Monday, June 1, 2015

6.1.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes


JUNE 1861


June 1, 1861, Troop train accident

....After the rain Venie, Rhoda, Sister, Mary E., Mrs. Garrison and I went down to Mrs. Stuart's to see the troops: they did not come, met with an accident down at Glass's Station, and did not get here until night....

Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p. 98.

          1, Decaying vegetables for the poor

Vegetables for the Poor.—Those who attend market with vegetable frequently have some left over, which are spoiled and thrown away before next morning; the city almoner desires us to state that if market people will leave such vegetables at his office, on Second street, east side, four doors north of Madison, he will each day distribute them to the widowed and other poor.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 1, 1861.

JUNE 1862


June 1, 1862, Dragging the flag in Murfreesboro, and excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence [See May 29, 1862, Kate Carney's opinion of "a grand parade" in Murfreesboro, above]

....It appears on the return of Col. P.[arkhurst], he captured a confederate flag on the road that some playful boys had placed on their mammas hen house [sic] for their own amusement. This was a rare Trophy [sic], but cost little to make the capture. The boys of course made objections. It availed nothing; had to submit to the loss. It was brought to Murfreesboro. A novel scene takes place on the arrival of the union men, a display that rivals any thing in the annals of history.

The men are formed on horseback. The Col. places himself at the head of the column. The Confederate Flag [sic] has a long string attached to it, the other end of string is fastened to his horse's take so it will drag along on the ground. All things being ready to make the start from the R. Depot. The word March! is given. The whole column moves off. The Col. in the lead with the flag wallowing in the dust fastened to his horse tail. [sic] They make their way to the public square, and pass round in this dignified manner [sic], cheering as they go, assisted by the little boys and negros [sic]. Genl. Jackson would say "Glory enough for one day."

Spence Diary.

          1, Nashville Theatrical Review

Theatre.—Richard III, drew another fashionable audience on Saturday night. Mr. Hamilton as the crooked back tyrant, did exceedingly well; while Mr. Weaver as Richmond more than realized anticipation. In fact, all the characters were well sustained, and would reflect credit upon establishments of greater pretensions. On Monday night, an unusually strong bill—Maid of Croissey—for the first time this season. Mr. Weaver as the bluff old Sergeant; Pierce as Francis; Everett as Walter; Mrs. Bernard as Theresa; Miss Scanlan as Manette. The Maid of Croissey is one of those legitimate two act dramas that will always retain possession of the stage; and to find a stronger cast than the above would be difficult. Beauty and the Best for the last time. Why the management withdraw it we cannot say, unless it be for the production of fresh novelties. Many parties are deterred from bringing ladies to the theatre, through fear of there being a disturbance. Such ideas are erroneous, as there has been and will be strict order enforced. Secure your seats for Monday night.

Nashville Daily Union, June 1, 1862.


JUNE 1863


June 1, 1863, Scouts from Forrest's cavalry in the Nashville, Murfreesborough and Franklin environs and release of civilian prisoners in Franklin by Federal authorities

SPRING HILL, June 1, 1863--10 p. m.


My scouts have just returned from Franklin, and report the enemy have released all the citizen prisoners and are under marching orders. I will move up in the morning as near Franklin as possible, and remain as near the enemy as prudent, and would like the balance of the cavalry to move up, if you think it advisable.

N. B. FORREST, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 856.

          1, Fremantle's observations on the Army of Tennessee at Bell Buckle

1st June, Monday.-We all went to a review of General Liddell's brigade at Bellbuckle, a distance of six miles. There were three carriages full of ladies, and I rode an excellent horse, the gift of General John Morgan to General Hardee. The weather and the scenery were delightful. General Hardee asked me particularly whether Mr. Mason had been kindly received in England. I replied that I thought he had, by private individuals. I have often found the Southerners rather touchy on this point.

General Liddell's brigade was composed of Arkansas troops--five very weak regiments which had suffered severely in the different battles, and they cannot be easily recruited on account of the blockade of the Mississippi. The men were good-sized, healthy, and well clothed, but without any attempt at uniformity in color or cut; but nearly all were dressed either in gray or brown coats and felt hats. I was told that even if a regiment was clothed in proper uniform by the Government, it would become parti-colored again in a week, as the soldiers preferred wearing the coarse homespun jackets and trousers made by their mothers and sisters at home. The Generals very wisely allow them to please themselves in this respect, and insist only upon their arms and accoutrements being kept in [proper] order. Most of the officers were dressed in uniform which is neat and serviceable, viz.,: a bluish gray frock coat of a color similar to Austrian yagers.[1] The infantry wear blue facings, the artillery red, the doctors black, the staff white, and the cavalry yellow; so it is impossible to mistake the branch of the service to which an officer belongs--nor is it possible to mistake his rank. A second lieutenant, first, lieutenant, and captain, wear respectively one, two, and three bars on the collar. A major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel, wear one, two and three stars on the collar.

Before the marching past of the brigade, many of the soldiers had taken off their coats and marched past the general in their shirt sleeves, on account of the warmth. Most of them were armed with Enfield rifles captured from the enemy. Many, however, had lost or thrown away their bayonets, which they don't appear to value properly, as they assert that they have never met any Yankees who would wait for that weapon. I expressed a desire to see them form square, but it appeared they were "not drilled to such a manoeuvre" (except square two deep.) They said the country did not admit of cavalry charges, even if the Yankee cavalry had stomach to attempt it.

Each regiment carried a "battle-flag," blue, with a white border, on which were inscribed the names "Belmont," "Shiloh," "Perryville," "Richmond, Ky.," and "Murfreesboro'." They drilled tolerably well, and an advance in line was remarkably good; but Gen. Liddell had invented several dodges of his own, for which he was reproved by General Hardee. The review being over, the troops were harangued by Bishop Elliott in an excellent address, partly religious, partly patriotic. He was followed by a Congressman of vulgar appearance, named Hanley, from Arkansas, who delivered himself of a long and uninteresting political oration, and ended by announcing himself as a candidate for re-election. This speech seemed to me (and to others) particularly ill-timed, out of place, and ridiculous, addressed as it was to soldiers in front of the enemy. But this was one of the results of universal suffrage.

The soldiers afterwards wanted General Hardee to say something, but he declined. I imagine that the discipline in this army is the strictest in the Confederacy, and that the men are much better marchers, than those I saw in Mississippi.

A soldier was shot in Wartrace this afternoon. We heard the volley just as we left in the cars for Shelbyville. His crime was desertion to the enemy; and as the prisoner's brigade was at Tullahoma (twenty miles off,) he was executed without ceremony by the Provost Guard. Spies are hung every now and then; but General Bragg told me it was almost impossible for either side to stop the practice.

Bishop Elliott, Dr. Quintard, and myself got back to General Polk's quarters at 5 P. M., where I was introduced to a Colonel Styles, who was formerly United States Minister at Vienna. In the evening I made the acquaintance of General Wheeler, Van Dorn's successor in the command of the caval[r]y of this army, which is over 24,000 strong. He is a very little man, only twenty-six years of age, and was dressed in a coat much too big for him. He made his reputation by protecting the retreat of the army through Kentucky last year. He was a graduate of West Point, and seems a remarkable zealous' officer, besides being very modest and unassuming in his manners. General Polk told me that, notwithstanding the departure of Breckinridge, this army is now much stronger than it was at the time of the battle of Murfreesboro'. I think that probably 45,000 infantry and artillery could be brought together immediately for a battle.

Fremantle, Three Months, pp. 79-81.

          1, Artillery practice at Fort Negley and the State House

….target shooting was pracktised [sic] today from 1 to 2 by the sedge [sic] guns in the fort and from the large guns at the State house the distance nearly 2 miles

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.

          1, Lincoln county voters choose delegates to the Tennessee state Confederate nominating convention

Public Meeting.

At a meeting of the voters of Lincoln county assembled at the courthouse in Fayetteville, on Monday, June 1st, 1863, James D. Grizzard, Esq., was appointed Chairman, and S. H. McCord, Secretary. Whereupon a motion of Col. James B. Lamb, it was resolved,

1st. That we approve of the Convention called to assemble at Winchester on the 17th inst, for the purpose of designating a candidate for Governor and members of Congress.

2nd. That all citizens of this county who can conveniently attend at Winchester on that day, be, and they are hereby appointed delegates to represent this county in the Convention.

J. D. Grizzard, Ch'n.

S. H. McCord, Sec.

Fayetteville Observer, June 4, 1863.

          1, A letter from Murfreesboro; Colt repeating rifles, Confederate deserters and General Rosecrans[2]

Murfreesboro, Tenn.

June 1, 1863

We are all well , with the exception of George, who is a little indisposed at present, but is able to be about and will be harty in a few days. Nothing of importance has happened here of late. Everything is still. Little skirmishes occur once in a while and sometimes twice, but they amount to nothing. Rebbel deserters come into our lines every few days in two or threes together, but I think they are growing less. I have just returned from town and am most pleasantly surprised to receive a letter from you. But you are not ahead of me, for this will be on the way in a half hour.

Our regiment, or 7 companys of it, have changed arms again. We have got Colts five repeating rifles. The other companies will have either carbines or Henry rifles. With either of these rifles we can do tremendous execution. If we had been provided with these arms before the battle, we could have piled the ground with sesesh worse than we did with our single shuters, although they worked admirable. We expect to get horses soon. If we do, we will have revolvers and sabres (won't we eat then). This brigade is considered to be one of the first class and I suppose it is equel if not superior. Col. Miller, who commands the brigade, says it fought equel to anything known since the war and it is consideration of these things we are supplied with such arms. It is an honor to us to be thus distinguished. The whole army is bettered armed than it was at the time of the fight and if we get at it againe, we will make something come. Rosencrans will review our division tomorrow. I always like to see his smileing face when he rides along the lines, as we are drawn up in line of battle.

….I have grown some taller since you saw me and the day after I was of age weighed 153 lbs. Last fall when we were at Nashville I weighed 160 lbs. All the boys in the company have stretched up amazingly, all but George who is bound to be a titman anyhow.

I would not be surprised if we moved before long. Things look so to me, although I may be mistakened.

L. Warner

Warner Papers.

          1, Notes on Nashville - excerpts from a letter about a "Trip through Dixie."


This city impressed at first sight very favorably. We got in about 6:30 P. M. Many business houses were closed. The crowd on the streets was made up mostly of soldiers and contrabands. I had not an acquaintance in the city that I know of. The hotel at which I stay I find infernally poor in point of accommodations, as might be expected, and I understand charges are exorbitantly high- as also might be expected; yet still I have not felt so thoroughly at home as last night for months past. I think I understand and can explain it. The reason I take to be, the beauty and mildness of the evening, for I am sick of wet and chilly weather; and the luxury of…trees covered with leaves, flowers in full bloom, and expanses of verdure stretching from woods to woods.

After supper I went to the theatre where Harry Jordon was playing Rob Roy. The building was a mean one, but it was packed with humanity, principally dressed in blue; some dressed; some civilians were also present, and a few ladies. Singularly enough their heads all leaned towards some ornamented shoulder. I think that in the long run Cupid can beat secesh. I imagine that some of the fire-eating feminines of this city when looking at a Union uniform sing musingly, "A man's a man for all that."


One block below the St. Cloud hotel, at the corner of Cherry and Church streets, is an immense five-story building intended for a hotel. But never opened.[3] This is now barracks No. 1. The words of a Methodist hymn floated down from above. I inquired and was told that a prayer meeting was held every; night in the fifth story. My informant next inquired, "Are you a Northern man?"….

Secessionists are groaning this week in Nashville. I could not have come at a better time to see the screws put to them. General orders came thick and fast. One , a day or two ago, requires every citizen of Nashville having a stranger come to his house to report the same to the military authorities within one hour, giving the name, residence, destination, mode of arrival and business of his guest. Another order, date the 21st [of July] informs the community that hence forth no one can be allowed to reside within the Federal lines who has not taken the oath of allegiance, or given bonds to live as a parched alien enemy.. Ten days days are allowed to attend to these little duties; or omitting them, parties must effect to be taken beyond our lines into Dixie. Is this all? Not yet. Gen Rosencrantz feels the necessity of having his cavalry well mounted to be effective. Hence another order: "No horse can be taken out of the city without special permit." Nashville did abound in good horses: to-day many mules are working in buggies, etc., and the hacks are drawn by about the most the wretched set of scarecrows ever seen. Cause-three days since most of the good stock were "pressed:" Was the owner a loyal man? Had he taken the oath? "Yes" – all right; a receipt was duly given him, good for the value of the horse. "No" – in deed, that altered the case. The officer regretted the necessity, etc. Etc., but the horse went -  and their was no receipt.


Why, New Orleans under Butler was a garden of tranquil delights to the secesh, compared to what Nashville is to-day. Every day he [Rosecrans] sends some of the most bitter of the rebel sympathizers to the penitentiary. At breakfast this morning I heard, casually, that the owner of this hotel had just been sent to that asylum for distressed patriots. About 700 took the oath yesterday, and from the crowds around the offices I should think more to-day. Not much is said, at least, in the presence of strangers, but there is weeping and gnashing of teeth in secret.

I heard some funny things to-day. At 9 A. M. I called at Lieut. Osgood's, as directed, for a pass. As usual sentinels were at the door and a crowd was waiting on the outside. "Brass," said I…as I pushed up to the offices. "I wish," said I, "to report immediately to Lieut. Osgood."

"Report" took him: he looked once or twice sharply and "pass in" he said.

In the ante-room there was a crowd again, and three or four clerks were attending to them. In the rear was the sanctum sanctorum of the Marshal. I entered. A lady elegantly dressed was receiving form him a paper, and he was saying: "The Colonel is peculiar, Madam. I give you these lines to him, but he may refuse for reasons of his own."

Lady-You officers are all peculiar.

Osgood-Good morning.

A second lady comes on the scene She is evidently got up for the occasion, with an engaging smile fastened across her face.

Osgood – "What can I do for you madam?"

Lady-My mother is very sick in Elkton, Kentucky, and I wish to see her very much.

O. – Can you go bay railroad?

2d lady – No, with horse and buggy. Will they let my horse pass? He is an old one, of no use."

O – I will tell you how to do, Madam. Send your horse to Col____. He will, if, as you say, the horse is valueless, give you a certificate to the effect that he is useless for the public service. Bring it to me, I will endorse it, and you can pass the pickets.

The lady looks at her companion-hesitates-lingers; but finally goes out. It is plainly a case of good horse, with the story of the sick mother invented for the occasion. I step up, present pass and say: "I am____; I arrived last night, am stopping at the St. Cloud, and report myself to you as ordered."

O:  - "What is your business in Nashville?"

Self – To get to Murfreesboro.

O: -  What are you going there for?"

Self: – To see my brother….

O: -  I really have no right to pass you to the front, but will give him a pass anyhow. Take this to the office, and he rapidly wrote his name on a slip of paper. Good morning.

A pass to the front is hard to get and I feel better now. So it ran on all day, the tide of life. Flowing in and ebbing out in the little happy or disappointed waves. The levee is reported with steamers, unloading stores, and the streets are full of wagons, but they are all marked "U.S." To-day I was through some of the hospitals. They are clean as a pin, with better beds than I had last night. I heard the hospital Commissary going over his requisitions from the medical purveyor. Can peaches, can tomatoes, oysters, orange and lemons were all on the list. The sick are doing well. One surgeon told me that in his hospital, out of 48 patients, he only had to prescribe for one this morning. I have only commenced this letter but must quit, for I have talked, talked, drank whisky and written until I am tired.


Daily Evening Bulletin (San Francisco, June 1, 1863.


JUNE 1864


June 1, Scout, White's Station[4] to Lafayette

MEMPHIS, TENN., May 31, 1864.

Col. GEORGE E. WARING, Jr., Cmdg. First Brigade, White's Station:

You will hold your entire mounted force, with three days' rations, 150 rounds of ammunition per man, and four ambulances, in readiness to move at 6 o'clock to-morrow morning, June 1. Do not take your artillery unless it and teams are in good condition. Further instructions will come out on the train this evening. Telegraph me the amount of your force.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.


Col. GEORGE E. WARING, Jr., White's Station, Tenn.:

Your command must move out for La Fayette to-morrow morning at 6 o'clock precisely. No excuse will be received. You must turn out at least 1,600 mounted men.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 59.

          1, Unforgiving Radical Political Rhetoric from Chattanooga

"A Voice from East Tennessee"

From the Chattanooga Advertiser, May 25.

There is [sic] now no two opinions among truly loyal men as to the necessity of cowering the rebellious citizens of the South by the necessarily harsh rules of military law. The embittered natures of those of our fellow-citizens who have embraced the fallacious doctrines of secession, will not permit the United States Government to treat them with a spirit of forbearance. To save itself the Government must break necks and place air-holes through bodies. To save ourselves we-the truly loyal men of East Tennessee-must join hands without Government in all necessary means to secure this desirable end. To save our own necks and the peace and happiness of our children hereafter we must insist that the civil and military authorities of the nation shall strictly adhere to that policy which shall dishonor the name of traitor in his own country. The very roots of society should be torn up, and an order of things established which shall ostracize every living thing that thinks, talks or acts treason. A loyal heart should be a necessary passport to society; it should be a necessary pre-requisite to business privileges; it should be absolutely essential to the enjoyment of the rights of suffrage, and of those other rights which follow on the heels of the latter. What right has the traitor which the loyal man is bound to respect? He has committed every moral and political crime known to the calendar. What he has not done in his own person he has encouraged others to do, and is equally guilty with the actual perpetrator. He is infamous, and unless our children are taught to regard him in that light they will very naturally conclude that treason is respectable. For the sake of posterity treason should be made odious. The man guilty of that crime should be looked upon in his true light as a moral and political monster. How is this to be accomplished? By making the political atmosphere too warm for men who have prostituted their influence to aid the Rebels.

Hurl upon the heads of such men the thunderbolt with which they would have dashed us to atoms. Administer to them the physic which they had prepared for us. If they were crowned with victory in their inconceivably wicked usurpation, could we remain at home? Then what right have they to object to the application to themselves of the policy which they had chalked out for others? They have chased, imprisoned, hung, shot, and whipped the best men in East Tennessee, and who [is] so imbecile as to raise a voice of pity for them? They are treacherous, and although they may swallow as many Amnesty Proclamations as shall increase their abdominal regions to Falstaffian proportions, they would chuckle over every reverse, and gloat over us by a triumph at the ballot-box. They must leave the country. [sic]

All truly loyal East Tennesseeans [sic] should act in concert. In the hour of peril they were as one man-now that the hour of triumph approaches let them as one man enjoy the fruits of their well-earned victory. If they will only do this they can rule the State, and make it what nature's God intended it. What madness! what folly! what apostacy [sic]! We sometimes think our murdered friends-the victims of rebel persecution, would rise from their lowly graves and heap maledictions and curses upon the heads of those who propose to abandon the union brotherhood for the association of the hypocritical scoundrels, who were for the Rebels when they were here, but who now profess to be for the Union provided they can dictate to the entire people of the country-a spirit of dictation which has characterized the Southern politicians for thirty years, and which culminated in the present gigantic rebellion with all its horrors.

But we have digressed. We started out to make a few observations to the people of this section of East Tennessee on the approaching Presidential contest. What we say is not written in a partisan spirit, but with the sternest conviction that the every existence of this Nation as a republic depends on the action of the American people in November next. The armies of the Union are performing the heavy, vital work; but if we have a dishonest or imbecile Commander-in-Chief of our Armies and Navies the Nation will be ruined. This is a proposition whose truth is as clear as sunlight; and, it seems to us, needs no elaboration. The National Union Convention meets in Baltimore on the 7th of June, and the Democratic National Convention meets in Chicago on the 4th of July. The next President will, in all human probability, be chosen by either one or the other of these conventions. Should loyal East Tennesseans [sic] be at Baltimore or Chicago? What portion of the people are more vitally interested in the result of the Presidential contest than our own?

Where do our interest point-to Chicago or to Baltimore? At Chicago we shall find Fernando Wood, Alexander Long, the supporters of Valandigham [sic], and that class of men who do not believe the rebels can be subdued. Not believing it possible to whip Jeff. Davis, of course they would cease attempting it, and the Southern Confederacy would be recognized. East Tennessee being in the limits of which is claimed as the Southern Confederacy, every loyal citizen would be compelled, either to hang or emigrate. We cannot afford to do either, and consequently would not be at home in Chicago. Then Baltimore only remains; we do not attach any importance to the Cleveland[5] arrangement, and it our interest and duty to be represented there.

Nashville Dispatch, June 1, 1864.

          1, "The Refugee Asylum."

We made another visit to this institution a few days ago, and found the general arrangements much more satisfactory than at any previous visit. It is now occupied almost exclusively as a hospital for females and children, some of the rooms affording a temporary shelter for new arrivals who are without means to procure other accommodations. Dr. Thomas has charge of the hospital, and his wife, an estimable lady, has consented to assume a general superintendence of the household affairs, to which fact the improvements noted are mainly attributable. The Government, we believe, supplies the ordinary medical and commissary stores for the establishment, but there are many necessary articles needed which have to be contributed by private charity, or entirely dispensed with, such as are enumerated in the hospital list as "Extra Diet," clothing, beds and bedding, cots, etc. A visit to the establishment-the old Shelby College, on Broad street-will do more to convince our readers of the worthiness of this charity than anything pen can describe. No one possessed of a particle of human feeling, can walk through that building without expressing pity for, and contributing a portion of his means toward alleviating the sufferings of the unfortunate inmates. Clothing would be thankfully received, and any delicacies suitable for the sick.

Nashville Dispatch, June 1, 1864.

          1-13, 1864, Expedition from Memphis to Mississippi[6]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 2, pp. 84-231.


JUNE 1865


June 1, 1865, News of Champ Ferguson's capture

Champ has a very possessing appearance, and does not look like a bad man. He is full six feet high, dark hair and complexion, and has an eye like an eagle. He is a strong, athletic man. He was taken at some point in East Tennessee, and expected to be paroled as a prisoner of war, but the authorities could not "see it in that light" and Champ will have to answer for his "unvalorous deeds."

Chattanooga Daily Gazette, June 1, 1865.

          1, Report of Operations of the Construction Corps, U. S. Military Railroad, February 10 – June 1, 1865.

CHATTANOOGA, June 1, 1865.

A. ANDERSON, Chief Superintendent and Engineer

Military Railroads of the United States:

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations of the Construction Corps, U. S. Military Railroads, Division of the Mississippi, from the date I was placed in charge, February 10, to June 1, 1865. Upon the completion of the work assigned me by Col. W. W. Wright, chief engineer, previous to his departure for Savannah, the rebuilding of the bridges on the Nashville, Decatur and Stevenson line, destroyed by Hood in his retreat from Nashville, amounting in the aggregate to 6,000 feet (linear), I reported to you at Nashville. On the 17th of February received orders from Gen. McCallum to send forward a division of the Construction Corps to Baltimore. I selected the Third Division, composed of Speers' and Bones' subdivisions of carpenters and workmen, comprising about 400 men, who, in charge of William McDonald, assistant engineer, left Nashville on February 25, with orders to proceed to Baltimore, and upon arrival there reporting to Gen. McCallum at Washington, D. C. This division I recalled from the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, where they had been sent a few days before, Gen. Thomas deciding not to prosecute the work any further at that time. Upon the withdrawal of this division I organized the Seventh Division of trackmen, detaching a part of the Fourth Division of carpenters as a bridge force. The Second Division having been transferred to North Carolina some time previous, and the Fifth and Sixth Divisions employed upon the Nashville and Northeestern and Nashville and Clarksville lines, left us on the 1st of March with the First, Fourth, and Seventh Divisions, amounting in all to about 2,000 men.

On the 1st of March, by your order, I transferred the Fifth and Sixth Divisions of the Construction Corps, engaged in the construction and maintenance of the Northeastern and Clarksville lines, to the transportation department, they taking entire control of the roads from that date.

February 16 sent the First Division of trackmen, who had been assisting the bridge force on the Nashville, Decatur and Stevenson line, to Chattanooga, and returned the bridge-builders of the First Division, by order of Gen. Thomas, to Columbia, to erect a permanent turnpike bridge across Duck River at that point. I directed Mr. Rozelle, superintendent in charge, to put up a Howe truss of three spans, 112 feet each, using the bolts and castings of bridges destroyed on the railroad. The bridge was finished the latter part of May, having been built at intervals when the division was not otherwise employed. It is a strong and permanent structure of 350 feet in length, costing about $50 per foot (linear), which I would respectfully suggest charging the turnpike company or corporation of Columbia with.

On the 25th of February we were visited by a freshest, almost unprecedented, which destroyed or injured to a greater or less extent all the bridges on the Nashville, Decatur and Stevenson line, on the Northeastern, five on the Chattanooga and Atlanta line between Chattanooga and Dalton, and two on the Clarksville line. The repairs of the roads were commenced at once by the First Division, the permanent bridge force of the various lines, and a large force of Nagle's men furnished by the transportation department. The bridges on the Chattanooga and Atlanta line were at the same time commenced by the Fourth Division, in charge of C. Latimer, division engineer, who upon their completion repaired with his force to the Elk River bridge on Nashville, Dacatur and Stevenson line, and continued working from that end of the line until joined by Rozelle, working south.

On the 3d of March we had another freshest, almost as disastrous as the former one, destroying again nearly all the bridges we had rebuilt, and this time washing out three bridges on the Nashville and Chattanooga line and throwing four others out of line. Large forces of men were immediately put to work, and after an interruption of one week communication was again established with Chattanooga on the Northeastern and Nashville, Decatur and Stevenson lines. Communication was not fully restored until the 28th. Owing to the destruction in part of the Red River bridge the Clarksville line west of Springfield was abandoned.

On March 12 received orders from Gen. Thomas to reopen the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad from Strawberry Plains to Bull's Gap, and put it in condition to sustain as heavy a business as was done upon the Chattanooga and Atlanta line last summer. I accordingly directed Mr. Latimer, division engineer, with the track force of the First Division and a carpenter force from the Fourth Division, to proceed at once to Strawberry Plains for that purpose. We commenced work at that point on the 14th. From thence to New Market the road was destroyed in patches for one mile and a half, including five cattle guards, two bridges of thirty feet span each, and tank at Friend's Station. The road was repaired and opened to New Market the 18th. From New Market to Morristown the track was burnt in patches to the extent of one mile and a quarter. Twenty cattle guards, bridge at Mossy Creek (150 feet in length), and one at Morristown (24 feet span) were destroyed. At this point erected two tanks and extended side track for 1,500 feet. From Morristown to Rogersville Junction, or Bull's Gap, the track was destroyed to the extent of three-fourths of a mile. Three bridges of 24 feet span, one of 40 feet span, and one at Russellville of 150 feet span were also destroyed. The line was opened to Bull's Gap on the 25th. Upon reaching that point I received further orders from Gen. Thomas to open the road to Carter's Station, on the Watauga River, twenty miles west of Bristol, which we reached on the 29th of April. From Bull's Gap to Greeneville the mechanical work on the road was very heavy, and all destroyed. Rebuilt a bridge of 100 feet span and renewed 300 feet of trestle-work at Bull's Gap. From thence to Lick Creek the track was uninjured. The bridge and trestle-work at Lick Creek, 900 feet in length, was burnt and the track totally destroyed for seven miles, extending to a point two miles east of Blue Spring. The extensive trestle-work at Swan Pond, two miles east of Lick Creek, 1,400 feet in length and from 9 to 17 in height, was likewise destroyed.

I would here take occasion to express my acknowledgment of the valuable service rendered by Maj.-Gen. Stanley, commanding Fourth Army Corps, who furnished all the transportation required and large details of men for cutting ties and wood, loading timber, &c.

The laying of the track between Lick Creek and Blue Spring was much retarded by the incessant rains occurring at that time. East of Blue Spring we erected two water-tanks. Between this point and Greeneville we rebuilt three bridges across the Chucky of 140 feet, 100 feet, and 180 feet, respectively; the track was only destroyed to the extent of one-fourth of a mile. Between Greeneville and Carter's Station, which we reached on the 29th of April, there were three bridges destroyed of 245 feet, 137 feet, and 235 feet in length, respectively. Having reached the point to which we were ordered to open the road, the men were set to work cutting timber and ties, surfacing track, &c., whilst awaiting further orders. During the progress of the work upon the main line another force of trackmen were employed at Knoxville in laying a side track 3,000 feet in length to the commissary building in course of erection on the old Charleston railroad. Another large force were engaged lengthening the sidings on the main line of facilitate the passing of trains. The operations of the Fourth Division, of carpenters, and part of the Seventh Division, of trackmen, under charge of John F. Burgin, division engineer, were confined chiefly to the erection of buildings, though frequently employed upon bridges and repairs of track. The rolling-mill was completed and went into successful operation the latter part of March; a report of operations up to the 1st of June I herewith append.

Report of iron manufactured at rolling-mill U. S. military railroads, at Chattanooga, Tenn., to June 1, 1865.

Articles.                   R             E                           M                    I              B

Old iron...........…….pounds...2,603,968                 2,603,986

New railroad iron......pounds  2,264,320………………………..916,026…………………1,348,294

Coal.............….…. ..bushels...  ....59,092………..42,262………………16,830

R=Received. E=Expended. M=Manufactured. I=Issued. B=Balance.

There has been a track graded west of the rolling-mill, and an extensive trestle and coal-bin erected. Fourteen small mess-houses have been built, and three large buildings, in course of erection at date of last report, finished. A large force of the Seventh Division have been constantly employed at the mill up to this date digging a well, unloading cars, &c. Another force of upward of 100 men of the Seventh Division have been employed upon repairs of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad up to this date. About eighty men have been constantly employed in the quarry near Chattanooga, getting out stone for foundations, sewers, and ballast. The most of the foundations for the roundhouse are in, and the greater part of the lumber intended for it cut and delivered. A double track was graded from the main track outside the depot yard, running to the roundhouse, and from thence extended almost to the Crutchfield House, with the design ultimately of connecting with the tracks in the street. There has been erected also extensive barracks and officers' quarters for the depot guard, and a large building for officers of the transportation department, and extensive mess-houses for their men. At Knoxville there has been erected one large office building, two large mess-houses, and a blacksmith shop of fifty by eighty feet. Also depot buildings at Charleston, Athens, and Sweet Water. We have had five saw-mills in operation, which have cut the last three months 1,200,000 feet of lumber, board measure, and 500,000 shingles, a large amount of which we have on hand.

On the 6th of May I received your order directing the reduction of the Construction Corps to the lowest practicable limit. I at once suspended operations on the roundhouse and in the stone quarry, and ordered a suspension of the saw-mills, after cutting up the stock on hand. From the Fourth and Seventh Divisions and saw-mill department I have discharged 1,000 men since the receipt of your order, making the available force of the Construction Corps at the present time 1,200 men. A further reduction of the force was arrested by an order from Gen. Thomas directing the relaying of the track between Dalton and Resaca and rebuilding of the bridge across the Oostenaula. Commencing the track at Dalton on the 10th of May, I sent forward part of the bridge force of the First Division to Resaca to rebuild the bridge, five spans of which had been destroyed. This they accomplished and laid one mile of track south of it by the time we reached there, the 24th of May. From thence to Kingston we rebuilt three bridges, two tanks, and repaired sidings at Calhoun and Adairsville; the rest of the track was in comparatively good order. Reached Kingston on the 26th, and the following day turned the road over to the transportation department. Between Kingston and Etowah three more bridges and two tanks were destroyed. The track was unimpaired. Reached the Etowah on the 29th, when I received further orders from Gen. Thomas to open the line to Atlanta, at which all the force of the corps at the present time are employed. I omitted to state we had build an engine-house and a large reservoir adjoining the machine-shop at Chattanooga of a capacity of 80,000 gallons. The shops in the yard, as well as the locomotives, are now amply supplied with water from the works built by the U. S. Engineer Department. We have, in connection with their tubs on Cameron Hill, erected a tank of a capacity of 50,000 gallons, and have laid about 5,000 feet of main pipe and 4,000 of branch to the commissary building, store and mess houses.

In conclusion, I take pleasure in testifying to the efficient and valuable services of John F. Burgin and C. Latimer, division engineers, who have on all occasions manifested an untiring zeal in the prosecution of work committed to their charge.

Summary of work done on the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad from March 15 to April 29, 1865: Ninety-four miles of track opened and repaired; 12 miles of track rebuilt; 4,400 linear feet of bringing; 20,000 cross-ties cut and delivered; 57,000 cubic feet of timber cut for bridging; 19 switches put in; 18 frogs put in; 5 water-tanks erected.

Summary of work done on the Chattanooga and Atlanta line from May 10 to May 31, 1865: Eighteen miles of track railed; 1,000 linear feet of bridging; 6 frogs and switches put in; 4 tanks erected.

Ten miles of the above track were laid with burnt iron, which we straightened; five miles with the U-rail taken from the Nashville and Chattanooga line, and three miles with new iron.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. H. EICHOLTZ, Acting Chief Engineer, Government Railroads,

Military Division of the Mississippi.

OR, Ser. III, Vol. 5, pp. 44-48

          1, Fixing the blame; Major-General R. H. Milroy speaks in McMinnville

* * * *

The South is ruined and the Administration is bearing down very hard upon her. [emphasis added] Milroy was here last week and made a speech – said among other smart things that rebels wanted their rights and they could have them – their rights were 8 ft. [sic] of rope. He gave Ben Hill[7] leave to speak under a great many restrictions, defining what he should and should not say. Mill made a short speech – people say a good deal more to the point than Milroy's. Said he didn't fire the first gun – but fought 'em in earnest, and with a good hearty will: he under the same circumstances would do it again. If the Federal Gov. wanted what little property he had, the said. Gov. could have it and welcome – he had been a laboring man once and he could become so again. He wished everybody to distinctly understand that he didn't "gather blackberries on both sides of the creek" [emphasis added] in this struggle, etc. Milroy went to Prof. Clark's school [and] made a speech to the pupils – uninvited. When Mr. C. had finished his recitations he told the Gen. he could have the floor. He told the school that in the late difficulty Mr. C. was wrong and Miss Clift was right – that rebels had no right – were not to be accorded any! They young people must learn all they could –and they must also teach the niggers [sic]. The rebels must not say they were overwhelmed – they must say they were whipped. etc. etc. He stuttered so that one of the little Stanley's whispered to Jennie Scott – "Miss Jennie, do you reckon he is drunk." Clark told the Col. next day he feared Milroy had utterly ruined his school. Clark had been down upon extremists – he aid both sides were wrong – Milroy told him this must not be said, nobody was wrong but the rebels! [emphasis added] Of such are our rulers. Two General Orders have just come from Tulahoma [sic] – in one everything rebellious is ordered obliterated – gray uniforms are to [be] among the buried; and the ladies are advised not to manufacture any more gray good for wearing apparel! Yet the Yankee blue flaunts before our eyes as hatefully as ever. Burling[,] one of the Yankee soldiers[,] said a good thing – said "Milroy had given Clark a devil of row to hoe – to make that school loyal – he had put on poor Clark what he couldn't do himself!" Billings was here with Milroy….

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.


[1] In the German army, one belonging to a body of light infantry armed with rifles, resembling the chasseur of the French army. Also spelled "jager."

[2] All spelling original

[3] The Maxwell House.

[4] Today White's Station is in metropolitan Memphis.

[5] On May 31, 1864, the radical wing of the Republican party met in Cleveland, Ohio, to nominate John C. Fremont and John Cochrane of New York on a radical platform. This ticket's chief base of support was composed of Middle Western German radical opposition to the regular Republican party. The Fremont ticket posed no real threat to Lincoln.

[6] June 1-13, 1864.-Expedition from Memphis, Tenn., into Mississippi. The only action in Tennessee associated with this event was the skirmish at Collierville, June 13, 1864.

[7] Benjamin Jefferson Hill, Tennessee assemblyman 32nd General Assembly, 1857-1859; representing Warren, Cannon Coffee, Grundy and Van Buren counties. An attorney and president of the Manchester to McMinnville Railroad. He served in the Confederate army, rising to the rank of Brigadier General. Claimed his was the "last command on the east side of the Mississippi that surrendered." He died in McMinnville January 5, 1880. Robert McBride, Dan M. Robison,eds., Biographical Directory of the Tennessee General Assembly, Vol. I, 1796-1861, (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Commission, 1975), pp. 365-366.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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