Sunday, June 14, 2015

6.13-15.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes


          13, Letter to the Memphis Appeal commenting on apparent lack of patriotism displayed by a majority of Memphis men [see August 9, 1862, "Where are the Young Tennesseans?" below]

I was in common with many ladies of Memphis, greatly gratified at witnessing the parade of the Home Guards Tuesday evening; and while witnessing it, I was told that there were in the ranks about six hundred soldiers. I then wondered where the remainder of the five thousand voters were; but on looking around I discovered some hundreds of young, healthy looking men congregated on the bluff to witness the scene, and were all apparently complacent and happy-doubtless satisfied that the military array there would be able to protect and defend them in the hour of danger and peril.

Memphis Appeal, June 13, 1861.

          13, West Tennessee spa, Dunlap Springs, near Bolivar, opens for the season

Dunlap Springs.

The undersigned having recently purchased this favorite Watering Place, and newly refitted and furnished it, have now opened for the season for the reception of visitors. Every effort will be made to insure the comfort of those who may visit them. Having secured the services of the best stewards and cooks to be had in Memphis, its easy access and short distance will render it very convenient to Merchants, Planters and others having business in the city and vicinity.

Shirley & Schuyler.

An Omnibus will be at the depot at Bolivar on the arrival of every train, to convey passengers and baggage to the Springs, only three miles distant from Bolivar, and seventy-two miles from Memphis.

Two Daily Trains, morning and evening, going through in six hours from Memphis to the Springs.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 13, 1861.

          13, Visitation to the Southern Mothers' Association Hospital on Union and Second, Memphis

The Southern Mother's Association.—By the invitation of Dr. G. W. Currey we yesterday visited the hospital for sick soldiers provided by a number of southern ladies who are mothers, residing in the city and vicinity. The second story of the third house from the corner of Union street, on Second, we found filled with beds; nurses were in attendance, and several of the lady managers were present ready to administer their kind offices to the suffering. Neatness, order, and convenience characterized the arrangements, where everything is done that can be done to compensate to those who fall sick in the service of their country, for the absence of sisters, wives and mothers. Twenty-four beds will be ready in a day or two, and in emergency twice that number of patients can be attended to.

There were but two patients under treatment when we called; fourteen were receiving assistance two or three days ago. Kind attention and good dieting, which the ladies supplied with liberality and zeal, proved sufficient for all but two of them. The patients have not only medical attendance supplied, but their food. Dr. Curry is the surgeon, and he gives his services gratuitously. The ladies act as nurses, and fortunate is he who falls into such kind hands. Benevolent and patriotic ladies who have not already connected themselves with this institution should do so. Aid in nursing and other ways will be required. Among those now acting as managers, we observe S. c. Law, president, Mary Pope, secretary; Madames Dr. Shanks, A. K. Taylor, Kirk, Doyle, Williamson, Greenlaw, Unthank, T. Allen, Stovall, Dr. Sale, Fowler, Vernon, Patrick, Hulbert, Griffin, Dow, W. B. Miller, Donaldson, Sam Tate and Wright.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 13, 1861.

13, Fasting in the Bluff City

The Fast Day.—We have never known a public observance kept with the strictness that was manifested in this city yesterday. The stores, including cigar stores and saloons, were universally closed. The ring of bells and the grave passing along of persons on the way to church, had all the solemnity of Sunday. Most of the churches were opened, the attendance was generally large, and the behavior of the congregations showed that the minds of the worshipers were profoundly impressed with the import of the present crises in the fate of the country. In the after portion of the day streets were almost deserted. The street corners and the lamp-posts were without their usual crowd of loungers. No noise of rattling drays, no shouts of children, no hum of business broke the hush that prevailed. Only at the forts, and at the arrivals and departures at the river, was there any movement. The God of battles was appealed to, and the occasion was marked with becoming reverence and solemnity.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 14, 1861.

          13, Report regarding West Tennessee vigilance committees and persecution of innocent travelers headed for Kentucky

Outrage in Tennessee-Mr. H. J. Smith of this city called on us yesterday and made a statement in regard to the late treatment of himself and others in Tennessee. Mr. Smith, Geo. Myers, and Jerry Sullivan, went down the river as hands upon one of Lem. Hyatt's coal boats. The boat sold out at Natchez, and they came back thence on the steamer Falls City to Memphis. As no boat was permitted to come from Memphis towards Louisville, and as they had not money to come home on the railroad, they of necessity undertook the journey on foot.

At Covington in Tennessee the three travelers, about whom there was no suspicious circumstance except that they were unknown travelers, were arrested and examined by what no doubt was a Vigilance Committee. Nothing was found against t them, and they were told by the Chairman, H. J. Moloy, that they might go on. Some one suggested to Moloy that it might be well to give them a pass. He gave them one, and, as it is now before us, we give an exact copy of it:

Covington Jun the 2, 1861. H. J. Smith and J. B. Myers and Suleven has Past thru this Place today and Claim to be citizens of Kentucky on examination We find Nothon Rong a Bout Said Men and are Willen to Let said Men Pass on Good Conduck

H. J. Moloy.

With this pass the travelers came on to within a mile of Ripley, Tenn., where, during a rain, they took refuge under a tree. Whilst they were standing there, thirty-five or forty mounted Tennesseeans rushed down upon them and seized them as suspicious characters. They told their story and exhibited their pass, but that wouldn't do. Some of the Tennesseeans cursed them as abolitionists and were clamorous that they should be hung upon the tree under which they were found. The prisoners said that they were not abolitionists, that they were citizens of Kentucky and Louisville, that they were quiet and industrious men with no sympathy for abolition or abolitionists. The cry then was, "Louisville and the whole of Kentucky are full of damned abolitionists; people that are not for us are against us; they should all be hung, and we had better be doing the work as fast as we can." Mr. Smith says that the fate of three was for a time doubtful, but that at length he and Jerry Sullivan were allowed to continue their journey. Geo. Myers, their comrade, having perhaps given offence by a short answer, was kept a prisoner; and Smith and Sullivan learned one or two days afterwards that he either had or was about to be hung.

Mr. Smith informs us, that, between Memphis and Covington, near the railroad junction, they saw a man lying helpless and all but in a dying condition, with his head shaved and his ears and the end of his nose cut off. The poor fellow's statement was that the only charge against him was that he was of Northern birth. A human citizen took him into his house with the intention of taking care of him.

Mr. J. H. Smith has the appearance of being an honest man; he talks like an honest and truthful man; and we are told that there are many in this city that can testify to his integrity and veracity. The facts that he related show what a wretched condition of thing exists in Tennessee. May Kentucky never be cursed with such evils.

Louisvillle Daily Journal, June 13, 1861. [1]

          13, Railroad Disaster near Cleveland


East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, 9 miles South of Cleveland, June 13, 1861

Mr. Editor: With a heart leaping with joy and a mind elated by the prospect of soon meeting, on my route through East Tennessee for the seat of war, many of my old friends and class mates of Hiwassee College, I was suddenly astonished by the thunder of the explosion of the boiler Sam Tate. The engine was drawing a train of twenty cars, containing five hundred and fifty men of Col. Featherston's (the 17th) Regiment of Mississippi Volunteers, under the command of Lieut. Col. John McGuisk and Maj. Lyle. All was surprise and confusion for a few seconds. Order was restored - the effects of the shock recovered from - when it was ascertained that the boiler and engine were blown literally into fragments, many heavy pieces being blown several hundred yards; instantly killing the Engineer, Alexander Moore, Fireman Cady, John W. Kendrick, Ensign, of the Buena Vista Rifles, from Chickasaw County, Miss., and badly scalding and maiming W. M. Pearson, of the same Company - all of whom were blown to a great distance. Several others were slightly injured. And while we deeply deplore the loss we have sustained, we are truly thankful that an All Wise Providence so directed the hundreds of flying missiles that they did no more injury. The engineer's head and one leg was blown some distance from his body. The fireman's body was blown backward and fell in the rear of the train. The Ensign of Captain Tim Roger's Company was dreadfully maimed. He was on the engine at the time of the explosion. Our detachment is composed of the Confederate Guards, Buena Vista Rifles, Burnsville Blues, Magnolia Guards, Mississippi Rangers, Captain Sears, Captain Rogers, Captain Moreland, Captain Duff, Captain Scruggs. It is heartrending to see the gallant commanders and soldiers as they, with tearful eyes and sorrowful hearts,  are bending over or ministering to those killed and wounded, not by an enemies [sic] shot or shell but by an explosion equally as disatrous. The road is so badly torn up that a new track is being conducted for our passage.

In haste, Respectfully, H. L. Duncan, 1st Lieut. M. Guards, Acting Quarter Master, 17th Reg't Miss. Vols.

Athens Post, June 21, 1861[2]

          14, Survival tips for soldiers in military camps from the "Old Camper"

Camp Life—A Few Suggestions From an Old Camper.

Editors Appeal: The effectiveness of a body of men organized for any purpose, military or otherwise, is in a great measure dependent upon the preservation of their health, and therefore too much precaution cannot be taken while encamped in exposed positions, to guard against causes which tend to produce disease and debility. It is presumable that the officers in command are fully informed as to the usual precautions, but there are some rules to be observed which cannot be too fully impressed.

There should always be some sort of flooring to keep the body from the cold and damp of the ground, and to prevent the evaporation of noxious gases from the ground within the tents, from the increased temperature of a small tent crowded with men. Thick canvas cloth, with straw and leaves under it, is the best, most convenient, and portable for this purpose. If this cannot be had, straw or leaves alone will answer for a substitute. A dry floor, with tents well ventilated, are the main points to be kept in view.

Persons commencing to camp out are more liable to bilious diseases than any other, but which rarely become severe if treated properly; an emetic or purgative being generally sufficient to break them up. A camp life is very apt to produce an unhealthy appetite at first, generally accompanying a bilious tendency, which should not be indulged. Fat meats, and sour fruits, whether ripe or not, will be found to have a bad effect in a bilious habit or tendency, more especially in warm weather.

To those unaccustomed to it, moderate smoking will have a beneficial effect. Stimulants, particularly such as can only be had in camp, are very objectionable, unless to persons in the habit of using them regularly. At times of great and unusual exposure, they may be used in moderate quantity to advantage.

Whenever practicable camp fires should be kept burning all night, even if but small, and as near the tent as will be safe. A person should not sleep with a current of cold air upon the head alone, for if it does not affect the health, the sleep will be worthless and unsatisfactory.

A change of clean dry clothes is of the highest importance, so as to be ready for any emergency or accident of getting wet.

Cheerfulness and good spirits, with a disposition to make the best of everything, is worth more than all the doctors in Christendom. A grumbler in camp—or anywhere else—is worse than an infectious disease, for he not only makes himself miserable, but everybody about him, and is generally the most worthless character and the first to get on the sick list, or to become disaffected and mutinous. Music tends very much to keep up the spirits and cheerfulness, and all musicians, who can, should take their instruments along.

The observance of a few simple rules will keep a camp as healthy as a town. But after all it depends very much upon each particular individual whether he will retain his health or not. In nine cases out of ten sickness and inefficiency is more owing to the want of proper personal precaution than to the necessary exposure and accidents of camp life.

An Old Camper.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 14, 1861.

14, "All honor to the ladies of Memphis for their patriotic toils, their silent self-devotion to their country's service!"

The Ladies of Memphis.—For patriotic spirit, for attention to the welfare of those who have entered the army that is to decide the great strife now in course of bloody arbitrament, none have surpassed the ladies of Memphis. In school rooms, in the basements of churches, and in private houses, hundreds of them have met day by day, since the organization of the volunteer companies, to ply the needle, in making garments and uniforms. Many ladies whose position rendered it unnecessary for them to make up the clothing of their own households, have learned to do coarse and heavy sewing, to cut out and fit garments, that they might thus help the defenders of their homes. White soft hands, unused to toil, have been blistered and hardened in this labor of love. What is most pleasing about this, is the unpretending quietness with which all has been done. There have been no laudations at public meeting, no boastings through the newspapers, but day by day these ladies have toiled, from early morning to dark, in many instances, almost unnoticed, their toils scarcely known, except to the grateful recipients of their kindly labors. So unobtrusively has this downright hard and long continued work been performed, that we almost feel as if we owed an apology for breaking silence on the subject. All honor to the ladies of Memphis for their patriotic toils, their silent self-devotion to their country's service! May we, before we close this humble testimonial of admiring appreciation, call attention, and we do it with reverence, to those ladies who have made a far greater sacrifice at the altar of the country than even these—we mean those mothers who, with tearful eyes, but firm and glowing hearts, have given up their sons for weal or woe, for life or death, to fight in the great cause. It will be out lot to shout over many a victory, but what victory so sublime as that a mother gains over her own heart, when she surrenders its dearest object to the call of patriotism?

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 14, 1861.

