennessee

Army Correspondence of the Knoxville Register.

War Trace [sic], Tenn., June 7, 1863.

Dear Register:- Since my letter, dated Chattanooga, June 2d, your correspondent has "wended his way," and all of a sudden, finds himself at this remarkable front-the popular resort of "reliable gentlemen" from the "oppressors of every land," and the wholesale and retail manufactory of "News, rumors and other items," and the fighting district of Gen. Bragg.

From the fact that I have been here a very short time, I can know but little of the contemplated operations of our army, or the arrangements of the enemy. It does not require, however, more than a glance at the arrangements of our works, and the dispositions of troops to satisfy the most critical that a master hand has been at work, and that "our house is in order," and that when Rosencranz moves upon Bragg, he will not find him knapping.

It is reported this morning that the enemy are advancing cautiously and from the activity among our own troops, it is generally credited. That the prospect of an early engagement is probable, is generally conceded.

The troops here are in fine health and spirits, and are eagerly waiting an opportunity to emulate the deeds of their brothers at Vicksburg and on the Rappahannock. I never saw men in better fighting condition, or more cheerful under hardships. Be assured that the gallant Tennesseeans who compose the major part of this army, will make a death stand[18] before the will yield their homes to the vandal's tread, and nobly aided by the brave legions from Georgia and Alabama, they cannot be conquered in so holy a cause by the satraps and cut throats of Lincolndom, whose only incentive to deeds of daring, is pelf and plunder.

This is Sunday, and it would surprise you to see with what unanimity it is observed throughout this army. What a change since I was last here. Then the principal brigade and division review were all had on the Sabbath and hundreds of other unnecessary things were don that might have been better done some other day. Now, all these are dispensed with, and no kind of labor is done on this holy day, and it is regarded as a day of rest, here as elsewhere.

In my last, I mentioned that the 37th Tennessee Regiment was ordered to the front. It has arrived and has been assigned to Brig. Gen. Bates's brigade, Hardee's corps.

Brig Gen.. Stewart, of Cheatham's division, has been promoted to Major General, and will command a new division now being formed.-He is a gallant and dashing officer, and is an honor to the Volunteer State. His division will form a part of Hardee's corps.

As I close this, my ears are greeted by the rumbling sounds of artillery, on the left, probably a skirmish between our outposts and the enemy's.

I will try and keep you posted as far as possible, from this quarter hereafter.

Macon Daily Telegraph, June 15, 1863.

          _-7[19], Expedition from Jackson across Tennessee River

JUNE __ to 7, 1863.-Expedition from Jackson, Tenn., across Tennessee River.

Report of Maj. Gen. Richard J. Oglesby, U. S. Army.

COL.: Lieutenant-Col. Breckenridge, First West Tennessee Cavalry, just returned to Jackson from expedition across Tennessee River. Destroyed a large amount of property; secured and put on gunboats three thousand sides of leather, and recrossed without any loss, except stragglers.

Scout in to-day reports Chalmers at Panola week ago, with 1,800 infantry and one battery. Enemy all withdrawn from Mississippi swamps and encamped 14 miles below Yazoo City. On the 26th of May, Johnston had around Jackson 25,000. Re-enforcements constantly arriving.

Three deserters confirm reports that but one brigade is at Fort Hudson.

R. J. OGLESBY, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 446.






          6, The travails of the exiled Shelby County Edmondson family

June, Monday 6, 1864

After all of our agreements &c about an early start, we did not get off until 8 o'clock, a terible [sic], terible [sic] day we have had. Cold Water almost out of it's [sic] banks, and still rising-the slews swiming [sic]-Mr. Wilson picked the way or we never would have gotten through. Arrived at Cold Water in time to eat our dinner and feed. Met with a Negro man, coming to Senatobia, gave him part of our baggage, had to go twenty miles out of the way, by Luxahoma to cross Hickey Hayley-We missed the road to Mrs. Wren's home, had to travel until 8 o'clock, through Senatobia bottom after night, oh, how terible [sic] to think of. We never would have reached here had it not been for Mr. Wilson's kindness-found old Mrs. Arnold ready to receive is, where we are all now ensconsed, [sic] Mrs. Wren fast asleep-Hal taking Chloroform. I beged [sic] her not to, but to no availe [sic]-I am all alone. Mr. Wilson and John both retired. We have glorious news from Va. Gen. Lee has repulsed Grant, with heavy loss. God grant it may be so. Traveled two days and only 30 miles from home. God bless my poor old Father, and his household.

Diary of Belle Edmondson

          6, "Grand Colored Demonstration."

Yesterday, being the anniversary of the arrival of the Federal forces at this place, our colored population thought it proper to commemorate the event by a Pic-nic [sic] which came off at Odd Fellows' Hall. We supposed at one time, when looking out upon the streets, that there had been an eclipse of the sun, (or some other strange phenomenon,) which by some miscalculation of the astronomers had been set at a wrong date, but as the black mass neared the spot where we were standing, we discovered our error, as it turned to be a procession of the "culled persuasion." [sic]

Memphis Bulletin, June 7, 1864.

