2, "My soul is troubled to its greatest depth." An Extract from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain
Darkness, darkness all is dark as yet so far as our difficulties with each other are concerned. The troops from the North are still advancing. Troops are moving in from the South to meet and repel this attack with a determination and energy equal to that manifested by the bands of the Revolution. Surely we of the South do feel we are struggling for Liberty just as that devoted band felt; when they resisted British tyranny. Was not the great head of the church moving forward in that mighty work, is it not to his almighty arm we owe the existence and preservation of our Republican form of government until the present moment. When I say Republican I do not mean Black Republican. O no that seems to be as hostile to liberty as ever English rule had been. They seem to feel I am willing to set aside the Bible with all its holy precepts to man if, by so doing I can but exalt the North in her sectional feelings and prejudice.
My soul is troubled to its greatest depths. My husband, my sons are gone. The rests of the Holy Sabbath are broken up by this unholy strife. The sacredness of the home circle has been invaded-perhaps never again to be as it has been; our family altar has been broken down. We kneel in silence to the God of Battles and ask him to give us victory if it is consistent with his will and the great interests of the church. Why O why have our Northern brethren meddled withy our domestic institution of slavery; how little they know of the deep anguish many of us feel in regard to our servants for their immortal souls. And I do feel the judgements [sic] of Almighty God will rest upon the heads of the Northern people for their unjust interference and thereby threarting our plans for the elevation of our colored people in a moral point of view. My servants have been so loyal to me ever since these difficulties have commenced. My soul rises in gratitude to that being in whose hands are the hearts of all men. They see my troubles an seem to wish to do everything they can t make one happy, no words, no looks of indifference do I have from them. I have just written passes for Gus and Lewis to go to town to attend preaching this evening. This has been made necessary by Northern men.
ca. 2, General P. G. T. Beauregard vs. the Memphis Vigilance Committee
A gentleman from Memphis informs us that Gen. Beauregard arrived there a few days since, and used great endeavors to keep his moments secret. Being a stranger and somewhat observant he attracted the attention of the Vigilance Committee, who arrested him as a spy and suspected person. The generalissimo of the Confederate forces had to send for Gen. Pillow to identify him, and the hero of Camargo soon convinced the vigilants that they had dug their ditch on the wrong side of the rampart of Memphian defence, whereupon Beauregard was discharged with apologies.
Louisville Daily Journal, June 4, 1861. 
2, Skirmish at Thompson's Station
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
2, General Braxton Bragg joins the Protestant Episcopal Church
Gen. Braxton Bragg has joined the Protestant Episcopal Church. He was confirmed a few days since at his quarters in Shelbyville, The Rt. Rev. Bishop Elliott, of the diocese of Georgia, officiating.
The above item, which appeared in the Mercury of the 15th, is not exactly correct. Gen. Bragg was not 'confirmed at his quarters.' On Tuesday evening, June 2, after evening prayer, in the church of the Holy Redeemer, Shelbyville, Tenn., Gen. Bragg received the Apostolic rite of confirmation at the hand of Bishop Elliott.
The service was not private, as has been stated in some newspapers. Gen. Polk and staff and a respectable congregation were present on the occasion.
Shelbyville, Tenn., June 18, 1863.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 2, 1863.
2, Bragg issues General Orders No. 18, relative to his refugee policy
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 18. HDQRS. DEPARTMENT No. 2, Tullahoma, Tenn., June 2, 1863.
The enemy has seen fit to expel from his lines and send to our midst not only those supposed to be guilty of crimes, but non-combatants found at their homes in the peaceful pursuits of life. In the perpetration of these outrages on humanity, and these violations of civilized warfare, he has prostituted the flag of truce to the base purpose of protecting the guards who drive forth these exiles. Hereafter that flag will not protect those guards, but they will be seized and sent forward to be treated as spies or prisoners of war, as the circumstances in each case may require.
By command of Gen. Bragg:
H. W. WALTER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 858-859.
2, "Military Hospitals -- Chap. XXI.
Number 9.-The hospital is situated at 62 North Market street, the buildings formerly occupied by W. H. Townsend, as a carriage manufactory. The neighborhood is not a very pleasant one, being in close proximity to the ordnance department, the saddle and harness ship, the blacksmith ship and shoeing establishment and the street being traversed by more army wagons than perhaps any other in town, except Broad street, which is much wider and consequently less noisy. Yet notwithstanding these drawbacks the external and internal appearance of the hospital will bear favorable comparison with any in the city, so far as constant care and attention, industry [and physical?] verance [sic] can accomplish the object. The street in front, and the outside of the building, are well watered and kept clean, as well as the wards, offices, and store rooms inside, even to the to [sic] the remote and comparatively dark corners.
Officers and Attendants.
Surgeon in Charge-E. G. White, Acting Asst. Surg.
Steward and Druggist-Harry Dobbs, U. S. Volunteers
There are ten nurses, one white cook, three colored cooks, five colored females for washing and ironing, and three colored males for other duties.
For patients there are 150 iron cots, 65 of which were occupied on Friday last, leaving 85 vacant.
The Christian Commission occasionally send a Chaplain to this hospital on Sundays and week-days, and when any visit there they have religious services at 10 a. m. Sunday, and sometimes prayers during other days.
There are only two wards in the hospital, each 108 feet long by 41½ feet wide, and 12½ high. They are very comfortable, well ventilated, sufficiently light, and remarkably clean. Very few patients are unable to leave their beds.
The Dispensary is a remarkably neat little room on the second floor front, and the Ward Master's room is opposite. On each floor is a knapsack room, a wash and bath room, and water closer, all in good order. The storeroom occupies about twenty feet square of the front of the lower floor, and contains, in additions to a good supply of commissary stores, etc., the unclaimed effects of deceased soldiers.
The kitchen and dining room is in the rear of the lower ward, in a separate building. It is rather larger than is needed for a kitchen, but would make a splendid dining room. We would respectfully suggest the erection of a temporary building in the rear of this room for a kitchen, and the conversion of the old building into a dining room, at least during the summer season. The wash-house, or laundry, is a comfortable temporary building, with every convenience necessary, and ample for any emergency.
The yard is well fenced in by the remnants of some old Confederate wooden cots, the slats making a substantial picket fence.
The linen room is well stocked and well kept, and accounts are kept in a book between the room and the patients of all clothing received and returned by the inmates of the hospital. The offices of the Surgeon in Charge and the Steward, and the private rooms, of these gentlemen, the assistant Surgeons, clerk, matron, etc., are in the range of brick buildings on Front street, in the rear of the hospitals.
The hospital authorities have contracted a sewer from the hospital to the river, through which flows all the waste water from every part of the hospital, saving much time and adding to the cleanliness and health of the establishment.
The rooms are all sufficiently light, and very clean, frequent applications of time being made in all the apartments, and outside also.
Most of the patients were amusing themselves reading and writing. The Silent Monitors hang upon the walls of the wards.
There are a few leaks in the roof, which need attending to, and which; measures have already been taken to have repaired.
We need scarcely say that the same courtesy which we have received at all the hospitals was extended to us in No. 9, for which the officers will receive our thanks.
Nashville Dispatch, June 2, 1863.
2, "…the only way in which an officer could acquire influence over the Confederate soldiers was by his personal conduct under fire." Fremantle's observations on the Army of Tennessee
2d June, Tuesday.-Colonel Grenfell and I rode to the outposts, starting on the road to Murfreeshoro' at 6 A. M. It rained hard nearly all day. He explained to me the method of fighting adopted by the Western cavalry, which he said was admirably adapted for this country; but he denied that they could, under any circumstances, stand a fair charge of regular cavalry in the open. Their system is to dismount and leave their horses in some secure place. One man is placed in charge of his own and three other horses, whilst the remainder act as infantry skirmishers in the dense woods and broken country, making a tremendous row, and deceiving the enemy as to their numbers, and as to their character as infantry or cavalry. In this manner Morgan, assisted by two small guns, called bull-dogs, attacked the Yankees with success in towns, forts, stockades, and steamboats; and by the same system, Wheeler and Wharton kept a large pursuing army in check for twenty-seven days, retreating and fighting every day, and deluding the enemy with the idea that they were being resisted by a strong force composed of all three branches of the service.
Colonel Grenfell told me that the only way in which an officer could acquire influence over the Confederate soldiers was by his personal conduct under fire. They hold a man in great esteem who in action sets them an example of contempt for danger; but they think nothing of an officer who is not in the habit of leading them; in fact such a man could not possibly retain his position. [emphasis added] Colonel Grenfell's expression was, "every atom of authority has to be purchased by a drop of your blood." He told me he was in desperate hot water with the civil authorities of the State, who accuse him of illegally impressing and appropriating horses, and also of conniving at the escape of a negro [sic] from his lawful owner, and he said that the military authorities were afraid or unable to give him proper protection.
For the first nine miles our road was quite straight and hilly, with a thick wood on either side. We then reached a pass in the hills called Guy's Gap, which, from the position of the hills, is very strong, and could be held by a small force. The range of hills extends as far as Wartrace, but I understand the position could be turned on the left. About two miles beyond Guy's Gap were the headquarters of General Martin, the officer who commands the brigade of cavalry stationed in the neighborhood. General Martin showed me the letter sent by the Yankees a few days ago by flag of truce with Mr. Vallandigham. This letter was curiously worded, and ended, as far as I can remember, with this expression: "Mr. Vallandigham is therefore handed over to the respectful attention of the Confederate authorities." General Martin told me that skirmishing and bushwhacking went on nearly every day, and that ten days ago the enemy's cavalry, by a bold dash, had captured a field piece close to his own quarters. It was, however retaken, and its captors were killed.
One of General Martin's staff officers conducted us to the bivouac of Colonel Webb, (three miles further along the road,) who commanded the regiment on outpost duty there--51st Alabama Cavalry. This Colonel Webb was a lawyer by profession, and seemed a capital fellow; and he insisted on riding with us to the videttes in spite of the rain, and he also desired his regiment to turn out for us by the time we returned. The extreme outposts were about two miles beyond Colonel Webb's post, and about sixteen miles from Shelbyville. The neutral ground extended for about three miles. We rode along it as far as it was safe to do so; and just came within sight of the Yankee videttes. The Confederate videttes were at an interval of from 300 to 400 yards of each other. Colonel Webb's regiment was in charge of two miles of the front; and, in a similar manner, the chain of videttes was extended by other corps right and left for more than eighty miles. Scouts are continually sent forward by both sides to collect information. Rival scouts and pickets invariably fire on one another whenever they meet; and Colonel Webb good-naturedly offered, if I was particularly anxious to see their customs and habits, to send forward a few men and have a little fight. I thanked him much for his kind offer, but begged he wouldn't trouble himself so far on my account. He showed me the house where Vallandigham had been "dumped down" between the outposts when they refused to receive him by flag of truce.
The woods on both sides of the road showed many signs of the conflicts which are of daily occurrence. Most of the houses by the roadside had been destroyed; but one plucky old lady had steadfastly refused to turn out, although her house was constantly an object of contention, and showed many marks of bullets and shell. Ninety-seven men were employed every day in Colonel Webb's regiment to patrol the front. The remainder of the 51st Alabama were mounted and drawn up to receive Colonel Grenfell on our return from the outposts. They were uniformly armed with long rifles and revolvers, but without sabres, and they were a fine body of young men. Their horses were in much better condition than might have been expected, considering the scanty food and hard duty they had had to put up with for the last five months, without shelter of any kind, except the trees. Colonel Grenfell told me they were a very fair specimen of the immense number of cavalry with Bragg's army. I got back to Shelbyville at 4.30 P. M., just in time to be present at an interesting ceremony peculiar to America. This was a baptism at the Episcopal Church. The ceremony was performed in an impressive manner by Bishop Elliott, and the person baptized was no less than the commander-in-chief of the army. The Bishop took the General's hand in his own (the latter kneeling in front of the font,) and said, "Braxton, if thou hast not already been baptized, I baptize thee," &c. Immediately afterwards he confirmed General Bragg, who then shook hands with General Polk, the officers of their respective staffs and myself, who were the only spectators.
The soldiers on sentry at General Polk's quarters this afternoon were deficient both of shoes and stockings. These were the first barefooted soldiers I had yet seen in the Confederacy.
I had intended to have left Shelbyville to-morrow with Bishop Elliott; but as I was informed that a reconnoissance in force was arranged for to-morrow, I accepted General Polk's kind offer of further hospitality for a couple of days more. Four of Polk's brigades with artillery move to the front to-morrow, and General Hardee is also to push forward from Wartrace. The object of this movement is to ascertain the enemy's strength at Murfreesboro', as rumor asserts that Rosecrans is strengthening Grant in Mississippi, which General Bragg is not disposed to allow with impunity. The weather is now almost chilly.
Fremantle, Three Years, pp. 81-83.
2, Nashville at the end of the Civil War
The Winding up of the War-Nashville as it Has Been – Resume of Military Operations and Doings of the Various Departments.
From Our Own Correspondent.
No place at present more than Nashville present stronger proofs of the discontinuance of the war. Time was when all the hours of the day the streets were crowded with Federal soldiers. Now very few blue uniforms are to be seen; but in their place are men clad in gray. Thousands of rebel soldiers have arrived at and passed through this city during the past two weeks. And the cry is still they come. The mustering officers are busily engaged-not mustering in, but mustering out soldiers. The surgeons are indefatigably at work-not filling up hospitals; but clearing them out. Hospitals, churches, schools and stores, that for the last three years have groaned with the weight of sick and wounded, are no way silent as deserted banqueting halls. Thousands of government employes have been discharged during the past ten days, and clerks without number have been served with notices to quit the premised. All kinds of quartermasters and ordnance stored are being turned over to the proper authorities, and the work of cutting down Uncle Sam's expenses goes bravely on.
A great many of Lee's soldiers have arrive here on their way to their homes. Very few of Johnston's have as yet reported. A large number of Wheeler's, Debbrell's [sic] and Vaughn's commands have arrived. All of the formidable organizations known as guerrillas, have come in under Gen. Thomas's late proclamation, including Major Dick McCann and his command, Gen. Chennewith and his command, Gen. Hume and his command, nearly all of Lyon's command, Col. Duval McManey and his command, and many others. I have talked with several of these officers, and they all converse and otherwise deport themselves like men who intend to do what is right. Some of those who have made themselves notorious by their unmilitary mode of carrying on war, announce themselves satisfied that the war for the destruction of the Union is a failure, and express a determination to go home and behave themselves a good citizens should.
Some of the old secession nuts [sic] of this city and county, who have never smelt gunpowder, look blue, and express volumes in their dejected countenances. Their lips hang exceedingly low, but they don't talk with their mouths. Curious to relate, the ladies are shifting (pardon the word) [sic] about, and blandly acknowledge that the jig is up.
The crack regiment of this State, which was raised in this city, is expected here in a few days. It left this city nearly four years ago, one thousand strong. It fared terribly at Shiloh, Perryville, Stone [sic] River, Chickamauga and all the battles upon the Atlanta campaign, and is said to be reduced to forty men. Almost every aristocratic family in this community was represented in this regiment.
I consider that the war is about concluded, in this section; and as this may be my last letter from Nashville on military matters I will give you a brief sketch of the various departments as they look now, as they have looked:
THE PROVOST-MARSHAL'S OFFICE.
An office of Provost-Marshal was established in this city immediately upon the occupation of Nashville by the national army in the month of February, 1862. Col. Stanley Matthews was the first Provost-Marshal. With the exception of granting passes, very little or no other business was transacted. In a month or two afterward. Col. Lew. Campbell was appointed Provost-Marshal, which office he held until Col. (now General) Gillem received the appointment. During Gen Gillem's marshalship [sic], many improvements and reforms were made. He had a set of books, and everything of material interest was recorded, and all names of persons taking the oath, &c., were inserted therein. Late in the year 1862, at the request of Gen Gillem, he was removed, and Col. John Martin was appointed in his place. While Col. Martin was Provost-Marshal, over ninety thousand persons took the oath of allegiance. At this time the business of Provost-Marshal consisted chiefly in giving passes, filling bonds and duplicate oaths and attending to all prison cases. During the Summer [sic] of 1863 Col. Martin was made a brigade commander in Jeff. C. Davis' Division, and Lieut.-Col. Spaulding was appointed Provost-Marshal. He was soon after made full Colonel of a Tennessee Regiment, and was succeeded by Col. Horner, who held the office until June 13, 1864, at which time Capt. Hunter Brooks received the appointment. All along occasional improvements have been made, but not until the place was filled by Hunter Brooke had the machinery of the office become model; and it is, as the present time, one of the hugest and best conducted concerns developed by the war.
Vice, in its various forms, enjoys alarming latitude in the vicinity of a great army. This is one fact. And in a great city like Nashville; surrounded, as it has been for nearly four years, with exceeding a hundred thousand men, more or less abandoned women will congregate; and no law can remedy this evil. This is another act. Even stern military modes failed to drive from this city the abandoned women within its precincts. Two years ago, when Gen. Rosecrans commanded the Army of the Cumberland, the poisonous disease known as venereal raged to such an extent that hundreds of his men were unfit for duty. In the Month of July, the General ordered all the abandoned women out of the State, and a whole cargo of unfortunates were shipped North. The boat touched at Louisville, but was ordered away from the authorities. It then attempted to land its freight at Cincinnati, but failed. It anchored in the river a few days and soon after departed for Nashville, where it subsequently arrived and unloaded, costing the government several thousand dollars. The tenacious Rosecrans stood aghast. His men were not only being made unfit for service; but a great number of them had been absolutely ruined by their unlawful companionship with lewd women. As the terrible evil could not be annihilated, it was at once resolved to legalize and systematize the avocation of prostitution. It was a bold move, to be sure. Europe has long ago decided that prostitution was an irremediable evil, and in all European cities abandoned women are licensed characters. Had America long ago followed in this European wake, venereal disease would not have made such sad havoc with the inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere. It was at once resolved, I say, to legalize prostitution. Hospitals for the reception of disease women were speedily built, examining physicians appointed, &c., &c. Now, in plain words, the result is as follows: that there are no cases of this odious disease in the army at all, contracted here. In Gen. Sherman's army of 100,000 men or more, but one or two cases were known to exist, while in Rosecrans army of 50,000 men, there were nearly 1,500 cases. The women are examined once every ten days, paying two dollars for an examining fee and five dollars a month to ply their avocation. This money is appropriated to hospital uses, where the sick of this class are sent, and where proper treatment and comfort await them. The following are the receipts and expenditures in this particular branch of duties of the Provost-Marshal's office during the past ten months.
Money received from abandoned women…………………………….$5.898.72
Funds expended in Venereal Hospital…........…………………………………………..............................................6,153.94
No pains are spared to make the poor, degraded being, while in the hospital, as comfortable as possible; and it will be seen by the above table that the expenditures exceed the receipts.
The vice of drinking ardent spirits, it must be confessed, is hugely endulged [sic] in in the army. The closing of the saloons has been resorted to on many occasions in the city, but it is an actual fact that upon such occasions, more drunken men are to be seen that when the sale of liquor is not contraband. After considerable deliberation between Gen. Miller and Capt. Hunter Brooke, it was deemed not imprudent to allow a certain number of gentleman to sell liquors, wholesale and retail, but conforming to the following rules: Not [to sell to] soldiers or government employees any kind of spirituous, vinous or malt liquor, and not to give away any, and not to sell to officers or citizens while under the influence of or in the least animated by liquor, under a penalty of the confiscation of their stock, and a find of $5,000 and imprisonment. There are at present fifty-nine wholesale and two hundred and four retail liquor establishments; the proprietors of which pay a certain military tax per month, and swear to obey the above orders in connection with their business. Now the result of this is that a drunken soldier of a drunken officer can rarely be met, while those, while those citizens who are pulled up before the Recorder (most of whom are Hibernians) either get drunk at home, or take a swig too often from a battle which is carried in the pocket. I will add a table of the reciepts and expenditures of Capt. Brooke's office during the past ten months:
From Abandoned .Women………………………………...….…………5,898.01
Fines and Police Funds…………………………………….…….…...…3,918.00
Hack Cards, &c…………………………………….……………...……....68.00
From Col. Horner [sic] ……………………………………………………951.13
Military Detectives………………………………………..……. …...…4,574.20
To Col. Davidson, as Refugee Fund…..……………………………………………………….…….............……6,000.00
Boarding Prisoners in County Jail………………………………….…….3,008.58
Cash to R. Henderson……………………………….…………….……995.00
Paid B. Curly, by order of Gen. Miller…………………………………………………………..………......300.00
Printing Provost Orders and Advertising…………………………….….…737.80
It will be seen by the above table that Capt. Brooke, by the judicious management of his office, during the past ten months, pays all his expensed such as detectives, hospital, printing, gas, and other incidentals, places in the hands of the disbursing Quartermaster over seventeen hundred dollars, with a balance of nearly eight thousand dollars in [the] bank.
The following is a statistical forward by Capt. Hinter Brooke, during [the] ten months ending April 30. 1865:
Federal deserters received……………………………………………………………....591
Federal deserters forwarded to their regiments……………………………………………….….………..589
Federals under charges received……………………………...…...1,706
Federals released from under charges and forwarded to their regiments………………………………………………….……….1,586
Federals under sentence received…………………………..…….….365
Federals under sentence (terms expired) and returned to regiments……………………………………………………..……...273.
Citizen prisoners received…………………………………………………………….1,063
Citizen prisoners discharged and forwarded North………………………………………………………………..1,183
Prisoners of war received…………………………………….……17,117
Prisoners of war forwarded for exchange………………………………………………………......16,397
Rebel prisoners received……………………………………………………………..4,139
Rebel deserters released and sent North…………………………………………………….…….…....3,963
Total of all classed received………………..…………...………….24,981
Total of all classes forwarded and released…………….………..…29,914
The number of passes which have been issued and the number of persons who have subscribed to the oath of allegiance can hardly be estimated.
Capt. Brooke was appointed Provost-Marshal about the 15th day of June 1864. He has been assisted at different times by Capt. James S. Boyd, not in command of the Fifty-first Illinois Volunteer Infantry; Lieut. William H. Bracken, at present Assistant Provost Marshal General Department of the Cumberland; Capt. E. L. Anderson, Capt. H. H. Cushing, Capt. E. W. Metcalfe, and Capt. H. B. Austin. Until recently, Capt. Brooke has had charge of the military prison, which was a huge thing in itself. He as had in his employ a corps of clerks who have run the business in a straightforward and proper manner, as the citizens of this city and surrounding country can testify. Capt. Brooke is also the Post Treasurer, and the proceeds arising from taxes on saloons and liquor stores, licenses and fines have been quite large, as the above tables show.
It will be some time, notwithstanding the war seems to be rapidly approaching its end, before the services of Capt. Brooke can be dispensed with. Some reduction, however, in the number of help has been made, and will continue to be made until the abandonment of the office altogether.
THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.
A full description of this department would no doubt be of great interest, but I have only time to say that out of twenty odd hospitals, seventeen have been closed. The field hospital, including the garden, covers two hundred acres, and had miles of buildings and was built by Capt. Irvin. Everything connected with our hospitals have [sic] been complete. Our hospital trains runs to the battlefield; our wounded men were placed upon cots, and not remove therefrom, in many cases, until their full recovery. Glancing at Mr. Cornelius' (the government undertaker) cemetery books yesterday, I learn that since the Federal occupation of this city he has buried 13,631 Federal soldiers and government employees (1,000 of the latter) who have died from wounds or disease. He has also buried 8,000 rebel soldiers, and 10,000 contrabands and refugees. Mr. Cornelius had also interred at Murfreesboro and Stevenson 3,500 soldiers.
Our soldiers have all been decently and carefully interred, with the name of the deceased, number of regiment, &c. A new burial ground is being laid out to be divided into separate State yards for the honored dead. Friends wishing the remains of their dead boys sent home will experience no trouble, except the expense of disinterrment [sic] and transportation. During the war Mr. Cornelius has embalmed and sent home the bodies of 5,000 officers and soldiers. These are sad facts, and I do not care to dwell upon them.
THE TRANSFER BARRACKS.
The new Transfer Barracks must receive attention. It is situated in South Nashville, a few hundred yards off Fort Negley. Col. Foulk, of Pittsburgh, is the officer in charge, which is a sure guarantee that the institution will be run with credit. The barracks were built by that very efficient Quartermaster, Capt. Irvin. What is known as the executive quarters is separately enclosed and occupies twelve acres of ground. There is the executive building, 100 feet long by 42 wide, which accommodates the officers and men engaged in executive duties. In the same enclosure are two buildings for the day men, 230 feet long by 28 wide. These buildings are thoroughly equipped, having the sleeping apartments, offices, kitchens and dining halls, and will accommodate four hundred men.
The grounds containing the sick consists to twenty-eight acres enclosed with a six-foot fence, with a promenade near the top, with sentry boxes every few yards apart. There are upward of forty buildings in this collection, 200 feet in length, neatly built and whitewashed. The ventilation and water accommodations are complete. There is a hydrant of never failing water in front of each house, constructed on an ingenious plan, the invention and manufacture being Capt. Irvin's own. These barracks, on a squeeze, can accommodate 25,000 men.
The dining halls and kitchen of this institution is a model concern. The building is nearly three hundred feet long and eighty wide, with a kitchen in the centre [sic], and dining halls upon each side. Thirty-five hundred men can seat themselves at the table at one time. A railway runs through the centre [sic] of this vast "hotel" and a dinner can be cooked and put on the table in just half an hour.
The kitchen is the largest culinary establishment I have ever seen. All the cooking is done by steam. Yet there are fire-places under all the kettles, only for use in case of a detention of steam.
One of the most complete wash-rooms and bath-tubs one can well imagine is attached to the establishment. Four hundred men can wash themselves at one time; while the bath-tub has a capacity of affording thirty men facilities for swimming and bath tub at one time.
The water privileges are particularly nice. The water from the city reservoir is thrown into a main cistern thirty-two by eighteen feet, with a depth of eighteen feet. By means of an engine near by the water is sucked from the main cistern by a pump, which as the same time forces the water into three tanks elevated thirty feet above ground, and from which is it conveyed to all parts of the premises.
The grounds are in splendid order. A plank-walk runs in from of the buildings, and the streets in the inclosure are Macadamized [sic]. There is a parade ground in the centre [sic] of the lot, where one or more regiments can be put through a drill at the same time. There are no signs of disorder to be seen in the place. All the wood is sawed and split in one place and carried to the quarters every morning. There is also a commissary building attached to this establishment, and many other structures, in fact, of minor importance.
Soldiers going either North or South can be run right up to the grate [sic] of the barracks in the cars, as the railroads all pass within a few yards of the fence.
THE COMMISSARY DEPARTMENT.
This is one of the hugest concerns connected with the army; but makes less show and less noise than any other. Only think what an immense pile a million of rations would make; yet a million of rations, just one year ago, was only sufficient to last the army of Gen. Sherman four days. The army which fought its way to Atlanta was one hundred and then thousand strong. The garrisons at Nashville, Huntsville, Chattanooga and Knoxville, and at other important places, and stationed along our railroads, were forty thousand strong. Then comes the teamsters, and servants, and government employes [sic], making a small array of one hundred thousand men. Capts. Irvin and Crane, at one time, had over fifty thousand men in their employ. Altogether, this makes a quarter of a million of men, all of whom had to be fed. Therefore a stock of one million of rations lasted Gen. Sherman's army just four days. From the commencement of the Atlanta campaign, three millions of rations every twelve days were drawn from Nashville, and during the entire progress of the campaign, full rations including fresh beef, were twice a week given to the men. A few hours after the battle of Resaca, a train of thirty cars laden with commissary stores, plunged into town. During the battle of Kennesaw Mountain, a train of cars run down upon the field of action, and the locomotive of the construction train had its smoke-stack knocked out by a rebel shell. The commissary train run [sic] daily for three weeks up to within three-quarters of a mile of the rebel forts in front of Atlanta, while many shells intended for the train passed over. Before Sherman started on his Savannah campaign, he telegraphed to Col. Porter to sent to Atlanta two millions of marching rations as speedily as possible. The two millions of rations were unloaded at Atlanta in eight days. This department, however, like many others, has a falling off, and what I have related above are among the things that where.
THE ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT.
The Ordnance Department in this city was run by Lieut. Cliff Wharton. In the Summer [sic] of 1862 Capt. Townsend took charge, and has been in that position ever since. Last year, at this time, Capt. Townsend had 400 men engaged, but has already cut the number down to 125. During the Atlanta campaign twenty-nine millions of musket cartridges were issued, and three hundred thousand rounds of fixed artillery ammunition. The ordnance is partly stored in a huge magazine in South Nashville, and partly in seven buildings in this city. There were at one time three million hundred weight of fixed ammunition and powder stored in buildings right in the heart of the city. Not the slightest accident or loss has ever taken place. The rebel gun factory has been turned over to this department. Capt. Townsend has had 160 pieces of artillery captured in action turned over to him the past three years. The magazine is 230 feet long and 64 wide.
THE PAY DEPARTMENT.
The Pay Department is busily engaged paying off discharged soldiers. Major Holt has long been at the head of this department, and is a worthy officer.
THE ENGINEER DEPARTMENT.
The first engineering that was done in this section was performed by Capt. Morton, who was killed last Summer [sic] in front of Richmond. In the Fall of 1862, after the retrograde movement of Buell's army, for Negley was commenced, and shortly afterward finished according to its original plan. Capt. Morton also built Fort Andrew Johnson, upon Capitol Hill, and two stockade and cotton-bale works, called Forts Casino and Confiscation.
After the battle of Stone [sic] River, Capt. Morton accompanied Gen Rosecran's South [sic], and the Engineer's Department was turned over to Lieut. (Capt.) Geo. Burroughs, of Boston. He immediately made improvements in Fort Negley, which is, with one exception, the finest and most formidable work in Tennessee. It is situated a little more than one mile from the heart of the city, between the Nolensville and Franklin pikes, mounts fifteen guns and has a garrison of eight hundred men, and can accommodate a full regiment. This fort will remain undisturbed, and will, no doubt, be garrisoned for some time. It was named in honor of Gen. James S. Negley, who commanded the post of Nashville during the memorable blockade.
Fort Morton was commenced by Capt. Burroughs about two years ago, and is being finished by Capt. Barlow. It is a huge earth-work just to the right of Fort Negley, and between the Franklin and Granny White Pikes, and will, when completed, mount 18 guns, and sustain a garrison of six hundred men. It was named after Capt. St. Clair Morton, the eminent engineer and soldier. It is rapidly approaching completion, and will probably be held by a small garrison. It is built on the site of Fort Confiscation.
AN ORIGINAL COTTON-BALE WORK.
Fort Andrew Johnson was built in the fall of 1862, and commanded all the approaches from the north and northeest. It was a strong work, and mounted 12 guns. This work was built by Capt. Morton, and named in honor of our president, who was then military Governor of Tennessee. This fortification has been dismantled, and is being destroyed. A lunette called Fort Browning, after the President's able Private Secretary, has already ceased to exist.
Fort Houston, to the right of Fort Morton, was begun in the Spring [sic] of 1863. Capt. Burroughs, Willet and Barlow have all worked upon it. This elevation will merely be put in shape, as it is deemed unnecessary to build it according to the original plan. It is called fort Houston, after a prominent Union man of this city, upon whose ground it is built. It will mount 26 guns.
A fort at Hyde's Ferry, which commands our extreme right and built similar to Fort Morton; [it] will hold on to its garrison and fourteen guns for some time yet.
The expense of building these forts will, I believe, approximately half a million of dollars, contingent and otherwise. Somewhere in the neighborhood of $300,000 has been paid in cash by the engineer department.
Gen Tower, Inspector-General of the military district, is chief in charge of all the fortifications in this vicinity. Capt. Barlow is resident engineer, and Capitol Burroughs is finishing up old business, paying off old help, &c.
THE GOVERNMENT PRINTING-HOUSE.
This establishment deserves more that a passing notice. What is known as the Government Printing house, is in reality the old Methodist Book Concern, and is the completest printing-house in the South. Capt. Wills, of Gen Thomas' staff, took charge of this concern on the 1st of August 1864, and has, in a great measure, made it what it is. The capacity at present with the addition of two presses which do not belong to the establishment, is 85,000 impressions daily on job work. Since August 1st, the amount of work done is as follows:
Number of impressions…………………………………………………4,276,644
Number of quires of paper used…………………..……….………………80,000
Number of quires of blanks furnished…………………………………….179,968
Number of hands employed per month………………………………………………………….....…………….51
Cost to Government………………………………….……………….$26,280.44
The average per cent gained over Chicago, Cincinnati and Nashville, in all branches is 117.
During the above time there were manufactured 561 large, full-bound blank books, 104 volumes of general order, and an immense number of quarto and octave bound books, order files, &c., &c., together with some 26,000 quires of paper rules.
THE MILITARY RAILROAD SYSTEM.
I gave the Times a detailed sketch of the military railroad system last November, and will only say in this letter that this is by far the immensest [sic] concern of the war. There are over two miles and a half of buildings, containing the most improved machinery in the world. During the Atlanta campaign there were in use nearly 1,500 miles of rail, with a rolling stock consisting of 271 locomotives and 3,000 cars. Col. John C. Crane ran this establishment and employed 15,000 men, as mechanics, engineers, blacksmiths, conductors, brakemen, unskilled laborers, &c., &c. At that time, the expenses incident to the running of the military railroads in the Division of the Mississippi, including the purchase of material and the payments of employes, reached the astonishing sum of $2,200,000 a month. Three fourths of this huge expense has already been curtailed and over one half of the men have been discharged. There is a round-house connected with this establishment containing sixty stalls, and one hundred locomotives can be accommodated at one time. The water-tank is a durable structure, cut out of solid rock, 76 feet long, 26 feet long, 36 deep. The entire job was performed by colored men. The most prominent buildings are those of the locomotive, machine, car and blacksmiths' departments. Then there are iron and brass foundries, paint, upholstery and carpenter shops, a fine hospital and upward of three hundred lodging houses. There are also a number of store-houses, and a freight house nearly eighty hundred feet in length. The military still have charge of the roads running North [sic], but it is presumed that they will soon be turned over to the owners.
THE FOURTH CORPS.
This veteran body of heroes had a grand review a few days ago, which passed off with much éclat. It is almost 19,000 strong, and has a famous history. I have seen the Fourth Corps in seven great battles myself, and its proud history may be gleaned from my letters during the past three years. Gen. Stanley commands the corps, and its three divisions are respectively commanded by Gens. Wood, Kimball and Elliot. The following is the congratulatory order from the Commanding –General:
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND
General Orders No. 30.-The General commanding the department takes pride in conveying to the Fourth Army Corps of the expression of his admiration, excited by their brilliant and martial display at the review of yesterday.
As the battalions of your magnificent corps swept successively before the eye, the coldest heart must have warmed with interest in contemplation of those men, who have passed through the varied and shifting scenes of this great, modern tragedy; who have stemmed with unyielding breasts the rebel tide threatening to ingulph [sic] the land-marks of freedom; and who, bearing on their years of hardship. Suffering and privation, undergone in defense of freedom and the integrity of the Union, could still preserve the light step and wear the cheerful expression of youth.
Though your gay and broidered [sic] banners, wrought by dear hands far away, were all shred and war-worn, were they to blazoned on every stripe with words of glory-Shiloh, Spring Hill; Stone River, Chickamauga, Atlanta, Franklin, and Nashville and many other glorious names too numerous to be mentioned in an order like this.
By your prowess and fortitude you have ably done your part in restoring the golden boon of peace and order to your once distracted by now grateful country, and your commander is at length enabled to give you a season of well-earned rest.
But, soldiers while we exult at our victories let us not be forgetful of those brave, devoted heats which, pressing in advance throbbed their last amid the smoke and din of battle; nor withhold our sympathy for the afflicted wife child, and mother, consigned, far off at home, to lasting, cruel grief.
By command of Major-Gen. Thomas
Wm. D. Whipple, Assistant Adjutant-General
The Fourth is encamped four miles from the city, near the Harding Pike.
Benjamin C. Truman.
New York Times, June 2, 1865.
 During the Mexican-American War, Brigadier General Gideon Pillow ordered an earthen fortification built at the Mexican town of Camargo. It was constructed so that it faced U.S. forces and not the Mexican army, that is, completely backwards. The incident followed Pillow, giving him a warranted reputation for incompetence.
 As cited in PQCW. See also: Boston Daily Advertiser, June 8, 1861; Daily Cleveland Herald, June 5, 1861.
 As cited from the Charleston Mercury, June 15, 1863.
 Not identified.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214