          14, Memphis city council terminates welfare assistance program for volunteers' families

City Almoner.—The city council two or three weeks ago appropriated money to give relief to destitute persons in the city, and appointed ex-Marshal Underwood, almoner, to distribute food to such persons. This gentleman performed his duties with rare sagacity, kindly attending to the wants of the poor, and firmly rejecting the importunity of imposters. Such confidence was felt in the discretion and integrity of the almoner, that many citizens placed flour, meal, bacon and other provisions at his disposal for distribution, thus more than doubling what the city had contributed. We had in the creation of the office of city almoner a provision made for those who, from the failure of the ordinary means of obtaining a living, and from the absence of sons and brothers in the army—for our county court have made no provision for the mothers or sisters of absent soldiers, and none for the widows and children of such as may fall in battle—require particular attention at this time, the provision was made at so trifling an expense to the city, owing to the voluntary contributions put in the almoner's hands, that we looked upon the arrangement as in every way an excellent one. To our surprise, a motion made by an alderman of the 7th ward, J. B. Robinson, to destroy this arrangement, was on Tuesday last adopted by the city council, and the destitute, so far as the city goes, are left as destitute as before. In this condition of things Mr. Underwood has generously offered to continue to render his service gratuitously, as the dispenser to the poor of such provisions as may be given to him for that purpose. Those having anything to spare from their houses or stores, or who wish to aid the poor by the hands of one who will ascertain that their gifts go into proper hands, should send the articles to the almoner's office, on Second street, east side, four doors north of Madison. Persons having vegetables in their gardens, or left over at market unsold; bakers having bread left over; or persons in any way disposed to help the many who now greatly require kindness from the philanthropic, should communicate with the almoner and leave the articles at his office. By such kind actions the unhappy consequences of Ald. Robinson's resolution may be averted.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 14, 1861



          13, Reconnaissance to Jasper

STEVENSON, August 14, 1862.

Maj.-Gen. BUELL:

On the 12th there were no troops this side of the Tennessee as far up as 22 miles above Chattanooga. They have but one small steamboat, the Tennessee. She makes trips from Chattanooga and Kingston. I will try and have her and the flat-boat destroyed. I don't believe they will use them near me. I fear I can't send the letter to Chattanooga. They have a company stationed at the creek, 4 miles below. Their pickets are still immediately opposite me. I made a reconnaissance above Jasper last night; no enemy on this side.

McCOOK, Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 334-335.

          13, Establishing martial law in Memphis


Headquarters United States Forces,

Memphis, Tenn., June 13th, 1862

I. In pursuance to an order issued from the headquarters of this district, the undersigned hereby assumes command of the United States forces at the city of Memphis

II. The officers heretofore detailed and assigned to a particular position or in the discharge of any specific duty, will continue in their respective places until further orders from these headquarters.

III. The commanding officers of regiments and detachment of squadrons, will make daily morning reports of their respective commands between the hours of eight and nine o'clock a.m. to these head quarters.

IV. All persons leaving the city by any public conveyance, or to travel beyond the picket lines by any road leading into the country, shall first procure, from the Provost Marshal, a pass, and the Provost Marshal is hereby instructed not to grant passes to any one except in cases of urgent necessity, and requiring of persons receiving passes to take the oath of allegiance; and all persons violating this order shall be promptly arrested and detained for future trial and punishment.

V. It is hereby enjoined upon all officers and soldiers of this command to see that the public peace is maintained; that the rights of persons and property under the Constitution of the United States are protected that the blessing of the Government of our fathers shall be restored to all its pristine vigor and beauty, and so far as can be done, consistent with military rule, no one shall be disturbed in the pursuit of his legitimate business; and all officers and soldiers violating this order shall be severely punished.

VI. All orders heretofore issued by the commanding officer of the post, and not inconsistent herewith, will be adhered to and rigidly enforced until otherwise ordered.

By order of James R. Slack, Colonel, Commanding Post.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 6, 1862.

          13, GENERAL ORDER No. 3, [4] relative to Confederate currency in Memphis

Hereafter the dealing in, and passage of currency known as "Confederate Scrip" or "Confederate Notes" is positively prohibited, and the use thereof as a circulating medium [is] regarded as [an] insult to the Government of the United States and an imposition upon the ignorant and deluded.

All persons offending against the provisions of the order will be promptly arrested and severely punished by the; military authorities.

James R. Slack, Provost Marshal

Memphis Union Appeal, July 7, 1862.

          13, Memphis after a week of Federal occupation, excerpts from the New York Times

Memphis, Friday, June 13.

The city remains unusually quiet and orderly, and business is slowly reviving.

Thus far, the amount of rebel property seized amounts to only $50,000.

Capt. Dill, of the Provost Guards, estimates the amount of cotton, sugar, &c., concealed for shipping, to be $150,000. This is rapidly finding its way to the levee.

The number of absentees has been over-estimated. Many have returned, while those who go on upward boats are mostly members of sundered families.

The Mayor and City Council are of Union proclivities, as a general thing, and exercise their functions in harmony with military rule. Their continued good conduct is a renewed assurance of this.

There are only two or three places in the city where either Confederate scrip or Post-office stamps are worth anything. The most prominent rebel citizens will not take the scrip.

* * * *

Mr. Markland, agent of the Post-office Department, opened the City Post-office today, and an agent of the Treasury Department is on his way to open the Federal Custom-house. There have been about thirty applications for the office of Postmaster, by prominent citizens of Memphis.

There is, as yet, but one National flag flying from a private residence, and that is from the house of Mr. Gage.

There is but little activity in shipping, although a few dray loads of cotton have been hauled down to the levee this morning. Some 5,000 bales are concealed in warehouses.

The Avalanche, in an article on the belligerents, admits that the South has defended the use of privateer and guerrillas, and charges the North with the commission of crimes at which human nature, in its wildest paroxysms of passion, feels itself horrified. It claims that the legitimate belligerents should settle the questions of war, leaving peaceful civilians to the enjoyment of their rights, and observes that these views are acknowledged by the Federals here, and thinks that this course will win gradually upon the Southern people.

The Argus indulges in a series of rabid and vindictive articles, and should be suppressed at once.

The Avalanche says about 75 rebel officers and soldiers have thus far surrendered to Col. Fitch.[5]

The United States Navy-yard and buildings have been taken possession of by Flag-officer Davis in the name of the Government, and will be occupied as the headquarters of his fleet. The buildings are in good preservation.

* * * *

The Memphis-Grenada Appeal, of the 10th, says that misapprehension prevails in regard to the Partisan Rangers. They are called into service by the Confederate Congress, and are designed to act beyond the lines of an army as independent fighters, to be provided like ordinary soldiers, and to have all they capture, yet the Appeal insists they are not guerrillas, and hopes the young men will not fear to enlist. It says, "if the Federals treat them as pirates, President Davis will interfere to protect them"

The Appeal states the facts of the occupation tolerably fairly, admitting that Col. Fitch is pursuing a system of liberal public policy, yet it indulges in vindictive comments.

* * * *

Memphis, June 14.

Col. Slack issued orders this morning prohibiting dealing in and using the currency of the Confederate States, and that the use thereof as a circulating medium would be regarded as an insult to the Government of the United States. Persons offending are to be arrested and summarily dealt with.

* * * *

New York Times, June 16, 1862.

          13, Shiloh Souvenirs

All the movable framework, roof, &c., of the church at Shiloh, near Pittsburg Landing, have been carried away as trophies, and nothing remains but the logs, which are already being cut up in pieces to be removed by seekers after mementos from the most famous battle-field of the rebellion.

Chicago Times, June 13, 1862. [6]

          13-14, March to Grand Junction and occupation of LaGrange


La Fayette Station, June 23, 1862.

Col. J. C. KELTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Corinth, Miss.:

SIR: The matters herein referred to, being special in their nature, I think should be addressed to you without going through the headquarters of Gen. Grant, now in motion for Memphis. The general and staff passed my camp this morning and will reach Memphis this evening.

On the 9th instant I received...instructions by telegraph to move...on Grand Junction, thence to detach strong working parties forward to repair the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, to use great care in securing my working parties, and to assure the inhabitants of all proper protection, &c....

* * * *

Repairing roads as we marched, we reached Grand Junction after night of the 13th. But there was no water there for troops, and on the morning of the 14th I occupied the town of LaGrange, 3 miles west of Grand Junction....There were two pieces of destroyed trestle-work in the town of LaGrange which I caused to be repaired as rapidly as possible...

* * * *

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,

W.T. Sherman, Maj. Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 27-28.

          14, ex-Confederate Congressman Thomas M. Jones, in Pulaski, to Military Governor Andrew Johnson relative to protection of his property by the Federal army and the Oath of Allegiance

Pulaski Tenn.

June 14th 1862.

Hon. Andrew Johnson

Dear Sir:

Sometime in the month of April last I addressed a communication, through Mr [sic] Hughes, to Gen'l Negley, then in command of the Post at Columbia, Stating [sic] to him frankly, that I had been a Member of the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States, but had declined to a reelection after the expiration of that Government by its own limitations-and that I had returned to my home in Tennessee where I had determined to remain and abide the destiny of my State-That in a short time thereafter, the Federal Army entered the Capitol of the State, from which place Gen'l Buell, the Commander in Chief, had issued his proclamation, that the rights and property of all peaceable Citizens Should [sic] be respected and urging them to remain at home pursuing their usual vocations-Relying upon the good faith of this Proclamation, I not only determined myself to remain at home, but urged upon all of my fellow Citizens in public speeches & private Conversations to do So-that it was their duty to Submit to whatever Government might be extended over them. That I had no doubts a military Government might be extended over them-that I had no doubt a Military Governor would be appointed, who in his Administrative policy, would carry out in good faith, the proclamations of the Commanding General-In a short time after the forces had reached the Town of Columbia, I learned that an effort had been made to arrest my Colleague [sic], the Hon. James H. Thomas, when it was deemed prudent by myself & friends to keep beyond the lines of the Federal Army-That I had left my wife & little children wholly unprotected, and two Sons prisoners of War, one at Fort Warren & one at Chicago-that my Situation was extremely painful and unhappy, and that I felt a great anxiety to return home to render Such protection to my family as I could and make such provisions for my Captive children as might be in my power-

I stated in my letter that owing to the large vote given by the State of Tennessee to dissolve its Connection [sic] with the Federal Government [sic], and there was not pending as to whether that dissolution Shall be permanent, or its Federal relations again restored, I could not consistent with my Sense of Honor, and without forfeiting the respect of my fellow citizens take any oath of allegiance to the Federal Government, until the State of Tennessee through its constituted authorities should reverse its actions, or such Military possession should be taken of the entire state, as to render it a duty which all good Citizens owed to their families and friends, to move as a Community, for the restoration of peace and Civil Government, and in either event I would Cheerfully Cooperate --. [sic] I received a very prompt reply from Gen'l Negley assuring me that I might return home upon my Parole-that I should not be molested & might return home upon my Parole-that I should not be molested & might rely upon that protection to my person & property which was due to all peaceable Citizens-About the same time I received Mr Cooke addressed to Mr. Thomas, Stating [sic] that he was authorized by your to give like assurances ---. Upon these assurances I returned home, where I have remained ever since exerting whatever influence I have to induce the Citizens to yield obedience to the Military Government over them --. I have received through Dr., Carter &: others, Citizens of this County, your messages to me to remain at home, and I have written Some two or three letters to Judge Brien the Contents of which I presume have been Communicated, Stating my determination my determination to do so, and whatever should be my fate, to abide the destiny of Tennessee--. I Should [sic] have done so, and intended to avail myself of the earliest opportunity to visit you at Nashville, had it not been for an order issued by the Commander of this Post, which places it out of my power-And which I feel it due to our past relations, to Communicate in explanation of again leaving my home and State--.

Col. Mundey [sic], in his administrative policy, feels it to be his duty, in order to hasten the restoration of the Federal relations of the State, to require of some prominent Citizens (among whom he has been please to designate me) now to take the oath of Allegiance, that our example may influence others, or to leave the State So that our presence may not exert a prejudicial influence--.

For reasons already State [sic], as well as the Consciousness that by taking the oath at this time, I would be degraded in the estimation of the Community, and whatever influence I have wholly lost, and the children of my neighours [sic] are prisoners of War [sic] and in the service of the Confederate Army, I feel that no other alternative is left me as an Honorable [sic] man, but again to leave my home and family although it is the most painful trial of my life --. In doing so, however [sic] I may differ with the policy of the Colonel, I desire to say to you, as I will say to him, that I do not go away with any feeling of resentment, for the purpose, or with the view of connecting myself in any manner with the Confederate Army, or with the Confederate, or with the Confederate Government, but simply to Seek Some [sic] quiet place, and then await patiently and anxiously the development of Such a State [sic] of affairs, or such a change in the policy of the Officers in Command [sic], as will permit me Conscientiously [sic] and Cordially [sic] to

Cooperate [sic] with all who desire the restoration of Peace, and Order, and Civil Government-for which I would willingly yield my life, if that Sacrifice Could Secure [sic] it--. I feel, without any arrogance I trust (and in which I believe every Union Man in the County will concur), that I have done as much, if not more, and could have done more (if I had been permitted to remain without taking any oath) to prepare the public mind for the accomplishment of that object, which the Colonel has in view; than any one [sic] who will remain --. I do not say this in any Complaining spirit-far from it. When I came home & found a Military Government over me, I determined to yield it obedience [.] I could not do otherwise if I was so disposed [.]

If my going into exile can bring peace, and repose, & protection to a Community in which I have been raised, and to which I am indebted for so many acts of Kindness, I Shall [sic] go without a murmur-let the pain be as Keen as it may--.

All I desire to be understood, is that I do not go as enemy [sic], nor Shall [sic] fate [sic] or Circumstances [sic] ever force me to one [sic], to my State--.

Yours Respectfully,

Thomas M. Jones

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 475-476.

          14, "It is a matter of skill and science between the mules and the men, the former to dodge and the latter to catch." On Army Mules at Shiloh

Special Correspondence of the Chicago Times.

Field of Shiloh, June 6.

About Mules.

No small ingredient of warlike efficiency is the component which is made up of that most thoroughly condemned and well-abused species, the mule. Indeed I sometimes convince myself that an army could not exist without them. No animal can be found so well adapted to the purpose, so patient, so enduring, so willing, so hardy and strong under circumstances which would tire out any other muscles and destroy any other animal constitution. They transport the entire sustenance of this great army, from the steamboats to the lines, over roads which no persons ever dreamed of except those who have followed an army. They live upon short rations many a time when a full stomach would not sustain a horse or an ox, and day in and day out, and often through the live-long night, they toil on, dragging through the mud, and over logs and stumps, the heavy loads which are necessary to supply the army. In doing this, they are sometimes exposed to hardships which break them down, but in the main their iron frames endure anything the indifference of men can inflict upon them, and live to begin their labors again the next day. As a general thing they are well fed. Government furnishes an abundance of corn and, when it can be got at, they have all the corn and hay they can eat; but hard work uses up the sustenance thus acquired, and, eat however much they may, they are at best but racks of bones.

Mulish Obstinacy.

Coupled with their patient and enduring qualities are the better known, but little understood, attributes of obstinacy and viciousness. "Stubborn as a mule" is a proverb of world-wide celebrity. And yet the term is not to be applied in so sweeping a sense. Mules, like all animal nature, not excepting the human, are endowed with a due degree of willfulness. To overcome this, and render them tractable, nothing is necessary but patience and gentleness—qualities which not one man in a thousand possesses. As a natural consequence, perversity begets perversity. The mule loses his temper over trials that would have driven Job to distraction, and the drier pelts him over the head with a club, and seeks by violence to subdue a disposition which rebels more and more with every blow. So they fight it out; the driver beating and cursing, and the mule kicking and plunging, and never doing right while there is the slightest chance of doing wrong. They are driven in teams of six, with but a single rein, attached to the bit of one of the leaders. With so indefinite a guide, they are apt to get entangled in the labyrinth of mire and forest through which their road generally lies, and to flounder about, until they either sink down exhausted, or stop in sullen obstinacy and refuse to pull the load any farther. Then a congregation of drivers ensues, each with whips and oaths ready to order, and with one at each mule, they are beaten and mauled into acquiescence, and after mountains of effort, started on their course once more.

Wagon Trains.

They go in trains of from ten to a hundred wagons. When the army moves, of course they are all on the road. Imagine six or seen thousand teams on the road at once, all laboring through a wilderness of mud, tumbling over logs and stumps, and threading their way through heavy woods, and you have an idea of the scene. From their immense numbers they cannot follow any common roads, the bad spots in which soon become blocked by broken and disabled wagons, and the trains diverge and strike across the country. Everything goes down before them. Fences, underbrush, and cornfields are alike served. Small rivers and creeks are filled up with timber, or fence-rails, and onward they go, like an army of locusts, sparing nothing, and stopping for nothing. Thus a space of country ten miles in width will become a vast roadway for the passage of this animal host; in the track of which crushed forests, obstructed rivers, and leveled fences show the energy of its captains,

while an enormous debris of wagons, dead mules, broken chains, harness, and other paraphernalia remain as the handiwork of reckless and violent drivers. Over all, like a cloud, rises an uproar of struggling men and beasts, of crashing wood and iron, of dire profanity and execration; as though this panorama of wild disorder were incomplete without the soul of anathema to animate its movements.

The Model Mule-Driver.

Men who are possessed of the spirit of patience and gentleness will drive these same obstinate animals with perfect ease, and at the same time save them great labor. As a general thing, the ordinary drivers kill a mule with hard work every time a season of extra labor comes on. They are tumbled aside to rot, and another is put in, to go through the same course. But drivers who are men of judgment, and who exercise careful treatment drive their teams through everything, and not

only keep them alive but in good condition. When they go wrong, instead of cursing and beating, they get down and lead them aright, and, by the least bit of soothing and kindness, coax away their ill temper, and make them as willing as they are strong and hardy. I always like a man who can exercise this forbearance. If he is nothing but a mule-driver, he is a man superior to the petty malice of sudden passion; a man of cool judgment and counsel; a man, for all the world, to make a good husband and a kind father; for, as there are no greater trials to the human patience than mule-driving, so there are no more admirable minds than those who calmly surmount its troubles. Philosophy, you see, may be extracted from all things.

The Corral.

One of the curiosities of the mule business is the method of catching, harnessing and breaking them. They are brought up the river by steamers, hundreds at a time, and turned into the corral on the river bank, where they await their turn. Several thousand will thus become collected in a single troop. They are sleek, wild creatures, with timid, deer-like eyes, and small legs and feet, more like those of an antelope than any other animal. Agility is no name for their movements when they are in this free state. They spring, or turn, or roll over like a cat. Throw one down, and he will be on his feet before you realize that he has been off them. Surprise them by coming close unawares, and a cloud of dust thrown in your face will be the only evidence left to your astonished vision. In the art of kicking they are most perfect. They generally use one hind leg for this purpose, and a most effective weapon it becomes. They use it so handily, and in so pliable a manner, as to excite the wonder of the beholder. Launching out with it, they deliver a blow that often breaks a man's legs. Then they let fly a quick motion which reaches the point with nicety, and inflicts more alarm than damage, and when in a playfully cross mood, they put it out, as an elephant does his trunk, and administer little taps and pushes in a quick succession, to warn the intruder against too much familiarity. All this occurs when they are among their own kind. When they have become worn down in body and temper by hard work, their playfulness vanishes, and they kick at each other, and at their drivers, with a savage ferocity which is death to all the human kind. They are consequently never cleaned, for a man's brains are in danger of being knocked out every time he touches their legs with a curry comb. For the same reason their tails are shorn of hair, in order that they may not carry about with them a huge mass of mud in that appendage.

Catching and Breaking.

When a requisition is sent down from division headquarters for teams, preparation is made by selecting the wagons and harness, all new, and putting men into the corral with lariats or lassos to catch the mules. Immediately a commotion exists. The vigilant animals are on the qui vive, and commence running and plunging to avoid the well-thrown noose. It is a matter of skill and science between the mules and the men, the former to dodge and the latter to catch. Amid such a multitude, the lasso must occasionally fall over a mule's head, and then ensues a contest of strength. The men run with the end of a long rope to a stake or tree or a wagon-wheel, and pass it around so as to draw upon the mule. Three or four pull here, and another dries him up. If he be a refractory one, nothing can exceed the fierceness of his struggles. Plunging to the end of the rope, he bounds hither and thither, rushes back and forth, throws himself upon the ground like a mad creature, rolls over and over, kicking and biting, and screaming with rage, until by degrees he is brought up to the hitching place, where he is secured by a chain, and left to struggle and fight until he is tired out. This sometimes requires hours before he can be approached, much less harnessed. Imagine twenty or thirty of these miniature devils raging in concert, with hundreds more racing and plunging about the corral, and add to it the dust of many feet, the shouts and curses of the lariat men, and you have a picture of the mule corral in catching time.

[illegible] tamed animals have to be harnessed and driven. By dint of half a day's work, with their heads tied up close to a tree which they cannot pull up by the roots, the harness is put on. They are then hitched to the wagon with [illegible] precautions to avoid their dangerous [illegible] with all the wheels locked and [illegible] rope at each bit, they [illegible] Such another [illegible] never was witnessed. Six unbroken mules [illegible] in harness which they never [illegible] before, and allowed to have their own way. They plunge forward, rush in opposite directions, kick, bite, and scream, lie down and roll over, and, in every other imaginable way, give vent to their ugliness of temper. This lasts an hour or two, and then they get up and go off calmly and peaceably, a little awry at first, but gradually sobering down into the traces, until every vestige of waywardness is gone, and, from that time on, they are fully broken. One cannot but be astonished at the ease with which they are conquered, and subdued into drudges. Thenceforward they lose their sleek coats, their keen bright eyes, and their agile and graceful movements. The harness wears broad marks on their skins, hard work reduces them to poverty of flesh, and mud plasters over their bodies; in everything they become the poor and degraded servants of mankind, born to drudge for a few months, and then to die and be cast aside. They are but the merest cattle in harness, leaving to the horse, whose spirit cannot be broken, the nobler duties of the species.

My Experience in Horse Ownership.

Speaking of horses reminds me of some experience I have had in that line during my pilgrimage with the army as a journalist. It is a matter of some importance that every correspondent should have some kind of a riding animal at his command, otherwise he will find himself deficient on emergencies when haste is essential. My first idea of the proper thing was a gallant charger, gaily caparisoned, prancing high and low when crowds were about, and always holding himself in readiness for a public exhibition. That is the officer style of doing the thing. I found that the article

was difficult to procure, and expensive to keep, having no soldiers at my command to guard a fine horse night and day to prevent his being "cramped" and carried off. Before I had done with experiences in this line, I was contented with more modest pretensions.

During a period of four months I have been owner and sole proprietor of five horses. The first of these was a relic of the Donelson fight. He came from somewhere in the mountains of Tennessee, and, from a habit of climbing rocks and holding on by his nose, he was much addicted to standing on his hind legs, without regard to who might be in the saddle. This was a favorite feeding position, and grass being scarce at that time, and hay and oats scarcer, he was accustomed to take his meals in the tops of small trees, where his cultivated taste taught him to find tender twigs and juicy buds. This nutritious food gave him a frame like a clothes-horse, and his legs, to use an apt phrase, were as fat as a rye straw. His back-bone split a new saddle in two, and cut a hair-cloth blanket into shreds. I could have got along with this, but he constantly brought me to shame and disgrace by going on his hind legs for browse on state occasions, to say nothing of a propensity for climbing every steep cliff he came to, and sliding me over his tail in the operation. He was a good horse to go bird nesting with, or, in case of emergency, to run up the side of a house and get out of danger, but he was so far from my idea of a perfect horse that I sold him for thirty dollars, as Floyd's veritable war charger, to a trophy seeker who wore blue spectacles and carried a portfolio. As I saw him afterwards, in company with five others as poor as himself, dragging an army wagon, I conclude that the purchaser was not sufficiently vigilant to elude Uncle Sam's watchfulness and get him home. My last glimpse of him was as he stood upon his hind legs, with his fore feet on a rail fence, apparently reaching for browse in the moon.

My next attempt was in the mule line. A friend in the Quartermaster's Department insisted upon presenting me with a superb riding animal which had come into his possession, he didn't say how, but suppositively [sic] cramp process. The beast had a prepossessing exterior. Ears as long as my arm, a head like a butter-firkin, pipe-stem neck, body as comely as a sugar hogshead, and legs not to exceed eighteen inches in length. With this inviting exterior, he had a disposition still more outre [sic] and perverse, if possible. The first time I mounted him, he kicked up his heels, and landed me over his head, some twenty feet in advance. The next time, he sat down on his haunches, and slid saddle and all over his tail. Then he laid down, and rolled over and over, faster than a Bengal monkey could have followed him; and, finally, he resorted to every trick an animal could be guilty of, to show his perverse temper. He had a way of making a great fuss when the saddle-firth was buckled—putting on a deplorable countenance, and groaning dismally, as though his life was being squeezed out. You might pull and tug for ten minutes, straining the girth up to the last notch, and fairly tiring yourself out with exertion, when, upon stepping back with a malicious consciousness of having brought the ugly brute to terms, you would see his body collapse, and the girth hang suddenly limp and loose, while he looked askance with a cunning leer, as much as to say: "How do you like that now?" He never failed to inflate himself like a balloon when the saddle was to be put on, and then collapse for the satisfaction of having it turn around and unseat his rider at the first mud hole he came to. I rode him for the spite of the thing for two long weeks. I got a pair of spurs with rowels an inch and a half long, and flayed his sides with them whenever he ventured to flap his ugly ears at me, and I finally had the satisfaction of seeing him tumble down a bluff a hundred feet high, and break his neck.

Having had enough of vicious horses, I determined to try a quiet one next time. I accordingly invested in a demure specimen of the pony breed. He proved all I could ask, for, from that time onward during my term of ownership, I did no hard work except to urge him to a due sense of his duty as a horse, and more especially a journalistic horse. The arguments used in this controversy were clubs of the largest possible size, sharp-pointed sticks, spurs at the rate of several a day, building fires under his tail, and, on occasions of emergency, felling good-sized trees upon him

as a starting impetus. He was patient under these afflictions, and never suffered anything to disturb his equanimity except the last two alternatives, which were always reserved for an impending battle, or a sudden movement to the rear. He was the best horse in the world to lead an army with, for he was sure to be behind and out of danger, but the very worse for a retreat, for obvious reasons. I was finally obliged to succumb to his pertinacity from a scarcity of timber and spurs, the soldiers having used the former for fuel, and his ride having demolished all the latter that were available in ten regiments. I sold him to an army chaplain who was too much reduced by bad whisky and the Tennessee quickstep to exert much physical force, and he was taken prisoner while going at a mad gallop of fourteen miles in fifteen hours, with several thousand howling Texan rangers in the rear.

I then determined to live upon my wits, so far as horseflesh was concerned. So I found myself sometimes in possession of a borrowed animal, sometimes riding a mule, sometimes bestriding a picked up [illegible] from the woods, and not unfrequently disgracing myself and my profession by resorting to the corral of rejected and broken down government horses. Sometimes I had a saddle and no horse; other times I had a horse and no saddle; again I had both and no bridle; and, as a consequence, during the majority of the time I wandered about disconsolately, carrying a saddle and bridle, and looking for a horse, or leading a horse and searching wrathfully for a saddle and bridle.

Of my next attempt at ownership I can say but little. I had reason to believe him all my fancy pictured him. He had unlimited style and action, enlarged capacity for getting over the ground, and a generally prepossessing demeanor, but the next morning after I became his owner the picket rope was found out, and the horse gone, while to the stake was attached a paper containing an original drawing of a school-boy horse on the high prance, mounted by a man composed of two rotundities for head and body, and four straight lines for legs and arms. Underneath was the pithy announcement, "Off for Dixy [sic]." [sic] The picture was remarkable for the expression of the countenance, where the artist had forgotten to insert the usual organs of vision and taste, and for the three erect hairs which composed the tail of the horse. It was also remarkable for the effect produced on my mind on finding it in place of my valuable horse. By a singular coincidence, a secesh deserter who had been pressed into the rebel service, hung several times, and periodically starved to death, and who brought information that the rebels were greatly disaffected, and had nothing but corn bread and molasses to eat, disappeared and never was heard of afterwards. It was insinuated that he was a spy, but I believe Gen. Halleck does not allow spies within his lines—at least that was why he turned the newspaper correspondents out. I lost forty dollars by that operation.

I now rejoice in the possession of a chef d'oeuvre of horse flesh. I paid ten dollars for him, saddle, bridle, and all, and I feel safe in saying that Uncle Sam hasn't money enough to buy him. He left the Texan Ranger Association on the occasion of the late battle, in consequence of his rider having met a cannon ball and stopped to cultivate its acquaintance while he went on in pursuance of previous orders and never passed until he had gone clean through our ranks, and found a mule in the rear, which he proceeded to masticate with all possible speed. He brought along several specimens of his master, in the saddle bags and holsters, which he seemed to regard with sanguinary affection and, having [illegible section] He never loses the opportunity to go the wrong road, to [illegible] and unexpectedly in the direction of the enemy's pickets, to run over general officers and their staffs, to kick up his heels despitefully at military persons of great airs and dignity, and, above all, to indulge in the delight of his heart—thrashing a mule. With these and numerous other amiable qualifications he has endeared himself to my heart, and money cannot buy him.

With a change of scenes it is fit to bring about a change of names. In memory of that historic spot where for months I have burned the midnight oil, and eaten hard bread and bacon, I subscribe myself


Chicago Times, June 14, 1862.[7]

          14-15, Expedition, protection and reconstruction duty over M&C railroad, State Line Road from Memphis to Moscow to Wolf River to Saulsbury to Bolivar


Gen. LEW. WALLACE, Memphis, Tenn.:

SIR: I arrived here with my whole division yesterday, and Gen. Hurlbut is at Grand Junction to-day. I will start working parties to repair the Memphis and Charleston Railroad immediately, and would like you to examine the Somerville Branch and meet us at Moscow to-morrow with any hand cars that can be found.

I would be obliged to you if you would give me such information as you possess of the position of yours and McClernand's troops.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.


Brig.-Gen. DENVER, Comdg. Third Brigade:

SIR: You will march with your command early to-morrow morning on the State Line road to Moscow, examine into the state of damages on the Memphis and Charleston road where it crosses the valley of Wolf River, and do all things possible to restore it to a running condition as soon as possible, to which end you are authorized to call upon palters in the neighborhood for negroes [sic], oxen, wagons, or whatever is necessary to a speedy restoration of the road.

Two companies of Dickey's cavalry will be ordered to report to you this evening for orders.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman


Brig. Gen. STEPHEN A. HURLBUT, Comdg. Fourth Division, Grand Junction:

SIR: The chief purpose of our being here is to cover the reconstruction of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, so as to open up communication from Corinth by way of Jackson, Grand Junction, &c., to Memphis. To this end I have called on the planters here for a force to repair two pieces of trestle-work destroyed here, and to-morrow Gen. Denver will move forward to Moscow to commence the repairs there, and in anticipation of your arrival at Grand Junction I instructed Mr. Smith, and extensive planter there, to call upon his neighbors for a force adequate to repair the road up till he meets a party coming down.

I have already had a messenger at Bolivar, who reports two regiments of Lew. Wallace's command there under command of Col. Sanderson, but his information about the railroad an telegraph repairs is so scant that I wish you would send up another party on that especial business and to urge forward telegraph as rapidly as possible. I look to you to picket strongly the Ripley road to the southeast and the Holly Springs road at Davis' Mill; also at once open a direct road from your camp to LaGrange, if there be not already one.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:

HDQRS. RESERVE CORPS, Bethel, Tenn., June 15, 1862.

Maj. Gen. LEW WALLACE, Comdg. Third Division:

GEN.: Your dispatch dated June 12, 1862, announcing your safe arrival at Union Station, was received last evening by courier. I am directed by Gen. McClernand to say that he congratulates you on the success of your expedition and its safe arrival at a point where you can readily reach supplies, you having been advised by a previous dispatch to draw your supplies for that part of your command from Memphis as soon as it was practicable to do so. To-day we are moving our headquarters to Jackson, at which point you will communicate with me by telegraph from the nearest point. At present the telegraph is working to Bolivar.

C. T. HOTCHKISS, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


Brig. Gen. STEPHEN A. HURLBUT, Grand Junction:

GEN.: Yours of this morning has been received and ready to the general, who is quite unwell and trying to keep quiet. He is glad to know that you have got through so well. Forage you must obtain by purchase from the people of the country give receipts for the articles taken, which the owner will hand to the division quartermaster and receive vouches. We can't send you a portion of our train to furnish subsistence until communication opens.

Gen. Denver has moved his entire brigade up to Moscow, where he will attend to the repairs of the road.

* * * *

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. H. HAMMOND, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 9-11.

          14-16, Federal railroad repair scouts, Memphis and Charleston railroad, Somerville, Bolivar, Moscow


Gen. LEW. WALLACE, Memphis, Tenn.:

SIR: I arrived here with my whole division yesterday, and Gen. Hurlbut is at Grand Junction to-day.

I will start working parties to repair the Memphis and Charleston Railroad immediately, and would like you to examine the Somerville Branch and meet us at Moscow to-morrow with any hand cars that can be found.

I would be obliged to you if you would give me such information as you possess of the position of yours and McClernand's troops.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.

HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, June 15, 1862. Brig.-Gen. DENVER, Comdg. Third Brigade:

SIR: You will march with your command early to-morrow morning on the State Line road to Moscow, examine into the state of damages on the Memphis and Charleston road where it crosses the valley of Wolf River, and do all things possible to restore it to a running condition as soon as possible, to which end you are authorized to call upon palters in the neighborhood for negroes [sic], oxen, wagons, or whatever is necessary to a speedy restoration of the road.

Two companies of Dickey's cavalry will be ordered to report to you this evening for orders.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:

J. H. HAMMOND, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 9-10.




          13, Scout on Manchester Pike

JUNE 13, 1863.-Scout on the Manchester Pike, Tenn.


No. 1.-Brig. Gen. John B. Turchin, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Lieut. Col. William B. Sipes, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. John B. Turchin, U. S. Army.


SIR: I respectfully report that at 7 a. m. this day, Lieut.-Col. Sipes, with 260 men of the Seventh Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry, 105 men of the Third Indiana Cavalry, and one section of Stokes' battery, moved out on the Manchester pike. When 10 miles out, he met the enemy's pickets and drove them in, pursuing them 2 miles. The country being unfavorable for cavalry movements, he then withdrew and returned to camp. The pickets were reported by a citizen to belong to the Texas Rangers, of Hardee's corps. At the same hour, Col. Nicholas moved with his regiment (the Second Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry) on the Wartrace road. At 12 miles out he met two squads of rebel cavalry, each about 30 strong, and dispersed them, after firing a few shots. He moved about half a mile farther forward, and then returned to camp. He could not learn that any force of the rebels had encamped or appeared in any way on the Wartrace road for a week past. Two brigades of infantry are reported to be at Liberty Gap.

In accordance with instructions received from you this p. m., no patrols will be sent to-morrow.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. TURCHIN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Second Cavalry Division.

No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Col. William B. Sipes, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry.


SIR: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to orders, I this morning moved out the Manchester turnpike a distance of about 12 miles, with a force consisting of 260 men of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, 105 men of the Third Indiana Cavalry, and one section of Stokes' battery.

When 10 miles out, the advance guard came upon the enemy's pickets and drove them back. Col. Long, with a detachment of the Third Indiana, pursued them about 2 miles, when I deemed it prudent to order a halt, the country being ill adapted to cavalry movements and the strength of the enemy entirely unknown. The object of the expedition being accomplished by ascertaining the exact position of the enemy on this road, and not wishing to sacrifice any of my men in a profitless pursuit of a retreating foe, we returned to camp, arriving there a little after 2 p. m.

The pickets we encountered were reported by citizens to belong to Texas Rangers, attached to Hardee's corps of the rebel army. I have no casualties to report.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. SIPES, Lieut. Col. Seventh Pennsylvania Vol. Cavalry, Cmdg. Expedition.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 380-381.

          13, Scout on the Wartrace Road

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.


From the Knoxville Register, June 13 [1863]

Of late, in all battles and in all recent incursions made by Federal cavalry, we have found the great mass of Northern soldiers to consist of Dutchmen. The plundering thieves captured by Forrest, who stole half the jewelry and watches in a dozen counties of Alabama, were immaculate Dutchmen. The national odor of Dutchmen, as distinctive of the race as that which, constantly assenting to heaven, has distended the nostrils of the negro [sic], is as unmistakable as that peculiar to a pole-cat, an old pipe, or a lager-pier [sic] saloon. Crimes, thefts, and insults to the women of the South, invariably mark the course of these stinking bodies of animated sour-krout [sic]. Rosecrans himself is an unmixed Dutchman, an accursed race which has overrun the vast districts of the county of the Northeest.* * * [sic] It happens that we entertain a greater degree of respect for an Ethiopian in the ranks of the Northern armies than for an odoriferous Dutchman, who can have no possible interest in this revolutions* * * [sic] Why not hang every Dutchman captured? We will hereafter hang, or shoot or imprison for life all white men taken in command of negroes [sic], and enslave the negroes [sic] themselves. This is not too harsh. No human being will assert the contrary. Why, then, should we not hand a Dutchman, who deserves infinitely less of our sympathy than Sambo [sic]. The live masses of beer, krout [sic], tobacco and rotten cheese, which on two legs and four, on foot and mounted, go prowling through the South, should be used to manure the sandy plains and barren hillsides of Alabama, Tennessee and Georgia.* * * [sic] Whenever a Dutch regiment adorns the limbs of a southern forest, daring cavalry raids into the South shall cease.* * *[sic] President Davis need not be specially consulted, and if an accident of this sort should occur to a plundering band like that captured by Forrest, we are not inclined to believe that our President would be greatly disgruntled.[sic]

New York Times, June 22, 1863.

          13, Taking the Oath of Allegiance at Memphis City Hall

Scenes at the City Hall.

We made a call, yesterday morning, at the grand levee of the ever polite Captain A. J. Enlow, who holds forth at the City Hall. We found his levee well attended. The street in front of the office was thronged with eager visitors, anxious to get a glimpse of the genial captain. The hall itself was thronged with eager expectants of the especial honor of loyal citizenship being extended to them. The ladies, too, were in attendance – the young, the old, the matron and maid, were all in waiting. On inquiry we found that seven thousand persons had taken the oath of fealty to the old Government of our fathers. Three hundred and one persons had taken the foreign neutral oath, and only about six had registered themselves as enemies to the Federal Government.

Memphis Bulletin, June 14, 1863.

          13, A Report on the Memphis City Prison.

The City Prison. – We do not like the name prison; taken in the abstract, we shudder at the very name; but if prison life can be made tolerable, it is certainly so in the municipal prison of this city. Yesterday we made a call on the estimable Major N. S. Trice, who at present is acting as jailor. The major politely showed us through the different wards of the prison, and we confess, to our astonishment, at the neat appearance which all the cells wore – everything looked pleasant, for a prison – there was nothing of the filthy appearance which usually attaches to such places. We have been informed by reliable parties, and those who ought to know, too, that all this order and cleanliness is due to the untiring energy and perseverance of Major Trice. We learn, that before the major assumed the position he now occupies, that the prison was an expense to the city, and now, in stead of being a burden, it has become a source of profit, paying not only the expense of keeping it, but a revenues of something like thirty dollars per week into the city treasury. If all or municipal officers were like Major Trice, there would be little occasion for grumbling with their official acts.

Memphis Bulletin, June 13, 1863.

          13, "AMUSING."

While on our usual daily call at the Irving Block prison, yesterday evening, a soldier belonging to the 46th New York volunteers was brought in for the crime of taking to [sic] much "tanglefoot" whiskey, and while in that condition resisting the guards who came up with him and demanded his pass. The soldier insisted that he was not drunk, and had never been drunk. But it was evident to the senses of all present that had forgotten the old maxim of "know thyself," as he could not stand erect very long at a time. The soldier then began to petition Captain Wright, who happened to be present, to only permit him to go to his company; he insisted very earnestly on his point, so much so, that the tears began to roll down his veteran cheeks, as he recounted who he was and how many hand fought battles he had went through with McClellan, Burnside, and others on the far off banks of the Chickahominy, and Rappahannock. Suddenly, a bright idea seemed to strike him in the middle [of his plea], and, suddenly raising himself nearly straight, he exclaimed, "If you only knowed [sic] me, captain, as well as I know you, you would let me go to my company, for see, I am not drunk, for I can walk this area in the floor," and he proceeded to make the effort; he at first succeeded, for at least three steps, the boys encouraging him to try again, but he failed, exclaiming, "If I didn't walk it, who could, on such a floor."

Memphis Bulletin, June 13, 1863.

13, Rebel Newspaper Evaluation of Wheeler, Morgan and Forrest during Wheeler's Raid, or the Confederate "Middle Tennessee Campaign."

Correspondence of the Telegraph

From Middle Tennessee.

Special to the Telegraph

Tullahoma, Tenn., June 10, 1863.

Gen. Wheeler has just passed my window. He left McMinnville with his staff this morning, and is en route for Shelbyville, where he will make his headquarters. He is to take general supervision of the cavalry in Middle Tennessee, whilst Forrest and Morgan are to be turned loose on their own hook. The change is a good one; and there is little room to doubt the beneficial results which will flow from its operation. The dissatisfaction of Morgan has been the ruin of his command as well as of his own usefulness. Once relieved, it is hoped that he will redeem himself; if he does not, no one will be to blame but himself. As to Forrest, he is one of those pertinacious, obedient soldiers, who never exhibit sulk. Although deeply mortified at the promotion of Wheeler over him, he held his tongue, kept his peace and fought his was as boldly and blithely as ever. The consequence of this patriotic wisdom is, that he heads the list of our cavalry officer at the present time. His late dashing exploits in Tennessee and North Alabama is conceded in army circles to have been the most important, in point of service, of any previous achievement by the "hell-roaring horse." He will be made a Major General, I learn, very soon. Meanwhile, Gen. Wheeler supervises his present position at Thompson's Station. With these exceptions there have been no change I the web of the Middle Tennessee Campaign.[8]


Macon Daily Telegraph, June 13, 1863.

          14, Skirmish near Green Hill

No circumstantial reports filed.

          14, "I want to tell you about our milk scare….;" letter of W. C. Tripp, Co. B, 44th Tennessee (C. S. A.), to his wife

Bedford Co Tenn June the 14 1863

Camp near Fairfield

Dear Wife I take my pen in hand to inform you that I am well at this time hopin [sic] that these few lines will find you all well and doing well I have nothing of importance to rite [sic] to you every thing is still in ferment there is no talk as yet a [sic] leaving here as I no [sic] of I dont [sic] know what to rite [sic] for I hant [sic] heard from you Since you got home from up here I request to here [sic] from you all one time more is you please this is the porest [sic] letter I have rote [sic] to you I looked for some of you up hear last night but I missed seeing any one of you I request you to come up as soon as you get your wheat cut.

I want to tell you about our milk scare when we was on picket they was seventeen of us drink 96 canteens full of milk in too [sic] days and sum [sic] of the boys wish they had some more milk but I gest [sic] hit [sic] done mee [sic] more harm than good at the present time they was six of our mess our expense was twelve dollars in too days but I tell you we didnt [sic] have much meat with us to eat but we have seen little meat to eat since we came back Martha com [sic] up next Saturday we are going to have a big meeting hear I would bee [sic] glad to go with you to meeting one time more in this life tell Harris and Francis they come up and see me.

Martha you must have my shoes made as soon as you can will need them in a short time have them made number 8 and don't [sic] have them made too heavy. The boys is all well as common the helth [sic] of the regiment is as good as common Thar [sic] was a order red [sic] out at dress parade last night to discharge any wounded men from the heavy artillery I was glad of that Ask Jones to send me my knife by the first that come up if Carnes has got hit yet I must bring my few lines to a close excuse my bad riting [sic] and spelling I want you to rite [sic] every chance you have so I must quit for a while I remain your husband until death.

W.C. Tripp to Martha A. Tripp


          14, "THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE."

The meeting of the Chamber of Commerce was adjourned yesterday until tomorrow morning at 11 o'clock, when members will please attend in accordance with the published call. At the meeting several important reasons were urged why no time should be lost in organizing the Chamber. It is highly necessary that the merchants should have an organization, by means of which they can take such steps as shall secure to Memphis those just commercial privileges to which her important position entitles her. If the business men of Memphis are to flourish, they must unite and act vigorously.

Memphis Bulletin, June 14, 1863.

          14, Engagement at Saltillo, U. S. N. disperses Rebels [see June 14-25, 1863, "Counter insurgency expedition on Tennessee River by U. S. N." below]

          14, A trip on the Memphis to Charleston Railroad

Dangers of the Charleston Railroad.-The following from a lady correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial, dated May 29, give a lively idea of the delights of traveling nowadays:

We left Memphis about eight o'clock yesterday morning and traveled rather slowly for some distance. We had not gone more that twenty miles before a report reached us that the track had been torn up just ahead, and a large rebel force [was] in waiting. This news was received about six miles from Germantown, from which place scouts had been sent out. More of our men were at Collierville, four miles ahead, and at this distance from the last named place, we found the track torn up truly enough. Our guard was instantly put under arms, and send forward to examine into the damage, while all on board were momentarily expecting an attack on the train. Captain S., who went forward, said he saw for our five of the guerrillas, but no more, and it was deemed advisable to repair the damage as quickly as possible and proceed on our journey.

Meanwhile the panic on board increase every moment. Several ladies were frightened half to death-trembling, excited and in tears-expecting to be shot or taken prisoners, and this within four miles of their husbands, who, they said, were stationed at Collierville. I endeavored to reason and calm them by saying alarm was useless, as we should retire at once to Germantown, in case the guerrillas should make their appearance; but they were too thoroughly frightened to listen to any thing; and shortly afterward a colonel who was on board, came up and advised them to go over to a house a little distance from the road, where, if we be attacked, they might be comparatively safe. Of course, this confirmed the idea at once of the impending danger, and they hastened rapidly away. I alone remained much to the surprise of all. My husband was on ahead with the other officers and I reasoned at once that were an attack to be made and our men to [sic] week to repulse it, our first movement would be to back the cars to Germantown for more troops, which movement would leave all who had taken refuse in the house of the mercy of the rebels. In answer to their urgent requests to have me accompany them, I stated the fact, and stated that I was not alarmed in any way. I did not believe any attack would be made. From all information that we could glean from the residents of this place, there had been but thirteen rebels there, and their numbers had been greatly exaggerated in the report we received below. Indeed, after this, I felt perfectly confident there was nothing to apprehend but the delay, and indulged in in [sic] a little quiet amusement over the fright of my more nervous neighbors. They regarded me as daring and reckless; indeed, I think some of them imagined I was slightly insane, to think of running through alone, and braving, as they termed it, the "dangers of our awful situation."

An hour or less served to repair the road, and the whistle sounded to recall men and passengers for going forward. They came in from all directions, some running, some leisurely walking back, at perfect ease. Our party from the house ran for dear life, and reached us in as great a fright almost as when they left us.

A careful run of two miles brought us within our picket lines, stationed outside of Collierville, and then they were at rest. At Collierville they got off delighted, and we proceeded, fearing nor caring for anything but the dust.

We arrived here on time (forty minutes past six) and found everything going on as usual. There were scouting parties out, and others preparing every day for like, expeditions, in which they, in which they were generally very successful.

Memphis Bulletin, June 14, 1863.

          14, "PADDY GO AISY'S PARTIALITY." Memphis political satire

Editor Bulletin:

One of the wise men of Egypt, that is, an alderman of Memphis, has declared that, "wards, like republics, are often ungrateful." Had he had any experience he might have added that alderman were as ungrateful as wards. I fancied, foolishly it seems, that my attentions were bestowed on the members of the august body with an impartiality that subsided envy and defiled complaint. I labored hard as deliverer in-chief, in assisting them all to bring forth resolutions suited to their calling, character and capacity. Did I wish to excite your sympathy, and play upon your risible faculties, I could, like a hog with a curly narrative, a tale unfold, that would make you laugh till you'd cry; but as that might be too much for the plaintiff's fortitude, I forbear for the present.

Well, then I am accused of being partial. It appears that I have "puffed" every alderman in the board but one, and he very naturally feels insulted at the slight offered to his official dignity; and my and my neglecting to deliver him of a resolution, reduced him to the necessity of borrowing from his colleague, in order that his name should appear in print, because he seriously believes that the public must know his face by seeing his name in the newspaper. Fearing that the grumbling of Alderman Dusderman [sic] might injure my official reputation, I persuaded him to take a private lesson or two, in company with a few friends, and am happy to say that the system adopted was most successful – with which statement you will agree when the process is explained. Operations were commenced by explaining the parts of speech, which, as he had been an editor for twelve years, was somewhat difficult. However, he gradually came to understand that the principal parts of speech were the lips, tongue and palate all of which he assured me he possessed, upon which assurance he had but to use them freely to make as great a noise in the world as if he had been born a drummer; and in order to do that effectually, he had only to commit to memory two or three dozen adjectives, which could be thrown in on all occasions and in all themes. He is a penetrating genius; for his next question was, "How came I, to know an adjective?" This was going into the philosophy of the subject; and it was only after repeated efforts he began to comprehend; but did he fully understand, until placed before him in the most familiar simile of drunk men, because like him an adjective cannot stand alone. His anxiety made him try his powers too soon, which resulted in his stuttering and stammering, compelling a friend to call out "sing it, sing it," which he did, in good style, and in the following words, that are not in print and can speak for themselves:

Here's to our aldermen, jolly and fat;

With stomach as tight as a drum, sir'

Here's his honor, so found of the "herrin n' sallat."*

Washed down with a beaker of rum, sir.

Let their toast pass,

We're all of a class,

And with our teeth uppermost, going to graze.


Here's to the rather who spouts for a prize,

Here's to the genius that is dumb sir;

Here's to the one who keeps falling for "ayes

And nays" just as they'd come, sir

Let the toast pass, etc.


Here's the good soul who his meat can't retain

So hot are the coppers; and manger,

A dignified manner and gold-headed cane

Begs a "squirt" after each glass of lager.

Let the toast pass, etc.


Here's to the two who are at glyster and pill,

Are acknowledged confoundedly clever;

Here's to the few who are sensible still,

And not the remainder who're never.

Let the toast pass, etc.


This effort was applauded by all present save a brother alderman, who fancied he was reflected on by the singer; and mustered something about being unable to make a speech, sing a song, or tell a story, but would like to ask a question, which was, "Why is an Alderman like a dose of chloroform? This was answered by the nigger [sic] in waiting exclaiming "Because he is a nuisance," (new sense). When the party agreed that the alderman who perpetrated such a farfetched pun should be suitably punished, which was immediately done in a manner perfectly agreeable to PADDY GO AISY.[9]

* An improved aldermanic mode of spelling herring salad. [sic]

Memphis Bulletin, June 14, 1863

          14, "The Oath of Allegiance."

The clerks appointed to enroll and swear in those citizens who were ready and desirous to take the oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States have day to day been kept busy, from morning to night, registering those who have applied, yet the work is not nearly concluded. To afford all who wish to stand fair on the record, as good and loyal citizens, as true children of revolutionary fathers, and worthy disciples of Washington and the patriots heroes of our history, the places of enrollment has been moved to the Council Chamber; a large body of clerks are employed, and this morning we publish an order which has been earnestly asked for by persons who had not had opportunity to take the oath – extending the time of enrollment to the evening of Thursday next. As so large a number of clerks are employed, the ceremony can be performed with but a trifling loss of time. Ladies can register in a separate room, opening from the Council Chamber.

Memphis Bulletin, June 14, 1863.

          14, "There are to be one man and two women hung next Friday at Murfreesboro." Excerpts from the letter of Jacob W. Bartmess to his wife in Indiana

Camp Drake.

Near Murfreesboro Ten

June 14th/63

Dearest one----

I am seated in my tent beside the table which Adam and I put up to serve us both as a writing desk and an eating table. It gives me pleasure to write to you and let you know that I still enjoy good health.

I have just drawn my horses this forenoon. I have just come from preaching. We have had preaching in the regiment both Sundays that I have been here....

Monday morning 15th.

There were a couple spies hung at Franklin about 30 miles north west of this place. They were going around with a forged pass from Gen. Rosecrans and in officers uniforms. But they were caught in their deception. And strung up.

There are to be one man and two women hung next Friday at Murfreesboro. The women are spies. And the man a murderer he cut a man's tongue out and ears off. And killed him because he would not tell where his money was....

J. W. Bartmess


          14, Skirmish at Silver Springs (14th) by Colonel Hawkins' Mounted Scouts. [10]

From Tennessee.

We clip the following paragraph[s] from the Chattanooga Rebel of the 25th:

Skirmish at Silver Springs – On the 14th inst., Capt. C. Burton, of Wilson county, commanding a detachment of scouts under Col. Wm. Hawkins, Wheeler's corps, ambuscaded a party of Federals on the Lebanon pike, killing 16; capturing a number of horses and carbines, 15 navies[11] [sic] some 30 splendid gum blankets and various "Yankee Notions," among them 10 negroes, who have been given up to their owners. Another squad of Hawkins' men under scouting order to Gallatin met a party of Dunderhead Dutch[12] who bravely attacked them. They killed three. One of the bodies proved to be that of Lieut.-Col Carter, regiment not known. We like reports of man killed and few prisoners.

Gallant Feat of Colonel Hawkins Mounted Scouts. – This new command, of which a correspondent has lately spoken, is already at work. We learn that fifteen, under acting Lieutenant Payne and Buchanan, together with eight of Gen. Wharton's men, crossed the Cumberland within seven miles of Nashville, near the city on the Gallatin pike, with a boldness that must have been bewildering, and routed a detachment of Abolitionists engaged in guarding stolen stock. They brought off all 212 mules, and re-swam the river in safety, without loss. Col. Hawkins is exhibiting only the energy and ability that all expect who know him, and we are glad to know that his "light," too long hid under "the bushel" of a staff appointment, is beginning to soon to shed its rays against the gloom of the tyranny that overhangs the borders. We have since learned that the mules belonged to George D. Prentice, and had not been received by the Government.

Daily Morning News (Savannah, GA) June 27, 1863.[13]

          14-15, Robbery and a reprieve from execution in Nashville: an excerpt from the diary of John Hill Fergusson, 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry

Nashville Tennessee}Robery [sic]

Ruffis [sic] Neal & James Anderson went up town yesterday and said [they] took one small drink of whisky. They soon felt as if they wanted to go to sleep they walked out and lay down beneath a tree and were soon both fast a [sic] sleep this was about 9 A. M. they did not awake until 6 in the evening they were surprised to see where the Sun was and began to feel for there Money but sure enough it was gon [sic] Ruffis [sic] Neal had $80.00 taken out of his…pocket book….James Anderson had his watch and what money he had taken they could not form any idea who had taken it they returned to camp in something of a stew Ruffis [sic] could not be satisfied he started up town after dark not much expecting to find anything of it but thought he might discover some suspecious [sic] person around some grocery he at last droped [sic] into a house where there seemed to be several soldiers a [sic] drinking they would give the money to the woman of the house and she would go out and bring in the whiskey and other articles they might call for there was an Irish grocery opisit [sic] the house where they readly [sic] got anything they wanted the grocery keeper took an active part in the frolic Ruffis [sic] Neal disguised himself the best way he could and walked in unnoticed  and sat down in one corner he got his eye on one fellow he was a recrute [sic] in co. B of our Regt he had been drinking pritty [sic] freely and told his compenions [sic] to drink all they wanted, when that was dun [sic] they could get more and if they had not got the money he had plenty of it, and wanted to know if they did not want some Sardeans [sic] he said he had plenty of money and would pay for them so saying he Stuck his hand into his brest [sic] pocket to pull out some money in doing so he puled [sic] out the watch chain which Ruffis [sic] felt sure was the very watch he felt then satisfied he had found the object of his sarch [sic] he went up to the fellow and inquired what time he had the fellow said his watch was not runing [sic]  Ruffis [sic] then wanted to see it saying he wanted to bie [sic] the watch but the fellow refused to show it and said he did not want to sell Ruffis went to the door and called a Sergeant of company K of our Regt to assist him in serching [sic] the fellow but the Sergt refused haveing [sic] anything to do with it. One Michal [sic] Kelly of co K was informed of the suspesun [sic] he sore [sic] he would help serch him and if found guilty would help to kill the damned rascle [sic] Ruffis [sic] & Kelley returned to the house and demanded an exemnation [sic] of the watch the fellow at first refused but Kelley caut [sic] him by the neck an damned him if he did not pull out the watch in a minut [sic] he would shake him out of his boots the fellow seeing nothing would do pulled out the watch and tried to prove he had the watch some 3 weeks by a fellow in his company Ruffis [sic] new [sic] the watch two well and ordered the fellow to get up and come along with him Kelley took one side and Ruffis [sic] the other each holding an arm it seems the fellow had the greatest bulk of the money in the watch fob and as they traveled along he tryed [sic] to finger it out ruffis [sic] kept watching him and wanted to know what he was feeling for and put his hand on the outside of the fob and felt a bunch of something in there that made him feel satisified his money was there. They brought him into our camp and called the 2 Lieuts Blanchard and Wilson they came and had him examined [sic] they even took of[f] his britches but could find no money but one dollar the bunch in his fob pocket gad gome and cold not be accounted for at last Ruffis thought of the fellows [sic] pants comeing [sic] unbuttoned, and he stoped [sic] to fix them up the watch was sufficient evidence by every one in Co. G to prove him to be the thief [sic] Ruffis [sic] and Allen took a light and examined the man closely [sic] they found 42 dollars where he fixed up his pants that was all they could find the fellow then confessed that he took the money and watch and said he had spent the balance [sic] of it all to what he throwed out of his pocket at that place Ruffis [sic] was satisfied that it had been spent in that house where he found him and in the grocery tother [sic] and was determined to have it the fellow was kept under guard until morning then sent to geal [sic]

Burris Neal and James Anderson took there revolvers and started up to the hosue and grocery where the fellow spent his money and demanded what money he had left with them the woman of the house at first denied having [sic] received any but at last owned up that she had that she had 6 dollars in paper & 50 cts in silver it was delivered up Ruffis [sic] knew the half dollar as he had carried it a long time he tried to scare the grocery keeper to pay up the balance [sic] but did not succeed as he expected he then came back to camp and informed Lieut Wilson of the particulars [sic] the Lieut then went to try his luck but how he made it I do not pretend to know only he has not got the balance of the money yet I expect they will have the grocery keeper arested [sic] & tried by a court martial.

Our company is on guard today Sergt Harvey in charge at 3 P. M. the drums beat for the troops to fall in as a Soldier in a [sic] Ohio regt was to be shot I went down to the place about ¾ of a mile from our camp on the same place where a Soldier belonging to the 10th Michigan was shot some 3 or 4 weeks ago there was a great many Stragglers accumulated at the place both soldiers and citizens the 85th Ills regt marched down and formed in line all the other drums had quit beating and no other troops seemed to be comeing [sic] the 85th Ills stacked arms and brock [sic] ranks the grave was dug ready to receive the coffin close by the side of the grave where the other soldier was shot in a short time word came to the colonel of the 85th to march his regt back to camp as the fellow had been reprieved [sic] just as they were preparing to send him to the amblance [sic] his coffin had already been placed in it I was very glad to hear of his life being spaired [sic]

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.

          14-24, Sanders' Raid[14] in East Tennessee

JUNE 14-24, 1863.-Sanders' raid in East Tennessee.


June 14, 1863.-Sanders' command sets out from Mount Vernon, Ky.

          17, 1863.-Affair at Wartburg, near Montgomery, Tenn.

          19, 1863.-Affair at Lenoir's Station, Tenn.

          19-20, 1863.-Skirmishes at Knoxville, Tenn.

          20, 1863.-Skirmish at Strawberry Plains, Tenn.

          20, 1863.-Skirmish at Rogers' Gap, Tenn.

          21, 1863.-Skirmish at Powder Springs Gap, Tenn.

          22, 1863.-Skirmish at Powell Valley, Tenn.

          24. 1863.-Sanders' command arrives at Boston, Ky.

Report of W. P. SANDERS, Col. Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, Cmdg. Expedition into East Tennessee,

LEXINGTON, KY., July 26, 1863.

COL.: I have the honor to report that, in obedience to special instructions from the general commanding the department, I left Mount Vernon, Ky., June 14, 1863, with a force of 1,500 mounted men composed of detachments of different regiments-as follows: Seven hundred of the First East Tennessee Mounted Infantry, under Col. R. K. Byrd; 200 of the Forty-fourth Ohio Mounted Infantry, under Maj. Moore; 200 of the One hundred and twelfth Illinois Mounted Infantry, under Maj. Dow; 150 of the Seventh Ohio Cavalry Volunteers, under Capt. Rankin; 150 of the Second Ohio Cavalry Volunteers, under Capt. Welch; 100 of the First Kentucky Cavalry Volunteers, under Capt. Drye; and a section of Capt. Konkle's battery, First Regt. [sic] Ohio Artillery Volunteers, under Lieut. Lloyd-for the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. From Mount Vernon to Williamsburg, on the Cumberland River, a distance of 60 miles, a train of wagons, containing forage and subsistence stores, accompanied the expedition. From this point I followed a route known as the Marsh Creek road to near Huntsville, Tenn., leaving that place a few miles to my left. We reached the vicinity of Montgomery, Tenn., on the evening of the 17th [June], and learning that a small party of rebels were stationed at Wartburg, 1 mile from Montgomery, I sent 400 men from the First East Tennessee to surprise and capture them, following one hour afterward myself with the remainder of the command. The surprise was complete. We captured 102 enlisted men and 2 officers (one of them an aide to Gen. Pegram), together with a large number of horses, 60 boxes artillery ammunition, several thousand pounds of bacon, salt, flour, and meal, some corn, 500 spades, 100 picks, besides a large quantity of other public stores, and 6 wagons with mule teams. The prisoners were paroled and the property destroyed.

A small portion of this command, who were out some distance from the camp, with their horses, escaped and gave the first notice of our approach at Knoxville, Kingston, Loudon, and other places. From this point I marched toward Kingston. When within 8 miles of there, I learned positively that Scott's brigade and one battery were at that place, guarding the ford of Clinch River. For this reason, leaving Kingston to my right, I crossed the river 8 miles above, at Waller's Ford, on the direct road to Loudon. At daylight on the 19th [June], I was within 3 miles of Loudon, and about the same distance from Lenoir's. I here learned that a force of three regiments was at the Loudon Bridge, with eight pieces of artillery, and that they had been for two weeks strengthening the works at that place, digging rifle-pits, ditches, &c.; and having captured a courier from the commanding officer, with dispatches ordering the forces from Kingston to follow in my rear, and stating that the troops from Lenoir's had been ordered to join them, I determined to avoid Loudon, and started immediately for Lenoir's Station, which place I reached about 8 a. m., arriving there about thirty minutes after the departure of the rebel troops. At this station I captured a detachment of artillerymen, with three 6-pounder iron guns, 8 officers, and 57 enlisted men. Burned the depot, a large brick building, containing five pieces of artillery, with harness and saddles, two thousand five hundred stand of small-arms, a very large amount of artillery and musket ammunition, and artillery and cavalry equipments. The depot was entirely occupied with military stores, and one car filled with saddles and artillery harness. We also captured some 75 Confederate States mules and horses. There was a large cotton factory and a large amount of cotton at this place, and I ordered that It should not be burned, as It furnished the Union citizens of the country with their only material for making cloth, but have since learned that it was burned by mistake or accidentally. I had the telegraph wire and railroad destroyed from here on to Knoxville, at points about 1 mile apart. We met the enemy's pickets at Knoxville about 7 p. m. on the 19th [June], and drove them to within a mile of the City. Leaving a portion of the First Kentucky Cavalry on this side of the town, I moved the rest of the command as soon as it was dark by another road entirely around to the other side, driving in the pickets at several places, and cut the railroad, so that no troops could be sent to the bridges above. At daylight I moved up to the City, on the Tazewell road. I found the enemy well posted on the heights and in the adjacent buildings, with eight or nine pieces of artillery. The streets were barricaded with cotton bales, and the batteries protected by the same material. Their force was estimated at 3,000, including citizens who were impressed into service. After about one hour's skirmishing, I withdrew, capturing near the City two pieces of artillery-6-pounders-the tents, and all the camp equipage of a regiment of conscripts, about 80 Confederate States horses, and 31 prisoners.

I then started for Strawberry Plains, following the railroad, and destroyed all the small bridges and depots to within 4 miles of the latter place, at Flat Creek, where I burned a finely built covered bridge, and also a county bridge. The guard had retreated. I left the railroad 3 miles below the town, and crossed the Holston River, so as to attack the bridge on the same side the enemy were. As soon as we came in sight they opened on the advance with four pieces of artillery. I dismounted the infantry and sent the Forty-fourth Ohio, under Maj. Moore, up the river, and the rest, under Col. Byrd and Maj. Dow, to get in their rear. After about an hour's skirmishing, the enemy were driven off, and having a train and locomotive, with steam up, in waiting, a portion of them escaped, leaving all their guns (five in number), 137 enlisted men and 2 officers as prisoners, a vast amount of stores, ammunition, and provisions, including 600 sacks of salt, about 70 tents, and great quantity of camp equipage, in our possession. I remained at this place all night, and destroyed the splendid bridge over the Holston River, over 1,600 feet long, built on eleven piers. The trestle-work included, this bridge was 2,100 feet in length.

At daylight on the 21st [June] I started up the railroad for the Mossy Creek Bridge, destroying the road at all-convenient points. At Mossy Creek, New Market, and vicinity I captured 120 prisoners and destroyed several cars, a large quantity of stores, several hundred barrels of saltpeter, 200 barrels of sugar, and a large amount of other stores. The bridge burned at Mossy Creek was a fine one, over 300 feet in length. Near this place I also destroyed the machinery of a gun factory and a saltpeter factory.

I determined to leave the railroad here and endeavor to cross the mountains at Rogers' Gap, as I knew every exertion was being made on the part of the enemy to capture my command. I forded the Holston, at Hayworth's Bend, and started for the Powder Springs Gap, of Clinch Mountain. Here a large force was found directly in my front, and another strong force overtook and commenced skirmishing with my rear guard. By taking county roads, I got into the gap without trouble or loss, and had all this force in my rear. On arriving within a mile and a half of Roger's Gap, I found that it was blockaded by fallen timber, and strongly guarded by artillery and infantry, and that all the gaps practicable were obstructed and guarded by artillery and infantry, and that all the gaps practicable were obstructed and guarded in a similar manner. I then determined to abandon my artillery, and move by a wood path to Smith's Gap, 3 miles from Roger's Gap. The guns, Carriages, harness, and ammunition were completely destroyed, and left. I had now a large force both in front and rear, and could only avoid capture by getting into the mountains, and thus place all of them in my rear, which I succeeded in doing, after driving a regiment of cavalry from Smith's Gap. The road through this pass is only a bridle-path, and very rough. I did not get up the mountain until after night. About 170 of men and officers got on the wrong road, and did not rejoin the command until we reached Kentucky.

Owing to the continual march, many horses gave out and were left, and, although several hundred were captured on the march, they were not enough to supply all the men. We reached Boston, Ky., on the 24th. Our loss was 2 killed, 4 wounded, and 13 missing....

I am much indebted for the success of the expedition to Col. R. K. Byrd, for his valuable assistance and advice; also to Maj.'s Moore and Dow, and to Capt.'s Welch, Rankin, and Drye, of the cavalry, for the able manner in which they conducted the rear guard. Lieut. Lloyd managed his section of artillery with great ability and judgment, and rendered great assistance to the expedition. Lieut. G. H. Forsyth, acting assistant adjutant-general and aide-de-camp, rendered valuable service. To Sergeant Reynold, First East Tennessee Volunteers, and his guides, I am chiefly indebted for the main success. His knowledge of the country is through and reliable, and was invaluable. All the officers and men deserve great credit and praise for the cheerfulness with which they submitted to great hardships and fatigue, and their energy and readiness at all times either to fight or march.

I inclose the parole of 461 prisoners.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. P. SANDERS. Col. Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, Cmdg. Expedition.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 386-389.


Report of Maj. Gen. Amborse E. Burnside, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Ohio.

CINCINNATI, OHIO, June 25, 1863--12 m.

Col. Sanders, in returning from East Tennessee, found the gap through which he intended to pass so well fortified that he was obliged to go through another, which was impassable for artillery. He therefore destroyed the two pieces of artillery which he took with him, and three captured pieces, and left them behind.

A. E. BURNSIDE, Maj.-Gen.

CINCINNATI, OHIO, June 27, 1863.

Col. Sanders' command has arrived inside of our lines. He left on the expedition but 1 killed, 2 wounded, and a few stragglers taken prisoners. He captured ten pieces of artillery instead of three, as I before reported, which he destroyed. The report of the destruction of the bridges and public stores, and capture of prisoners and small-arms, was correctly given in his first dispatch. He and his command deserve great credit for their patience, endurance, and gallantry. The Strawberry Plains Bridge is the most important on the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. Intelligent men from that neighborhood assert that it will take months to rebuild it. A written report will be sent in a day or two.

A. E. BURNSIDE, Maj.-Gen.

Report of Col. William P. Sanders, Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, commanding expedition.

BOSTON, June 23, 1863.

I arrived here with my command at 11 o'clock this morning. I struck the railroad at Lenoir's; destroyed the road up to Knoxville; made demonstrations against Knoxville so as to have their troops drawn from above; destroyed the track, and started for Strawberry Plains; burned Slate Creek Bridge (312 feet long), the Strawberry Plains Bridge (1,600 feet long), and also Mossy Creek Bridge (325 feet long). I captured pieces of artillery, some 200 boxes of artillery ammunition, over 500 prisoners, 1,000 stand of arms, and destroyed a large amount of salt, sugar, flour, and saltpeter, and one saltpeter works and other stores. My command is much fatigued; we have had but two nights' sleep since leaving Williamsburg. The force in East Tennessee was larger than I had supposed. I did not attack Loudon Bridge for reasons that I will explain. At Mossy Creek I determined to return in the mountains. I had very great difficulty that was unexpected. I found the gap strongly guarded with artillery and infantry, and blockaded with fallen timber, through which I expected to return. A force was also forming in our rear. I determined to cross at Smith's Gap. I will report more fully as soon as possible.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. P. SANDERS, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 385-386.[15]


Report of Maj. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, C. S. Army.

KNOXVILLE, June 24, 1863.

GEN.: The enemy's cavalry escaped through Chalder's Gap, with loss of a few prisoners and horses, and their artillery and baggage. They are beyond the mountains. The railroad and small trestles will be in order to the Holston in four days. The cars can cross the Holston, on a trestle-bridge I am building, within two weeks. After that time there will be no delay or transfer of freight. After four days hence the only transfer will be in crossing the Holston, where, if necessary, I will send a small steamer.

S. B. BUCKNER, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 390.


MORRISTOWN, June 21, 1863.

Maj.-Gen. JONES, Dublin:

The enemy burned the bridge over the Holston, 16 miles east of Knoxville, last evening. They advanced to within 14 miles of this place this morning and burned a bridge and depot. No troops here except my regiment, Brig.-Gen. Jackson in command.


KNOXVILLE, June 22, 1863.

Gen. BRAXTON BRAGG, Shelbyville:

The enemy appeared near Knoxville on the 19th, and attacked on 20th. Were repulsed. They burned the railroad bridges at Flat Creek and Strawberry Plains. Please grant permission to [A. L.] Maxwell, bridge-builder, to rebuild them at once.

S. B. BUCKNER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 882.



It has already been announced that this marauding party made their escape through Childer's Gap late Monday evening [22nd].

We learn that McKenzie's Regiment, Lieut. Col. Montgomery commanding, and a portion of Col. Hart's 6th Georgia Cavalry, under command of Maj. Fain, had reached a position in the valley fronting this gap on Monday at 5 o'clock P. M., and before the raiders. While Col. Montgomery's command, however, was in this position [sic], a courier reported the enemy on our right, endeavoring to turn our flank in that direction. Col. Montgomery receiving this intelligence, ordered his command including the portion of Col. Hart's regiment to move back down the valley about two miles and await the enemy's approach. While Col. Montgomery was in this last position the raiders made their way across the valley to Childer's gap and escaped. Some prisoners captured by our forces stated that they expected all to be captured, as their officers had told them that three brigades of our forces were in front of them and Scott and Pegram close on their rear.

We make these statements on authority, not for the purpose of casting censure upon any one; but simply as part of the history of this whole marauding expedition.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, June 28, 1863.


Railroad Bridges Destroyed Five Hundred Prisoners Captured-Great Destruction of Rebel Property.

Cincinnati, June 25.-The following dispatch has been received by General Burnside, from the expedition sent into East Tennessee.

I struck the railroad at Lenoir, destroyed the road up to Knoxville, made a demonstration against Knoxville, so as to draw the troops down from above, destroyed the track, and started for Strawberry Plains, burned the State creek bridge, 312 feet long, and the Strawberry creek bridge, 1600 feet long, and also the Massey creek bridge, 825 feet long.

I captured three pieces of artillery, some two hundred boxes artillery ammunition, over five hundred prisoners, and one thousand stand of arms, destroyed a large amount of salt, sugar, flour, meal, saltpeter, and one saltpeter works and other stores. My command is much fatigued. We have had but two nights' sleep since leaving Williamsburg. The force in East Tennessee is larger than I had supposed. I did not attack Loudon bridge for reasons that I will explain.

At Massey Creek I determined to return. In the mountains I had very great difficulties, that were unexpected. I found the gap through which I intended to return strongly guarded with artillery and infantry, and blockaded with fallen timber. A force was also following in my rear. I determined to cross at Smith's Gap, which I did. I will report more fully as soon as possible.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S.H. Sanders, Colonel Commanding.

Philadelphia Inquirer, June 26, 1863.

          14-25, Counter insurgency expedition on the Tennessee River[16] by U. S. N.

Report of Lieutenant-Commander Phelps, U. S. Navy, regarding operations in the Tennessee River, referring to engagements at Saltillo, Beech Island, and Cerro Gordo, June 14-June 25, 1863.

Office Mississippi Squadron

Cairo, Ill., June 25, 1863

Sir: I have the honor to report that the vessels in the Tennessee have been active during the past two weeks (ca. 14-15 June, 1863) and yet have been unable to prevent the enemy crossing the river. The removal of the land forces from points north of the line of Corinth has opened that section of country to the operations of predatory bands.

The gunboats have destroyed skiffs, canoes, and rafts, with material that might serve to construct them without end, but the rebels build as fast as we destroy. Rafts made of drift [wood] serve every purpose of crossing. The rebels, almost without hindrance, are plundering Tennessee lying west of the river and are enforcing their conscript act. Refugees in large numbers reach the river and are brought away by the gunboats upon flats used for coal, etc. These unite in the report that General Biffle is erecting stockades at Waynesborough. Some state that General Bragg's left wing is retiring to that place. It is probable that Biffle is only establishing himself for the purpose of securing the grain and cattle being collected by his forces.

On the 14th instant Acting Lieutenant Commanding Hurd dispersed a force of rebels at Saltillo and again another force of 200 at Beech [Creek] Island on the 17th instant. At Cerro Gordo General Dodge has kept a kind of home guard to protect the crossing at that point. On the opposite side rebels 200 and 300 strong have been for some time in the habit of firing across at our people, disappearing on the approach of the gunboats, to come out again soon after they passed. Captain Hurd had two of the Robb's howitzers landed and concealed, expecting to catch the rebels on the other side as soon as the gunboats were out of sight. Three hundred of the enemy had crossed the river for the purpose of capturing the home guard and found our howitzers in position. A mutual surprise ensued, both parties meeting with an unexpected party. Our pieces had an open field to work in and were effective, the rebels being repulsed. The gunboats arrived very soon and opened upon the enemy. The men at the howitzers belonged to the Robb; 1 was killed and 2 wounded, 1 severely. Owing to the number of the enemy driven to the woods Captain Hard did not think it prudent to send men to examine the field, but he states that he has been reliably informed that the enemy lost from 25 to 30 killed and wounded.

The rebels crossing the Tennessee are reported to be ordered to rendezvous at Bolivar.

The Queen City and Silver Cloud are here and will relieve the Tawah, in accordance with the arrangement already detailed to you. One of these vessels will give special attention to the neighborhood of Island [No.] 40.

I expect to leave to-morrow with the Eastport to arrange more care after the stations of vessels have between here and Helena....

The Robb makes the chain of boats complete now between Helena and the head of navigation on the Tennessee.

* * * *

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

S.L. Phelps, Lieutenant Commander

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 25, pp. 204-205.




          13, General Orders, No. 27; protecting the loyal population in the Nashville District from robbery and murder by guerrillas

Headquarters Distict [sic] of Tenn.,

Nashville, Tenn., June 13, 1864.

It is so common for guerrillas to commit murders and steal and destroy property within this district, in neighborhoods in which their friends and sympathizers [sic] reside, and by, whom they are concealed, and, as it is believed, aided in the commission of these crimes, that extraordinary measures are indispensably necessary to protect the law-abiding and inoffensive citizens from pillage and murder.

It is, therefore, ordered: That in every instance in which guerrillas shall rob or murder a loyal citizen, an assessment will be made upon, and collected from, Rebel sympathisers [sic] in the neighborhood of the offence; in the case of robbery, of the amount taken, and in case of murder, of such an amount for the use of the murdered man's family as may be thought just and right. And when a neighborhood shall become notorious for such robberies and murders, the Rebel sympathizers therein, whose friends and relatives commit these crimes, will be sent South, beyond the Federal lines, to remain during the war. This order will be rigidly and promptly enforced. To that end all thefts, robberies and murders will at once [be] reported to these Headquarters, by military authorities of the district, and with all the facts involved, whereupon the necessary orders will be issued from these Headquarters.

By command of Major-General Rousseau.

Nashville Dispatch, June 14, 1864.

          13, Skirmish at Collierville

No circumstantial reports filed.

WHITE'S STATION, June 13, 1864.

Information is just received that some 2,000 of our men have reached the vicinity of Collierville, fighting their way. The effective force of my cavalry is getting ready to hurry to their assistance, and if you will authorize it, I will load a train now here with infantry and send it in conjunction with the cavalry.

S. D. STURGIS, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 89.

          13, "The Country from Strawberry Plains to Bristol, is given over to the Rebels, & they control it with a small scouting force of 50. to 100 –" A plea for relief from Confederate guerrillas in East Tennessee

Knoxville Ten 13th June 1864.

Gov. A. Johnson

Dr Sir,

At the request of very many of our up Countrymen I write to ask you to send us one Regt. [sic] of East Ten: [sic] troops.

We understand that you control 2 or 3 Brigades in & around Nashville, hence this request.

The Country from Strawberry Plains to Bristol, is given over to the Rebels, & they control it with a small scouting force of 50. [sic] to 100-- Our Union Citizens who remain at home, many of them are not only robed [sic]; but Shot down on their own door-cills [sic] in the presence of their families-- The Country is being desolated & depopulated & not one fourth of a crop being raised for the next year--

Our harvest will be on hand in 15 or 20 days, and unless the up Country is protected, we cant [sic] possibly save our harvest, which upon average is not more than half a crop--

One Regt, at Bulls [sic] Gap of 6 or 800. E. Ten: [sic] troops Can be fed there by the R.R. & Can scout & protect the whole of Upper E. Ten to Bristol-- I entreat you, to at once attend to this request if it be in you power to do so -- These people in a great measure, look to you for releif [sic] & will be greatly disappointed, if they fail to get it--

I am pleased with the Presidential Ticket, (and without intending to flatter) would have been better pleased with you at the head of the ticket--- Please let me hear from you on recpt [sic] of this--Say what you can do for us--

How long, before will a chance at reorganization? Let it come as soon as possible, but, not however 'till the country is cleared of Rebels above this[.]

Very truly Yr freind [sic],

A. A. Kyle

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 735.

          13, Retaliation, the Federal army's strategy for suppressing guerrillas in Lincoln County; an excerpt from the letter of Captain Henry Newton Comey, 2nd Massachusetts Infantry

2nd Mass. Inf. 1st Div. 20th Corps. Army

Tullahoma, Tenn., June 13, 1864

Dear Father,

Yours of the second inst. contained ten dollars came to hand last night….

*  *  *  *

…. Maj. Gen Milroy's Headquarters is here now. General Paine is also here yet. General Paine is a terror to guerrillas because he is shooting every little while. He sentenced a man to be shot for keeping a still house and I suppose it was because this man has been guilty of harboring guerrillas for wherever there is whiskey there will be guerrillas. Their courage is mostly whiskey courage. I happened to be at the Generals headquarters and heard that man beg for his life. Some of the guerrillas die game, will not beg at all. They bushwhack for plunder, not that they care anything for the Southern Confederacy. Last Thursday a scouting party went to Hillsboro[17] and shot C. C. Brewer, formerly Clerk of this county. A man formerly of good standing, he was a captain in the rebel army, but led the army and went to bushwhacking. The way of the transgressor is hared. Heretofore the bushwhackers of this vicinity thought that the U. S. Government would not dare to would not dare to execute any of them for fear they would retaliate, but they now see that all such ideas are flawed. It is surprising to see the effect of General Paine's course upon some of the rebels in this vicinity. All at once they are getting to be very strong Union loyalists, to all appearances. When the General wants to get information he sends out into the country to some old farmer who he knows has such information and orders him to report at such an hours. It is needless to add that his order is obeyed and the man, whoever he may be, is very careful not to be behind time. Stokes Regiment of Tennessee Cavalry is here now and it is said that his men had rather kill than eat.

*  *  *  *

H. N. Comey

Comey Correspondence, pp. 172-173.

          13-July 15, Raid from Morristown into North Carolina

No circumstantial reports filed.

Report of Capt. Robert Morrow, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., U. S. Army.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, Tenn., July 15, 1864.

GEN.: Capt. G. W. Kirk, Third North Carolina Volunteer Infantry, has just returned from a highly successful expedition into Western North Carolina. The following is a correct summary of the results of the expedition: He marched with about 130 men from Morristown on the 13th of June, and proceeded, via Bull's Gap. Greeneville, Tenn., and Crab Orchard, to Camp Vance, within six miles of Morganton, N. C. At Broylesville, [18] Tenn., he met the enemy, routing them, with a loss of 1 commissioned officer and 10 men killed; number of wounded unknown.[19] At Camp Vance he destroyed a large quantity of rebel property, including 1 locomotive, in fine order, and 3 cars, the depot and commissary buildings, 1,200 small-arms, with ammunition, and 3,000 bushels grain, besides capturing 277 prisoners, who surrendered with the camp, of which number he succeeded in bringing into Knoxville 132, together with 32 negroes [sic] and 48 horses and mules, besides obtaining 40 recruits for his regiment and perfecting arrangements for others. He did not accomplish the principal object of the expedition-that is, the destruction of the railroad bridge over the Yanking River; but made arrangements to do this secretly, it being impossible for him to do it by force. The total casualties of his command were 1 killed, 1 mortally wounded, and 5 slightly, including Capt. Kirk himself. The commanding officer at Kingston, Tenn., reports that guerrillas, under Champ Ferguson, drove off a few days since 500 U. S. horses that Capt. Fry was pasturing within a few miles of that place, and that the mounted force available was inadequate to their pursuit and recapture. Gen. Ammen reports that orders have been given and that efforts will be made to recover the stock and punish the raiders....

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

R. MORROW, Capt. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 234.


Report of Col. John B. Palmer, Fifty-eighth North Carolina Infantry (CS), commanding District of Western North Carolina.


GEN.: On Wednesday evening last a vague rumor reached me to the effect that a band of tories and deserters had on Tuesday at daylight surprised and captured Camp Vance (a rendezvous of conscripts, near Morganton) and a battalion of Junior Reserves recently organized at that place. Camp Vance is not in my district, my command extending only to the Blue Ridge. Thinking it possible that this band might seek to pass to East Tennessee through Mitchell County, I immediately ordered some infantry to re-enforce the detachment in that county, and intercept and capture the tories should they return by that route; but it was too late, they having passed to Tennessee on Thursday. I have no cavalry under my command. It appears that in going to Camp Vance, [Capt. G. W] Kirk, with a small band of Indians, negroes [sic], and deserters, passed from Carter County, Tenn., through Mitchell County (designated as Watauga County on the map), traveling in the night and avoiding all roads. When he captured Camp Vance he had but 150 men. On this return to Tennessee he plundered and burned my residence in Mitchell County. He committed no other depredations in my district, thought he committed many, I understand, east of the Blue Ridge. If the citizens of Morganton had notified me of Kirk's presence in their vicinity I could have captured his entire band. My forces are still after him, but he will undoubtedly escape. I fear this is but the prelude to something more serious. My force is entirely inadequate to the defense of the district. It is 250 miles from the Virginia to the Georgia State line. I am forced to keep most of my troops posted from Yancey to Cherokee Counties, in order to guard as far as possible against raids into the country opposite the enemy's lines. I have not the force to resist successfully any serious demonstrations on the part of the enemy. The department may rely, however, upon my doing the best I can. Gen. Holmes has not only not given me any additional reserves, but had ordered to the eastern part of the State the small battalion of Junior Reserves recently collected and organized at this place. Some cavalry should be sent to me at once, if practicable.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. PALMER, Col., Cmdg. District.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 235.


Report of Col. Peter Mallett, commanding North Carolina conscripts.

CONSCRIPT OFFICE, Raleigh, N. C., July 1, 1864.

GEN.: The late capture of Camp Vance by the band of raiders under the renegade Kirk having involved the capture of some of your command (the reserves), I deem it proper to forward for your information the inclosed copy of letter from Capt. Allen, reporting the affair. The report is very unsatisfactory and by no means creditable to the officers present, who, it appears, made no resistance whatever. The home guard turned out in force, and, together with a company of the Salisbury prison guard, overtook the raiders at Piedmont Springs, nineteen miles from Morganton, as reported to the Governor by Mr. Wilson, president Western railroad. In the skirmish or fight at this place Kirk's arm was broken and Col. Avery, of our party, severely wounded. It appears that only our mounted men were engaged, the infantry being within seven miles, advancing rapidly. It is supposed Col. Palmer will head them off, their line of retreat being through Watauga and Yancey Counties. Lieut. Hines, with 165 mounted men of the supporting force, reached this place yesterday, the men with instructions from Bureau of Conscription.

Under existing circumstances, in view of the defenseless condition of Western North Carolina, and the liability to similar raids by tories and marauders, I have earnestly urge upon the superintendent by telegraph the importance of the immediate return of this command to protect and hold the country. No reply has been received, communication with Richmond by mail and telegraph being cut off. I have concluded the emergency will not justify further delay, and have ordered the command to return to their former field of operations until further orders.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Col., Cmdg. of Conscripts for North Carolina.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 236.[20]

          14, Skirmish at Bean's Station

No circumstantial reports filed.

          14, Skirmish in Lincoln County

No circumstantial reports filed.

14, A letter from Bessie, a Confederate refugee from Franklin

A Noble Little Girl.

A friend of ours belonging to one of the local companies while en route to Andersonville, with Yankee prisoners, a few days since, received at a way station, the name of which we do not now remember, the following letter from a little girl about ten years of age, who was waving a miniature Confederate flag, as she expresses it, to encourage our brave boys. We were so much pleased with its contents that we requested permission to publish it. Bessie is a little heroine. Her letter speaks for itself:

["]My name is Bessie Royce. I am an exile with my mother and sister from my dear sweet home in Franklin, Middle Tennessee. I was ordered out of the Federal lines the 16th day of April, 1863, by General Grainger. Four days before we received our orders, the Federals and confederates fought around our house for three hours, but we were not alarmed in the least. On the contrary, my mother captured four guns and a lot of ammunition, and I captured a fine revolver by climbing over a fence seven feet high. We were left on the battle field that night with the dead. The Feds refused to move them until the next day. They then buried the Confederates close by the side of us, but the precious Yankees were conveyed to the cemetery.

As I said above, we received orders four days after, to leave their lines in three days. They then put guards around us so we could save nothing except our clothes.

We then went to Grand Pa's in East Tennessee, and the 5th of July Papa was captured at the fight at Tullahoma. He was a Captain in General Starnes escort. He was kept a prisoner in Nashville until the night of the 29th of February, 1864, when he made his escape by sawing a hole through the prison with a case knife made into a saw. When General Longstreet evacuated East Tennessee we had to move again. We then went to Wytheville, Virginia, but finding that place subject to raids from the Yankees, we left there and came to this place; and now, I employ my time by waving our glorious Confederate flag to the soldiers on the trains, hoping to encourage them a little at least n this way. I beg of you to fight for me. I wish I was a soldier so I could fight for myself, for I hear there now remains of my once beautiful home but one chimney. The soldiers and negroes have been allowed to carry it off by pieces until it is all gone. I am waiting now for you to press the Yankees back to the Ohio river so I can return to my ----- I cannot say home, for I have none now, but to my native state, Tennessee. Fight on, the victory will be ours at last.["]

Daily Constitutionalist [AUGUSTA, GA], June 14, 1864.

14, Bringing in the Sheaves; Tennessee Presbyterians Return to the Fold

TENNESSEE PRESBYTERIANS RETURNING TO LOYALTY.-The Nashville correspondent of the New York Times says that the Unionism of Tennessee is beginning to pronounce itself ecclesiastically. An initiatory movement has taken place on the part of one religious body at least, toward a resumption of former tine-honored associations. The Presbytery of Nashville, in August, 1861, [21] in an evil hour and hot haste, broke asunder the bonds which till then had bound its churches to the Old School General Assembly. They piously resolved to join the General Assembly of the Confederate States, provided such body should have not only a "name," but a "local habitation." The stress and constant crisis of Southern affairs have made such General Assembly as yet little better than "airy nothing;" nor has the most piercing eye, in the finest "frenzy rolling," been able to body it forth in any substantial form and proportions. No meeting of the Presbytery has been held since Donelson fell.

The churches of the body were drooping, woebegone, without coherence, without vitality, formless and void. It was found that its only hope of resuscitation was to undo the evil it had done, and renew fealty to man and to God, by renewing its former connection. A meeting of Presbytery was called accordingly, in roper form. The churches, some twelve or fifteen, were notified, with scrupulous care. The majority refused to appear by there representatives, but a constitutional quorum was present. The meeting was duly organized according to Presbyterial forms; and the former action, swinging the Presbytery off into the deadly embrace of rebeldom, was solemnly and decisively rescinded. The Presbytery now stands where it always stood, until the poisonouis breath of secession blowing upon it, withered its beauty and sapped its vital strength. It will be sure to revive now. Returning loyalty and good faith is a potent remedy for a "mind diseased" as well as a body; the cause of the malady in either case being-rebellion.

New Haven Daily Palladium,[22] June 14, 1864. [23]

          14, News from Confederate Occupied East Tennessee

From East Tennessee.

The Bristol "Gazette" for the 2d furnishes the following:

Col Byrd, commanding the 3d Tennessee (Yankee) cavalry was at Kinston, at last advices. Twice or thrice they been ordered to Nashville, but refused to obey. Shelly's regiment was at Loudon.

Gen. Jim Spears, of Pikeville, is reported to have been cashiered and arrested because he was dissatisfied with the Yankee success in freeing his own negroes and those of his loyal neighbors, and making them the equals of their wives and daughters.

The negroes of Middle and Lower East Tennessee have all been sent to Nashville some time since, leaving only old and little darkies who had no parents to care for them. Very scanty crops are being cultivated in that region-farms being in a state of desolation.

Rev. Timothy Sullins has been imprisoned in Knoxville as a hostage for Rev. Wm. H. Blackburn, who was received into the Holston Conference by voluntarily going to the Provost Marshal in Athens and taking a remarkable oath as "extraordinary,"

Judge Van Duke is held a prisoner at Camp Chase, a hostages for the father of said  Blackburn. Rev. Thos. Cass is reported to command a bushwhacking company, after seeking probationary connection with the Holston Conference by the most positive declaration of Southern sentiments, sound and tried.

Gen. J. C. Vaughn, as for some day, been making his headquarters in our town. East Tennessee may well be proud of such a man. He is a quiet, unassuming, brave, dashing leader. Above all, he is a Christian, found often reading his Bible, when he is left alone-so his men say. How different if the country had more such.

The Daily Mississippian, June 14, 1864. [24]


[1] As cited in PQCW.

[2] Contributed by Ms. Nelle Jo Stakely, Archivist, Monroe County, Teennessee:

[3] Not referenced in OR.

[4] Not referenced in OR.

[5] The Provost Marshal.

[6] As cited in:

[7] As cited in:

[8] It is ironic that ten days after the publication of this article Major-General Rosecrans initiated the "other" Middle Tennessee Campaign which drove Confederate forces, including Wheeler, Forrest and Morgan, completely out of Middle Tennessee.

[9] There are other such columns by "Paddy Go Aisy," but the print is largely illegible.

[10] Wm. S. Hawkins, Col. First Tennessee Mounted Scouts. Was involved in prisoner exchanges with the Army of the Cumberland in August and in December 1864.  OR, Vol. 7, Ser. II, pp. 1267-1268 . The "Skirmish at Silver Springs" on the 14th of June is not referenced in the OR, although other fights at that location at different dates are herein noted.

[11] Navy Colt pistols.

[12] German soldiers in the Federal army. They were referred to as "Dutch," from mispronouncing "Deutsch." German soldiers were despised by Confederates.


[14] There are a total of five reports for Sanders' raid. Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee spells it "Saunders."

[15] See also: Philadelphia Inquirer, June 26, 1863.

[16] Not listed in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee or OR.

[17] About ten miles southeast of Manchester, Coffee County.

[18] Broylesville is in southeestern Washington County, very close to the Greene County line.

[19] Is this a skirmish, engagement, affair or rout? Date is unknown, ca. June 15, 1864.

[20] See also: OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 236-237. Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee places the dates at June 13 to July 16.

[21]  See above: August 8, 1861, "Nashville Presbyterians Rationalize Support for Secession."

 [22] New Haven, CT.

[23] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[24] TSL&A, 19th CN.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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