          7, Burglary in Occupied Memphis

Detection and Arrest of a Notorious Burglar.

Yesterday morning, shortly before day, the sleeping room of Mr. Henry Weatherbee, on Jefferson street, between Main and Second, was buglarioulsy [sic] entered by the notorious Bob Taylor. The room, which is immediately above the saloon of Mr. Weatherbee, has been occupied by this gentleman with his family, an entrance to it being attainable only through another department further front, which was used as the sleeping room of Mr. W.'s servant, so that it was necessary to pass through two doors in entering the first apartment. This was done – the two locks being picked, or turned, by the use of burglars tools. The servant in the first room had not been awakened by the entrance of the thief, and not until he had entered Mr. W's chamber taken a watch and several other valuables from a bureau in the room, and was in the act of rifling the drawers, was his presence known, when Mr. W.'s wife awakening, made the discovery and gave the alarm to her husband. Upon being detected, Taylor made for the street, being followed to the stairs by Mr. Weatherbee, who desisted here and gave the arm from a window, which was heard and heeded by officers Perry and Collins, who immediately pursed the fleeing rogue. The chance was kept up until Taylor reached Madison street, where he was ordered to holt by the officers, not complying with which orders shots were fired at him by Collins which took effect in his left hip, immediately bringing him to the ground. Upon being conducted to the station house, together with the property stolen from Mr. Weatherbee, ….[remainder illegible]

Memphis Bulletin, June 7, 1864.

          7, "How Much Lower?"

We have had to chronicle many a case of downright dishonesty and theft, but never in the course of our journalistic career have we put before the public the quintessence of meanness which we are called upon not to expose. According to late military orders, owners of dogs were compelled to put muzzles upon their canine pets, and all dogs found running the streets without the same would be shot by the Provost Guard, whose duty it was to execute the order. The order in many cases has been complied with and so now we hear complaints almost every hour in the day made by parties who have had the muzzles stolen off their dogs. The wretch [who would] remove the safeguard of poor old [Fido?] after having been placed there by his master, should himself be muzzled, and allowed to walk the streets in no other way.

Memphis Bulletin, June 7, 1864.

          7, Nimrod Porter's dream

I dreamed a dream last night & another the night before, I think unfavorable to the South. Something verry [sic] [strange] a going on, I saw father and mother, Grandmother & 2 little boys in my sleep last night. [T]hey [were] in my room very cordially I was glad to see them. (What is the interpretation) [sic]

Diary of Nimrod Porter, June 7, 1864.






          6, Federal authorities prohibit wearing of insignia or uniforms of late Confederate army in East Tennessee


I. Hereafter any person found within the limits of this command, wearing or having about his person the badges, insignia, or uniform of an officer of the late Confederate armies, will be considered as guilty of an act of hostility toward the United States Government and will subject himself to arrest and imprisonment.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 638.

          6, General Orders, No. 52, relative of amnesty oath for former Confederate soldiers


For the information of whom it may concern, the following dispatch from Maj. Gen. G. H. Thomas, commanding Department of the Cumberland, is published:

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, Tenn., May 6, 1865.

Maj. Gen. C. C. WASHBURN, Memphis:

You are authorized to administer the amnesty oath to rebel soldiers, but not to officers or citizens. It is now too late for them to be reaping the benefits of the amnesty proclamation, after having maintained an attitude of hostility for four years.

By command of Maj. Gen. G. H. Thomas:

* * * *

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

Citizens who left our lines and sought refuge in rebeldom, and have resisted all persuasions to return until the present moment, will not be allowed to return to Memphis at present. Confederate officers returning to this district paroled from the armies of Lee, Johnston, and Taylor will not be allowed to wear their uniform or any badge reminding of their treason. Paroled enlisted men, or those who have taken the amnesty oath, will be required to divest themselves of their rebel uniforms as soon as they can procure other clothing, and they are given thirty days from the time of their coming into the district to do this. [added emphasis]

By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn:

WM. H. MORGAN, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 671.

          6, General Orders No. 31 issued in Knoxville


I. Hereafter any person found within the limits of this command, wearing or having about his person the badges, insignia, or uniform of an officer of the late Confederate Armies, will be considered as guilty of an act of hostility toward the United States Government and will subject himself to arrest and imprisonment.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 638.

          6, "While the two were engaged in robbing the house one of the other two seized me and commenced taking liberties with my person." Martha Marshall's Narrative; A Post-War Bushwhacker Attack in Franklin County [see also May 12, 1865, Denying amnesty to guerrillas near Tullahoma below]

On Saturday the sixth day of May A. D. 1865 about one o'clock a party of four men rode up to my house in Franklin County Tenn. They came to the door and pushed said door open. Geo Pless who was then living there opened the door. They asked who lives here. He answered Pless. They then asked if this was the place Nelson was killed at. This Nelson was a Guerrilla Capt & killed my brother in law while surprised in robbing the house, some time previous. Pless answered them no sir this is not the place. The same man then came in and hitting Pless over the head forced him to sit down. They or two of them then commenced robbing the house. While the two were engaged in robbing the house one of the other two seized me and commenced taking liberties with my person. I broke away from him, and going to one of the others appealed to him to make the other stop which he did. They then dragged Mr. Pless into the floor and told him they were going to kill him that if he wanted to pray he must do so then. Mr. Pless got to his knees to pray just at that time I started to leave with my two little children just as I got to the door the one who was about to kill Mr. Pless stepped to the door and told the two who were there to guard us and to see to it I did not get away. He then took Mr. Pless out of the house to kill him when the same man who made the one spoken of above leave me alone took him Pless from the other. Mr. Pless succeeded in slipping off and affected his escape. Three of them then rode off leaving one of their party behind. The man left behind entered the house and catching Mrs Pless was about affecting his purpose on her person when she begged him to desist saying it would kill her since she was expecting every moment to be confined. He says then by G__D___ I'll have that other woman and catching hold of my babe which I had in my arms threw it in the backside of the bed. He then caught holt [sic] of me & threw me up on the bed and threatened to kill me. I again jumped off when he caught both hands and forced me down in the bed striking me in the side with his fist or pistol he said G___D____ you, you push me off & I will kill your baby. He succeeded in attaining his purpose. I with Mrs. Pless & children left the house and went over to my fathers. While at my fathers the four again entered but left. While we were at the house the one who raped me there jumped on the bed for the purpose of burning the house. Mrs. Pless extinguished it. Their brutality toward me was most inhumane. The whole party was very large but four entered the house. I did not recognize any of the parties.

Blood and Fire, pp. 162-163.


[1] The article had the following paragraph: "The process of marking [sic] the Union men on the day of the election [i.e., the plebiscite on Tennessee's secession on June 8] was by writing the name of each voter, as it was entered upon the poll book, upon the back of the ticket, with the corresponding number entered on both; so that, after the vote was counted, the Union tickets could easily be selected, and voters attended to. This design was known before the elections, and, of course, deterred Union men form voting at all, or compelled them to vote for secession." Rebellion Record, Vol. 2, p. 58.

[2] As cited in Gaylon Neil Beasley, True Tales of Tipton: Historical Accounts of Tipton County, Tennessee (Covington: Tipton County Historical Society, 1981), p. 21. Apparently the flag is extant, according to a picture found on p. 22.

[3] See also Nashville Union & American, June 4, 1861.

[4] As cited in PQCW.

[5] This was most likely in response to Negley's Raid.

[6] The engagement at Sweeden's Cove, near Jasper, on June 4, 1862. See above.

[7] All spelling is original.

[8] While Dyer's places this place in Tennessee, the OR situates Waitsborough in Kentucky. OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 364.

[9] Emphasis added. This kind of activity in Memphis (and probably in Nashville, Clarksville, Murfreesboro and Knoxville,) is one that is only hinted at, such as in this editorial. Even so, it does shed light on a vindictive gang mentality in Confederate Memphis that validated the harassment, extortion and humiliation of those not of the Confederate point of view. It is unlikely there are many references to this kind of behavior during the time of Confederate rule in Memphis.

[10] Perhaps the raising of the Union flag in Memphis would be a fit event for an annual commemoration ceremony, especially in view of the current awareness of Civil War heritage in the Volunteer State. Apparently, however, the battle for Memphis ceased being celebrated soon after the conclusion of the war. Yet it does represent part of the state's heritage, principally in the restoration of the rights and "glorious privileges of American citizenship."

[11] DUVAL, CLAUDE (1643-1670), a famous highwayman, was born at Domfront, Normandy, in 1643. Having entered domestic service in Paris, he came to England at the time of the Restoration in attendance on the duke of Richmond, and soon became a highwayman notorious for the daring of his robberies no less than for his gallantry to ladies.

[12] A saloon or barrel of beer.

[13] As cited in htp://

[14] It is curious that the Board of Aldermen would insist upon issuing scrip when it outlawed "shinplasters" in January 1863. See above, January 6, 1863, "Memphis' 'shinplaster' ordinance declared null and void."

[15] As cited in:

[16] Letters from Jacob W. Bartmess, who was captured at Murfreesboro in 1862 and exchanged and returned during the Tullahoma Campaign of 1863.

The following letters were written by Jacob W. Bartmess, Co. C., 39th Indiana. After being captured at Murfreesboro in 1862, Bartmess was exchanged and returned to this area during the Tullahoma Campaign of 1863.

These letters were made available by Ms. Beth Bryant of Tullahoma, a Bartmess descendent.

These letters appeared in The Indiana Magazine of History in 1956. They are reproduced here by permission of the current (1998) editor.


[18] Not so. Braff's  's entire army was to be chased out of Tennessee by "Rosencranz" in a matter of weeks.

[19] Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee indicates the dates for the expedition were 2-7.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


No comments: