July 1, 1861, Letter from Moses Joseph Nichols at Camp Trousdale to his grandmother Malinda Jared in Cookeville
July 1, 1861
I seat myself beneath the clamors of the drums and bugles to drop you a epistle [sic] full of confabulation. It is with gratitude that I am granted the great privilege of addressing one by dexterity whose integrity glitters before my imagination as bright as the most precious jewels, you have ever treated me with great respect and I will ever feel grateful towards to you for so excellent works. [sic]
Oh, but that I had mental ability sufficient to paraphrase my sincere thanks to one so great and kind I perhaps would have been a reckless character if it had not been for the expostulations of my beloved friends who have been instruments in keeping me from nefarious acts.
When I look back on my past life and meditate my opportunities of culture it makes tears run down from my glimmering eyes as they did from Nebuchanezzer [sic] in his sorrow, but then I have one consolation, that is I am permitted the glorious privilege of enjoying a bountiful share of good helth [sic]. John is in good helth [sic] and is now on drill today is my time [sic] to stand guard and I write your letter during my time to rest. There are fifty eight sick in the Hospital [sic] with the measles and many other cantageous [sic] diseases. One man died last Saturday in Numan's regiment, and they buried him yesterday in honor of war. I happened to be over there when the started with him [sic] I went to the burying (dis. [sic] 4 Ms. [sic] ) when we got there we found a camp ground surrounded with tombs. The Funeral was preached by a very able minister, who is the Chaplain of that regiment, the harbor under which the sermon was preached was about 50 yards from the grave of the warrior and during the sermon I (being tired) layed [sic] down to sleep and when I awoke I found myself alone, but ran up to the graveyard and they were just putting him in the grave, they covered the body slightly with dirt and then fired twenty four guns over the grave, which seemed to carry up honor to the God of battle. I would not like to be buried here if I were to die, but would want to be brought home.  I am peculiary [sic] anxious to see you all and wish you to visit us when Father & Mother come to see us, we are allowed 40 days during the year, and I will spend mine at home.
Mrs. West and her daughter are here on a visit, they say rain is needed in Cookeville.
With Love Yours Truly,
M. J. Nichols
to Malinda Jared
P.S. Father I will respond to your add [sic] soon. Write me soon, and with accuracy, Yours Truly, M. J. Nichols (Moses Joseph Nichols)
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, p. 120.
1, Memphis Vigilance Committee
Interesting from Cairo.
Our Cairo Correspondence.
Cairo, June 20, 1861.
Statement of a Unionist Who Was Arrested and Imprisoned in Memphis-The Hatred of the North at Memphis-Outrages Committed on Unionists-Arrest, Examination and Imprisonment of a Virginian-His treatment in Prison-The Remarks of a Chivalry Judge- as It is at Home-Escape from Jail and Journey to Cairo-Consternation of the Rebel General, &c.
There is no other section of the South in which a majority of the people entertain feelings of such bitter hostility to the North as in Memphis, Tenn. This has been manifested in innumerable instances, and has breathed forth in the countless outrages and indignities that have been heaped upon those known or supposed to be from the North. Many of these have found their way into the journals of the land, and served to stir still deeper the indignation and arouse the vengeance of the true men of the nation. To record each instance of outrage and abuse received at the hands of the Memphians by Northern men would fill the largest of our dailies, and hence only the most flagrant have met the eye of the general public. One such is the one I am about to record.
On the 26th day of March last, a young man, a native of Virginia and for many years a resident of Washington and Baltimore, the son of one of the most eminent clergymen in the country, arrived in Memphis The day is memorable as having been the one upon which the military of the city received a body of Mississippi troops en route for Pensacola, to reinforce the rebels at that point. Being but a few days subsequent to the vote for a Convention, when Memphis gave a majority of seven hundred against that proposition , it occasioned some surprise that in a city and State still in the Union by their own election, a body of men with a vowed intention of fighting against the Stars and Stripes should be received with military honors, the flag of the Union furled, and emblem of treason alone floating in the breeze. Being the first time the flag of the so-called "Confederate States" had been seen by the young man, and all his feelings being enlisted on behalf of the government, he naturally became indignant at the honorable reception accorded to traitors in a city enjoying the protection and blessings of the Union-an indignation which was not lessened by the vaporings of the imported traitors. Under such feeling he returned to the hotel , and addressed a letter, giving an account of the whole thing, to the New York Tribune, and signed it "A Virginian."
In a few weeks the letter was copied into the Memphis Avalanche, under the heading "A Traitor Among Us-Who is He?" denouncing the author in unmeasured terms, and threatening him with the most condign punishment if discovered. Upon the appearance of the letter in the Avalanche, the young man, whose sentiments were known to in favor of the Union, was charged by some South Carolinians at the house with being its author. Unable, however, to get an admission from this fact from him, and being firmly of the opinion that he was the author of it, they indulged in all manner of abuses of Virginia and Virginians, General Scott particularly, with a view of involving him an a personal difficulty, which succeeded only so far s to compel him to knock one of the chivalry down. It was soon evident they did not intend to let he matter rest here, and, lacking the manhood to resent it personally, they had resort to a most convenient intuition for gratification of their enmity as the "Vigilance Committee." Their aid was invoked, and the intimation that an abolitionist was the offender was sufficient to arouse all their vigilance, and impress upon them the enormity of the offence committed. The safety of the community demanded his immediate arrest. The behests of justice required his speedy execution as a warning to all others who dared express an honest opinion in opposition to the sentiment of the good people of Memphis. There was no security as long as such a dangerous and suspicious character was at large. Incalculable evils would follow in the train of his movements. Hence he must be deprived of his liberty, and the limits prescribed beyond which he could not go.
This was a matter about which there was but little difficulty, as all law had long since been trampled under foot and the city had give n up to this miscalled "Safety Committee."
Accordingly, at eleven o'clock P. M., April 25, a body of men, composed in part of police and members of the "Vigilance," waited upon him and requested to examine his effects. No objection was offered, and a minute examination was entered into. Everything was overhauled-beds, chimneys, trunks, carpets, his person-all were subjected to the strictest investigation, but noting was brought to light-nothing "contraband was found. Then came the questioning:-"Where are you from?" "When did you reach Memphis?" "What route did you come?" "Who do you know here?" "Where did your propose going from this point?" "Who are your correspondents?" and a thousand others. But the one most pertinaciously asked was, "Are you not a correspondent of the Tribune?" To all these questions straightforward replies were given, but to no purpose. "We believe you to be a damned abolitionist," was the very complimentary opinion which he was informed these gentlemen entertained of him. "You ought to be hung to the first lamppost," was the unanimous conclusion to which they had arrived; "and damn you!" said one, "we will hang you in the morning," was the consoling remark as they left, after locking him up in the station house.
In the morning an examination, as they call it, was held before the committee, in solemn conclave, one feature of which was, that the witnesses of accusers went before the committee, while he was kept in an adjourning room, and only admitted to hear the conclusions to which they had come, "in view of all the facts." Notwithstanding, however, this conclusion had been already reached they indulged in promises and threats to extort from him an acknowledgment that he was a correspondent of the Tribune-inn one breath informing him that his doing so would save his neck and a refusal be followed by hanging, and in another threatening, if convinced of his being guilty of this great crime, to hang him at once. Not having the least excuse for proceeding to such extremities (and they require the very slightest), they concluded to retain him until satisfied as to his object in visiting the South, although they pretended to be perfectly satisfied that it was to play the spy upon the Southern army.
He was accordingly thrown into prison. And such a prison. In all civilized countries the criminals confined for the highest crimes known to the law are treated with some degree of humanity. But in Memphis the mere suspicion of being a Northern man, of entertaining a feeling of regard for the Union, is sufficient to deprive him of all claim to the sympathy of that people and doom him to a fate as horrible as the mind of man can conceive of. He is thrown into a dark, damp, loathsome dungeon, abounding in filth, filled with vermin, destitute of every necessary convenience, and almost deprived of light. The poisonous atmosphere they inhale comes thought an aperture, eighteen by twenty inches, in an outside door, and the stench arising from the accumulated filth of years is itself sufficient to shorten the life of the most robust. Here they must remain, with a small allowance of corn bread and the smallest quantity of water for their daily sustenance. When to this is added the heat, with the thermometer at 90 degrees, the horrors of and imprisonment for the crime of being a lover of the Union, in Memphis, may be imagined, but not described.
The miseries of his imprisonment were not lessened by the daily accessions made to the numbers already there-all committed upon equally frivolous pretences.
About one week after his confinement the Recorder of the city, I. M. Dickenson, sent for him, for the purpose, as he stated, "of expressing his profound regret that it was not in his power to hang him." And from his seat in open court he denounced him as "a damned abolitionist, who should not be allowed to live an hour. Had I the power, "said the learned jurist, "I would cut your ears off and nail you to the doors of my court room, and probably I shall have this pleasure yet." This is a man who has just been elected Justice of the Fifth civil district of Memphis, one of the most important offices in the city.
He describes some of the outrages inflicted on Unionists in the following words:-
These indignities were of daily occurrence and to some they went further, and indulged every species of cruelty-shaving the heads and whipping being regarded as slight punishment by any one who desired to remove North. Nor is this all. In more than fifty instances during my confinement men were taken before the Vigilance Committee, and no one knows what became of them. They never came from that building alive and there are now more than that number confined there of whom their friends will ever know hear again. Their acts are all secret, and there is no concern felt for men charged with being tinctured with abolitionism; so that no one cares' and thus go on in their wholesale murdering with impunity. Will a day of reckoning ever come?
To show how completely the publics sentiment countenances and justifies these outrages, I need only cite an instance in which a woman called at the jail to see the show, and remarked that I "ought to be hung." "For what?" said I. "For coming here to raise our niggers to murder us all," was the reply. "Should a man be hung upon the mere suspicion that such is the object here?" said I. "Oh," said she, "if you were not guilty you would not be here." "But," said I, "no charge of this kind has been made against." "Well," she remarked, "you are an abolitionist, and that's just as bad." And another said she "would like to see the rope around my neck," a most amiable young lady, whom I recommend to some of the young rebels. Her name is Miss Lucy J. Graves.
In such pleasant pastimes as these I passed nearly two month, each day expecting to be hung, whenever an occasion arrived on which the hanging of an abolitionist would lend additional attraction to the festivities.
It would be impossible to recount the enormities witnessed by me in the God-forsaken city, perpetrated by men in the decline of life, of milled age, in early manhood and youth, in many instances receiving the countenance of women. They have all schooled themselves to believe that no crime, no cruelty, is too enormous to be perpetrated upon a man having Northern proclivities. The bloodhound avidity with which they are sought after, and the certainty with which they are convicted and punished, attest the feeling of bitter and relentless hatred with which they regard people of the North. Men in high social position will eagerly seize the "knout"-for it is nothing less-and lay open the backs of unoffending citizens, against whom suspicion has been directed. And those professing to be Christian will give their voice against unfortunates who are before them, for the crime of loving their and seeking to reach it.
On the 5th of June I made my escape from jail in a manner which it would be impolite to state, and, after remaining concealed until the morning of the 11th, left the city by way of the Charleston Railroad. But I was not yet safe. A long line of Southern "sacred soil" had to be traveled, and large bodies of rebel troops passed, many of whom knew me by sight. On the train with me were four or five generals of the rebel army, and two or three hundred soldiers. I seated myself in the midst of the generals, considering this the safest place, and in such proximity reached Grand Junction. Little did one of the imagine that the "damned abolitionists," whom he was so bitterly denouncing was seated beside him, and information he was communicating respecting the forces under his command was to one who would soon be in the presence of Generals McClelland and Prentiss. But so it was. I passed through Germantown, the largest encampment in Tennessee, Jackson, a small one, and Union City, which latter I inspected closely.
Between the latter point and Columbus, Kentucky, and about ten miles from the latter town, our train was suddenly stopped by the intelligence that a large body of Union troops were at Columbus, with ten pieces of artillery. A general consternation followed among the rebels, some forty of whose officers were on board, among them a quartermaster, with considerable money. It was amusing to see the effect produced by this intelligence upon these fire eaters. A moment since they evidently desired to see the "Northern Vandals," and were satisfied that "we could whip a thousand, and two put ten thousand to fight." "their backs should never be turned upon the invading foe," and many threats were made of the bold and daring deeds they were going to perform to the presence of the Yankees. But, lo! When the sight upon which they so much desired to feast their eyes could be indulged in by a few miles of further travel, they were induced in a few miles of further travel, they were suddenly reminded of their conspicuous uniforms, and the greater probability that pressing invitation would be extended them individually and collectively to spend the fall and winter North. The remembrance of past outrages towards those who dared avow a love of country came up to admonish them of a terrible retribution that would be visited upon them, as it was evident that for once they realized the enormity of their offence and the certainty of their punishment. The conductor was ordred back with his train, and all who desired to prosecute their journey were put out, bag and baggage, and compelled to walk to Columbus, leaving their effects upon the roadside. Not being troubled with a superabundance of "plunder" myself, I started off with my friend, who was, like myself, fleeing from injustice and wrong, in the hope of soon seeing the Stars and Stripes, and beneath its folds stout hearts and strong arms, ready and willing to protect us from the Southern barbarism.
With what alacrity I walked that ten miles may be imagined; and, though I dared not give expression to the exultant feelings which swelled within me, I could feel oblivious to fatigue, and my eye scanned most eagerly and anxiously the country before me, in the hope of catching a glimpse of the proud ensign of the republic. But I was doomed to disappointment. An old lady, God bless her! At whose house I stopped for a glass of water, informed me that the troops had retuned to Cairo, after carrying with them a secession rag. She was strong for the Union, and declared her opinion to be, that United States troops had a right to march upon any soil, when United States citizens needed protection, though that should be the "sacred soil of Kentucky."
She warned me to say nothing in Columbus that could attach suspicion to me as a Northern man, as "they have no regard there for men or women, but would hang me in a moment if they discovered that I was an abolitionist." Of course, her idea was followed, and "mum was the word" On the next morning, Friday, the 14th, we procured a skiff, rowed to the Missouri side, an walked the twenty miles from Columbus to Bird's Point, the first station of our troops, still afraid to speak, lest the prize we had been striving to attain should be snatched from our grasp even as we were about to clutch it. But if danger surrounded us we avoided it, and at six o'clock P. M. came in sight of our glorious flag.
To describe the feelings which took possession of us, as we felt assured that our "wanderings were o'er" and we were of a truth beneath the protection of the stars and Stripes is beyond the power of mortal man. Though worn out by long walking, hunger, loss of sleep and constant fear, we felt relieved of all, and ran until we were safe within the lines of our troops.
Here we were at last safe, in a land where we could not only feel, but express our deep devotion to the country, rejoice in her successes, and exult in the certainly that treason would be suppressed. Strong hands were outstretched in cordial welcome, and kind hearts once supplied our every want, and from all the terrors of the past we could turn to the stalwart soldiers around us, and feel how perfect was the security of the present. All were kind, but in our hearts there will ever live the embrace of the kindness and attention of Lieut. Warren, of Company I, Fourth regiment Missouri Volunteers. May Gold bless him, and the powers that be at Washington be brought to a proper appreciation of this gallant and accomplished officer. From the officer of the day, at Bird's Point, we procured a pass to Cairo, and we were soon within the lines of Camp Defiance.
A statement of what I had learned in regard to Southern military affairs was communicated to Generals McClleand and Prentis, and under the guidance of Mr. Ferrer, Chaplain of the Ninth Illinois Volunteers, we were seen at home in the St. Charles, and amid the enjoyments of the present almost forgot the dangers and privations of the past. We resigned ourselves to sleep, breathing a prayer of grateful thanks to God for having protected us amid so many perils and dangers, bring us safely from the land of Southern intolerance and liberty.
Looking back upon all I have suffered, and the cause of it, I cannot but ask, how long will our government allow such scenes to be enacted in Memphis, such enormities to be perpetrated, such outrages to be committed with impunity? Will it never extend the aegis of the protection over those yet in that benighted city who are compelled by the force of circumstances to remain, and in whose hearts there still rests love for the Union?
New York Herald, July 1, 1861. 
July 1, 1862, Expedition to Montgomery, Morgan County, Tennessee [see August 13, 1862, Skirmish at Huntsville, below]
1, Memphis Military Board of Claims Rules
The Board of Claims submits the following rules for the government of parties asking relief and contesting claims.
1. The party asking relief, must make a short succinct statement in writing, showing that the property is controversy, is in military possession, and all the facts relative to the subject matter of controversy must be clearly stated and the statement thus made, must be sworn to by the party prosecuting.
2. All the parties interested must be names in the petition, and must have notice of such prosecution.
3. The written statements of all parties will be heard.
4. Arguments, except a short statement of the parties will not be heard.
5. The Board will meet at 9 A.M. and 2 P.M.
6. Cases set for trial at a particular hour must be heard at the time, or they will be dismissed-without good reason can be show for continuance-and not again heard.
James R. Slack
Memphis Bulletin, July 4, 1862.
1, Federal military clampdown of the press in Memphis
The Memphis Avalanche under Ban.
The Avalanche of Wednesday contains the following, which explains itself:
Office Provost Marshal General,
Memphis, Tenn., July 1, 1862.
Messrs. Willis, Bingham & Co., Proprietors of the Memphis Avalanche:
You will suspend the further publication of your paper. The spirit of which it is conducted is regarded as both incendiary and treasonable, and its issue cannot be longer tolerated.
Memphis July 1, 1862.
The Advance can continue, by the withdrawal of the author of the obnoxious article under the caption of "Mischief Makers," and the editorial allusion to the same.
U. S. Grant, Maj. General
To our patrons-For reason apparent from the foregoing order, I withdraw from the editorial management of the Avalanche. Self-respect, and the spirit of true journalism, forbid any longer attempt to edit a paper. I approved and indorse the article in question. Prudence forbids my saying more, and duty less, to the public.
Macon Daily Telegraph, July 11, 1862.
July 1, 1863, Reconnaissance to Tullahoma on Lynchburg Road
No circumstantial reports filed.
HDQRS. TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Winchester July 10, 1863.
* * * *
July 1, Johnson's, and Davis' division were marched toward Tullahoma, by the main Tullahoma and Lynchburg road. Sheridan making a reconnaissance on the 1st of July, discovered that the enemy had evacuated the place. The enemy abandoned three large siege guns and about 1,000 bushels of corn-meal, which was properly cared and accounted for.
* * * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 467.
1, Occupation of Tullahoma by Union forces [Tullahoma Campaign]
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Tullahoma, July 1, 1863--7 p. m.
Brig. Gen. A. BAIRD: We occupy this place. The rear of rebels left this a. m. They are in full retreat, and reported very much disorganized. Notify Gen. Granger, and tell him to send all supplies this way, and to push repairs on railroad and telegraph lines. Notify operator at Wartrace to push ahead with telegraph line.
By order of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Tullahoma, July 1, 1863--7 p. m.
Maj. Gen. THOMAS L. CRITTENDEN:
The rebels are in disorderly retreat toward Winchester with their whole force. The general commanding directs you to send Gen. Wood to Hillsborough, and hold him there until further orders. He has changed the line of Gen. Palmer's march down the Sherrill's road to Hart's tan-yard, near Elk River. Gen. Palmer will forward a copy of his order to you. Open communication with Palmer, and make your headquarters at Hillsborough for the present.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 495.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Tullahoma, Tenn., July 1, 1863
(Via Murfreesborough, Tenn., July 2.) I telegraphed you Sunday's occupation of Shelbyville and Manchester, and Monday it rained hard all day, rendering the roads impassable. It was found impossible to move our artillery or to get our troops into position until this morning, when a general advance was ordered at daylight. Gen. Thomas yesterday made a reconnaissance on two roads and Gen. McCook on one road, reporting the enemy in force at this place, with the addition of Buckner's division, which arrived Monday evening. On advancing this morning, it was found that the enemy had fled in haste last night, much demoralized. Strong fortifications, a small quantity of stores, and three siege guns in our possession. They took the direction of Winchester. Thomas should be on their flank to-night, at Elk River. Sheridan and Brannan marched into town to-day at 11.30, taking a few prisoners.
W. S. ROSECRANS.
TULLAHOMA, TENN., July 2, 1863--4 p. m.
Telegraph lines reached here a few moments since. After seven days' movements, in unexampled rains, we have dislodged the enemy from his strongly entrenched positions at Shelbyville and this place, which we occupied yesterday at 11.30 a. m. Our columns pushed on in pursuit of Bragg's retreating army, and our advance overtook their rear guard near Elk River, but too late to save the bridges. The river, swollen to an unwonted height, is falling rapidly, while our columns are seeking, and will probably find, crossings, which will enable them to strike their retreating columns, already forced from the Pelham route across the mountains to the interior and more distant one by Decherd. Will advise you by mail as events occur.
W. S. ROSECRANS,
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 402-403.
HDQRS. TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Winchester July 10, 1863
* * * * *
Four companies of the Thirty-ninth Cavalry, all under Infantry and four companies of the Second Kentucky Cavalry, all under Col. T. J. Harrison, Thirty-ninth Indiana Volunteers, were on duty with Gen. Sheridan's advance, and were the first troops to enter Tullahoma. They drove the enemy's cavalry from the place and 6 miles beyond, toward Elk River.
* * * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 467.
1, Skirmish near Bethpage Bridge, Elk River
No circumstantial reports filed.
Brannan's, Negley's, and Sheridan's divisions entered Tullahoma, where the infantry arrived about noon. Negley's and Rousseau's divisions pushed on by Spring Creek and overtook the rear guard of the enemy late in the afternoon at Bethpage Bridge, 2 miles above the railroad crossing, where they had a sharp skirmish with the rebels occupying the heights on the south side of the river and commanding the bridge by artillery, which they had placed behind epaulements.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 408.
Report of Col. Thomas P. Nicholas, Second Kentucky Cavalry.
HDQRS. SECOND KENTUCKY CAVALRY, Camp, July 8, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the First Battalion Second Kentucky Cavalry, from the time it was detached at Manchester till the time of rejoining this brigade:
Having reported to Gen. Thomas, as ordered, it was directed to report to Gen. Beatty, commanding First Brigade, Second Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, at Hillsborough. Having reconnoitered the country around that place Monday morning, and heard of two rebel regiments of cavalry on Winchester road, marched in the evening, acting as advance guard for Gen. Beatty, to camp of Second Division at Bobo's Cross-Roads, having had a skirmish on the march, in which it lost 1 officer killed, 1 private slightly wounded, and 1 captured. Loss of the enemy (supposed to be Col. [James W.] Starnes and body guard) unknown.
* * * *
T. P. NICHOLAS, Col., Cmdg. Second Kentucky Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 569.
1, "I guess that on the whole there is as much sickness north as there is here." Frank M. Guernsey's letter to Fannie
July 1st, 1863
My Dear Fannie:
Your welcome letter came to hand yesterday. I had been looking for it for some time and was at last rewarded with success. I thought perhaps you were waiting until you got home before you wrote. I heard of you in the meantime however through Capt. Manning. He came up to me a short time after he got back and said he had seen my cousin. [sic] That Mrs. Ferris introduced you to him as such (with a sly wink) and that you blushed very muchly [sic]. He said also that he thought you a plaagy [sic] pretty girl. He was very badly smitten so if you are fond of conquest you have a subject on hand to deal with. I was sorry to learn that Sarah had been sick. I guess that on the whole there is as much sickness north as there is here. We lost two men last night and there is one more who is not expected to live. These are the only ones we have lost for some time. The sickly season is just coming on, the months of July and August are generally considered the worst months in the year on account of fevers.
We are getting a little impatient with affairs at Vicksburg. There is no doubt but Grant has got a shure [sic] thing on them but it takes so long to accomplish his ends. I tell you Fannie, this is a good place for a fellow to learn patience and to exercise it too, everything in this department is staked on the issue at Vicksburg if we are successful as we shall be in the end, the war will be virtually closed in the south west. We shall then probably have to go to Va. and try a little of our kind of argument with Genl. Lee. There are some troops in this department that dont [sic] know what the word retreat means. I dont [sic] know how it will be with the 32nd. I am rather anxious that we should have a chance to try our hands, but that will come quick enough after we are mounted. We shall probably get more fighting then than we want.
Fannie you seem to have strong faith that I am coming home at the end of the war safe and sound. I am glad you think so. It is not a good plan to look on the dark side of the picture and to borrow trouble where in fact there none exists. Your good advice and cheerful and patriotic letters are worth a mint of gold to any one, but to me they are beyond value so affectionate and so true, who would have thought that you, whose innocence is your strongest protection should possess such a little Spartain [sic] like heart, one to be loved oh? how deeply, I sometimes like to look ahead and build our castles which of course share the fate of all of their kind, but still it is a satisfaction when one has nothing else to do.
John Benton (Wagon Master) just brought me a nice ripe apple and told me to put it in my letter. I have followed instructions as near as possible. Peaches are very plenty this year and are just getting ripe. I wish you could come down and help eat them. I am afraid we have got more than we can manage.
1, First Day of the Nashville Union State Convention
State Union Convention.
In accordance with the call made in the public prints for a State Convention of the Union men of Tennessee, a large number of delegates met in the representatives Hall of the Capitol yesterday [1st] at 11 o'clock A. M.
On motion of Hon Horace Maynard, it was
Ordered, That the Secretaries prepare a list, headed by the oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States, and an oath to support the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, to which the several gentlemen present as members of the Convention be requested to affix their names, together with the counties they represent.
A committee, consisting of Messrs. R. Houston of Davidson, Geo. W. Bridges, of McMinn, and P. W. Maxey, of Davidson, was appointed to examine and report upon the list and credentials of those claiming seats.
A committee of five, consisting of Messrs. J. Hugh Smith, of Davidson; Wm. Campbell, of Roane; M. M. Brien, of Davidson, and Geo. J. Stubblefield, appointed for the purpose reported the following permanent officers of the Convention:
President. – Major Wm. B. Lewis, of Davidson,
On motion of Mr. Brownlow, a committee of three was appointed to ascertain and report the manner of voting in the Convention.
Mr. Houston, from the committee on credentials, reported the names of about two hundred dully accredited delegates in attendance from the following counties: Roane, Marshall, Sumner, Hamilton, Rutherford, McMinn, Marion, DeKalb, Hardin, Green, Jefferson, Hawkins, Cheatham, Anderson, Wilson, Lincoln, Fentress, Meigs, Bradley, Johnson, Williamson, Knox, Bledsoe, Blount, Morgan, Washington, Campbell, white, Maury, Sevier, Granger, Davidson, Montgomery, Smith, Bedford, Robertson, Sullivan, Monroe, Warren, and Wayne.
The report was concurred in.
On motion of Mr. Maynard it was resolved that the future sittings of the convention be from 9 A. M. to 6 P. M.
A committee on Federal Relations was appointed, consisting of the following gentlemen, to whom all resolutions and motions of a Federal character, are to be referred: Messrs. Brownlow, of Knox, Houston of Davidson, Fowler, of Davidson, Speare, of Marion, and Bosson of White.
Mr. Maynard submitted the following resolutions:
Resolved, That all presented laws, ordinances, resolutions, constitutional changes in the government of this State, since April 12 1861, are unauthorized, the work of usurpation, and, therefore, inoperative and void.
Resolved, That in view of such a vacuum in our past legislation, as well as the exigencies of the present condition of affairs in this State, it is a matter of vital importance to the welfare of the people, to elect a legislature, to meet at this Capitol on the 1st Monday in December next.
Resolved, that by the abdication of the late Governor of Tennessee, and of the other Executive officers, their respective offices would now be vacant, were they not filled by the military appointment of the President of the United States, an appointment which may be terminated at any time by the close of the war.
Resolved, that in view of such a contingency, and for the better preservation of the rights of the people, this Convention proceed fortheith to elect a Provisional Governor, to serve until a successor shall be elected and the people and qualified, which is recommended to be done at the next regular biennial election on the first Thursday in August next.
At the request of the Convention, Mr. Maynard read these resolutions and explained them briefly:
Dr. Brownlow followed to the same purpose.
The convention adopted the [sic] as the rule for the apportionment of votes, giving to every 5000 one vote, and fractions over, one vote.
Having thus fairly organized, the convention adjourned over till 9 o'clock this morning [2nd]. We presume it will adopt a platform, making a nomination for Governor and complete its work to-day.
Nashville Daily Press, July 2, 1863.
HDQRS., July 1, 1863--8.30 p. m.
MY DEAR GEN.: I have been thinking seriously of the condition of affairs with this army. I deeply regret to see Gen. Bragg in his present enfeebled state of health. If we have a fight, he is evidently unable either to examine and determine his line of battle or to take command on the field. What shall we do? What is best to be done to save this army and its honor? I think we ought to counsel together. Where is Buckner? The enemy evidently believes we are retreating, and will press us vigorously to-morrow. When can we meet? I would like Buckner to be present.
Very respectfully and truly, yours,
W. J. HARDEE, Lieut.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 623.
ca. 1 for the duration, U. S. N. patrols on the Tennessee River, Knoxville to Muscle Shoals, Alabama
No circumstantial reports filed.
* * * *
....four steamers were constructed in the quartermaster's dockyard at Bridgeport, under the direction of Capt. Arthur Edwards, assistant quartermaster, and which launched, placed at the disposal of the Navy Department, to be armed and equipped and manned as gun-boats, to patrol the Tennessee from the Muscle Shoals to Knoxville.
* * * *
OR, Ser. III, Vol. 4, p. 891.
ca. 1-ca. 31, Confederate conscript sweeps in West Tennessee
No circumstantial reports filed.
MEMPHIS, TENN., July 15, 1863.
Lieut. Col. JOHN A. RAWLINS, A. A. G., Dept. of the Tenn.:
* * * * *
The evident intention of the enemy is to occupy West Tennessee with cavalry, and conscript until they can raise force enough to threaten the railroad or the river posts.
* * * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 518.
July 1, 1864, "Street Sprinkling;" Provost Order, No. 143 [see June 25, 1864, "Street Sprinkling above.]
Gen. Miller has just issued an order explaining or modifying one previously published in relation to street sprinkling, which corresponds very nearly with our suggestions. The last orders says that "Provost Order No. 143, relating to the use of water for sprinkling the streets each day, neither of which shall extend beyond the time of half an hour and the use of the water to be confined to the front of the buildings whose occupants have procured the proper authority therefor."
Nashville Dispatch, July 1, 1864.
1, "Duties of the Supervisor of Banks."
The office of Supervisor of Banks, to which Gov. Johnson has appointed Gen. Sam Milligan, of Greeneville, was created by what is known as the "Bank Code," passed by the Legislature on the 6th of February, 1860, and the act provides that it shall be his duty "to examine and report, under oath, at least quarterly, the condition of every Bank in the State; showing in his report, under separate heads, the amount of coin, exchange bills, notes and other assets of said banks, as well as the amount of issues and entire liabilities of the same; such statement shall also show the solvent assets and band and doubtful debts, and other items necessary to explain the condition of the same, and also the name and residence of each of the stockholders in the same, together with the amount of stock owned by each of them in said Bank; it shall also show whether the capital stock of said Bank is paid, and any other fact and circumstance, to give the public correct knowledge of the Bank, which report shall be published by the Comptroller according to law." The officers of Banks are required to afford the Supervisor every [f]acilty for complying with is duties.
It is further enacted "that when any bank shall have suspended specie payment willfully or remains in that condition for a period of one hundred and twenty days, in any one year, it shall be the duty of the Supervisor fortheith to cause proceedings to be instituted in the Chancery Court of the district where the Bank is located, in the name of the State of Tennessee, against the Bank to have its assets subjected to the payment of its debts, and its charter declared to be forfeited: provided, however, that if the Governor shall be of opinion that it is for the public interest that such proceedings shall not be instituted, he may, in writing, so declare to the Supervisor and suspend all proceedings thereon, from time to time until the meeting of the Legislature."
The Supervisor "shall receive as compensation for the performance of his duties, the sum of three thousand dollars annually, to be paid him quarterly out of the treasury," and it is provided "that there shall be levied a pro rata tax upon the Banks in this State (except the Bank of Tennessee) which are subject to the provisions of this law, upon the 10th of January in each year, so as to make up the sum of three thousand dollars; which tax shall be assessed and collected by the Treasurer of the State, to pay the salary of the Supervisor, and if any bank shall fail to pay the tax so levied, it shall be the duty of the Treasurer fortheith to take steps to inforce [sic] its collection."
It is further enacted that whenever, in the opinion of the Supervisor, any bank in the State shall have violated its chartered powers, it shall be his duty to report the fact, with his reason therefor, to the Governor and Attorney General of the State, and if they concur with him in opinion, he shall fortheith cause proceedings to be instituted in the Chancery Court of the district where such bank is located, in the name of the State, to have its assets subjected to the payment of its debts, and its chartered declared forfeited: provided, that the right for appeal to the Supreme Court shall exist in favor of either party, notwithstanding any thing in this act."
This sixth section of the "Bank Code" provides "that no Bank in this State shall permit its issues, in actual circulation, to exceed the proportion of two for one of its specie funds, consisting of coin, notes of specie paying Banks and sight exchange. Nor shall any Bank issue two for one of specie funds if the same exceed, in the aggregate, two for one of actually paid capital. Each and every Bank shall own and have in its own vaults, for the protection of the note-holders, an amount of specie funds equal to one third of its entire liabilities, and in the event any Bank shall permit its coin and specie funds to fall below the proportion aforesaid, for the space of forth days, together, then all discounts by said Bank shall cease until said proportions are restored."
"And if any Banks shall suffer its coin, or coin and specie funds, to run below said proportions over seventy-five days in all, in any one year," it is made the duty of the Supervisor to proceed against the Bank."
The eleventh section of the "Bank Code" provides "that no Bank shall deal in uncurrent [sic] money, or pay out the notes of other Banks; and, when in a state of suspension, shall not take or receive more than one per cent. for exchange; and shall pay into the Treasury of the State one-half of one per cent on its capital stock for every month or fraction of a month whilst thus remaining ins suspension."
The act of January 31, 1861, provides that such Banks as have accepted and are doing business under the provision of the "Bank Code," are "permitted to suspend and remain in a state of suspension of specie payment until the 1st of July, 1862; and the provisions of the eleventh section of said act, requiring said Banks to pay into the treasury one-half of one per cent. per month, while remaining in suspension, be, and the same is hereby declared inoperative until the 1st of July, 1862; provided, than on and after the 1st July, 1862, the provisions of said section shall revive and continue in full force and effect."
The act of January 31, 1861, declares all of the sixth section of the "bank Code," "so far as said Banks are concerned, inoperative until the 1st July 1862, except so much of said section as requires that the issues of said Banks shall not exceed, in the aggregate, two dollars of circulation for one of actual paid in capital stock: provided, however, that from and after the 1st July, 1862, the whole of said section shall receive and continue in full force and effect."
That act of January 31, 1861, provided further "that it shall be the duty of any bank in this State, while in suspension, to make weekly reports to the Supervisor of Banks, of the amount of specie funds on hand, of the discounts and renewals of notes and bills, and amount of exchange sold, and it is hereby made the duty of the Supervisor to publish the same at least once a month for public information."
An act was passed on the 1st of July, 1861, in which it is provided "that so much of sec. 1 of an acted passed on the 31st of January, 1861, as fixes the time for the banks therein named to resume specie payment by the 1st of July, 1862, be and the same is hereby repealed "but this act was passed after the ratification of the "Military League" with the Confederate States, and is held by the authorities to be of no binding force.
We have thus recapitulated the principal points of the duties required of the Supervisor of Banks. Gen. Milligan we know to be a Gentleman every way qualified for the discharge of the delicate and responsible duties imposed upon him, and will not, therefore seek to take advantage of the anomalous state of affairs, to the prejudice of the few Banks in this State that have [maintained?] their existence intact.
The Planters and Union Banks, of this city, the Bank of Middle Tennessee at Lebanon, and the Shelbyville Bank are the only banks in operation in this State, we believe, thus accepted the provisions of the "Bank Code," We believe the Free Banks did not accept, and were not subjected to its provisions.
Nashville Dispatch, July 1, 1864.
1, Resisting the work of the Public Health Office in Memphis
"Communications from the people"
Memphis, Tenn., July 1st, 1864
Editor of the Bulletin:
The citizens of this city now, that the Health Office is established, have settled down to the conviction that they have nothing to do but stand by and looking on, thinking the Health Offices capable of renovating the city independent of outside assistance or aid and yet when the Health Department endeavors of itself to find out the location and persons who are guilty of committing nuisance, the citizens seek to hide the offender, and the matter is kept closed. Thus the very means that should be most active in the cleansing out and bringing to light these nuisances are perfectly inactive, and the Health Office is blamed for non-performance of duty, and the offender is found, and punished, it is then blamed for the vigorous measures used; and the labors of the Health Office is stunted [sic] at the very start. The police to discover the exact location of a nuisance are obliged to search a person's premises as though they were hunting some criminal, and if detected some person is blamed for reporting the case, thus encouraging the accumulation of filth, and as a natural consequence the increase of disease.
Person reporting a nuisance at the Health Office, after elaborating on the evil of having said nuisance was found, are sure to close their report, with an earnest injunction to the Health Commissioner, not to report their names, in connection with the nuisance, as if the idea was a stigma to their names and character, in the least, as a neighbor and citizen.
How it is the interest as well as the duty of ever citizen to keep his or her premises free from everything that would tend, in the least, to engender disease.
Orders have been repeatedly issued, and the Health department has worked well and faithful to bring the city up to a standard of cleanliness, and already, notwithstanding the warm weather at hand, the effects of the labor performed, may be seen in the decrease of the number of deaths of the citizens.
Yet. The citizens will manifest the disposition of "dog in the manger;" they won't remove the nuisance themselves, and seek to hide it from those who will.
This is the cause of the issuing of stringent orders which must and will be carried out to the very letter.
How every person is held responsible for the cleanliness of his premises, and the street or alley in front of his premises, and it should be his duty to see that not only his dwelling, but the street, alley and gutter were kept clean, and free from obstructions each day; for the latter is as essential to his health as the former. He should also have his outhouse well cleaned and limed; and were all in the habit of doing this they would not only add encouragement to the Health Department, and give it a new impetus, but would bring their city up to that standard of cleanliness so necessary to public health and prosperity.
W. Underwood, Health Commissioner
Memphis Bulletin, July 2, 1864.
1, News from Tennessee
The Chattanooga Gazette learns that Rev. W. McNutt, formerly pastor of the Baptist church at Cleveland, has been arrested by the military authorities, on account of rebel proclivities.
Two women were detected placing torpedoes on the track of the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad. They were allowed to take a few articles from their house, when it was fired.
The Misses Wade, daughters of a respectable citizen of Rutherford county, who went South on the arrival of Yankee troops some time ago, returned to Murfreesboro' the other day.
The Nashville market is well supplied with vegetables. Peas sell for 30 cents per peck, beets, 10 cents per bunch; onions ditto; fresh potatoes, $1.25 per peck; chickens, 35 to 50 cents each, and raspberries, 40 cents per quart.
The crops in Rutherford county are said to be quite fair….
Brigadier General Paine had nine bushwhackers shot on the public square in Lynchburg, Lincoln county, Tenn., and several in Fayetteville. Among the number was Brigadier General Massey, C. S. A., who superintended all the guerrilla operations in Middle Tennessee. Gen. Paine told the citizens that if they wanted to fight the Government, to go and join the rebel army under Joe Johnston. If they staid [sic] inside the Federal lines, they might think, feel, die secesh, but if they talked or acted treason he would make them houseless, homeless and lifeless….
July 1, 1865, Federal depredations in Cleveland
.... Cousin M. was telling us about letting a hot lid fall on a Yank's hand when he attempted to take some biscuits out of an oven, also about them attempting to search her when she had 3 gold watches & 4 thousand dollars belted around her & her taking out her pistol & daring them to touch her....
Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p. 298.
 L:ocated in northern Sumner county, near Mitchelville close to the Tennessee/Kentucky state line.
 This graphic information gives an excellent indication of the extent to which disease killed Tennesseans in camps of instruction before the war.
 Neither the letter to the Tribune or the Avalanche editorial referred are known to be extant.
 Reminiscent of the "festivities" of the guillotine in the French Revolution, or feeding the Christians to the lions.
 Madame La Farge.
 A whip with a lash of leather thongs twisted with wire; used for flogging prisoners
 GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN .
 Not referenced in the OR.
 Not referenced in the OR.
 Not found.
 Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee refers to this as "Bob's Crossroads."
 Milligan's designation as "General" was merely honorary. He was an old friend of Military Governor Andrew Johnson. In 1865 Johnson appointed Milligan to the State Supreme Court where he served until 1868. See Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 387, 428-429; 430, fn 3.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214