Thursday, June 25, 2015

6.23-25.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

June 23-25



          25, Militia Call Up in Clarksville

Militia Orders No. One.

Headquarters, 91st Regiment

Clarksville June 25th, 1861

The Captains of the Militia of the 91st Regiment – and in the event of the absence or vacancy of the captainship – the 1st Lieut., will report immediately the strength of his company, and also the number of Rifles, Shot Guns, Muskets, Swords and other weapons owned by those living within his command, and subject to military duty.

Captains will forthwith proceed to organize their commands, preparatory to active service in the field, at any moment's call.

Captains will report immediately to the Adjutant, B. A. Rogers.

By order of J. S. NEBLETT,

B. A. Rogers, Adj't.

Clarksville, June 27th, 1861.

Clarksville Chronicle, July 19, 1861.

          25, East Tennessee pro-Union vote and testing legality of Tennessee's blockade of the Louisville & Nashville railroad

Louisville, June 25th,- A reliable gentleman from Nashville reports, yesterday, that two regiments of Tennessee troops were under marching orders for Knoxville. There are great hopes of a Union triumph in the first district. The news comes in slowly. McCracken is reported by a gentlemen from there as having gone 247 for the Union.

Shippers here are about testing the legality of the blockade of the Nashville Rail-Road. The case will be argued on Wednesday.

Pittsfield Sun, June 27, 1861.


          23, Brigadier-General James S. Negley to Military Governor Andrew Johnson regarding conditions in Columbia environs

Columbia, Tenn. June 23, 1862

To Gov. Johnson:

I submit to you the absolute necessity of arresting & severely punishing a few of the active secessionists in this vicinity. Depredations are committed daily through their influence & the Union men kept in a state of terror[.] simply arresting & administering the oath is not sufficient It only serves to cloak their movements. I have arrested Young S. Packard this morning as one of these men[.] what shall do with him? [sic] He is one of the old C. S. A. speculators. Your wishes relative to the man we arrested in East Tennessee was complied with. The extent of contraband trade carried on by both Union men & rebels with Chattanooga rendered it necessary to make a few examples.

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 499.

          23, Domestic Security Incident near Germantown

A Heroic Woman.

One of the most heroic acts of the war has just been reported to us, as having occurred near Germantown, Tenn. Two Federal soldiers entered the dwelling of an old citizen, and after being well treated, they demanded the old gentleman's money, and one of the ruffians sought to force a compliance with their demand by leveling his gun at the head of the house. The old lady interposed herself between the gun of the miscreant and her husband, and while the coward hesitated to shoot, a daughter of the aged couple came from an adjoining room, and seeing the situation of efforts, seized a double-barreled shot gun, with which she shot the ruffian through the head, killing him instantly. His companion fled, while the inmates of the house remained uninjured. The heroism of that gallant young lady will be remembered when the history of the war is written.

Memphis Appeal [Grenada, MS], June 23, 1862.[1]

          24, Members of the Seventh Kansas Cavalry rob a Mrs. Emily Tyree near Union City [see June 30, 1862, Federal provost marshal's report on Union depredations in West Tennessee below]

          24, Order for the arrest and punishment of S. Pickard for treason by the Provost Marshall in Columbia

Head-Quarters, U. S. Forces

Columbia, June 24, 1862

Captain Green, Provost Marshall

Sir: Young S. Pickard has been arrested upon a charge of treason inasmuch as he has openly avowed sympathy for the Southern Confederacy -- aided in an opposition to the Federal authorities [and] gave information to the enemies of the United States.

You will require him to take the oath of allegiance and give bond of $5,000.00 for his observance of the oath.

Jas. S. Negley, Brig. Gen. Comdg.

Records of the Adjutant General's Office

          24, Censoring pro-Confederate sermons allowed by Major-General U. S. Grant, District of West Tennessee


Brig. Gen. STEPHEN A. HURLBUT, Comdg. Fourth Division, Army of the Tennessee:

I am directed by Maj.-Gen. Grant to say to you that you can compel all clergymen within your lines to omit from their church services any portion you may deem treasonable, but you will not compel the insertion or substitution of anything.

WM. S. HILLYER, Aide-de-Camp.

OR, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 30.

25, More correspondence regarding desecration of Union soldiers' graves in Franklin

Camp Maynard, Near Nashville, June 24, 1862.

Editor of the Union: The communication of S. P. Hildreth,[2] of Franklin, on the subject of the desecration of the graves of Union soldiers, in the cemetery of that place, published in our issue of the 21st inst., imposes upon me the unpleasant duty of saying something on that subject. It would, perhaps, have been as well to have let the matter pass into oblivion; but, as Mr. H., who was in no wise implicated, has paraded himself, or allowed others to present him before the public as the champion of the offending parties, has revived it in such a manner as to cast reflections upon my veracity, a full disclosure of the facts must be made.

Never having seen the comments of the Louisville Journal, I can give no opinion of their justice.

On the 1st of May, in obedience to an order from General Dumont, I stationed detachments of the 69th Regt., O. V. I., at five different points on the line between Nashville and Columbia, and established my headquarters in a grove near Franklin. On the 9th of that month my Sergeant major, who is a gentleman of unimpeached character for truth, and whose statement is annexed, reported to me that the graves of Union soldiers had been rudely trampled upon and desecrated. I immediately ordered him to detail a sufficient number of men for the purpose, and dress up and sod the graves, which order he reported to me on the next day he had executed. On the same day I learned through another source, which I know is entirely reliable, that females were seen in the cemetery ornamenting the graves of rebel soldiers with beautiful shells and flowers, and at the same time dancing or playing merrily around and over the mortal remains of Union soldiers. This information naturally excited my indignation—my wrath.

On Saturday, the 10th, with a view to the safety of my command and a more efficient discharge of its duties, I marched my men into the town, took possession of the Court-house, unfurled the old flag, and made my headquarters there. In the evening I addressed the citizens in the Court room, briefly informing them what I purposed doing and what I expected them to do. I referred, perhaps with some severity, to the conduct of the females and the desecration of the graves as a damning disgrace to any community upon whom the light of civilization had dawned. I emphatically notified them that a recurrence of such a breach of propriety should not take place, and that we would consider it quite as honorable to shed our blood in defending the sanctity of the grave of the humblest Union soldier as in upholding our flag on the field of battle.

The next morning Mr. McEwen, who pretends to be Mayor of Franklin, called on me and stated that he and others had just been out to see the graves, and they found no evidences that they had been disturbed. Mr. Hildreth says that he and hundreds of others likewise went to see if my statements were true, and found that not a single grave had been trod on, thus presenting me, Mr. Editor, before your readers and the public as the defamer of the reputations of the good women of Franklin. That these gentlemen found the graves in good condition on Sunday morning is quite true, because it was on the day before that Sergeant-Major Halstead and the men detailed, had dressed them up, and it was on the previous Friday that the misconduct of the female was witnessed. The names of the offending parties were furnished me, but as they were "indiscreet misses in their teens," and daughters of respectable parents, I did not disclose them.

Mr. Hildreth never exchanged words with me on the subject, and as he professed to be a loyal Union man, I am unable to shield the guilty parties from the just odium which attaches to their behavior by perverting the facts and falsely representing me as the assailant of female character. He also charges that I promised to visit the graves, "but never went." This I pronounce a palpable lie, whether it emanated from the Mayor or Mr. Hildreth; and I use the epithet with a full understanding of the responsibilities which the "fire-eating chivalry of Dixie" attach to it. I did visit the graves often whilst stationed at Franklin—attended the burials of my unfortunate men who were stricken with disease and death, as the troops stationed there will bear testimony.

It is with no degree of pleasure that I feel constrained to expose the improprieties of women, but as Mr. Hildreth and others whose mouth-piece he had been made, have sought to cover up the grossest improprieties at the expense of my character for truth, the exposure must be made. It is proper, however, to say that it would be most unjust to hold all the secessionists of Franklin responsible for the misconduct. Many of them, I know, would heartily condemn it.

The effort of Mr. Hildreth to create the impression that there was no bitterness of feeling exhibited by the females of Franklin toward the Union soldiers is simply ridiculous. It was notorious that, with few exceptions, they demonstrated the most intense hatred and contempt towards all who were in favor of the Union. Some were exceedingly kind, especially to the sick, but all with perhaps the single exception of Mrs. John Marshall, (whose benevolence will be gratefully remembered,) were outspoken Union ladies.

Lewis D. Campbell, Col. 69th Reg't O. V. I.

On the 9th day of May last, when the 69th Regiment was encamped near Franklin, I was in town and walked out to the graveyard where some Union and some Secesh soldiers have been buried. The graves of the Secesh soldiers were finely decorated, boquettes [sic] were strewn upon them, and young ladies were standing near conversing about "their graves." The graves of the Union soldiers had never been beautified in any way, on the contrary, stakes were pierced in them (one had four stakes stuck in the top and sides) and brickbats and stones were thrown upon them in such manner that their sharp, angular outlines protruded and looked ugly. The stakes were part of old fence rails with but two or three exceptions, and were from two to three feet in length. I there and then pulled them up and threw them in the road. I then cleared up the brickbats and stones, and threw them in the road and smoothed up the desecrated graves. I then repaired to camp and reported the facts to Colo. Campbell. He directed that I should detail men next morning to fix up, and sod the graves. The next morning, May 10th, the graves were rounded up and put in condition for sodding (two men then sodded over) and that same night, Col. Campbell, informed the citizens publicly, that such outrages should not be again committed with impunity.

Benton Halstead, Sertg. Maj. 69th Regiment.

Nashville Daily Union, June 25, 1862.

          25, Letter from a prisoner-of-war, the "Tennessee Rebel"

CAMP DOUGLAS, ILL., June 25, 1862.


SIR: I notice in your paper of yesterday a description of the search made at Camp Douglas among the so-called rebel prisoners. Said search was brought about for the purpose of finding concealed arms. It is indeed strange that we could have arms. We were examined while on our way from Donelson by almost every soldier that passed us and when we arrived the same thing had to be rehearsed. I would like to know what Col. Tucker and Chicago police call arms. The inspectors in their examination took every pocket-knife that was of any value. I guess cutlery can be had at the police office very cheap for cash. Every one should hurry forward and buy themselves rich. (Secesh knives). We can spare our knives, but how is it? While we are guarded away from our quarters the inspecting gentry enter, ransack our satchels, pillage our knapsacks. They bear off as trophies the ambrotypes of our dead mothers, sisters and friends. Tobacco, cigars and other little trinkets share the same fate. Great God, are we to suffer everything? We have suffered all the insults and indignities that an ignorant and ill-mannered city rabble could heap upon us. We are neither brutes nor heathens that such treatment should be meted out to us. The commanders seem to expect us to stay here. It is not our business to stay it is their's to keep us. When we undertake to get out and are betrayed we have to carry planks upon our backs marked "escaped prisoners recaptured." Where are there such rules in the military code directing that prisoners of war should be treated in this manner? And the others have to be put upon one-third rations. We never have got full rations and when two-thirds are subtracted almost nothing remains.

Chicago papers call us half-starved, forlorn-looking wretches. Bring some of your stylishly dressed nobility within the walls of Camp Douglas take the money that his friends may send him, discount by half, give him the remainder in white and blue pieces of pasteboard upon the sutlers, put him on one-third rations, and the names given to us would be a very appropriate one for him in a very short time. I send this to give you some idea of the manner in which prisoners of war are treated at Chicago. If you feel so disposed you can publish it; if not it is all right. Newspaper correspondents were stopped out of the camp so that they could do anything they pleased and keep it from the eyes of the world. Give them a hint of this and oblige a prisoner of war.


OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, pp. 192 193.

          25, Affair near La Fayette Station

JUNE 25, 1862-Affair near La Fayette Station, Tenn.


No. 1.-Lieut. Col. William H. Raynor, Fifty-sixth Ohio Infantry.

No. 2.-Gen. Orders, No. 93, Hdqrs. Department No. 2.

No. 1.

Report of Lieut. Col. William H. Raynor, Fifty-sixth Ohio Infantry.

HDQRS. 56TH Regt. [sic] OHIO VOLS., 3d Brig., 3d DIV., Reserve Corps of Army of the Tennessee.

COL.: On Sunday, the 22d instant, in obedience to an order from you, this regiment, under command of Col. Peter Kinney, proceeded on a train to a point on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad 28 miles from the City of Memphis, where a bridge across a small stream had been burned. The regiment, under the direction of the railroad superintendent, proceeded to reconstruct the bridge. On Tuesday evening Col. Kinney came into the City, and returned on the train Wednesday, which was thrown from the track by the displacement of one of the rails, and the cars and locomotive broken up. This occurred about one mile above Germantown, and was caused by Jackson's rebel cavalry, who attacked the disabled train, took Col. Kinney, together with I sergeant and 8 privates, of Company B, of this regiment, prisoners. On the train were quite a number of unarmed men and an armed guard of 19 men, 10 of whom escaped, as did quite a number of the others.

I was first informed of these facts Wednesday evening, and at once sent Maj. Varner, with three companies, to reconnoiter, ascertain certainly the fate of Col. Kinney, and assist him if possible. The major returned about midnight with the information as above, and also that the colonel had certainly been taken, the cars entirely destroyed, and that a force of the enemy was still in our neighborhood.

This command was encamped on the plantation of a Mr. Davis, to whom I gave a pass on Wednesday morning to "go to mill and get corn ground" at La Fayette. In the evening his slaves gave the information that their master [Mr. Davis] had been heard to tell his wife he would get a pass to go to mill, but would go to the Southern cavalry and get them to drive away the Yankees. This pass was good for one day only, yet Mr. Davis had not returned home the next day. A double-barreled gun he had loaded "for the Yankees" I took from his house and now have.

The bridge [is] being completed, and also being in communication with Gen. Sherman, in accordance to your order [the only one yet at that time received], I made preparations to bring back the regiment. Having no transportation, I "pressed in" the teams of the neighbors to bring in a few rations yet unconsummated, baggage, &c. Meantime I received the following note from Col. Worthington, of Gen. Sherman's division, which note was addressed to Col. Kinney or commanding officer of this regiment:

LA FAYETTE, June 26, 1862.

DEAR SIR: Gen. Sherman has ordered all his division back to Moscow except the Fifty-second Indiana, which is to join you, and my regiment, the Forty-sixth, which is to remain here. If there is any danger I would advise your falling back to this place, which I will fortify. I have a section of artillery but no horses. Please let me know if you have heard anything important, and if possible come here this forenoon.

Yours, respectfully,


Col. Forty-sixth Regt. [sic]

Col. KINNEY, Fifty-sixth Ohio.

I answered this note in effect that our orders were to "return to Memphis as soon as the bridge was completed or as soon as Gen. Sherman's division came up," and that I was now acting in obedience to that order and preparing to return. An orderly soon came down with the information that the Fifty-second Indiana were coming to guard the bridge. After reaching the neighborhood of Colliersville [sic] and on down until this side of Germantown the enemy were hovering all around us, but our dispositions for defense probably deterred them from making an attack. Lewis H. Hamilton, acting hospital steward, and George Lowry, drummer, Company K, straggling to the front against positive orders, were captured by the enemy. I append a list of the prisoners taken from the train and belonging to this command.

I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant,


Lieut.-Col., Comdg. Fifty-sixth Ohio Regt. [sic]

P. S.-The officers and men of the Fifty-sixth are physically exhausted from their march of 30 miles through the heat and dust, accomplished inside of twenty hours. At different times during Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday heavy cannonading was heard in the direction of Holly Springs. Yesterday the sound was distinctly heard all day with short intervals.

No. 2.

General Orders, No. 93, Hdqrs. Department No. 2.

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 93. HDQRS. DEPARTMENT No. 2, Tupelo, Miss., July 5, 1862.

The commander of the forces has to announce to the army a well-planned and soldierly executed expedition within the enemy's lines, led by Col. W. H. Jackson, First Tennessee Cavalry, with a portion of his regiment, resulting in the capture of a Federal colonel and some 56 non-commissioned officers and privates, and the destruction of a locomotive and train of cars near La Fayette Station, Memphis and Charleston Railroad, on the 25th ultimo.

On the 30th ultimo another detachment, under the command of Maj. Duckworth, in the same vicinity, dashed upon the enemy's pickets and killed 6 and captured 8, with slight casualty to his own command. These affairs are happy presages to the spirit with which this army is prepared to enter upon the impending campaign, in emulation of the heroic deeds of our brothers in arms and in blood in Virginia.

By command of Gen. Bragg

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. I, pp. 10-12.


The first train on the Memphis and Charleston railroad for Corinth, with a number of teams and wagons, and one company of the 56th Ohio Regiment, besides several officers, was attacked by a large force of rebel cavalry on Wednesday, about 12 miles from Memphis. The rebels destroyed the locomotive, burned the cars, killed ten of our men, and captured several officers, in including Col. Kinney and Majors Pride and Sharpe. The railroad superintendent, and Capt. McMicah of Gen. Grant's staff, who were taken prisoners at Shiloh, have been exchanged. Gen. Grant has restored the editor's control of the Memphis Argus to its proprietors, with a notice that it will be at once suppressed should it contain any offensive to the government. The locomotive captured on Wednesday was the only one the raid had at this point.

New Hampshire Sentinel, July 3, 1862.

          25, Skirmish at Germantown

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee

          25, Police pay in Memphis

The Wages of the Police-We learn that it will be implausible for the present City Council to do anything toward increasing the salaries of the police officers of the city. We hope, however, that our suggestions of yesterday will not be lost, but that the new Board will take the matter in hand and at an early day make the proper advances.

Memphis Argus, June 25, 1862.

          25, "The Times, June 25, 1862" in Murfreesboro and environs, excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence

By June of 1862, things have the appearance of quietness about this portion of the country. The cavalry are keeping up the appearance of watchfulness on their part. Detachments are sent out in all direction [sic] every day. They don't appear to accomplish much in the way of capturing "Secesh." [sic]

At one thing they are good. When they return at evening, they have a string of prisoners dangling to the saddle strings which has been captured during the day from the old women.

These were of the non combattants [sic] and were known and believed [by the local population] not to be spies [sic]. None ever went into the camps unless they were pressed. But, for reasons, charges were prefered [sic] against them, and they had to go-to with-Chickens, Turkeys, and Pigs. In all cases, a drum head court marshal is held in every instance. [sic] They are executed. Cruel soldiers!

Spence Diary.

          25, Letter of John A. Ritter, 49th Indiana Volunteers

June 25, 1862 from South of Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Camp Cumberland Gap, Ten.

June 25, 1862

My Dearly beloved wife,

With more than ordinary pleasure I take up my pen to write you a few lines. I am with our Brigade (Gen. Carter 24) encamapt [sic] three miles south of the Cumberland Gap on beautiful camp ground where we have good water in abundance. There is a great difference in the water South of the Cumberland Mountains and north of the mountains. I went last Friday to Barberville 35 miles from here and I did not get a good drink of water from the time I crossed the mountain till I Returned on Sunday. I think that we are in a very healthy country. The health of our Reg[iment]. is improving verry [sic] fast. I am in good health at present. My health has improved every day since I left the Ford. I passed the ford going and coming from Barberville. I was sent to see how our sick were. I found most of them well and anxious to come up to the Regiment. Faucett is improving verry [sic] fast and I expect him up tomorrow. We sent waggons [sic] down yesterday to bring up the camp equipage etc. and all the men that were well enough to come. I found about 60 that are able to come to camp.

I wrote you a letter when we first came to this place. I was so hurried that I scarcely know what I did write. I wrote you a letter from Boston but the mail facility are so bad I think it doubtful wheather [sic] you got it or not. I Recd. a letter from you last night of the 17. I saw R. Higgins and A. Knight at Barberville. J. B. Pinnick left here day before yesterday for home. He says that he would call and see you. It so happened that I was not with him but verry [sic] little whilst he was out here. He is a good talker and he can give you much information. Our Caverlay [sic] captured 25 wagons loaded with provisions and 500 Enfield rifles from the Rebbels [sic] last night (Mondays Caverlay [sic]). They also took 15 Beaf [sic] Cattle. They took one Col. and two Leut. [sic] Cols. of Sesesh Caveralry [sic] guarding the train. The train was from Lexington, Ky. They were captured in Virginea [sic]. [sic] The Rebbes [sic] were surrounded before they Knew that they were in danger. They tryed [sic] to Run as usual but they met forces every way and they hoisted the white Flag. We have but little information where the Rebbels [sic] are. They left the Gap and went to Morristown. It suposed [sic] that they have gone to Georgia. It is thought that there will be no more Fighting in Tenesee [sic]. [sic] There are still squads of Rebbe [sic] Caveralry [sic] in the neighborhood.

Col. Ray has been ordered to Nashville. It is suposed [sic] under sensure. [sic] If he comes back and takes command of the Reg[iment]. There will be but few officers left in the 49th. This is my opinion and I think I am not mistaken. I am realy [sic] sorry for the Col. His hopes are blasted for the Future as a military man. I have no confidence in him. I feel disposed to defend him as fare as he is right. He took it verry [sic] hard that he had to Leave that he had to Leave. If he had continued with us we would have been left behind in the expedition taking the Gap which is considered disgrace to be ordered to the rear at a time like that ocasion [sic]. [sic] Col. Keigwin has the confidence of the offices and men and if he does not keep the command since Col. Ray has Left and Keigwin has command all things have new life. The men are increasing in numbers for duty. As for the Drawes you may send them to me. Jim Faucett needs some drawers. We tryed [sic] to buy them but could not. We can get govermet [sic] Drawers but they are no acount [sic]. If you get this in time you may sent Faucett a couple pr. Drawers. I want a fine pr. pants but you cannot get them for me. I will send to New Albany for a pr. the oportunity [sic] that I have. I let my measure with S. S. Moor at N. A. and if he still has it he can make me a pr.

The military goods have changed since I came in to the service. It is a light Sky blue. We have not got any news for some time. The latest paper that I have seen is the 11 and what is going on out side of our little world is all unknown to us. The mails are to be established to this place imedialy [sic]. [sic] The contractor was to have been here yesterday. How long we will remain here is all in the future. Col. Keigwin sayed [sic] that we would likely [sic] remain here five or six weeks but of course this was only his opinion. If the Rebbels [sic] had have [sic] stood their ground and fought us at the Gap we never could have taken it by fighting them in the Gap. It is suposed [sic] to be the Stronges [sic] place in the U. S. The aproaches [sic] to it are narrow and their Battery could have slain men faster than they could have been filled up.

If Liut. [sic]Charles has not left he can bring me a pr. of pants from S. S. Moors and you can send the money to pay for them By Mr. Buskirk when he goes to N. A. and if Moore has sent them to me by any one Charles need not bring them. He can inquire wheather [sic] he has sent them to me. I have the _____? you sent me _____? by all. The provision are a Barberville yet I expect them tomorrow. They cost us $9.00 Freight. I must bring this letter to a close. I hope and expect to see you before Long.

Yours as ever,

John A. Ritter

Ritter Correspondence

          25, Instructions for Brigadier-General James S. Negley relative to paroled Confederate Lieutenant-Colonel Bennett

NASHVILLE, June 25, 1862.

Brig.-Gen. NEGLEY, Columbia, Tenn.:

Lieut.-Col. Bennett is on parole, and is traveling under the protection which the laws of civilized warfare afford. If he has been guilty of imprudence only, it is an exhibition of bad taste, for which the proper punishment is a dignified rebuke. If he has violated his parole, you would be justified in arresting him. Under all other circumstances his person is sacred. Report in detail what Lieut.-Col. Bennett has done.

What can be sworn to is what I want to know, not what irresponsible parties say.

OLIVER D. GREENE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 65

          25, Confederate civilians in Cumberland Gap environs take the oath of allegiance

HDQRS. SEVENTH DIVISION, ARMY OF THE OHIO, Cumberland Gap, June 25, 1862.

Gen. BUELL, and Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

….Secession citizens of Tennessee continue to come in to take the oath of allegiance and ask the protection of the brave old flag….

GEORGE W. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 66.

          25, From La Fayette to Moscow; Sherman's marching orders for the Fifth Division

ORDERS, No. 46. HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, La Fayette, June 25, 1862.

The division will move to-morrow morning to Moscow. Gen. Morgan L. Smith's brigade, in advance, will start as early as possible, to allow the whole division to reach Moscow before the intense heat of the day. He will proceed through Moscow to a point about 1 1\2 miles beyond, and select good ground facing south and near enough Wolf River to obtain from it a supply of water.

Gen. Denver will follow Gen. Smith and select his camp outside of Moscow an near enough the Wolf River to obtain water from it.

Col. McDowell's brigade will bring up the rear and occupy the town of Moscow.

The chief of artillery will distribute the batteries as heretofore.

The division train and all wagons not needed by the regiments can cross the Wolf River here and proceed to Moscow by a road lying on the north side of that stream. The Fourth Illinois Cavalry will bring up the rear of and guard that train.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, p.33.

          25, The oath of allegiance in Memphis since its occupation by Federal forces

June 25.

~ ~ ~

Over 1500 person have taken the oath of allegiance since the occupation of this city. Mayor Park and Aldermen Robinson, Tilgeree and Hurlbut have taken the oath, but the remainders of the Board hang back.

~ ~ ~

Philadelphia Inquirer, June 28, 1862.

          25-January 16, 1863, Operations in West Tennessee

June 25, 1862--January 16, 1863-OPERATIONS IN WEST TENNESSEE


June 25, 1862.- Affair near La Fayette Station, Tenn.

          30, 1862.-Skirmish at Rising Sun, Tenn.

July 13, 1862.-Skirmish near Wolf River, Tenn.

          19, 1862.-Guerrilla raid on Brownsville, Tenn.

          25-Aug. 1, 1862.-Expedition from Holly Springs, Miss., to Bolivar and Jackson, Tenn.

          28, 1862.-Skirmish near Humboldt, Tenn.

          29, 1862.-Affair at Hatchie Bottom, near Denmark, Tenn.

August 3, 1862.-Skirmish on Nonconah [sic] Creek, Tenn.

          7, 1862.-Skirmish at Wood Springs, near Dyersburg, Tenn.

          10-11, 1862.-Reconnaissance from Brownsville, Tenn., toward the mouth of Hatchie River.

          11, 1862.-Skirmish at Saulsburry [sic], Tenn.

          13, 1862.-Skirmish near Medon, Tenn.

          16, 1862.-Skirmish at Meriwether's Ferry, Obion River, Tenn.

          18, 1862.-Capture of steamboats on Tennessee River.

          18, 1862.-Skirmish near Dyersburg, Tenn.

          18, 1862.-Surrender of Clarksville, Tenn.

          23, 1862.-Skirmish near Fort Donelson, Tenn.

          25, 1862.-Skirmish at Fort Donelson, Tenn.

          26, 1862.-Skirmish at Cumberland Iron Works, Tenn.

          31, 1862.- Capture of U. S. transport W. B. Terry on the Tennessee River.

September 2, 1862.-Skirmish near Memphis, Tenn.

          5, 1862.-Skirmish at Burnt Bridge, near Humboldt, Tenn.

          7, 1862.-Skirmish at Riggin's Hill, near Clarksville, Tenn.

          18-23, 1862.-Operations about Forts Henry and Donelson, Tenn., and skirmish.

          20-22, 1862.-Expedition from Bolivar to Grand Junction and LaGrange, Tenn., and skirmish.

          21, 1862.-Skirmish near Van Buren, Tenn.

          25, 1862.-Skirmish at Davis' Bridge, Hatchie River, Tenn.

          25, 1862.-Burning of Randolph, Tenn.

          26, 1862.-Skirmish at Pocahontas, Tenn.

28- Oct. 5, 1862.-Expedition from Columbus, Ky., to Covington, Durhamville, and Fort Randolph, Tenn.

October. 1, 1862 Skirmish at Davis' Bridge, Tenn.

          3, 1862.-Affair near La Fayette Landing, Tenn.

          9, 1862.-Affair near Humboldt, Tenn.

          10, 1862.-Skirmish at Medon Station, Tenn.

          17, 1862--Skirmish at Island No. 10, Tenn.

          21, 1862.-Skirmish at Woodville, Tenn.

21-24, 1862.-Scout to Colliersville [sic], Shelby Depot, Hickory, and Galloway Switch, Tenn.,with skirmishes.

          22-25, 1862.-Expedition from Fort Donelson to Waverly, Tenn. with skirmishes.

          24, 1862 Skirmish near White Oak Springs, Tenn.

31-January 10, 1863.-Operations on the Mississippi Central RR from Bolivar, Tenn., to Coffeeville, Miss.

November 18, 1862.-Skirmish at Double Bridge, Tenn.

          25, 1862.-Capture of Henderson's Station, Mobile and Ohio Railroad, Tenn.

          26, 1862.-Skirmish near Somerville, Tenn.

December 15, 1862 through January 3, 1863.-Forrest's Expedition into West Tennessee.

January 2, 1863.-Skirmish near Fort Donelson, Tenn.

          3, 1863.-Action at Somerville, Tenn.

          4, 1863.- Skirmish at Monterey, Tenn.

          8, 1863.-Skirmish at Knob Creek, near Ripley, Tenn.

          11, 1863.- Skirmish at Lowry's Ferry, Tenn.

          13, 1863.-Skirmish at Chambers Creek, near Hamburg, Tenn.

          16, 1863.-Expedition from Fort Henry to Waverly, Tenn.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. I, pp. 1-5.


          23, "The defense of this line consists more especially in a system of continual attacks upon every head of column that shows itself." Federal reaction to Confederate demonstrations upon the Charleston and Memphis railroad

LAGRANGE, June 23, 1863--11.30 p. m.

(Received June 24.)

Maj.-Gen. HURLBUT, Memphis:

A heavy force is threatening Grand Junction to-night, 3 miles off; said to be 1,000, from Holly Springs. My whole command is under arms.

Mizner is not here yet.



MEMPHIS, TENN., June 23, 1863.

Maj.-Gen. OGLESBY, LaGrange, Tenn.:

GEN.: If the enemy make a movement in strong force on the line of Memphis and Charleston Railroad, Corinth and Pocahontas will be the points to be held, and on which troops can be massed. Works commanding the bridges and approaches at Pocahontas should be thrown up, and the country between that point and Corinth should be strongly held.

Moscow is the next point of serious consequence, so far as the road is concerned, and should be the rallying point at this end of your line. The country from Moscow to Memphis to be heavily patrolled by cavalry, and the place, if invested, to be relieved from here, or garrison retired to this point.

My opinion is still unsettled as to the intention of this demonstration. All depends upon the activity of Rosecrans, from which I fear we have little to hope.

The defense of this line consists more especially in a system of continual attacks upon every head of column that shows itself.

I wish a train of pack-mules organized for our cavalry. The saddles are here. Thus they can take provisions, axes, and implements, and make their trips rapidly.

If there is any serious threat of attack, your unarmed negroes [sic] should be sent here. I have telegraphed as to hospitals.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 433.

          23, A candle-lit Federal cavalry camp near Murfreesboro on the eve of the Tullahoma campaign

This evening we received orders to prepare to move camp. The men to take three day's rations in their haversacks and all baggage not absolutely needed to be sent to Murfreesboro. Every man to have also one hundred rounds of ammunition. At night the boys lit up the camp with pieces of candles and even climbed the trees and put them there. Everybody seemed to desire to have his light the highest. It was a very beautiful sight. The lights in the trees seemed at a distance to be very bright stars. There was not a breath of air stirring and all burned steadily. I do not suppose the old forest ever witnessed just such a scene before and probably will not for a long time again. The bright moon, the blue sky, studded with so many twinkling stars, the dark outline of the forest trees, especially of the cedars. The white shelter tents showing so white in the light of so many candles and in contrast to the dark color of all around and then the forms of so many men moving about gave so much animation to the scene.

Alley Diary

          23, Actions [sic], Liberty Gap

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          23-July 7, Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign[3]

JUNE 23-JULY 7, 1863.-The Middle Tennessee, or Tullahoma, Campaign.


June 23, 1863.-Advance of the Union forces.

          24, 1863.-Skirmishes at Rover and Unionville.

          24, 1863.-Skirmish at Middleton.

          24, 1863.-Skirmish near Bradyville.

          24, 1863.-Skirmish at Christiana.

          24, 1863.-Skirmish at Big Spring Branch.

          24-26, 1863.-Skirmishes at Hoover's Gap.

          24-27, 1863.-Skirmishes at Liberty Gap.

          25, 1863.-Skirmish at Guy's Gap.

          25, 1863.-Skirmish at Fosterville.

          26, 1863.-Skirmish at Beech Grove.

          27, 1863.-Action at Shelbyville.

          27, 1863.-Skirmishes at Fosterville and Guy's Gap.

          27, 1863.-Skirmish at Fairfield.

          27, 1863.-Occupation of Manchester by the Union forces.

          28, 1863.-Skirmish at Rover.

          29, 1863.-Skirmish near Hillsborough.

          29, 1863.-Skirmish at Decherd.

          29-30, 1863.-Skirmishes near Tullahoma.

          30, 1863.-Confederate forces evacuate Tullahoma.

July 1, 1863.-Occupation of Tullahoma by the Union forces.

          1, 1863.-Skirmish near Bethpage Bridge, Elk River.

          1, 1863.-Skirmish near Bobo's Cross-Roads.

          2, 1863.-Skirmish at Morris' Ford, Elk River.

          2, 1863.-Skirmish at Rock Creek Ford, Elk River.

          2, 1863.-Skirmish at Estill Springs.

          2, 1863.-Skirmishes at Pelham and Elk River Bridge.

          3, 1863.-Skirmish at Boiling Fork, near Winchester.

          4, 1863.-Skirmish at University Depot.

          7, 1863.-Army of Tennessee encamps about Chattanooga.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 399.

          23, Skirmish at Rover

HDQRS. FIRST CAVALRY DIVISION, on road between Rover and Versailles, June 24, 1863.

CAPT.: I have sent two messengers to you, and neither of them have returned, nor have I received any orders.

We had a very severe skirmish beyond Rover and at the town, beating the enemy back. There is a strong force at Unionville, to the picket line of which force we advanced. It is reported that there are three brigades 1 mile beyond Unionville, entrenched. Our horses have had nothing to eat, except what the men brought on them, since yesterday morning. I shall await orders with head of column at Versailles.

In correspondence with Gen. Stanley inform him where I am.

There is nothing in the country for the horses to eat. Everything is cleared out.

I am, &c.,

ROBT. B. MITCHELL, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

P. S.-I have been very sick ever since I started.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 532.

          23, Skirmish at Uniontown

No circumstantial reports filed.[4]

          23, Federal termination of Confederate conscript sweeps in Henderson, Madison and McNairy counties [see ca. June 23, 1863, Confederate guerrilla attack on U. S. S. Robb below]

          23, A Wisconsin soldier's thoughts as the Tullahoma Campaign begins

Murfreesboro Tenn.

June 23rd 1863

Dear friend,

I write to inform you that the time has at length arrived when we are to bid adieu to our present encampment, and move forward to take our chances in combat. From this you will naturally infer that I anticipate a battle. Really I shall be surprised if we do not, within three days, meet the Confederates in force. Still we may not. As near as I can find out, this is to be grand movement of the "Army of the Cumberland". The troops will all move except those assigned to garrison duty here. Some divisions move today. Ours will move tomorrow at 7 o'clock A.M. We have a ruff country to pass through, and our movements will necessarily be slow. The boys are much pleased with the idea of a move. They have become tired of the monotony of camp life, and welcome a change. In this I heartily concur, I too prefer a change.

J. M. Randall

James M. Randall Diary

          23, Skirmish near Eagleville[5]

Report of Col. Archibald P. Campbell, Second Michigan Cavalry, commanding First Brigade.

HDQRS. FIRST CAV. Brig., DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Camp near Decherd, July 6, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the First Brigade, First Division of Cavalry, since its departure from Triune, June 23, 1863, to the present date:

June 23, marched from Triune, by the Shelbyville pike, through Eagleville. Soon after leaving the latter place, the Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry commenced a brisk skirmish with the enemy, driving 300 rebel cavalry before them rapidly for a distance of 2 miles, when they were relieved by the Second Michigan Cavalry, dismounted, which regiment drove the enemy from their encampment at Rover. The latter burned their tents and other camp equipage. Here they opened upon us with artillery. Our skirmishers advancing, drove the enemy 2 miles, when at attack was made upon our right flank by artillery and a charge by cavalry, which was instantly repulsed by the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry and First East Tennessee Cavalry. The enemy leaving, we bivouacked until 3 a. m. next morning, (24th) and marched at daylight toward Middleton, via Versailles. The Second Michigan Cavalry, dismounted, I ordered to the advance, and they drove a stubborn enemy from their chosen position in a ravine and in log buildings of the town, and, with the aid of artillery, completely routed the enemy, with severe loss in killed and wounded. Each regiment of the brigade acted well their part in driving the enemy out of sight. A battalion of the Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry, dismounted, deserve credit for their bravery on this occasion.

At dark the command was ordered back 5 miles toward Salem, and camped for the night, and next morning [June 25] crossed over to Murfreesborough and Shelbyville pike.

June 27, marched toward Shelbyville. Skirmished the enemy from Fosterville to Guy's Gap, when the Second Cavalry Division took the advance until arriving near Shelbyville, when its brigade was ordered forward and took the left column of the charge into Shelbyville, taking a large number of prisoners and driving many of the enemy into Duck River in their confusion.

Next day, returned to Guy's Gap for forage, and on the morning of June 29 marched to Shelbyville, Fairfield, and Beech Grove, and the day following [June 30] toward Manchester, and encamped near Walker's Mill.

July 2, marched at 2 a. m.; passed through Manchester on Hillsborough road to Elk River.

July 3, marched through Decherd to Cowan Station, where some prisoners were taken, without fighting. The enemy's pickets fled to the mountains at our approach. We returned to Decherd same day [July 3].

The casualties are as follows: In the Second Michigan Cavalry-June 23, at Rover, 1 private slightly wounded; 24th, at Middleton, 1 private slightly wounded, and, 27th, at Shelbyville, 3 privates missing. In Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry-3 privates wounded; Capt. Gilbert Waters killed by falling from his horse at the charge into Shelbyville. In First East Tennessee Cavalry-June 23, at Rover, 1 private killed and 1 taken prisoner; June 24, 1 private severely wounded, and July 3, 1 private killed by falling from his horse. Fourth Kentucky Cavalry-June 23, at Rover, 1 private wounded severely.

The number of prisoners taken at Shelbyville by this brigade cannot be accurately ascertained. Since that engagement we have taken 50 prisoners, including a few that I have paroled.

I remain, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

A. P. CAMPBELL, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 547-548.

          23, "The Negro Question-Hacks and Prostitutes;" the Nashville City Council's attempts to maintain social order

The following preamble and resolutions offered by president M. M. Brien, were adopted on Tuesday last [23d], by the Board of Aldermen:

Whereas, In the opinion of the City Council of Nashville, in a crisis like the present, it is constitutional, lawful and just for the President of the United States to seize upon and use any and all the means in his power, especially all found in the hands, possession, claimed or controlled by rebels, or opposers of the Government of the United States, to aid and assist him in subduing and putting down this infamous rebellion; that it is not right, but unjust and impolitic for true loyal American citizens, whether in or out of office, in or out of the army, to grumble, divide, and contend upon or about questions of policy, especially in time of rebellion, but all should strive to harmonize, go heart and hand in sustaining the President in all ways and means (at least for the present) in his efforts to put down this rebellion and restore the Union.

And, whereas, it was a war policy of General Jackson in 1814, to recruit and enlist in the American army negro [sic] soldiers; and further, we have the example of the rebels, who held meetings, called for and did raise and recruit negro [sic] soldiers in 1816 in the cities of Memphis and New Orleans, and put them in the service to fight against the Union and loyal soldiers, and free white citizens of the United States aforesaid:

Therefore, Resolved by the City Council-

1st. That we recognize Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, and commander-in-chief of the American army, therefore, it is to obey him, not object, or stop to inquire the cause, or policy, of any rule, order, command, appointment, or proclamation for the suppression of the rebellion.

2d. That this rebellion is iniquitous and unjust; it can be, and must be put down, and the Union restored; that we, as true men, cannot and do not wish or recommend a peace upon any other terms. To this end, therefore, we hereby most heartily tender the President our co-operation and approval of his war measures, and stand ready and pledge ourselves to support and sustain him with all means, men, and money in our power.

3d. That we recognize the right (and believe it the true policy) of the President, as suggested in the foregoing preamble, (and for any other reasons that could be stated,) as a war measure, and as a more speedy way to crush out the rebellion, therefore recommend that the President call recruits and enlist negro soldiers especially cause to be taken, receive, recruit, and enlist all negroes belonging to our once claimed by rebels, and those opposed to the Government of the United States, at least all those fit for service, wherever and whenever it can be done; then to be officered and commanded by competent free white men, as suggested by Gen. Jackson to his colored soldiers in 1814, or upon such other terms as the President and commanders may think proper.

4th. And whereas, a large, unprecedented collection of runaway slaves, contrabands and free negroes [sic], without profitable occupations, or place of residence, and without means of subsistence, not infest the city and vicinity in gross violation of the State and Municipal law, a source of great annoyance to the citizens: Therefore, we earnestly suggest and request the military authorities to take charge of and control said negroes [sic], at least, so far as practicable, put them in the army, to work on fortifications, in hospitals, on railroads, or some other public work for the government, or suffer and permit the city and municipal authorities to enforce the law in reference to said negroes [sic]; but not in such manner as to aid or assist rebel owners or claimants in re-possessing themselves of said slaves, or their services, or their hire.

The vote by which the foregoing preamble and resolutions were adopted, is as follows"

Yeas.-Messrs. Brien, Carper, Clairborne, Mayfield, Scovel and Smith.

Nay.-Mr. Cheatham.

Mr. Robb, the Alderman from the 2d Ward, was absent.

The preamble and resolutions will come up for action at the next meeting of the Common Council, to be held this evening, at 3 o'clock.

The following bill was offered in the Board of Aldermen by Alderman Cheatham on last Tuesday [23rd] evening, and passed its first reading:

A Bill to prevent lewd women from riding in Hacks, and regulating the rates of fare in the City of Nashville.

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the City Council, That hereafter it shall not be lawful for any hackman to drive, for pleasure or show, any woman of ill-fame through the streets of the City.

Sec. 2, Be it further enacted, That the following shall be the rates of fare for riding in hacks: For one, or the first hour, one dollar and fifty cents, and for one hour thereafter, one dollar, and for conveying each passenger to any part of the city, not more than fifty cents.

Sec. 3. Be it enacted, That each hackman shall have a card hanging up in his hack showing the above rates of charge for fare;

Sec. 4. Be it enacted, that any person violating the provision of this at shall be fined not less than five nor more than fifty dollars, and if he be a slave shall be taken up and struck thirty-nine lashes.

Sec. 5. Be it enacted, That this act shall take effect from and after its passage.

Nashville Dispatch, June 25, 1863.

          23, Federal orders to arrest Confederate civilians in Lexington and Huntingdon as guarantees of safety for Unionist hostages held by Confederates

COLUMBUS, KY., June 23, 1863.

Lieut.-Col. VON HELMRICH, Cmdg. Expedition:

COL.: ….In case the reported demonstration of the enemy on Fort Heiman should prove to be false, you will proceed with the three companies of your regiment southward, in the general direction of Lexington, Tenn. Arriving at Lexington you will arrest the following named persons, well known as actively disloyal and dangerous, on account of their wealth, and influence: William T. Collins (carries on a shoe factory for the rebels; his negro [sic], Burrell, can give all necessary information), John F. Clark, Dr. John E. West, and George W. Pool, all residing in Lexington, and William F. Kiser, Verbin Trico, and William Barnhill, residing about 4 miles west and northwest of Lexington. These men, you will inform the citizens of Lexington, will be held as hostages at Columbus, Ky, for the good treatment of the persons and property of Union men. Isaac C. Hall, William Brooks, and Levi McEwing (the sheriff) can be relied on for information regarding the enemy, they being reported as consistent Union men. Either going or returning you will visit Huntingdon, Tenn., and obtain a secret interview Dr. Seth W. Bell, a trustworthy Union man. Any statement he may make can be relied upon, and you will arrange with him to send by messenger to these headquarters, from time to time, any authentic information he may gather of importance regarding the enemy, assuring him that men employed by him for that purpose will be remunerated here. His signature, when writing letters of information, is D. Snips. Finally, you are informed that a cavalry force of ours is expected to move from the Mississippi State line to Jackson, Tenn., and the Obion region. Be careful not to mistake them for rebels.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24 pt. III, p. 434.

          23," One of the most remarkable problems connected with our social condition is presented by the fact that while in every centre of two belligerent armies, liable to all the real dangers and distracting fears consequent upon such a situation, St. Cecilia's Academy has suffered little, if any, relaxation from its former high degree of prosperity."

St. Cecilia's Academy Commencement.

The faculty and other managers of St. Cecilia's have many causes of congratulations at the important results of their labors in behalf of female education. From the opening of this Institute to the present time, its progress in every branch of learning has been steady, and the Second Annual Exhibition which closed on Tuesday evening [23rd] was a most happy period to the yearly routine of study. The many evidences of devotion to scholastic duty, the development of clear-minded appreciation to the severest lessons in history, (ancient and modern,) philosophy, the languages, rhetoric, mathematics, etc., and the show of a labor of level in music and the fine arts, we accept as gratifying proofs that notwithstanding the absorbing interest taken by all classes of citizens in the stirring political themes of the day and the excitement growing out of the war news, the prosperity of some of our literary institutions continues with but little diminution. One of the most remarkable problems connected with our social condition is presented by the fact that while in every centre of two belligerent armies, liable to all the real dangers and distracting fears consequent upon such a situation, St. Cecilia's Academy has suffered little, if any, relaxation from its former high degree of prosperity.

It is conceded, we believe that the assemblage was larger on this occasion than ever before. Such a phalanx of beauty, intelligence and gallantry, making all allowances for the multiplicity of inconveniences and deprivations of war, has not united in our midst since the peaceful days of yore. We are sure that a more lovely array of childhood never took place anywhere. The costume of the "little dears," in both junior and senior departments, was of the most elegant and fashionable prints, and in the "make up": the characteristics of neatness and simplicity were unmistakable. At the opening of the Concert, never, we thought, did a scene appear so strikingly beautiful – the Entrance March, executed with great precision and artfulness of order, in which all the pupils took part: the well-executed piano accompaniment, by Miss Nellie Flowers: the finely decorated state; the gay and attentive audience in the spacious chapel; the highly embellished walls and panels – all afforded a panorama truly grant and imposing. The discipline of the scholars throughout the series of exercises was admirable – in fact, we never saw so few "outs of order" in any similar exhibition. As we could not, unfortunately, witness the performances after six o'clock, we can only speak safely of the First Part, given between the hours of 4 and 6 o'clock P. M.: although we are assured that Part II, in point of excellence, was not inferior in any detail. The musical efforts of the young ladies were highly satisfactory to all present, eulogistic of Professor Adams' ability as an instructor, and very creditable to the proficiency of his pupils, each and all. Of the vocal pieces, The Forest Nymphs, a trio by Misses Lizzie Morrison, Jennie Maginness and Mollie Lunsden, received the most praise. For splendor of execution, the Malta March, solo and trio on piano, guitar and harp, deserved the palm. The improvements of the students, since the First Annual Commencement, was noticeable in every effort, and their parents, who were in attendance, manifested the utmost delight. We hope to see this already celebrated institution continue to receive the generous support of all who would bestow on their daughters the blessings of a pure and thorough education. The noble Sisters who manage its beneficent collegiate government deserve the plaudits of their every patron, and merit the liberal aid of parents of all denominations. Our citizens know the academy to occupy one of the loveliest and most healthy and convenient sites in this vicinity, or perhaps in the whole Southeast. It is only requisite to once walk among and look upon the picturesque campus of the Academy, to fall utterly in love with it, as did all who visited it on last Tuesday. We find that, for want of space, we shall have to close our imperfect reference to this interesting reunion, by the introduction of the following list of premiums in departments for which we are indebted to Mr. E. E. Jones of the Dispatch office.

[There follows a lengthy list of students' names and the awards they were presented.]

*  *  *  *

Nashville Daily Press, June 25, 1863.

          ca. 23, Guerrilla attack on U. S. S. Robb and Confederate conscript sweeps in Henderson, Madison and McNairy counties

COLUMBUS, KY., June 23, 1863.

H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief:

Lieut.-Col. Henry telegraphs from Fort Heiman: Scouts just in from Paris, Tenn. No rebels there, but reported between there and Jackson. Also, that gunboats had arrived from Hamburg, reporting large rebel force crossing the west side of Tennessee between Saltillo and Duck River, mostly cavalry, but some artillery. Fired at gunboat Robb, killing 1 man and wounding 2. One rebel captain killed and 7 soldiers wounded. One hundred and fifty refugees came down on gunboat. The cavalry scouts from Clinton, Ky., returning from Jackson, report that an hour before their arrival at Jackson a cavalry force from Gen. Dodge passed through that place from Tennessee River southward on Purdy road, destroying bridges up to Thursday morning. The rebel Col. [J. F.] Newsom was there with 42 men, and other officers from the rebel army with small commands were moving through Henderson, Madison, and McNairy Counties, recruiting, conscripting, and organizing, but disappeared on the approach of our troops.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp. 433-434.

          23-26, Scouts from Huntingdon to Fort Heiman

FORT HEIMAN, June 29, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. ASBOTH:

GEN.: Scouts in from Huntingdon report that they were there on the 23d instant. Saw or heard of no rebels. Federal troops occupy Trenton. All quiet in that vicinity.

A. P. HENRY, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Post.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 451.

          24, Skirmish at Middleton

HDQRS. RESERVE CORPS, In the Field, near Christiana, Tenn., June 25, 1863--7 a. m.

GEN.: I have just this moment heard from Gen. Mitchell. After a very stubborn resistance made by the enemy, he drove him out of Middleton yesterday evening [24th]. He is now returning here to supply his command with forage for his horses and rations for his men. He found the country about Middleton devastated, and his horses have had nothing to eat for three days. He is now within 3 miles of this place, and I have sent out forage and rations to meet him. I will send to Murfreesborough to-day for additional forage and rations for him. His command will not be fit for service before to-morrow night, and I will retain it here awaiting your orders.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 532-533.

          24, Skirmish near Bradyville

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of Maj. Gen. Thomas L. Crittenden, U. S. Army, commanding Twenty-first Army Corps during the Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign, June 23, July 7; relative to the skirmish at Bradyville, June 24, 1863.

HDQRS. TWENTY-FIRST ARMY CORPS, ADJT. GEN.'S OFFICE, Manchester, Tenn., July 13, 1863.

SIR: In obedience to orders received at Murfreesborough on Wednesday, June 24, 1863, at 2.15 a. m., I marched on the same morning for Lumley's Stand, by the way of Bradyville, with Maj.-Gen. Palmer's and Brig.-Gen. Wood's divisions. Gen. Van Cleve, with his division, remained at Murfreesborough to garrison the fort. Just beyond Bradyville, in Gillies' Gap, we encountered a small force of the enemy's cavalry, who were driven so easily as to cause no delay. Gen. Palmer, who was in the advance, lost 1 man killed and 1 wounded at this place.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 525.

          24, Skirmish at Christiana[6]

No circumstantial reports filed.


COL.: In accordance with orders of this date, I have the honor to submit the following summary of the operations of my division during the past five days:

By direction of Maj. Gen. G. Granger, commanding Reserve Corps, I advanced from Triune, Tenn., at 9 a. m. on Tuesday, June 23, 1863, by the Nolensville pike, to within 1 mile of Harpeth River, and thence striking across to the Manchester pike, by way of Winslow's Camp Ground, I arrived at Salem at 6 p. m., and encamped for the night.

At 7 a. m. Wednesday, June 24, I advanced of the Twentieth Army Corps. I remained at Christiana until relieved, in turn, by Gen. Baird's division of the Reserve Corps, when I advanced 2 miles in the direction of Millersburg, and encamped for the night on Ross' farm, at Henry's Creek. At Christiana my pickets encountered those of the rebels, and kept up a brisk skirmish during my stay at that point, the rebels occasionally bringing a 6-pounder gun to bear upon us, without, however, doing us any injury.

On Thursday, June 25, I was relived from duty with the Reserve Corps, and ordered to report to the corps proper of the division. I, however, remained at the Ross farm, at the request of Gen. McCook, commanding on my immediate left, until 11 a. m. that day, when I advanced to Hoover's Mill and encamped for the night.

During the 24th and 25th it rained incessantly, rendering the dirt roads over which I was frequently obliged to travel exceedingly difficult for the passage of artillery and wagons. I, however, succeeded in bringing my train through with comparatively little damage.

On Friday, June 26, I reported, according to orders, to Maj.-Gen. Rousseau, and, in conjunction with his division, effected the passage of Hoover's Gap (an Official report of the action attending which I have already forwarded), and encamped that night on the south side of Scott's Branch of Garrison Creek.

On Saturday, June 27, I advanced to Manchester, via Fairfield, striking the Manchester pike at Powell's farm, and encamped there, under the direction of the major-general commanding the corps.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. BRANNAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 420.

          24, Skirmish at Manchester

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          24, Skirmish at Big Spring Branch

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of Col. John T. Wilder, Seventeenth Indiana Infantry, commanding First Brigade, during the Middle Tennessee Campaign, June 23-July 7, 1863, relative to the skirmish at Big Spring Branch, June 24, 1863.

HDQRS. 1ST BRIGADE, 4TH DIVISION, 14TH ARMY CORPS, Camp near Duck River Bridge, July 11, 1863.

MAJ.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command in the late movements, resulting in driving the rebel forces under Gen. Bragg south across the Tennessee River:

On the morning of June 24, 1863, at 3 o'clock, my command moved from camp, 6 miles north from Murfreesborough, and taking the advance of the Fourteenth Army Corps, on the Manchester pike moved forward to Big Spring Branch, 7 miles from Murfreesborough. Here my scouts gave notice of the proximity of rebel pickets. The command was halted until the infantry closed up, when we immediately moved forward, the Seventy-second Indiana, Col. Miller, being in advance, with five companies, under Lieut.-Col. Kirkpatrick, thrown out as an advance guard, and a party of 25 scouts, of the Seventeenth and Seventy-second, as an extreme advance guard. One mile from the creek we came upon the rebel pickets, who opened fire on the advance, which was returned by our men, driving the rebels to a hill thickly covered with cedars, where the rebel reserves were drawn up under cover of the hill, and opened a rapid fire upon our men, who advanced rapidly to the foot of the hill, when Col. Kirkpatrick deployed one company on each side of the road, and, without halting, drove the rebels from their position, capturing 2 prisoners, without loss on our part. I directed the advance to push speedily forward and take possession of Hoover's Gap, and, if possible, to prevent the enemy from occupying their fortifications, which I learned were situated at a narrow point of the gap, 16 miles from Murfreesborough.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 457.

          24, Report relative to condition of railroads in East Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama, excerpts concerning East Tennessee

[JUNE 24, 1863.]


GEN.: I have traveled over the railroads in East Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, and am able to make the following report:

On the railroad leading from Chattanooga to Knoxville there are 19 engines employed, 12 of which are nearly unfit for service, and the balance considerably worn. There are three stone and two wooden bridges on this road; the latter are over the Tennessee and Hiawassee Rivers; both covered. The Hiawassee Bridge is guarded by about 50 men, and the Tennessee by 500 men, at Loudon.

On the road from Knoxville to Lynchburg, Va., there are 12 engines, 3 of which are good and the others scarcely fit for use. On that road there are two important bridges across the Holston and Watauga Rivers. They are new wooden bridges-uncovered trestle-work-having been rebuilt since destroyed by Gen. Carter last winter. On the Western and Atlantic road, leading from Atlanta to Chattanooga, there are 34 engines, two-thirds of which are nearly unfit for use. On this road are thirteenth wooden bridges-uncovered trestle-work-within 30 miles of Chattanooga. On South Chickamauga River there is also one important wooden bridge, not far from Atlanta. On the Georgia road, leading from Atlanta to Savannah, there are 53 engineers, three fourths of which are badly damaged.

* * * *

The fortifications at Chattanooga are progressing slowly, as a portion of the hands have lately been sent to Loudon to fortify that place. There is one pontoon bridge over the Tennessee River at Kelley's Ferry and the other at Rankin's Ferry; both above Bridgeport. They could be destroyed very easily, as there are only some 15 or 20 guards at each place.

The strength of Bragg's army has remained about the same for some time...

* * * *


HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, June 24, 1863.

Respectfully referred to the Gen.-in-Chief for his information. These facts were obtained by Dr. McGowan, a Union a man of East Tennessee....The doctor traveled over the whole route, and his report is very reliable.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 353-354.

          24, "…the sun shown [sic] brightly on the moving hosts, the arms glittered gaily in the bright light and all was life and animation." The initiation of the Tullahoma Campaign, as recorded by Sergeant Charles Alley, 5th Iowa Cavalry

Left early this morning and found the whole army [of the Cumberland] in motion. Everywhere were [sic] to be seen large bodies of men moving southward. Cavalry, artillery and infantry – the sun shown [sic] brightly on the moving hosts, the arms glittered gaily in the bright light and all was life and animation. We moved forward on the Woodbury Pike. Soon the fine morning passed away and the clouds rapidly rose. Thunders [sic] uttered their voices and lightnings [sic] flashed and we marched on through a pouring rain for about 8 miles when we were halted and had the pleasure of sitting an hour or two in the rain, when we were countermarched and came back to M. and then went out on the Salem Pike where it was said the Rebels were driving our men. All the way we could hear the cannonading – but in the afternoon it seemed to be getting farther off – we marched seven or eight miles on this latter pike then took across the road and went on a few miles farther to the left and bivouacked. I was rather a dreary time everything in damp. However, I spread my rubber blanket on the ground, my saddle blanket on that and lay down. After awhile it began to rain again when I drew my talma[7] over my blanket and defied it.

Alley Diary

          24, Tactical use of railroads recommended in the Obion region of West Tennessee

COLUMBUS, June 24, 1863.

Maj. Gen. STEPHEN A. HURLBUT, Comdg. Sixteenth Army Corps:

GEN.: * * * *

….In order to control more efficiently the guerrilla movements in the Obion region, and guard railroad and telegraphic communication between Columbus, Union City, and Hickman, I have established an advanced post of two companies of cavalry at Union City, and here take occasion to allude in connection with my report of 21st instant, No. 2478, to the importance of connecting, as early as possible, the Paducah Railroad with the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, to facilitate the early movements of my very limited command, and enable me to throw men or supplies promptly from one point to any other, and would beg that Brig. Gen. J. D. Webster, superintendent United States military railroads, be requested to take the matter in hand, and intrust a competent officer with the execution of the work and the management of the roads.

I cannot move more cavalry at present, as that returning from the field requires a few days' rest, but will keep my district, as well as that of Jackson, thoroughly scouted with the available force, and will continually send infantry on train to Trenton to feel of Obion region.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol 24, pt. III, pp. 436-437.

          24, Secret Agents

Probable Spies.

Green Belcher, captured by Col. Baird near Franklin, Tenn., as a rebel soldier, was received by Col. Spaulding, Provost Marshal, yesterday The accused denies being a rebel soldier; but he has made so many false statements, that he will be held as a spy or prisoner of war, whichever he may prove himself. Thos. Finnerly, a citizen of Triune, was also sent in by Major General Granger, to be retained as a rebel spy until further orders.

Nashville Daily Press, June 25, 1863.

24, Anti-Confederate satire concerning the skirmish at Knoxville, June 19, 1863[8]

Knoxville is, and has been for the last two years...infested by a clique of intolerant secession leaders....They have all the while been furious war men-"last ditcher," "the Yankees could only enter Knoxville over their dead bodies, " &c., -but fortunately, until recently their courage had never been tried. Our informant gives us an account of this test...It seems [sic] that when Colonel Saunders [i.e., Sanders] (supposed at the time to be Gen. Carter) approached Knoxville, and turned his artillery toward the town, the courage of the chivalrous knights began to ooze out at their fingers' ends, and ...they fled in every direction, (except toward Colonel S.) reported to have precipitately paddled himself across the Holton River, "a straddle" a pine log, while Sperry, the Uriah Heap of the Register...Unwilling to abide the tardy motions of the ferryboat, which chanced to be on the opposite side, plunged frantically into the stream with his half emptied bottle in his hand...and...soon found himself stranded on the friendly rocks of a dam a short distance below the ferry. The ferryman...relieved him from his perilous predicament and landed him, all dripping on the southern shore...[Parson] Sneed...finding his line of retreat cut off, incontinently subsided into a cellar, and, when called for by a servant, who opened the cellar door some two hours after our troops[9] had left, arose from his hiding-place and with eyes dilated, heroic ally exclaimed: "Don't fire, General Carter! My name's Sneed, the Hon. Wm. H. Sneed, late of the United States Congress. In the language of General Buckner, Sir, I surrender!"....Captain Kain...known about Knoxville as "Claib Kain"-was in the town at the time of Col. Saunder's approach, and being a Captain of Artillery was ordered into a battery by the Colonel commanding. But the said Claib, never having enlisted with any idea of going into such a dangerous place as that, is said to have procured his detail as Judge Advocate, and urged furthermore that his company was at Cumberland Gap, that it would never do for an officer to expose his life as a private, etc., etc, but all to no avail. He was peremptorily ordered into the Summit battery. Seeing a Lieutenant pointing a gun toward our forces, the valiant Captain rushed forward exclaiming:-"For God's sake, Lieutenant, don't fire that gun-the enemy will find out where we are!"

But the melo-drama [sic] of the whole affair is said to have been witnessed in the Branch Bank of Tennessee. That institution is presided over by Dr. J. G. M. Ramsey....valorous [sic], but at a later hour, it was ascertained they had reached the Tazewell Road, nervousness got the better part of his courage...He turned to his bank and his first impulse was to secrete himself within the vault; but then the thought of "plundering vandals" drove all idea of security from his mind and he sat down in despair. Calling his Cashier, he said: "Sir, I shall probably not survive the conflict. Should I fall, let the simple inscription on my monument be "He died a true son of Mecklenburg." At this instant a shell exploded in a vacant lot near by. The Doctor was overcome. Seizing a copy of "Ramsey's Annals"[10] and clasping it to his bosom he fled back into his chair crying, "Bury me thus!"

Nashville Union, July 24, 1863.

          24-26, Skirmishes at Hoover's Gap

Report of Brig. Gen. William B. Bate, C. S. Army, commanding brigade, Stewart's division.


MAJ.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the battle of Hoover's Gap, fought on the evening of June 24 last by a part of my brigade:

About 2 o'clock in the afternoon of that day, while encamped 1 mile from Fairfield and 4 from Hoover's Gap, a courier arrived from Maj.-Gen. Stewart, directing me to send one regiment and a battery up Garrison's Fork toward Beech Grove. In a few moments a second courier arrived, directing me to send two regiments. The Twentieth Tennessee and the Thirty-seventh (then known as the First) Georgia Regt. [sic] and the Eufaula Light Artillery were designated for the expedition, and at once started through a drenching rain in fulfillment of the order. [T. D.] Caswell's battalion of sharpshooters (Fourth Georgia Battalion) was directed to follow, and the remainder of my command ordered under arms, and to hold itself in readiness to move. Though the order was to send the force, I took the liberty of commanding it in person, believing it would meet the approbation of the major-general commanding. The command had not passed the confines of my camp before meeting in scattered remnants a part of the First [Third] Kentucky Cavalry in hot haste, stating that while on picket they had been scattered and driven from beyond Hoover's Gap by the advancing columns of the enemy. I had proceeded a mile when I met their colonel ([J. R.] Butler) with some 8 or 10 of his men. He at once volunteered to return with me, and did so. I learned from him that three regiments of the enemy's cavalry had passed down the Manchester turnpike. I also about the same time heard from a citizen that some scouts of the enemy had already passed from the Manchester pike down Noah's Fork as far as A. B. Robertson's mill, which was on the main road leading to my right and rear. I thereupon immediately sent a staff officer to camps, with instructions to Col. R. C. Tyler to move his command (the Fifteenth and Thirty-seventh Tennessee Regt. [sic]'s consolidated) to some eligible and defensible position on the road up Noah's Fork, and prevent the enemy turning our right and rear. Through same channel I ordered Col. Bush Jones to take his command (Ninth Alabama Battalion) 1 mile in front of our encampment, where the Dismal Hollow road diverges from its main direction and is intersected by road leading to Garrison's Fork, to resist any attempt made by the enemy to pass in that direction, which was to my left, and to hold himself ready to re-enforce our advance should occasion require.

These dispositions having been ordered, I hastily communicated them to Maj.-Gen. Stewart, at Fairfield, and moved on briskly to original destination. When about mile from Beech Grove (which is near the entrance to Hoover's Gap), I threw out a company of skirmishers to my right, and sent forward with a few scouts, at his own instance, Maj. William Clare, of Gen. Bragg's staff, to ascertain the whereabouts of the enemy. His fire was soon drawn and his position developed. I immediately prepared to give him battle, and advanced two companies as skirmishers at a double-quick to gain and occupy a skirt of woods before the enemy could do so, and to which he was advancing. Maj. Fred. Claybrooke (of the Twentieth Tennessee) pushed forward the skirmishers and effected the object, driving the enemy back after a sharp contest, in which Maj. Claybrooke, while gallantly pressing forward, received his death wound.

Our line of battle, composed of the Twentieth Tennessee and Thirty-seventh Georgia Regt. [sic]'s, extended at right angles across the main road leading from Fairfield to Hoover's Gap, its left resting on the east bank of Garrison's Fork. This line, with skirmishers well advanced, was moved forward until the enemy was driven back near a mile from where we first met him into Hoover's Gap. One section of the Eufaula Light Artillery, under command of Lieut. [William Henry] Woods, was in the mean time placed in position on an eminence on my right just previously occupied by the enemy's advance. This section (3-inch rifles) opened briskly and with such telling effect as to prevent the enemy's farther advance in that direction. It, in conjunction with our advanced skirmishers, completely commanded the exit from the gap going east.

Having thus checked his advance on the Manchester pike, and learning that the mount men who had been near Robertson's mill had returned to the gap before we arrived in sight of the same, believing my right and rear free from attack, I ordered, through a staff officer, Col. Tyler to bring his command up Garrison's Fork to the position we then occupied, and Col. Jones to bring his to my left. Finding the enemy in force, and knowing he could without obstruction turn my left and gain a series of hills which commanded our then line of battle, and then relieve the Manchester pike, I at once moved Caswell's battalion of sharpshooters (which had just arrived), the Twentieth Tennessee, and the remaining section of the Eufaula Light Artillery, under command of Lieut. [W. J.] McKenzie, to the left and across Garrison's Fork; ordered them to advance and drive the enemy before he should get a lodgment on the hills. My suspicion as to his probable movement was correct. He was advancing in force to gain the hills and turn our left. He was met with such spirit and resolution by these little commands, each playing its part most handsomely, that he gave way under their fierce attack until pressed back upon his second line. The engagement here became general and sanguinary.

Finding no disposition on the part of the foe to press my right to regain the ground from which he had been driven and relieve the Manchester pike, I ordered Col. [A. F.] Rudler, with the Thirty-seventh Georgia Regt. [sic], to move his command across the creek up the steep acclivity of its left bank, form line parallel to the same, and given an enfilading fire to the force then heavily engaging my left. The order was obeyed with alacrity and in good style. The enemy, anticipating the move, met it with a line of battle fronting the woods which skirted the bank of the creek. A bloody engagement here ensued with great odds against us, and after a futile but most persistent and gallant effort to dislodge him, Col. Rudler properly withdrew his command under cover of the bank. At this juncture every gun and piece in that portion of my command which had arrived on the field was engaged in a spirited and deadly contest.

In this position we fought for nearly an hour, when, by his excess of numbers, the enemy turned our already extended left flank, giving an enfilading fire to the Twentieth Tennessee. It recoiled from the shock, was rallied, and formed in good time on a fence running a short distance from and perpendicular to our line of battle. Caswell's battalion of sharpshooters still held the right of the woods from which the enemy had been driven. Seeing, by his vastly superior force, that he could again turn my left without resistance, as every gun and piece of mine present were engaged, and Tyler and Jones not yet possibly within supporting distance, I removed the artillery then engaged on the left to a line of hills immediately in our rear and in front of William Johnson's house, which admirably overlooked the entire battle-ground, as well as a considerable space to the right and left. The artillery being placed in position on these commanding heights, my entire force present, excepting that guarding the east exit from the gap and the Manchester pike, was quickly and advantageously placed in such position as gave protection to both flanks, and ability to successfully repel any assault from the front. This position being secured, we held the enemy at bay with little effort and comparative security.

At this juncture, an hour by sun, Lieut. Col. Bush. Jones, with the Ninth Alabama Battalion, arrived upon the field, under a heavy artillery fire, and was placed in position on the extreme left. Soon there-after Col. Tyler, with the Fifteenth and Thirty-seventh Tennessee consolidated, arrived and occupied the ground from which the enemy had been driven in the early part of the action. Maj.-Gen. Stewart arrived with re-enforcements about sundown, and assumed command. My command-having lost in killed and wounded nearly twenty-five per cent. of the number engaged, being wet from the drenching rain, and exhausted from the fight-was relieved by the re-enforcements, except the Twentieth Tennessee and Eufaula Light Artillery, which remained without intermission in line of battle. Thus closed with the day a most spirited and sanguinary conflict, in which less than 700 men (about one-half of my brigade) successfully fought and drove back into Hoover's Gap and held at bay until nightfall the battalions of the advancing foe. It was a bright day for the glory of our arms, but a sad one when we consider the loss of the many gallant spirits who sealed with their blood their devotion to our cause.

* * * *

The morrow [25th] renewed our association with the line of battle, under the leadership of Maj.-Gen. Stewart. The Twentieth Tennessee and Maney's battery...were transferred by order of Gen. Stewart, and placed under command of Brig.-Gen. Johnson. The Eufaula Light Artillery was retained on the heights it has occupied the evening previous, and was under command of Brig.-Gen. Johnson. The Thirty-seventh Georgia and Caswell's battalion of sharpshooters were held in reserve during the 25th, except two companies of the former, commanded by Capt. [D. L.] Gholston and Lieut. [James A.] Sanders, which were ordered to report to Brig.-Gen. Clayton as skirmishers. Col. Tyler and Lieut.-Col. Jones, with their commands, were held in line on our center, subject to severe shelling during the entire day. The next day's retreat was conducted in fine style, free from undue excitement and straggling. My brigade was handsomely covered by Caswell's sharpshooters and two companies of skirmishers from Col. Tyler's command. At one time they concealed themselves in a skirt of wood until the enemy's skirmishers had passed their right; they then opened such a deadly fire upon their flank as to precipitate them back in great confusion. This incident had much to do with the caution which afterward characterized our pursuit.

I am, major, most respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. B. BATE[11], Brig.-Gen.

OR Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 611-614.


Excerpt from the Report of Major-General A. McD. McCook on operations during the Tullahoma Campaign, specifically on the fighting at Liberty Gap.

Winchester, Tenn., July 10, 1863

* * * *

The actions at Liberty Gap, on the 24th[12] and 25th of June, among the momentous events occurring on the flanks of the great Army of the Union, can be classified only as skirmishes, yet I never witnessed more gallantry and heroism in officers and soldiers than was displayed on the 24th and reported to me of the action on the 25th. Col. Watkins, of the Sixth Kentucky, and Lieut.-Col. Watts, Second Kentucky Cavalry, are favorably spoken of by Gen. Sheridan. My staff officers all did their duty well. My thanks are due to Capt. B. D. Williams, aide-de-camp, and Capt. A. C. McClurg, Eighty-eighth Illinois, ordnance officer.

* * * *

A. McD. McCook, Major-General

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 468.

          24-27, Skirmishes at Liberty Gap

Report of Brig. Gen. Richard W. Johnson, U. S. Army, commanding Second Division, on the skirmish at Liberty Gap.


SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the Second Division, Twentieth Corps, from June 24, the day upon which it marched from Murfreesborough, up to July 1, 1863, the date of the occupation of this place:

On the 23d ultimo, I received an order from the major-general commanding the Twentieth Corps to hold my division in readiness to move on the following day at 5 a. m., with twelve days' rations, and at least six days' forage, with as much more short forage as could be conveniently transported in the wagons. These arrangements were made. I marched with about ten days' forage.

Some delay on the part of the troops which were to precede me delayed my movements until about 8 a. m., when I marched on the Shelbyville pike, in the numerical order of my brigade, preceded by five companies of the Thirty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Mounted Infantry, commanded by Col. T. J. Harrison. After following the pike about 6 miles, I turned to the left, in the direction of Liberty Gap, via Old Millersburg, a dilapidated and abandoned town.

No enemy was seen until after the command had passed Millersburg, when Col. Harrison became warmly engaged with the rebel advance. He at once communicated with me. The ground being rough and unfavorable for the operations of cavalry, I directed him to halt until the arrival of my First Brigade, commanded by Brig. Gen. A. Willich. On the arrival of this brigade, Gen. Willich saw at a glance the position, and made the following admirable disposition: The Fifteenth Ohio Volunteers were deployed on the right of the road; the Forty-ninth Ohio on the left; skirmishers, with support companies, in front, and the Thirty-second Indiana and the Eighty-ninth Illinois, with Godspeed's battery, in reserve. In this order the brigade moved forward, the enemy's skirmishers falling back on their reserves, posted on the crest of the hills forming the northern entrance to Liberty Gap. This is a very strong position, easily defended by a small force against a very large one.

Gen. Willich felt the enemy, and found that it was his intention to make a stubborn defense. He directed the Fifteenth and Forty-ninth Ohio to deploy well to the right and left, and try and ascertain the localities of the flank of the enemy. Their commander reported that they were still flanked. The Thirty-ninth Indiana was ordered to the right, and the Thirty-second Indiana to the left. The Forty-ninth Ohio and a part of the Thirty-second Indiana advanced up the side of a steep hill under a heavy fire, driving the enemy before them, taking possession of one encampment, with tables set. Here I placed at the disposal of Gen. Willich a portion of the Second Brigade, Col. Miller commanding, who sent the Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania and Twenty-ninth Indiana to the right of the Fifteenth Ohio, then to change direction to the left, sweeping the hillside on which the rebels were posted. This movement was handsomely executed. As soon as the change to the left had been made, Gen. Willich ordered his entire line forward. Under his own eye and management, the rebels were driven at every point their camps and camp equipages falling into our hands, and Liberty Gap was in our possession. As night was fast approaching, I ordered Gen. Willich to halt, and ordered up the Third Brigade, under Col. P. P. Baldwin. It was necessary to clear the hills in our front and establish a picket line. I gave Col. Baldwin his instructions, leaving the details of its execution to him. He placed the Louisville Legion (Fifth Kentucky) on the right, the Sixth Indiana on the left of the road, and the First Ohio and Ninety-third Ohio were held in reserve. Skirmishers were thrown forward, and soon became engaged, but the rebels were forced back. It was a pleasing sight to witness the promptness with which these regiments advanced.

This brigade was on picket during the night. Col. Miller was ordered to picket the flanks with two regiments. I established my headquarters a short distance in advance of the reserve brigade. All was quiet during the night.

Early on the following morning, Gen. Cartlin reported to me with two brigades of Gen. Davis' division, the latter officer being confined to a sick bed; but soon after, the roar of artillery and musketry brought him to the front, when he assumed the general management of his division. I received orders, frequently verbal, from the major-general commanding the corps, to keep up the appearance of a heavy advance, but not to go beyond the gap. About 8 a. m., I directed Gen. Willich to relieve the advance pickets with his brigade, and soon after the rebel pickets began to appear and shots to be exchanged with our lines. Col. Harrison, with his mounted regiment, was sent out to ascertain the movements and intention of the enemy. His expedition was entirely satisfactory. From 8 a. m. until about 5 p. m. the firing was kept up, sometimes quite heavy. At that hour Gen. Willich sent me word that the enemy was advancing in force. I immediately ordered up the troops in reserve. Willich's brigade again received the shock, but in splendid style was the enemy driven back over an open field. The ammunition being nearly exhausted, I ordered Col. Miller to relieve Gen. Willich. He moved his brigade forward in handsome style, but was soon seriously wounded while gallantly leading his men forward. Col. Rose at once took command of the brigade, and, placing himself in the front, gave the command, "Forward!" The gallant Seventy-seventh Pennsylvania and Seventy-ninth Illinois, supported by the Thirty-fourth Illinois, charged over an open field and up a steep hill, driving the rebels before them. These fine regiments lost heavily.

Col. Rose held this hill until relieved by Gen. Cartlin and his fine brigade. While Col. Rose was engaged with three of his regiments, the other two (Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth Indiana) were guarding his flank. Gen. Cartlin drove them over an open field on the opposite side of the hill. The handsome manner in which this brigade moved to the front, the gallantry and daring of the officers and men, was certainly a beautiful sight to behold. Gen. Cartlin was left in charge of the front line, while my forces were assigned a strong position in readiness for any emergency. Not a shot was fired during the night.

On the 26th, Gen. Cartlin again encountered the enemy's advance. A report of his operations will be made by him.

On the night of the 27th, I was ordered to fall back to Millersburg with my division, which was done.

On the 28th, I marched to Beech Grove.

On the 29th, to Manchester, where I remained one day.

On the 1st of July entered this place.

With the courage and endurance of the division I am highly pleased, and hope that its operations have been satisfactory to the corps and department commanders. By the admirable disposition of our forces, we have gained all the fruits of a glorious victory with little loss. At every point the enemy has been surprised, and in his irregular flight he has abandoned guns, camp and garrison equipage in great quantities. Demoralized and beaten, he has fallen back beyond the Tennessee River. Middle Tennessee Is freed from the marauding hordes by which it has been overrun, and the Stars and Stripes now wave over it. All this has been accomplished with little loss. Every officer and soldier in the division behaved well. Reference is respectfully made to brigade, regiment, and battery reports.

* * * *

No troops ever endured more and complained less. The affair at Liberty Gap will always be considered a skirmish, but few skirmishes ever equaled it in severity.

* * * *

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

R. W. JOHNSON, Brig.-Gen. of Volunteers.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 483-485.

          24-July 2, Naval expedition up the Tennessee River

Report of Acting Volunteer Lieutenant Hurd, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Exchange, regarding expedition up the Tennessee River, in company with U. S. gunboats Key West and Fanny Barker, June 24--July 2, 1863.

U. S. GUNBOAT EXCHANGE, Tennessee River, July 3, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report, pursuant to Captain Phelps' order of 20th June (per telegraph); I proceeded up the Tennessee River, 24th June (upon the arrival of Captain Goudy at Fort Heiman), accompanied by U. S. gunboats Key West and Fanny Barker. Arrived at the mouth of Duck River at 8 o'clock p. m., anchored, and remained during the night. 25th, 4:30 o'clock A.M., I proceeded up the river. At Beach Creek I took on board two Federal prisoners, who had broken jail at Waynesborough and came to the river. At Swallow Bluff I found the rebels crossing from the west to the east side of the river with bacon, horses, mules, and cattle, which they had confiscated. About half of the regiment (said to be Biffle's) had crossed. I surprised them, captured some bacon, destroyed one ferry flat, two canoes, and one bateau. I stopped a short time at Esquire Craven's, then proceeded up to Savannah and anchored for the night.

* * * *

29th. I proceeded up the stream this morning to Hamburg, procured some lumber I was much in need of, and returned to Craven's Landing. At Peters, I took on board a deserter from Bragg's army and hold him a prisoner of war. At Savannah I received a verbal message from General Dodge, and shall cooperate accordingly....30th I left Craven's Landing at 4.30 A.M. o'clock with my own vessel and the Fanny Barker, the Key West following us at 8 o'clock A.M. I separated the boats somewhat, but kept them within supporting distance. This day and night was spent at intervals between Craven's Landing and James Mathews', to prevent crossing and cooperate with Federal cavalry, but they did not appear....July 1st I proceeded down the river to Perryville, and stopped during the night; find there has been little crossing down below Nichols, which is 12 miles above Perryville.

2d p. m. [sic] I have just arrived at Fort Heiman....

*  *  *  *

J. S. HURD, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 25, pp. 196-197.

          25, U. S. N. begins anti-guerrilla patrol of Mississippi River, Fort Pillow to Memphis

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from Orders from A.M. Pennock, Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station at Cairo, Illinois to Acting Master A. F Thompson, U. S. Navy, Commanding U. S. Gunboat Silver Cloud:

* * * *

You will cruise between Memphis, Tenn., and Fort Pillow. Guerrillas infest the banks of the river, with the intention of annoying and capturing steamers on the way up and down. It is reported that they have with them field pieces. Keep a sharp lookout upon Island No. 40.[13] The navigation of the river must be preserved at all hazards and vigilance and prompt action are required.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 25, p. 204.[14]

          25, Skirmish at (Old) Fosterville

CHRISTIANA, June 25, 1863--9 p. m.

GEN.: We drove the rebels back through Old Fosterville into Guy's Gap this afternoon, from which they opened on us with artillery. The gap is very strong and difficult to turn, except by making a wide detour. From the best information I can get, there are three or four regiments of infantry in Guy's Gap, with one battery. There are other infantry regiments a short distance back toward Shelbyville. Gen. Wharton's division of cavalry is also at and about the gap. [W. T.] Martin's brigade of cavalry left Tuesday morning for Chapel Hill, and probably Wiggins' battery ditto. One regiment of cavalry, supposed to be the Eighth Texas, left in the direction of Manchester this morning. Mitchell whipped them handsomely at Middleton yesterday. Killed some 10 or 15 men and 50 horses, besides the wounded. How are Thomas and McCook progressing?


G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 533.


HDQRS. CHIEF OF CAVALRY, Camp near Winchester, July 8, 1863.


* * * *

June 25, marched the command, by the cross-roads at Jamison's farm, to Christiana, where I joined the force under Gen. Gordon Granger. Our pickets near Fosterville having been driven in during the afternoon by the enemy's cavalry, Col. Patrick was sent, which his own regiment, the Fifth Iowa, and the Fourth Michigan, to ascertain his force. After a spirited skirmish, the enemy was driven back upon his infantry force at Guy's Gap, where a battery of artillery opened upon Col. Patrick's command. He retired at dark, with no loss, to his camp.

June 26, rained nearly all day.[15] Time spent in getting up forage and rations and posting detachments to watch the movements of the enemy. Next morning, June 27, orders were received from the general commanding the army to dislodge the enemy from Guy's Gap. At 9 o'clock we left Christiana for the gap, Gen. Mitchell's division leading, with orders to take the right-hand road at Old Fosterville, leading by Middleton, and turn the gap. The division turned off the road for this purpose, and Minty's brigade was thus put in advance upon the pike. Skirmishing commenced at Old Fosterville, and an inspection of the enemy's position convincing me that the enemy was not in force of all arms at the gap, I asked Gen. Granger to permit a direct attack upon the pass. He acquiesced in this, and, pushing forward, our forces deployed. The enemy abandoned their position and fled toward Shelbyville, closely pursued by the First Middle Tennessee Cavalry, Col. Galbraith commanding, supported by the Fourth Regular Cavalry, Capt. McIntyre commanding.

Immediately afterward I directed Col. Minty to support this movement with his whole brigade. The enemy in considerable force, consisting of Martin's division and a part of Wharton's, all under command of Wheeler, made a stand at the fortifications 4 miles north of Shelbyville, where they commenced shelling our advance. Col. Minty immediately sent the Fourth Michigan to the right, dismounted, but, finding the distance they must necessarily travel was very great, they remounted and advanced through the abatis on horseback, and, after a severe skirmish, they succeeded in getting in on the enemy's left flank, when they fled in haste. As the enemy began to mount, the Seventh Pennsylvania charged up the pike, supported by the Fourth Regulars, and, deploying to the right and left as they passed through the earthworks, succeeded in capturing many of the rebels. From this point up to the time that our advance reached the precincts of Shelbyville the whole brigade pursued them closely, but when they again opened with their artillery, our men being much scattered in the long charge, fell back out of range and reformed. Gen. Granger and myself were still at Guy's Gap when the state of affairs came to us by couriers. I immediately wrote an order to Col. Minty to charge their battery and take it, at the same time Gen. Mitchell being ordered to support the movement with his entire division. A section of the Eighteenth Ohio Battery, Capt. Aleshire commanding, preceded Mitchell's division. Shortly afterward Gen. Granger and myself started to Shelbyville, but before arriving at the place, the energy of Gen. Mitchell and Col. Minty, nobly seconded by the gallant troops under their command, had won for us a decided victory over the rebels. The latter had been dislodged from the stand they made at the line of entrenchments, principally by the gallantry of the Fourth Michigan, Maj. Mix commanding. Their regiment attacked them with revolving rifles. The rebels fled to the town, where they attempted another stand on the line of the public square and railroad depot, but a part of Col. Minty's brigade charging them on the pike, in the teeth of their battery, and Col. Campbell's brigade cutting off their retreat at the upper bridge over Duck River, the enemy was overthrown, routed, his cannon and 591 prisoners captured, including 6 field officers, and a large number, estimated as high as 200, of the enemy killed, wounded, and drowned in Duck River. The charge upon the enemy's battery was led by the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, headed by Capt. Davis, and, as the charge was made down a stone pike, by fours, upon a three-gun battery, supported by mounted infantry (dismounted), the annals of this war will not probably show a more gallant charge. The enemy threw away their arms in their flight and two of their generals-Wheeler and Martin-escaped by swimming the river. Some five or six hundred stand of arms and a considerable amount of commissary and ordnance stores fell into our hands. For the details of this gallant affair, I refer you to the reports of Gen. Mitchell and Col. Minty.

At midnight I learned from one of my scouts that Forrest's command, which had floundered in the mud all day between Unionville and Middleton, was crossing Duck River 4 miles below us, in great disorder, and endeavoring to escape to Tullahoma.

I consulted Gen. Granger as to the propriety of moving our whole force to attack and intercept him, but the general was of the opinion that the command was too much wearied to move in the night. As the matter turned out, I think it was very unfortunate that this attack was not made, as I think we could have completely routed this part of Forrest's force.

[June] 28, marched the command back to Guy's Gap and supplied ourselves with rations and ammunition.

[June] 29, having detached four regiments from my command for service at Murfreesborough, I marched the remainder, starting at 1 a. m., to Shelbyville, hoping to surprise some of Forrest's stragglers, but finding no rebels in Shelbyville, marched the command to Fairfield, Mitchell's First Brigade going on to Beech Grove.

[June] 30, moved from Fairfield to Manchester; but owing to scarcity of forage, marched Mitchell's division back, by the Pan-Handle road, to Walker's Mill.

July 1, Col. Minty's brigade marched back to Walker's Mill. Learning, at 2 p. m., that Bragg's army had evacuated Tullahoma, orders were given for the entire cavalry force to march to Pelham, via Hillsborough. Gen. Turchin, with a part of Col. Long's brigade, not more than 400 men in all, and Capt. Stokes, with one section of his battery, started for Hillsborough at 11 p. m. Gen. Mitchell's division and Minty's brigade arrived at Manchester the morning of July 2. It having been ascertained that the enemy had not retreated by the way of Pelham, a courier was sent to Gen. Turchin to change his direction and march to Decherd. The main column, under my command, marched early in the morning for the same point, via Morris' Ford. We arrived at this place at 1 p. m., and found that the small force (only twelve companies) under Gen. Turchin's command had been repulsed in their attempt to cross in the forenoon. Gen. Turchin, having arrived in advance of my column, immediate measures were taken to force the passage. Gen. Mitchell was directed to cross the upper and Gen. Turchin the lower ford. This was effected with little opposition-a fortunate circumstance, as the current was swift, and almost swam a horse. Col. Long's small brigade crossed first, and was soon engaged in a very heavy skirmish with the enemy's cavalry, driving them in the direction of Decherd.

The remainder of Turchin's and Mitchell's divisions came to the support as soon as they had crossed, and the enemy was pressed until night closed. This skirmish was disastrous to the enemy, 1 of his colonels being killed and 1 mortally wounded, who fell into our hands, besides 20 killed and left on the field. The troops camped during the night near the ford, and the artillery was crossed over.

July 3, moved to Decherd, sending the Seventh Pennsylvania to Brakefield Point and Col. Campbell's brigade to Cowan. Found nothing but stragglers and deserters. Learned that the last of the rebels had crossed the mountains. Encamped at Decherd. The incessant rain and consequent condition of the roads rendered the operations of the cavalry difficult and exceedingly trying to men and horses. The impossibility of bringing up forage in wagons, and the absence of feed in the "Barrens" of the Cumberland Mountains, the constant rain depriving our poor beasts of their rest, has reduced the cavalry considerably. They now require some little rest and refitting.

* * * *

Sergeant [Henry B.] Wilson, of my escort, deserves special mention for his gallantry at Shelbyville, capturing almost unaided 12 or 15 prisoners.

~ ~ ~

Respectfully submitted.

D. S. STANLEY, Maj.-Gen. and Chief of Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 538-541.

          25, Skirmish at Guy's Gap [see also June 25, 1863, Skirmish at (Old) Fosterville above]

No circumstantial reports filed.


Ransom's Farm, Guy's Gap, Tenn., June 27, 1863--4.20 p. m.

GEN.: We have carried Guy's Gap; met with no resistance to speak of. Our advance has reached the fortifications at Shelbyville. I have ordered the Fifth and Sixth Kentucky Cavalry, with three regiments of infantry, from Murfreesborough to Christiana. I left two regiments, one each of infantry and cavalry, with nine pieces of artillery, at that place this morning. I have not yet decided whether or not to push on to Shelbyville with the force I have here. I shall make my headquarters at Houston's Spring, on Webb's plantation, to-night. I have not yet decided whether to send Stanley to Fairfield direct by the way of Bellbuckle [sic] or around by Millersburg, but shall decide in a few hours. I did not receive your order to move until 6 o'clock this morning. We have a few prisoners. There were about 400 Confederates at this place this morning.

Will dispatch you again soon, the moment I hear from Shelbyville.

Very respectfully,

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 533-534.

          25, Reconnaissance, Versailles and Middleton

HDQRS. THIRD CAVALRY BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, In the Field, five miles from Winchester, Tenn., July 8, 1863.

* * * *

June 25, marched to Murfreesborough, the Sixth Kentucky making a reconnaissance, via Versailles and Middleton, under command of Lieut. Col. William P. Roper, capturing a sergeant and 3 privates, C. S. Army.

* * * *


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 551.

          25, Bushwhacker attack in Bradley County

The Cleveland Banner of Thursday [June 25], informs us that Mr. Michael Baugh, residing about eight miles west of that place, was waylaid and shot by some bushwhacker and killed. He was on his way to town, and only about a half-mile from his home when the cowardly deed was perpetrated. He was shot with a Minnie [sic] ball, weighing an ounce and a half, from a Belgium gun -- the ball striking him almost squarely in the breast and passing out near his back bone, killing him, as it is though, almost instantly. Although he was robbed of what Confederate money ($700) he had on his person, the Banner does not believe that money was the object of the scoundrel who murdered him.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 2, 1863.

          25, One East Tennessean's concerns about Federal conscription

Loveland Ohio

June 25th 1863

[Andrew Johnson, Military Governor of Tennessee]

[Dear Sir:]

Will your Honour please to inform me whether I am subject to conscription or draft or not. Here is my case. I am an East Tenn.[essean]. 14 months ago I left home to join the Union Army[.] In crossing the Lines I was captured as a citizen, to remain a prisoner during the war. so [sic] having no protiction [sic] from the U. S., I took an oath not to fight, against them. (Rather then to remain a prisoner) gave Bond $2000. Dollars. Since I crossed the Lines rather than go to the Rebel Army [sic], I have also got my family here, with me[.] My home was once in Greeneville Tenn. I was a printer in the Democrat office, in 54 &c &c[.] I hope to have your opinion soon[.]

Your Friend,

F. M. Farmser

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 276-277.

          25, Combat near the Shelbyville Pike in Rutherford County

Today I got up damp and comfortless but a cup of coffee hastily prepared and some Pilot bread and raw meat soon made quite a change in my feelings. We soon started and marched through deep slush a few miles farther and stopped awhile then went on again till we came close to the Shelbyville Pike and halted. The rain is still pouring down. The afternoon was fine and we were ordered out with the 4th Michigan Cavalry to reconnoiter the enemy's position. After a march of about 3 miles our advance became engaged with them. We were at once ordered to form a line of battle the 4th Michigan deployed to the right of the road and we to the left and we advanced through cedar thickets over rocks small and large and rocks immense; rocks piled up and rocks lying down. In fact over the rockiest piece of ground I ever rode a horse over. Then on through wheat and corn fields, streams, thickets and about every kind of obstruction. The horses now clattering on a rocky floor, now sinking deep in the muddy soil – and still the firing kept about the same distance ahead of us so we went for about a mile and then our skirmishers were brought to a stand still. Another company (E) was sent forward to support the others (Cos. I and M). The firing was kept up huskly [sic] for an hour or more it rained once in a while by a temporary lull; or the shouts of defiance of either party [sic]. At last a volly [sic] of shouts and yells seemed to show the rebels were getting more numerous and more determined and soon an orderly came galloping down the road with the news that the rebels were forming along our entire front and advancing. "Stand firm now men the rebels are coming" was passed along the line and every carbine was advanced and all men looking eagerly for to see our men emerge from the wood in front followed by the rebels. The firing grew faster and more furious. The shouts died away and it was found the rebels thought prudence the better part of valor that time. The firing slackened as our forces had seen all they wanted to [and] the men in front were ordered to fall back slowly. Bang went a big gun in our front and presently the scream of a shot was heard which soon flew over our heads and shivered a cedar tree a short distance behind us. For some time the cannonading was kept up but we were soon out of range though for about a quarter or half a mile the shot and shell flew over our heads or fell behind us. They were the first rebel shells I heard in the war, and they did not cause me many pleasurable feelings – though they bring me some [sic]. We soon reached our fires and prepared for another damp bivouac.

Alley Diary

          25, "State Convention."

This body, which met at Winchester on Wednesday of last week, was largely attended, all the counties in the State being represented. The utmost harmony prevailed. The nominee for Governor, Hon. Robert L. Caruthers, [sic] is one of Tennessee's most gifted sons. Eminently pure, his character is without a single stain, and possessing the highest order of talents his nomination by the convention speaks well for the public mind. In his whole public life, whether as a judge, or as a leading member of the old Whig party, he commanded the affections of his friends and the respect of his opponents. By all who know him he is regarded as a high-toned Christian [sic] gentleman. Tennessee is indeed fortunate in securing the services of a man who possesses such superior qualifications and great moral worth.

The following are the nominations for Congress:

1st  Dis J. B. Heiskell, of Hawkins.

2nd  do W. G. Swan, of Knox.

3rd  do A. S. Colyar of Franklin

4th  do J. P. Murray, of Warren.

5th  do H. S. Foote, of Davidson.

6th  do E A Keeble, of Rutherford

7th  do Jas. McCollum, of Giles.

8th  do Thos. Menees, of Robertson.

9th  do J. D. C. Atkins, of Henry.

10th do J. V. Wright, of McNairy

11th do D. M. Currin, of Shelby.

Fayetteville Observer, June 25, 1863.

          25, "Supplies for the People."

In Savannah, Atlanta, Columbus, and other places, stores for the sale of necessities have been opened up by public spirited individuals, having for their object the furnishing of such articles as are indispensably necessary, at cost; [sic] thus protecting the people against the wicked, crushing burdens being placed upon them by extortioners. In Winchester, as we learn by the following card from the Bulletin, a similar plan has been adopted. The purpose aimed at is commendable in the highest degree, and will receive the plaudits of the patriotic portion of every community. Have we no men of means hereabouts, who will establish the same kind of house in Fayetteville? [sic] An effort in that direction would place its projectors at the head of the list in point of character in the estimation of the people and army. Who will undertake it? We are willing to print all the advertising for the enterprise, free of charge. [sic] Here is the card above referred to:

Winchester, Te. [sic], June 15, 1863.

EDITOR BULLETIN: - Permit me to state, through your paper, that in a few days the association formed in this county to relieve the people, as far as possible, from the evils of enormous speculation, will have on hand for sale, at cost, [sic] about 100 sacks of salt. Permit me further to say, for the fact ought to be know and is worthy of emulation, that the people are indebted to Messrs. B. F. McGhee, Tilman Arlegde, and A. R. David for the benefits they will thus obtain. These gentlemen had brought the salt and were immediately offered a profit on it which would have amounted to $1,500, and, indeed, a sale of the salt at the present prices, in this town would have made them three thousand dollars, but upon these gentlemen being assured that a few of our citizens were making an earnest effort, upon a plan deemed feasible, to get up a store of necessaries (for the benefit of the county) to be sold at cost, they at once turned this salt over to the agent of this association at cost, [sic] and the salt will be sold at cost.

Such acts ought to be examples for others. They are certainly worthy of imitation.

Very truly,

A. S. Colyar[16]

Fayetteville Observer, June 25, 1863.

          25, "Wool Wanted."

A lady of this place desires us to say that she wishes to purchase four or five pounds of Wool [sic], for which ccennessee [sic] money will be paid. Apply at this office.

Fayetteville Observer, June 25, 1863.

          25, Traitors

Four men, whose names are R. M. Hall, S. W. Moore, S. Farrer, and Z. B. Chowering, were arrested for treason during the battle of Stone's River, in January last, and have since been awaiting trial in the Penitentiary. They were yesterday ordered to report to Governor Johnson, who returned Hall to the Penitentiary, and released the other triad on parole, to appear before his Excellency again today.

Nashville Daily Press, June 25, 1863.

          25, Confederate cavalry attack train in La Vergne [see June 27, 1863. "Facts and Rumors," below]

          25, Chattanooga Rebel decries exaggerated Confederate press reports

Preparing for Bad News. The Chattanooga Rebel of the 25th ult. [25th of June], prepares its readers for the evil days to come, in the following manner:

"Sensational reading matter may do very well for the glowing telegraphic columns of the Yankee modern newspapers – but it should be discountenanced as beneath the dignity of the press of the south. Our press reporters have been too carless in this matter, and the journals of the confederacy and their readers have been frequently misled, but inaccurate and exaggerated reports.

"Take for instance two reports from the two extremes of the confederacy northeast and southeast – Richmond and Jackson. From the dispatches from the latter place for two or three days past, one, not accustomed to telegraph reports, might have imagined that Grant and his army was so completely annihilated that nothing but a grease spot was left. On the other hand, recent telegrams to the press of the south from Richmond mentioned the capture of something less than two millions of Yankees at Winchester, and the number has since dwindled down to a most insignificant number, in comparison to the figure first stated. The effect of all this is not beneficial. A feverish state of excitement is created which stimulates the public mind to most extravagant castle-burning, only too suddenly to be dispelled for the very next stubborn 'fact' which comes inevitably over the lines."

North American and United States Gazette (Philadelphia), July 17, 1863.[17]


          23, Report on incidence of murder by bushwhackers, East Tennessee

"Brutal Murder by Rebels"

But a short time since, Mr. Henderson was murdered in cold blood in Monroe county, by rebel bushwhackers near Madisonville. He was a good citizen and a Union man. More recently James McAffey, of Athens, a loyal man, was murdered and robbed on Walden's Ridge, leaving a wife and children to mourn his loss. Rebel thieves and assassins are prowling over the country, clothed frequently in the Federal uniform, and are shooting down innocent citizens and robbing Union houses.

We trust in God that Gov. Johnson will furnish a brigade of mounted East Tennessee troops for this division of the State, and that they will seize...the lawless bands of robbers, and hang them wherever they are found. This is the only policy....

Brownlow's Knoxville Whig and Rebel Ventilator, June 23, 1864.

          23, Guérilla attack on train near La Fayette, Tennessee

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of Col. Edward H. Wolfe, Fifty-second Indiana Infantry, commanding Third Brigade, regarding the expedition to Tupelo, MS from LaGrange, Tenn., July 5-21, 1864 including attack on train near La Fayette, Tenn., June 23.

HDQRS. THIRD Brig., THIRD DIV., 16TH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tenn., July 29, 1864.

LIEUT.: In compliance with ordered from headquarters Third Division, Sixteenth Army Corps, July 28, 1864, I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command during the late expedition to Tupelo, Miss.:

In obedience to Special Orders, No. 63, paragraph VI, headquarters Right Wing, Sixteenth Army Corps, Memphis, Tenn., June 23, 1864, my command, after having been paid off, proceeded by train to Moscow, on the 23d. When near La Fayette a party of guerrillas fired into the train, killing and wounding several. Some of the men who jumped or fell off the cars were captured and afterward murdered. Their bodies were recovered by a party of the Second Iowa Cavalry and recognized by Lieut. McDonald, One hundred and seventy-eighty New York Volunteers. At Moscow the brigade remained until the 27th, when it took up the line of march for LaGrange, which was reached the same day.

* * * *

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E.H. WOLFE, Colonel, Commanding Third Brigade

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 295.

          23, Skirmish at Collierville

No circumstantial reports filed.

          23, A petition to Military Governor Andrew Johnson to pardon Confederate deserters

Gov. Andrew Johnson,

Dear Sir:

We, the undersigned, would very respectfully call your attention to the following statement and earnestly ask of you your good offices in behalf of those for whom this petition is written. Joseph Berryman, H. T. Berryman, T. Berryman are now confined as Prisoners of War at Rock Island, Bar.[racks] 57. They are citizens of Humphrey County, Tenn. About the 10th of Feb. 1863 they were conscripted by Forrest wholly against their will. About the 1st of June following-the first chance that had presented itself-they deserted the Confederate Service and returned to their homes where they remained until Christmas last, quietly engaged in their civil pursuits. At that time, they of their own free act, delivered themselves up to Major Price, then commanding at Station Forty Nine on the N.W.R.R. with the request that they should be allowed to take the oath of amnesty or any oath or bond that might be required in order for them to resume their occupations as citizens, from which they had been forcably [sic] withdrawn. They were not permitted to do this but were sent immediately North for exchange. They now and have at all times refused to be exchanged-only desiring to take the oath of allegiance and return to their homes.

They have recently addressed one of us a letter earnestly asking that a petition be drawn up to you with the hope that, when you know the circumstances under which they became Prisoners of war, you will exercise that kind influence, which has alleviated the sufferings of so many other unfortunate men, in procuring their release. They are and have always been true, unflinching Union man and two of them voted against [sic] Separation and Representation on the 8th of June 1861. The other was not old enough or he would have voted the same ticket. The letter they have written in this matter is herewith enclosed that you may be convinced of their earnest desire to be released for Prison and restored to the rights of citizens under a government which they were forcably [sic] enlisted.

Entreating, Gov. Johnston, that this petition will obtain your well known [sic] kind consideration, we remain

Very Respectfully,

Your obedient Servants,

Andrew J. Pemberton and others

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 752.

          23, "I am fully convinced that there is a deep laid Conspiracy on hand in this count to draw from the United States Treasury a large amount of money – "

Jasper, Tennessee, June 23rd, 1864

To His Excellency, Andrew Johnson,

Military Governor, Nashville, Tenn.

I am fully convinced that there is a deep laid Conspiracy on hand in this country to draw from the United States Treasury a large amount of money – how large I am unable to say – wrongfully, as I think. In December last, if I remember well, there was a Board of claims established hereto assess the damages done to the citizens by the Federal troops since the commencement of the rebellion. The Board was composed of five members, three Military, and two citizens, Brig' Gen Steedman, Chairman. The Board was imposed upon by the enemies of the Government, as can be proved, if necessary; but the Board, or most of it were innocent. I understand an Agent is now gone to Washington City to urge the payment of these claims as early as possible. I know that there were Conspiracy, fraud and perjury on the part of some of the claimants, but not all; and my opinion is that fifty thousand dollars or more in consequence was allowed by the Board, than would have been allowed, if truth alone had been introduced. Since the Army of the Cumberland drove Bragg from this Country, and took possession of it, many of the enemies of the Union came forward and took the oath of allegiance, but if there is one in the County in reality converted to the Union Cause, in all candor, truth and Sincerity, I know rebels are suffered for nearly three years to do all they can do to break down the Government, and then when they are conquered, come forward and take a hypocritical oath to save property, and awful doom awaits the loyal portion of the American people. It seems to me that the loyal only should be paid for damaged; but if it is the policy of the Government at Washington to place all, loyal and disloyal alike, upon an equality in deriving benifits [sic] from it, then I can see no good that can result from the loss of so much blood and treasure, already shed and spent. I know it will be hard for the truly loyal and needy to be out of the use of their just claims the length of time it would require to reinvestigate all the claims considered by the Board; but some special relief might be afforded to them.

No truly loyal man who is able to live without immediate aid from some quarter, will murmur at the postponement of the payment of his just claim against the Government, when the postponement of the collection will prove a saving to the Government of so large a sum. If this system of wrong upon the Government shall be successfully carried out in all sections of the country, in the manner it is sought to be carried out here, what will become of us? As one who has ever been loyal to the Union, I have thought it my duty to say thus much to you now, as a faithful sentinel on the watch tower. If, however, the rebels are to be dealt with by the Government in the same manner that we are to be dealt with, I shall not deem it necessary to say more on the subject; but whatever may be done in the matter, I would be pleased to hear from you on the subject, and as early as your convenience will permit.

And as there is but little or not regularity in the post office at Shellmound, on the Nashville and Chattanooga Rail Road, which is the nearest post office to me, it is deemed best to address me at Bridgeport, Alabama, where this letter is written[.]

Very Respectfully, Wm. A. Sorrels

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol., 6, p. 753-754.

          23, The "Greenback" Standard, Retrieval of Bank Notes, and the Liquidation the Indebtedness of the Bank of Tennessee

The Tennessee Banks.

We have understood, says the Nashville Dispatch that the Supervisor of Banks, General Sam Milligan,[18] of Greene county, will enter upon the discharge of his duties under the Bank Code during the present or coming week and that it is his intention to exact as faithful a compliance with the provisions of the Bank Code and the acts amendatory thereof as circumstances will at present justify. We feel warranted in saying that one object he will labor to accomplish will be to bring up the notes of the banks doing business in this State to the "greenback" standard. He regards it a duty he owes to the people of Tennessee, who hold largely of the issue our banks, to require the banks to make their issues as good as that which the Government has made a legal tender.

Another matter that will engage the especial attention of the Supervisor of Banks will be the looking after and gathering up such of the assets of the Band of Tennessee as may be within reach. There is a large amount of debts due to the Bank being scattered over the State, much of which, by proper attention, may be secured. The evidences of these debts have been carried beyond the limits of the State; but where it can be ascertained that a party owes the Bank, the laws of Tennessee provide amply for enforcing its collection. The Bank holds a very considerable amount of real estate in various parts of the State, which he proposes to take possession of. The greater portion of this real estate, is improved and very valuable, and may be disposed of upon very advantageous terms. From these two items a fund may be realized which will go a long way toward liquidating the indebtedness of the State.

Chattanooga Daily Gazette, July 23, 1864. [19]

          24, The case of George A. Williams, concerning the administration of the military prison in Memphis [see also September 27, 1864, Medical inspection of military prison at Memphis below]


His Excellency the PRESIDENT:

In the case of George A. Williams, late captain, First U. S. Infantry, referred to this office, the following report is respectfully submitted:

This is an application made by him for the rescission of the order by which he was summarily dismissed.

From the papers examined it appears that Capt. Williams was on duty as provost-marshal at Memphis, and as such in charge of the military prison and hospital in that city.

According to a report of inspection made to Col. Hardie by Lieut. Col. John F. Marsh, Twenty-fourth Regt. [sic] Veteran Reserve Corps, under date of April 28, 1864, the prison which is used for the detention of citizens, prisoners of war on their way to the North, and U. S. soldiers awaiting trial, and which is located in a large block of stores, is represented as the filthiest place the inspector ever saw occupied by human beings. The report proceeds thus:

The whole management and government of the prisoners could not be worse. Discipline and order are unknown. Food sufficient, but badly served. In a dark, wet cellar I found twenty-eight prisoners chained to a wet floor, where they had been constantly confined, many of them for several months, one since November 16, 1863, and are not for a moment released, even to relieve the calls of nature. With a single exception these men have had no trial.

The hospital is described as having a shiftless appearance and the guard dirty and inefficient. It is also that there was no book or memorandum showing the disposition of the prison fund.

It would seem, though the fact is not directly stated, that upon this report the Secretary of War ordered the dismissal of Capt. Williams. A telegraphic order was sent May 7 to Maj.-Gen. Washburn, commanding District of West Tennessee, dismissing Williams for, as he says, excessive cruelty to prisoners and gross neglect for duty. Upon received thereof he applied for a board to examine into the charges. A commission was accordingly appointed by Maj.-Gen. Washburn, composed of three officers, who were directed to inspect the prison thoroughly and report at length. They found it to consist of three stories, the ground floors having gratings and being used respectively for Federal, Confederate, and citizen prisoners. The front room on the second floor of the middle tier is used for the office, and immediately in its rear is the room used for female prisoners, which is without ventilation or light, badly policed, bed and clothing directly, and everything in confusion. Visitors are permitted to hold conversation with prisoners freely. The quarters of the prison guard are in disorder and badly policed; rations cooked and eaten in the same room, and the place absolutely filthy. The officer's prison, second story, south tier, has no ventilation; the utensils in the cooking department dirty, though the officers' cook-room, in good condition; laundry and colored female prison, and colored hospital, said to contain a wagon load of dirt; a patient sick and bed with pneumonia, with a ball and chain on; chain-gang room in basement dark, cold, damp, and filled with disgusting odors.

The report proceeds with much minuteness to detail the cases of prisoners. This portion not being susceptible of condensation, a reference to the copy thereof herewith is respectfully invited. The general tenor of the report is decidedly against the administration of affairs, and shows that, through inadvertence, neglect, or want of time, many cases of hardship and injustice appear to have existed, while the sanitary police of the establishment seems to have been wretchedly inefficient.

The report concludes as follows:

The building is unfit for the purpose for which it is used. Great improvements have been made in it during the administration of Capt. Williams, all of which will more fully and at large appear in the report of Capt. Williams, which is hereunto annexed and made part of this record.

Capt. Williams laid before the commission a statement setting forth a history of his connection with the prison and endeavoring to show that his management thereof had been an improvement upon that of his predecessor; that the defective ventilation was solely the fault of the construction of the building; that the guards were changed so often that he could not make them efficient; that the delays attending the administration of justice were attributable to the insufficient number of officers assigned to the duty of examining the cases, and that he had made every exertion to discharge the duties devolved upon his position. He submitted also the certificate of the superintendent of general hospitals, who considered the hospital in good order and the prison as well conducted as circumstances admitted.

In submitting his case to the President this officer says that he graduated at West Point in 1852 and has never before been under charges, and that he can refer to Lieut.-Gen. Grant and Maj.-Gen. Sherman as to his character. He files the following:

First. A testimonial from Maj.-Gen. Hurlbut, who says:

Capt. George A. Williams, First U. S. Infantry, assumed the duty of provost-marshal at Memphis at my request. For a long time and until my removal he reported daily to me and confidentially. I know, therefore, his duties and the manner in which he has performed them, and I affirm from such knowledge that his place in that department cannot be filled so far as I know by any other officer. I know him to be of the highest courage, physical and moral, no respecter of persons or positions in the line of his duty, of incorruptible integrity and of zealous honor. Inaccessible to bribes, he is equally so to those blandishments which sometimes succeed. Neither man nor woman can turn him from his duty. He believes rebellion a crime, and traitors criminals, in which I concur. His administration at Memphis has satisfied all loyal men, and has given umbrage only to the host of plunderers and thieves and their allies.

He is charged, I am told, with cruelty to prisoners and with neglect of the Irving Prison.

The first is untrue, I am well assured, or complaint would have reached me. As to the second, that building is and has been in as good order as such a building can be. It is not a permanent prison; it is a temporary landing house for criminals, and it is almost an impossibility to enforce upon them personal cleanliness.

There has been but little sickness and few deaths in the prison.

No greater detriment can, in my judgment, occur to the administration of affairs in Memphis than the removal of Capt. Williams.

Second. A letter from Maj.-Gen. Washburn, who says that in his opinion the War Department has acted hastily and harshly; that the duties of Capt. Williams have been most arduous; that with the exception of this matter he is free from the slightest imputation, and that the abuses which have grown up were due to subordinates, it being impossible for him personally to attend to all details.

Third. A letter from Lieut.-Col. Harris, assistant adjutant-general, Sixteenth Corps, who pronounces Capt. Williams' record, both as commissary of musters and provost-marshal, clear and unimpeachable.

Fourth. A testimonial signed by a large number of persons purporting to be loyal citizens and business men of Memphis, who express the opinion that the justice, firmness, and courtesy of Capt. Williams have won for him the confidence of the community.

Fifth. A letter from S. Gilbert, formerly captain, Second Iowa Cavalry, and now lieutenant-colonel First Mississippi Mounted Rifles, who from a personal acquaintance of three years warmly indorses Capt. Williams as one of the most gallant and efficient officers in the service.

Sixth. A note from Brig. Gen. R. P. Buckland, commanding District of Memphis, bearing testimony to the able and faithful manner in which Capt. Williams has discharged his official duties.

Seventh. A letter from Capt. M. L. Perkins, judge-advocate, District of West Tennessee, and who was a member of the investigating commission before referred to, expressing his conviction that he had been prejudiced against Capt. Williams, and that, in fact, Capt. Williams has acted promptly, honestly, and for the best interests of the service.

Eighth. The transcript of the account of savings and expenditures of the prison fund exhibiting total receipts from December 8, 1863, to June 1, 1864, $697.71; expenditures same time, $270.94; balance remaining on hand $406.77.

The foregoing brief synoptical collation of the opposite views which seem to be entertained respecting the merits of this case will show that they are wholly irreconcilable, and at the same time that the entire rejection of either will not leave the whole truth apparent. In drawing a conclusion from them it is proper to apply the test of inquiring whether the accusing or exculpatory proofs are the most self-sustaining. Upon this question it is conceived to be manifest that notwithstanding the distinguished rank of his chief defenders, their expressions of opinion are not upheld by the same demonstrative production of facts which characterizes the report of Lieut.-Col. Marsh and the evidence taken by the investigating board. The emphatic panegyric of Gen. Hurlbut, for example, while doubtless a truthful tribute to an officer whose merits and capacity are undeniable, does not meet the specific proofs of malfeasance and negligence which are spread upon the papers in the case. At the same time it seems incontrovertible that the offense brought home to Capt. Williams are broadly at variance with the tenor of the general military character that he has earned by twelve years' service in the Regular Army.

Upon the whole, however, it seems clear that gross mal-administration has been practiced at the Memphis prison; that Capt. Williams is principally and directly responsible therefor, and that, in view of all the testimony, it must be left with the President to determine whether army good and sufficient reason is disclosed for reversing the action taken by the War Department.

It is proper to note that Capt. Williams in a communication to this office, herewith submitted, avers his ability to prove that his character has been that of a faithful soldier; that the prison when he assumed control of it was a perfect wreck, and that he instituted great improvements and made many repairs; that when he took charge there was no hospital and no prison fund, both of which he has established; that it was impossible for him to pay personal attention to the management, and that all the abuses complained of were practiced by his subordinates, contrary to his instructions, and that the hardship in cases of alleged neglect and delay was caused by the want of courts to try the offenders. Should he maintain in these averments by satisfactory evidence at a trial, such proof would obviously go far toward exculpating him from the blame under which he now rests. It is not impossible that wrong has been done him by a dismissal founded upon an ex parte report, and that Gen. Washburn's emphatic expression of his conviction that the Department has acted hastily may turn out to be correct. Again inviting attention to the testimonials of Maj.-Gen. Hurlbut and Brig.-Gen. Buckland, the case is submitted for the President's determination.

J. HOLT, Judge-Advocate-Gen.

Since the foregoing report was prepared the accused has filed a letter from Lieut.-Gen. Grant asking a revocation of the order of dismissal, expressing a very high opinion of his ability and services, mentioning that he (Gen. Grant) recommended him for a brigadier-generally, and stating that he is qualified to command a division at least.

In view of this strong testimonial it is conceived that the conclusion may be safely adopted that the accused was not personally responsible for the abuses complained of and that his character as an officer is amply established.

J. HOLT, Judge-Advocate-Gen.


WAR DEPARTMENT, July 6, 1864.

Respectfully referred to the Adjutant-Gen.

Capt. George A. Williams, of the First U. S. Infantry, will be restored to the service.

By order of the Secretary of War:

JAS. A. HARDIE, Col. and Inspector-Gen.


WASHINGTON, D. C., June 24, 1864.


SIR: I have the honor to forward a statement of what I can prove to combat the charges against me.

My character as a faithful officer, and one who has not neglected his duty.

That when I took charge of the provost-marshal's department and consequently of the Irving Prison, at Memphis, Tenn., it was a perfect wreck. Windows, ashes, frames, and partitions torn out; no hospital. When a prisoner was very sick he was sent to the hospitals in the city, but if not sick enough he had to remain in the common prison room. That prisoners were in irons in the cellar of the building. That not a cent of prison fund had been made, although it had been a prison for sixteen months.

That I established comfortable quarters for the sick.

That I moved those prisoners who were in irons out of the cellars to upper rooms.

That I repaired the building to make it habitable.

That it was impossible for me to pay personal attention to the prison, and that I had an officer detailed for the purpose; that any suggestion he made to me for its improvement as far as the general would authorize I made.

That I complained of the inefficiency of the guard and applied for better.

That I reported the unsuitable of the building for a prison.

That the water for cleaning the prison was scarce and at times unable to be obtained, except in very limited quantities, but that I had ordered each prison room to be washed out every third day, to be swept out twice each day, and roll-call of prisoners three times each day.

That I have given orders to accept no prisoners except those who were accompanied by written charges or testimony or when sent from higher authority with orders to hold.

That I have authorized no man to be put irons except on the most serious charges, such as murder, rape, highway robbery, &c.

That I have treated the prisoners with no undue severity.

That the prison never was in as good order as it was when I had it.

That I have endeavored to make it more comfortable, but it would not be authorized.

That the fact of men remaining in the prison an undue length of time was due mainly to the fact that there were not sufficient courts to try them, and that I had done all that I could to remedy it.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. A. WILLIAMS, Capt., First U. S. Infantry.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 7, pp. 404-408.

          24, "Foot Race."

A foot race of fifty yards took place in the suburbs of Edgefield, on Wednesday [22nd] afternoon, between two negroes [sic]-Dick Woods, alias Blue Dick of Nashville, and Wesley, of Kentucky, the prize being $100. It is said the Dick won, and Wesley took the money, causing something of a row among the crowd of negroes [sic] present.

Nashville Dispatch, June 24, 1864.

          24, "The Negroes About Town."

The city is again filled with vagabond negroes [sic]-Thieves, prostitutes, and loafers. The civil authorities find it impossible to keep them within the bounds of common decency. What has become of the negro [sic] camp? Many negroes [sic] might be hired out, were it not that the rules are rather too stringent. It seems to us unreasonable to expect a man to give bonds to keep a negro [sic] a year, and pay good wages for that length of time, when he cannot tell whether the servant is worth what she eats; or whether she would remain with him a year, or whether she would do anything, if she did remain, but eat and sleep.

Nashville Dispatch, June 24, 1864.

          24, "I love you; I am one of you." Military Governor Johnson's Rhetorical Style

Andy Johnson's Eloquence. The speeches of the Tennessee patriot, who has been nominated as the Union candidate for vice president, are full of earnestness and hearty sympathy with the people. Take the following, from his recent Nashville address, which electrified the crowd like a galvanic battery:

My countrymen! my heart yearns toward you; I love you; I am one of you. I have climbed yonder mountains that you have climbed rock-ribbed and glowing in the sunshine, in whose gorges, in whose caverns, your sons, hunted like wild beasts, have fallen to rise no more. I do not speak of these things to draw your tears. It is not time for tears, but for blows. I speak of them that I may fire your hearts with holy indignation, and nerve your arms for unconquerable fight. And I speak of them because the mountains seem to talk to me. My home is among the mountains, and though it is not far away, I cannot go to it. It is the place where I met her, and loved her, and married her  who is the mother of my children. Do I not love the mountains then? And if liberty is to expire, if freedom is to be destroyed, if my country, in all its length and breadth, is to tremble beneath the oppressors' tread, let the flag, the dear old flag, the last flag, be planted on yon rocky heights and upon it let there be this inscription: "Here is the end of all that is dear to the heart and sacred to the memory of man."

Lowell Daily Citizen and News,[20] June 24, 1864. [21]

          24-27, Federal expedition, Memphis to Spring Hill [between Germantown and Collierville] and Forest Hill [in vicinity of the female college]

MEMPHIS, TENN., June 23, 1864.

Col. GEORGE E. WARING, Jr., White's Station:

Have the balance of your command, with two ambulances and your ammunition train, in readiness to move with Col. Winslow's brigade to-morrow. He leaves here at 9 o'clock in the morning.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

MEMPHIS, TENN., June 23, 1864.

Col. WARING, White's Station:

Instead of holding the balance of your effective force, as heretofore ordered, until Col. Winslow's arrives, you will start it at daylight, so as to be in the vicinity of Bray's Station and Spring Hill before the railroad train arrives there. The train was fired into at Spring Hill this afternoon. Leave your ambulances and train to go with Winslow. Acknowledge receipt of this and say how many men you will send. They will take three days' rations.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

MEMPHIS, TENN., June 23, 1864.

Col. WARING, White's Station:

Col. Coon can send a detachment, say 100 men, with yours. So instruct him by my orders. Send your ambulances and train with Second Iowa. Spring Hill is between Germantown and Collierville. Forest Hill is the place meant, in vicinity of the female college.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.


Col. E. F. WINSLOW, Cmdg. Second Brigade:

COL.: By direction of Gen. A. J. Smith you will have your entire effective command in readiness to move at 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. If the Third Iowa has not been paid, but can receive pay so as to leave to-morrow afternoon, it can remain until that time. Take your ammunition train. Let the officers who goes in command report to Gen. Smith's headquarters, on Poplar street, promptly at 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. Organize the force that you leave behind, place them under command of the ranking officer, and instruct him to make details daily for picketing the different approaches to Memphis. Six men and one non-commissioned officer on each road, as heretofore; the whole under charge of a commissioned officer, who will report daily for instructions to Maj. J. L. Atwood, general field officer of the day, at headquarters District of West Tennessee.

By order of Brig. Gen. B. H. Grierson:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, pp. 141-142.

          25, "Root Hog or Die."

On Line street, in the vicinity of College street, there perambulates a large and hungry-looking specimen of the genus porcine, feminine gender. In the same locality lives a feminine negro [sic], the maternal ancestor of sundry little nigs [sic], who amuse themselves by playing on the street. Yesterday the party of the first party took a fancy to the rear part of the smallest specimen of the party of the second part. The little nig [sic] was pushed down-the hog seized him and ran, mother, children and friends running, following in the chase. Away they go, the hog holding on to the little nigger [sic], and the excitement running high, until at length a white man seized an axe with which he gave the hog a terrible blow upon the head. A grunt of pain followed, and the little nig [sic] fell, his anxious mother picking him up, and washing his dirty face with tears of joy at his deliverance from the jaws of the enemy.

Nashville Dispatch, June 25, 1864,

          25, "Sprinkling Streets."

Provost Marshal Hunter Brooke has issued an order, or by command of Brig-Gen. [sic] Miller, to the following effect, viz.,: that "owing to the scarcity of water at this season of the year, the practice of watering or sprinkling the streets by hose attached to plugs in front of buildings within the city is hereby prohibited. The proprietors or tenants of all such buildings will be held responsible for all violations of this order. All buildings used as military officers or hospitals are excepted in the above prohibition." This exception of military offices does great injustice to the citizens who have paid the money in advance for the privilege of sprinkling. The quantify of water they use is very small compared with that used in front of military offices, the citizens' privilege to sprinkle being limited by law to certain hours, morning and evening, while the other may be found in operations at any and all times. It is scarcely possible the General is acquainted with all the facts in the case.

Nashville Dispatch, June 25, 1864.

          25, Hiring workers in Bedford county, an outcome of the transition from slave to free labor

Shelbyville Tenn. June 25th 1864

Gov Andrew Johnson

I write to you this morning to ask some information & to obtain some action on your part if you are authorised to act in the premises. There is now in and around this place, a Number of Negroes [sic] that have left their former masters, many of whom are without work, and the services of all are required, in the growing crops & the harvest that is not matured –

The trouble is that there is no one here authorized to act in such cases, and persons fear to hire the Negroes [sic] as many of them belong to persons in this vicinity & trouble might grow out of it, under existing laws. It would be better for the Community for the Negroes to have work for them they can get provisions honestly & if they cannot git [sic] work they must eat & will eat.

There is a gentlem[an] here by the mane of (Horner A F) who rented of and he has done all he could do to avoid difficulties about Negroes, & he finds from whom he could hire Negroes he would pay them from 20 to 26 dollars per month & the same difficulty arises with them[.]

If you have the authority if you will appoint some one here to take charge of the contrabands and hire them out, or if you will authorize A F Horner to hire the hands he wants I will pledge my word for it, that he will not interfere [sic] with any negro [sic] that is at home, nor will he try to get one to quit his home as there is plenty here that have been here for 5 to 10 months to do all my house & will not do any thing that is not strictly honest[.] he [sic] is from Ohio and an acquaintance of my wife & has been here for about 12 months & intends to make this his home & is one of the most active energetic & business men of my acquaintance, & I feel a strong desire to keep such men with us[.]

You will please examine the orders & grant the request if you have the power [.]

Very Respectfully Thos. H. Coldwell

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol., 6, pp. 755-756.


          23, Orders for restoring civil law and order in East Tennessee

NASHVILLE, TENN., June 23, 1865.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE STONEMAN, Cmdg. Department of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.:

GEN.: Upon assuming command of your department the major-general commanding directs that you take charge of the reorganization of civil law within your department, aiding such reorganization by the means at your disposal. The military authority will at all times be held and used as a support and refuge to the civil, avoiding so far as possible the assumption of the functions of civil tribunals. No arrests or imprisonment for debts, claimed to be owed by one citizen to another, will be made. All depredations on the part of the military will be suppressed at once, and no impressment of forage, provisions, stock, or other property will be permitted within your command. Such further special instructions will be given from time to time from these headquarters as circumstances may render necessary.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

(Same to Maj. Gen. J. B. Steedman, commanding Department of Georgia, Augusta, Ga.; Bvt. Maj. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, commanding Department of Florida, Tallahassee, Fla.; Maj. Gen. C. R. Woods, commanding Department of Alabama, Mobile, Ala.; Maj. Gen. H. W. Slocum, commanding Department of Mississippi, Vicksburg, Miss.)

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 1028-1029.

          24, Notice of the death of William Calvin Tripp, Co. B., 44th Tennessee Infantry (C. S. A.)

WASHINGTON, D.C. June 24, 1865

Mrs. Martha A. Tripp


It is my painful duty to inform you of the death of your husband late a member of Co B, 44 Regt Tenn (Confederate Army) which took place at this hospital last night.

Mr. Tripp was brought here yesterday on his way home from Point Look Out having been released from that prison.

He was quite low from Congestive Fever and lived but a short time after his arrival.

I sympathize deeply with you in your bereavement.

I am

Very Resp

J. B. Clark, Supt.


          24, New businesses in the Memphis environs

The Memphis Bulletin says hundreds of persons are making arrangements to go into business in towns along the railroads radiating from Memphis.

Macon Daily Telegraph, June 24, 1865.


[1] As cited in:

[2] See Nashville Daily Union, June 22, 1862.

[3] There are 102 reports relating to the Tullahoma Campaign. Many of the skirmishes were not appended by individual circumstantial reports. A representation of the service medal for the Army of the Cumberland, Union honoring veterans of this campaign can be found in OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 1014.

[4] There seems to be some confusion between Uniontown and Unionville, Tennessee. For example, the index to Vol. 23, pt. I, p.954 indicates there are five references to a skirmish at Uniontown on June 23, 1863. However, in only one of the five is there reference to "Unionville," (not "Uniontown") and that is found in Brigadier-General Robert B. Mitchell's report on the Tullahoma Campaign. The same index lists skirmishes associated with "Unionville" (p. 954) on January 31 and March 4, 1863, but nothing for a skirmish at Unionville for the 23d of June, 1863. The OR General Index, Vol. 2, p.983, however, refers to a skirmish at Uniontown, Tenn. for June 23, 1863 to be found in OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23. Unionville is today found in Bedford County, while Uniontown, Tennessee, is located far to the west in Dyer County. The Atlas recognizes Unionville as being in the area of the Middle Tennessee Campaign, but does not recognize Uniontown, Tennessee. It is difficult to verify the fact of a skirmish at Uniontown for June 23, but it appears as though there may have been a skirmish at Unionville, according to Mitchell's report.

[5] The fight at Eagleville on the 23rd, as well as in other venues during the campaign, are recorded in the general reports made during the Tullahoma Campaign.

[6] Oftentimes the existence of a skirmish is chronicled not in a separate report, but one encompassing activities over a period of several days, such as the Tullahoma Campaign. The skirmish at Christiana (Rutherford County) is an example. It was mentioned as part of five days of fighting during the campaign and aside from the fact that it is documented, was a small fight.

[7] A cape or full cloak popular in the first half of the nineteenth century.

[8] This satire was most likely by John M. Fleming, the former editor of the Knoxville Register. He was a Union man and apparently in exile in Cincinnati, Ohio. He wrote the article, apparently, or it was said, when Colonel William P. Sanders carried out his raid in June, 1863. See: Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 295-296, fn 6.

[9] Union troops with Sanders.

[10] James G. M. Ramsey wrote what is held to be the first history of the Volunteer State, often called "Ramsey's Annals." A more extended title is: Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century: Comprising Its Settlement, as the Watauga Association, from 1769 to 1777…to…the State of Tennessee from 1796-1800, (Charleston, S . C.:Walker & James, 1853.

[11] Bate would later serve two terms as Tennessee's twenty-third governor, (1883-1887).

[12] Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee indicates the date was June 23

[13] According to a report by Major-General J. J. Reynolds, Island No. 40 was "a point for smuggling." See OR, Ser. I, Vol. 48, pt. I, pp. 650-651.

[14] Neither referenced in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee nor the OR.

[15] The entire Tullahoma Campaign was studded with skirmishes, sudden marches, incessant, heavy rain and deep, thick mud.

[16] Perhaps Colyar's generosity was prompted by his aspiration to be elected to the Confederate Congress.

[17] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[18] Milligan was a politician from Greene county where he practiced law beginning in the 1840s. He served in the 24th, 25th, and 26th General Assemblies representing Greene and Washington counties. He was a Democrat. He served in the Mexican was as a major in the Quartermaster Corps. He was a delegate to the Democratic Nation Convention of Charleston and Baltimore of 1860, and a member of the Peace Conference at Washington. He was offered ambassadorships by Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, but declined to accept. Milligan was appointed to the Tennessee Supreme Court, 1864-1868 when he resigned to take a judgeship of the Court of Claims in Washington, D. C.. He died on April 7, 1874. Robert McBride and Dan M. Robison, eds., Biographical Dictionary of the Tennessee General Assembly, Vol. I, 1796-1861, (Nashville: Tennessee State Library and Archives and the Tennessee Historical Commission, 1975), p. 522. The rank of General was more than likely honorific or had to do with a position with the militia.

[19] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[20] Lowell, MA.

[21] TSL&A, 19th CN


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


No comments: