20, Memphis Provost Marshal orders city government officials to take the oath of allegiance
CITY COUNCIL, GENERAL SHERMAN AND COL. SLACK
HDQRS. U. S. Forces
Memphis, Tenn., June 20, 1862
Members of the Board of Aldermen, the Mayor, City Recorder, and all other persons discharging any official duty within the city of Memphis, and under the charter thereof, are required to come before the Provost Marshal and Take the oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States, within three days, or in default thereof will be regarded as sympathizing, aiding and abetting rebellion, and will be treated as only traitors deserve.
By order of: Jas. R. Slack, Col. Commanding
Memphis Union Appeal, July 23, 1862
20, Federals initiate counter attack on guerrilla uprising on Obion and Hatchie Rivers
HDQRS. CENTRAL DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Trenton, Tenn., July 20, 1862.
Capt. M. ROCHESTER, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Columbus, Ky.:
There appears to be a general uprising among the guerrillas along the Obion and Hatchie Rivers. The force that threatened Humboldt has been driven south toward Gordonsville, and Brig.-Gen. Logan has sent his forces after them. The force at Key Corners I have sent five companies of cavalry after, and the force 15 miles west of Troy I have sent three companies of cavalry after. None of the bands had rendezvoused over twenty-four hours before I was aware of their movements, and I immediately sent out my cavalry from all points with instructions to attack, no matter where found or in what force, knowing that quick movements and bold attacks is the most efficient method of breaking them up.
I informed Gen. Logan of the position of those south of us and ordered Col. Bryant to march on them. They fled the moment Col. Bryant moved, to escape Gen. Logan's forces. They report that band as a portion of Jackson's cavalry.
I telegraphed in relation to horseshoes. It is almost impossible for me to get along without them.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 107.
20, Skirmish at Battle Creek
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
20, Retreat of Federal forces from West Tennessee to Memphis due to drought [Orders No. 55]
ORDERS, No. 55. HDQRS., Memphis, Tenn., July 20, 1862.
In consequence of the total absence of water fit for man or beast at any point near Memphis, save in wells, which are barely adequate to supply the inhabitants, the two divisions under my command will be forced to camp in compact order in and around Fort Pickering, on the river bank, 2 miles south of Memphis.
The Fifth Division will march in the order prescribed early to-morrow into Memphis. On reaching the outer pickets, about 2 miles out, the wagon trains will be ordered to halt and clear the road, and each brigadier will march his brigade in good order straight to the west to Main street, one square east of the levee, then turn south down Main street to Fort Pickering. Gen. Smith's brigade will not enter the fort, but camp some 300 yards to its front or east.
Gen. Denver's and Col. McDowell's brigades will enter the fort, the former taking the south half and latter the north half of the ground inside the lines of unfinished trenches.
All the brigadiers after selecting the ground for their regiments will send an officer of each regiment back to conduct their train of wagons to camp. Gen. Hurlbut will also pass the column of halted wagons and leave his in like manner behind, to be sent for after the selection of camp, and will pursue the same line of march, viz.,: down Poplar street to Main, down Main to the fort and camp of Col. Woods' brigade to the right, and choose camp in the woods next below Col. Woods' brigade, near the river. The brigade and regimental quartermasters must remain with their trains, and when the infantry has passed them will, without further orders, follow the column until met by an officer of their respective colonels to conduct them to camp.
There is no use attempting to get water until the river is reached at Fort Pickering, where of course it is abundant in the Mississippi. Every effort should be made to make the march in the cool of the morning as far as possible.
Cavalry will remain and escort the wagon train into camp and then choose their own.
By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 109.
20, Expedition to Anderson County [see August 13, 1862, Skirmish at Huntsville, below]
20, Federal forces take the Second Presbyterian Church in Memphis
On last Sunday [the 20th] the military authorities took possession of, and held divine services in the Second Presbyterian Church....We understand they ensconced themselves in genuine military style; marching in amid strains of martial music, and 're-occupying' the unresisting pews; the musical department 'retaking' the choir gallery, and the preacher 'repossessing' the pulpit. After these recoveries, a hymn being adapted to a 'national tune,' was performed to the immense satisfaction of the Unions savers. The reverend Yankee divine, we learn, read a profound essay on good manners to his soldier auditors, upon two-thirds of whom our informant tells us, it produced a peculiarly soporific effect, which was only dispelled by the sounding of fife and pealing drum at the close of the services. None of our substantial [Confederate] citizens were present on this interesting occasion, and the respectable number of five forlorn, cadaverous looking females, evidently of the lower classes represented the Union feeling of the other sex!
Memphis Appeal, July 25, 1862.
20, Continued restoration of the Federal presence in Murfreesboro, one week after Forrest's raid
This morning the first thing I heard was many voices at once, & in finding out who they were, learned it was 9 Yankees that had come & ordered their breakfast. Only 7 seven remained, the other two thought it would be too long preparing, said if we didn't give them something to eat they would take every horse on the place. Pa was the only member of the family that went in where they were. They ate everything up, and the cook had to get a fresh supply. Most of the left without even thanking Pa for his kindness. Scarcely had they gone, when two more scamps said, they had orders to take every horse they saw. Pa & Ma went out [and] talked quite plain to them, said they should not have them until a written order was shown. One of them told Ma if she were a man he would whip her, but they did not get the horses. Quite a number were here before dinner, & 5 more took that meal here. 4 more came, 2 remaining at the ice house, & the other two came to the house. One little fellow had the bridle & was going to take him whether or not & when Pa pretended he had a guard here, he left in a hurry, made the remark on leaving they would have them yet even were they to have to get armed men to come with them. So Ma started up town after a guard, as the Provost Marshall said in the morning she might have one, but when she went said so many had applied for guards he could not furnish one, but if she would apply to the Col. of cavalry she could get one. Ma thinking Gen. Nelson might give her one, sent in her name, stated her business, & an officer was treating her very politely, just starting over after a guard, when old Ashburn slipped into the Gen.'s room, and I suppose he must have told the Gen. something, for he had him immediately recalled, sent Ma a very insulting message for she & Pa to go home & stay there, & not to show their faces any more, if they didn't want to be eaten out of house and home. Ma said she didn't care about their eating, for she had been feeding them all day. We didn't know what to do, but in a few moments a Yankee came out, enquired very particularly into the case, & sent Lt. H. H. Fisk to guard us accompanied by himself. Said they would stay tonight, didn't know whether or not they would stay longer. Bettie & I neither went into supper, I dislike very much to eat at the table with the Yankees.
Kate Carney Diary, July 20, 1862.
20,"I have had quite a job to get around with all the sick & wounded but did it all up before I stopped for a moment for rest." News of Murfreesboro from Surgeon William M. Eames letter home to his wife in Ohio
Union Coll. Hospital
July 20th 1862
It is 1 o'clock P.M.& I have just returned from dinner….I know you will be kind enough to read all my trash & pretend you like it so I am encouraged to try to scribble a little for you. I know you will be kind enough to read all my trash & pretend you like it so I am encouraged to try to write often in order to make up for lost time. I am here all alone today – Dr. F. having gone to Nashville yesterday for Med. Stores & try to get some letters. I have had quite a job to get around with all the sick & wounded but did it all up before I stopped a moment for rest.
There are several very bad wounds – but no very dangerous cases of sickness. The whole number of cases in [the] Hospital is about 100, there being only 116 in the whole. We sent off yesterday about 60 and 70, which thinned us out very considerably. Today they begin to come in again. Dr. M. C. Woodworth called today & left 9 sick & said he was sick & was going to try to get in to the Hospital if he could get anyone to take his place in the Reg. but the assistant is home & he is pretty much tied up.
Today Margaret & another colored woman have turned up after an absence of just a week. They all run [sic] off on the morning of the attack but three & one of them was wounded with a ball & could not run & the other two were women & were caught & taken home by their masters & one of them I have since learned was most unmercifully flogged. Margaret says she went out 10 miles & was kept hid. Her master came here from Ky. & wanted her but could not find her. Several other Slave [sic] owners were here but I did not pay them much attention. Had enough to attend to of my own affairs to keep any of the men around the Hospital from going after the rebel officers to get paroled [sic] as prisoners. [sic] John Morrison – one of the cooks – sneaked down town & came back with a cursed rebel parole. [sic] I told him it was the highth [sic] of meanness & that I should report him as having deserted to the enemy on purpose to be taken prisoner. All the rest of the boys are down on him & he really looks as tho' he had been sick. He came up and told me the next day that he would give a thousand dollars to undo what he had done & wanted to know what to do. I told him to do as before & if the rebels caught him again & hung him it would then be all right. [sic] I told them all that they had got to do duty as usual & run their own risk. [sic] I cant [sic] stand such infernal rascality – it is bad enough to think of the disgrace of the surrender by that miserable cowardly Lester.
But we are now safe from any further raids & Gen. Nelson is putting the rebels through on the double quick. Yesterday he issued a Proclamation ordering the citizens having U. S. property to bring it in to the Court House by today or they would be severely dealt with & you ought to see them skedaddle to the Court House with their traps. Stacks & piles of guns – cartridge boxes, pistols – cutlasses, officers ['] trunks – mess kits etc., etc. Gen.; N. keeps the Court House full of prisoners all the time & is constantly sending them off to Nashville for refusing to take the oath of allegiance. He has impressed teams of darkeys [sic] to do the work of hauling from where the cars stoop to town & disturbs the quiet of the town generally.
The only loss we have sustained is that of our team to draw wood & water & our payroll – which was made out & signed by all except. Gen. Crittenden and it was there for him to sign when he was gobbled up. I think Gen. C. must feel big over the affair to be hauled out of bed the second night of his stay here by a lot of dirty Texas Rangers and made to canter off to Dixie for his first [sic] after being made a Brigadier. I think I got of remarkably well. [sic] A Capt of the 3rd Min Reg staid with me last night who had just come in form the tram pt McMinnville - & had made his escape [sic]. He gave a very interesting account of his adventures & must have had some hair breadth escapes. Says he paid a man 60 doll's [sic] to pilot him in by way of Wartrace. He got a suit of butternut clothes & looked as tho' he was a secesh & talked so - & was mistaken for one when he arrived at Wartrace & found some difficulty in getting away. They would not believe that he was a U. S. officer in that rig. His name is Capt. Mills.
Barnes is nearly well now & the rest are getting well – myself included. Hav'nt [sic] got so as to smoke yet. Wish you would send my notice of appointment [sic] as Surgeon to 21st Reg in your next letter. Your will find it among some of the papers I left when I was at home last. It is a small affair but maybe the means of getting mileage from Orwell to Findlay. It is signed by Gov. Dennison or Buckingham. Send it as quick [sic] as possible [sic]. I may be ready to leave here in two weeks or a little more, tho' I have not heard a word whether the resignation is accepted. I fear that Col Norton's absence may make a difference but trust that it will be all right.
Yours as ever,
Wm. M. Eames
William Mark Eames Papers
20, "Don't Want Them."
It is extensively hoped in Nashville that the reported countermanding of the order by which the ill famed women of the town were deported, is without foundation. Without desiring to impose such a burden upon any other community, we would prefer that those women remain as far away as possible. Send them to Great Salt Lake city; they'd make admirable latter day saints, and old Brigham would shout gloriously at their conversion. It will require the largest fraction of a century to cure the evils they have inflicted on this community, and it can never be done if they are permitted to come back.
Nashville Daily Press, July 20, 1863.
20, Letter of thanks from a convalescent Confederate soldier in Chattanooga, W. H. Warren, to Mrs. Robert M. Hooke
July 20, 1863
Allow me to return my most grateful acknowledgements [sic] for the very excellent and delicious Dinner [sic] you sent me. It makes the heart truly glad while we are separated from home and friends to be thus kindly remembered.
If while writing this acknowledgement [sic] I fail to impress you with a sufficient appreciation of the very nice compliment, you may be assured in my heart I am truly thankful, and shall only await an opportunity to full appreciation.
Very truly your friend,
W. H. Warren
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 2, p. 101.
Within the past day or two, the following men have been captured and turned over to the Provost Marshal: Benj. Milem, citizen, said to have been instrumental in the capture of Miss Cushman, some time ago. He had also been trafficking with the Confederates; Martin [McBride], 1st Tenn. Battery, had been out of the service one year; belonged to State troops; sent to military prison. D.E. Tatem, 1st Kentucky Cavalry, a deserter from Bragg's army. J.W. Parker, 8th Confederate Cavalry, to be sent forward for exchange. G.W. Richardson, citizen, drunk, riotous, and threatening to shoot other citizens; sent to jail for one week. Chas. Willard, 1st East Tennessee, stealing watch and mistreating a negro woman; jail one week. Thos. Bell, charged with desertion, sent to his regimental commanders, with order for punishment. Eliza Kelly, an "old stager," secreting stolen goods; not yet investigated.
Nashville Daily Press, July 20, 1863.
20-21, Scouts from Memphis
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 685.
20, Billiards in Nashville
One of the institutions of the city, and in fact one of the handsomest billiard rooms in the country is kept by that clever gentleman Jo [sic] Loiseau, on Cedar street. He is now running thirteen tables, which are engaged nearly all the time, both day and night. Mr. Loiseau has lately secured the services of Frank Parker, of New York, one of the best billiard players in the country, as superintendent of his establishment. He has a world-wide reputation in the science, and amateurs will find it to their advantage to attend the saloon, and see with what ease he can make a run of several hundred points.
Nashville Daily Press, July 20 1864.
20, Skirmish in Blount County
No circumstantial reports filed.
20, U. S. Secretary of State William H. Seward modifies Major-General C. C. Washburn's General Orders, No. 23, relative to foreigners serving in the Memphis militia
WAR DEPARTMENT, July 20, 1864--3 p. m. (Received 22d.)
Maj.-Gen. WASHBURN, Memphis:
The following note has just been received by this Department from the Secretary of State. He says that foreigners refusing to perform military duty on the ground of alienage [sic] may be required to depart from your command, but cannot properly be subjected to arrest and punishment, the option being with them to stay and perform duty or to leave the country: DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, July 20, 1864.
Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War:
SIR: I suggest that General Orders, No. 23, issued by Maj.-Gen. Washburn, be modified, so that foreigners claiming exemption from the Memphis militia by reason of alienage [sic], instead of being arrested and punished, may be notified to leave the city of Memphis and the military district under command of Gen. Washburn within twenty-four hours after such notice is served-not to return within said command until the said order, as amended, is revoked or modified, or until further orders.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.
The modification of your order suggested by the Secretary of State will probably serve your purpose, and you will please, therefore, conform to his suggestion, in order to avoid difficulties with foreign governments. Please acknowledge the receipt of this instruction, and forward a copy of your modified order.
EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 184.
20, Thoughts on the war by a young woman in Cleveland
....It is reported that several thousand cavalry is [sic] to be encamped here, coming from the front. [sic]....The brass band belonging to the 2nd Ohio Heavy Artillery plays every evening at the Raught (Raht) [sic] House on the hill. I like to hear it, yet it makes me very, very sad. I hear it now playing in the distance. After Rhoda and I go to bed in our snug little domicile, we hear them beat the tattoo, after that dies way the sound of the bugle pierces our ears, when the last blast [is] heard all is still for the night, and we sink to rest with a heavy heart amid fortifications and cannon ready to deal deadly missiles among our hearts' idols who are banished and exiled from their homes....
Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p. 259.
20, Unhappy news for a Bolivar school girl
Another not a victory we have to record. A fight between Gens. Lee and Forrest and Gen. Smith. Another time were relatives and dear friends sacrificed by mismanagement on the part of our General[s]. Killed in Company E were Rob. Durrett, Capt. Statler and some others that I do not know. Sergt. Major Cleburn was also killed. Brother Frank escaped unhurt. [He] Was in a few feet of both Jimmie Statler and Rob. Durrett, where they fell. Kate is quite sick with chills.
Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress, July 20, 1864.
20, Influx of Refugees and Soldiers' Wives Triggers Problems in Nashville
Head-Quarters United Stated Forces
Nashville., Tenn., July 20, 1864
I do not know what to do for these poor people, wives of Soldiers. Here is one wife of a soldier of the 10th Tenn. With no home or shelter, apparently a good honest woman. What is to be done for them? Are we not obliged to quarter them on disloyal people? If you will designate some house in which this woman shall be provided with a room I will see her safe in her possession. I send her to you as a representative of a class being sorely puzzled to know what policy to adopt.
Yours very Truly,
Jno. F. Miller Brig Genl
PAJ, Vol. 7, p. 45.
20-25, Scout from Pulaski to Florence, Alabama
JULY 20-25, 1864.-Scout from Pulaski, Tenn., to Florence, Ala.
Report of Lieut. Col. George Spalding, Twelfth Tennessee Cavalry, commanding brigade.
HDQRS. SECOND BRIGADE, FOURTH DIV. CAVALRY, ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND,
Pulaski, Tenn., July 25, 1864.
I have the honor to submit the following report:
In accordance with orders from the general commanding I left camp with 500 men on the 20th instant at 1 p. m., and camped at Lawrenceburg that night. On the 21st instant I sent thirty men to Florence for the purpose of communicating with the squadron that I had sent out on the 18th instant. I also sent parties to Waynesborough, Henrysville, and up Buffalo Creek and Shoal Creek. One of the parties were fired upon by a party of guerrillas. My men attacked them, killing one. The others made their escape in the woods. One guerrilla that was captured and brought to camp I had shot in Lawrenceburg, and made the citizens bury the body. I then learned that there was a large number of rebels in Florence, and that they had attacked a squadron of my brigade. I marched for Florence, and reached it on the morning of the 23d. The rebels had all crossed the river. I sent some men down to the river to see if we could cross it. It was found unfordable, and I was compelled to allow them to cheer and yell, without being able to reach them. I found it exceedingly difficult to subsist my horses in the country. Sometimes I had to march twenty-four hours without forage.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEO. SPALDING, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 114.
20, President Andrew Johnson's assurances to military and civil authorities in Tennessee regarding the enforcement of the laws
EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Washington, D. C., July 20, 1865.
Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Nashville, Tenn.:
Governor Brownlow has been authorized to publish my dispatch as requested by you. I hope that you will have it understood that whatever amount of military force is necessary to sustain the civil authority and enforce the law will be furnished. This being made known to the public will exert a powerful influence throughout the State, and will perhaps prevent the necessity of any military interference. I am hard pressed here; every moment of my time is occupied. Accept assurances of my esteem.
EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Washington, D. C., July 20, 1865.
Hon. W. G. BROWNLOW, Nashville, Tenn.:
I hope and have no doubt you will see that the recent amendments to the constitution of the State as adopted by the people, and all laws passed by the last Legislature in pursuance thereof, are faithfully and fairly executed, and that all illegal voters in the approaching election be excluded from the polls, and that the election for Members of Congress be legally and fairly conducted. When and wherever it becomes necessary to employ force for the execution of the law and the protection of the ballot-box from violence and fraud you are authorized to call upon Maj.-Gen. Thomas for sufficient military force to sustain the civil authority of the State. I have read your recent address to the people of the State and think it well timed and hope it will do much good in reconciling the opposition to the amendment of the constitution and the laws passed by the last Legislature. The law must be executed and the civil authority sustained. In your efforts to do this, if necessary Gen. Thomas will afford sufficient military force. You are at liberty to make what use you think proper of this dispatch. Please furnish Gen. Thomas with a copy.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 1086.
 Pauline Cushman was an actress who feigned Confederate sympathies and acted as a spy for the Union cause, gaining information for Federal authorities about the Army of Tennessee prior to the Tullahoma Campaign. She was captured and was to be hanged by was rescued from prison in Shelbyville by Federal forces during the campaign. See: Walter T. Durham, Reluctant Partners: Nashville and the Union, July 1963, to June 30, 1863, (Nashville, TN: Tennessee Historical Society, 1987), pp. 32-33. See also: Francis Trevelyan Miller, ed. in chief, Robert L. Sanier, managing ed., Semi-Centennial Memorial, The Photographic History of the Civil War In Ten Volumes; Thousands of scenes photographed 1861-65, with Text by many Special Authorities, vol. 8, (NY: The Review of Reviews Co., 1911), p. 273. (Photograph on p. 273 also.) See also: Ferdinand L. S. Armiensto, Life of Pauline Cushman, the Celebrated Union Spy and Scout, (NY: United States Book Co., 186?), pp. 151-155, and; James D. Horan, Desperate Women (NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1952), pp. 118-119; and, Agatha Young, The Women and the Crisis: Women of the North In the Civil War, (NY: McDowell, Obolensky, 196?) pp. 234-244; and June 27, 1863, Action at and Capture of Shelbyville above. There is no reference to Benjamin Milem, civilian, apparently her rescuer, in the OR.
 All of the action associated with these scouts occurred in Mississippi, but the mission originated in Tennessee.
 There is no copy of this order in the OR.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214