July 12-13, 1861-1864
12, Edward Bradford, from Davidson County, writes to his mother from Camp Trousdale (camp of instruction), concerning camp life and treatment of deserters
We have the best drilled company in Camp Trousdale, do more work and have less sickness than any company in our Regiment. We have had two or three deaths here in the last few [days] but only one in our regiment. There was a man [who] died in the Perrie Guard last night. There has been two run away, but they caught one of them and drummed him out of the camp. They had one side of his head shaved and a pair of horns on him, his breeches rolled up to his knees, barefooted with his shoes in his hand, his budget on his back and a board across his back on which was marked ["]Deserter.["] He made tracks for Kentucky as soon as he was turned loose. It is rumored that about two regiments will be ordered from here to Cumberland Gap in a few days, but I don't think it will be ours as some of the companies have not drawn their arms yet. We have a great many ladies to visit us, but I think this is the last place in the world for ladies and I would advice all of connection of that sex to stay at home....
P.S. I send you in this five dollars. I want you to get me two Dark Calico Shirts with it and send them up by the first one that comes. The balance can do as your please with if there is any left.
Frederick Bradford Papers, TSL&A.
12, Sickness among Confederate troops in Jackson environs
A Mississippi regiment was marched down from Union City today and are camped near Jackson. They are suffering with typhoid. There has been a good many cases of measeles [sic], dysentry [sic], and typhoid among the volunteers at Union City….
Robert H. Cartmell Diary.
12, Troubles in Morgan, Scott and Fentress Counties; a letter to U. S. Senator Andrew Johnson
Monticello, Ky. 12th July 1861
Hon. Andrew Johnson, Sen. Tennessee
Knowing your position & the labors imposed on you it is with reluctance I now for the first time attempt to trouble you[.]
The emmergency [sic] of our Condition in Morgan, Scott & Fentress Counties with very precarious condition of East Tennessee generally impels me to call on you for some exertion on your part for our protection [.]
There are about 400 Secession Troop [sic] in Morgan & Fentress Counties [.] the first squad of 210 passed through Montgomery peaceably by the Flag that waved over you & Col. Trigg but on Tuesday last (the 9th) a second Squad passed through after having beaten & abused one of our peaceable & unoffending Citizens of Morgan to wit James Jones on account of his Union sentiments came on through Montgomery with their secession Flag halted opposite our Flag & one of their ensigns snatch it down while from three to four of the men stood with fixed [bayonets?] upon each man &child with their muskets in a ready position (our women were excited looking on as he started of with our flag when my wife sprang at him & the first motion took it from him.[.] he then waved his Southern flag over her & told her & all there that soon they should all bow to it-) I was not there but came home shortly afterwards[.]
Our folks would have followed them but for the fact that we had information that upwards of 200 hundred [sic] more would pass the next Wednesday the 10th[.] we determined if they insulted us to whip them [.] I was asked to go to Scott County & send men to Montgomery by 11 Oclock [sic] which I rode all night to do & sent over 100 &came on to Kentucky Wayne County to meet B. T. Staples & other[s] who started on the 26th of June to Cincinnattii [sic] to procure assistance if possible[.] the Reb [sic] foes of Morgan & Scott Counties found out [about] that mission North and have instructed the stationed rebels & those in Ky. To inter-cept [sic] all the passes & capture them a victory they shall be deprived of if possible [.]
My greatest object is inform the proper authority they are rushing all the forces they can into the Western portion of East Tenn. & all along the line of Kentucky to prevent or deprives us of all possible assistance in the way of arms or men & coerse [sic] us into submission before the August election [.]
All of which I have been and am contending against with scarcely any ammunition or other hopeful means of success and at the same time to prevent the captures of Staples Hall & Duncan & for the restoration of our Government – knowing that they have sworn I shall not live but I hope I will yet be able so see them disappointed[.]
I think if Hon. Maynard was instructed he would give us the news by express if no other way. I would have no hope of getting any thing through the mail from your or Sect. Cameron. [sic]
In haste your Obt. Servant,
G. W. Keith
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 4, pp., 560-561.
12, Reduction, not suspension, of Memphis city school budget
Public Schools.—We learn from the secretary of the board of visitors that the board is now organized and propose to open the schools at the usual time in September next. They will reduce the expenses of the schools for the year about $1200. They intend to reduce the number of teachers and school houses and the amount of salaries. The salary of the superintendent will be reduced from $2500 to $1200 a year. There will be one senior teacher at $800; the junior and primary teachers will be paid $750 each per annum. In city scrip, this will be a very moderate salary.
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 12, 1861.
13, Governor Harris makes recommendations to Jefferson Davis relative to appointing generals with proper political credentials
NASHVILLE, July 13, 1861.
His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, Richmond, Va.:
I approve the appointments of Pillow, Anderson, and Donelson, but they are all Democrats. Though not consulted, I shall be held responsible here for your appointments in the State. I therefore venture to express the hope that you will appoint the other generals heretofore appointed by me: F. K. Zollicoffer, William R. Caswell, B. F. Cheatham, Robert C. Foster, third, and John L. T. Sneed, all good and competent men, and all Whigs except Cheatham. It is a political necessity, as well as strict justice, that the Whig element be fully recognized. We will have twenty-five infantry regiments. Answer.
ISHAM G. HARRIS.
OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, pp. 474-475.
13, Commander of 13th Regiment of Tennessee Volunteers urges Jefferson Davis to appointment of Gideon J. Pillow Commander of the Army of Tennessee
MEMPHIS, TENN., July 13, 1861.
His Excellency JEFFERSON DAVIS, President Confederate States of America:
DEAR SIR: A service of six years in the House of Representatives of the United States, while you were serving the country with great honor and distinction as Secretary of War and as a Senator from the State of Mississippi, agreeing with you mainly in the line of action which marked your course, and at this time in command of a regiment of Tennessee Volunteers, justify me in addressing you a few words on a subject, as I conceive, of great importance to the Army of Tennessee and to the South. We have in the field in Tennessee an army of 25,000 men, with arms, ammunition, &c., sufficient to do service for many months, the efficiency and strength of which is mainly owing to the energy, skill, and military talents of Maj. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, who has not only given his personal services constantly and unremittingly to the cause, but has contributed to the amount of many thousands from his private means to place our army in its present proud and honorable position. These services are neither unknown nor unappreciated by the people for whose protection they have been most freely rendered. The gallant men who have rallied to the standard of the South under his command in the army, and the people who have felt his protection, have heard with pain that he has recently been deprived of the high position he has heretofore occupied in command, and his arm rendered powerless for further service by placing him in so inferior a position that he will be outranked by those who have formerly been under his command. Without desiring in any manner to depreciate the merits of others, I believe there is no voice in Tennessee which does not speak for justice in behalf of the merits of Gen. Pillow. I know that you have not desired to do him any injustice, and it is only because you have been occupied constantly by exciting and vital questions more immediately demanding your attention that you have failed to assign to Gen. Pillow a position equal to his merits, his services, and his military capacity. I am sure that the gallant men in the Army of Tennessee everywhere would hail with delight the news that they were to be continued with their commander. In view of the above suggestions, and being apprehensive of disastrous effects on the troops of Tennessee in consequence of what they conceive to be injustice to their general, I suggest to Your Excellency the propriety of appointing Gen. Pillow a general officer in the regular Army of the Confederate States. This position would relieve him from the embarrassment of being ranked by almost every other general officer, and though Gen. Pillow would not desire to remain in military service after the conclusion of the war, there could be no objection to this course. If this could not be done, could not he be appointed a major-general in the Provisional Army, with orders to take such force as is necessary to the relief of Missouri? I am satisfied that in this position his services would be invaluable to the country. I have ventured to make these suggestions to you relative to Gen. Pillow with no other view than to advance the interest of our common South, and to do justice to the feelings and meritorious service of a gallant officer. I feel sure that Gen. Pillow will serve in any capacity which may fall to his lot, even should he be compelled to go into the ranks, impressed most sensibly as he is with the perils which threaten the country.
Trusting that Your Excellency after calm reflection may find it consistent with your duty to the country and to Gen. Pillow to comply with suggestions here made, I remain, respectfully, your obedient servant,
JNO. V. WRIGHT, Col., Cmdg. Thirteenth Regt. [sic] Tennessee Volunteers.
OR, Ser. I. Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 119-120.
13, The Comet.
The Comet.-This strange body which appeared so suddenly in the evening sky, is rapidly hastening from sight. A week ago his tail extended from near the horizon to the constellation of Ursa, in the zenith; now it is of small dimensions and diminished brilliancy. The new moon willow, in another night or two, hide it by its superior light Since the comet first became visible near the head of Urea Major, it has traveled with such rapidity that to-night it will be near the last star in the tail of that extensive constellation. It is noticeable, that while the tail has so rapidly decreased in size the head or nucleus has not diminished in the same proportion. The shortening of the tail may therefore, to some extent, be owing to chance of position. The various newspaper accounts we have seen of it, all mention the appearance of the comet as being very sudden. The tail is collimated by different observers at from seventy to eighty degrees in length. A corresponded in the Philadelphia Press accounts for the sudden appearance by supposing that it had been setting about the same time as the sun, its motion having eastward at length as the sun, its motion being eastward its motion being eastward at length brought it into a position where the sun set first, then of course, it became visible. On the first night it was seen in Memphis, however, it was so far to the north that it did not set at all, but the to or three nights pervious to its appearance were cloudy, and it may have been hidden from sight. It was first seen here on the night of the 1st of this month. It was seen at Edgefield, near Nashville, Tennessee, and Indianapolis, Indiana, on the night of June 30; at Columbus, Ohio it was seen on the night of the 29th. The earlier appearance was, of course, the consequence of a less cloudy sky. With ourselves the accounts usually express the opinion that this is the comet of Charles V. Astronomers, by calculation on such data as the accounts of the former appearance of that comet in 1836 furnished, had appearance of that comet in 1856, had predicted its appearance in 1818, but announced that the perturbations might have been caused in its motion, which would delay its appearance beyond that period: such has proved to be the case. It is not improbable that this comet is the same whose appearance is recorded by Chinese observers to have taken place in A. D. 104, 395, and 975; the Chinese also have accounts of the appearance in 1261 of probably the same comet. Historians have mentioned the same appearance.
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 13, 1861. 
13, An Identical Musket
Strange, Very.-The Nashville Banner, of the 10th inst. Says:
We were told a few days since that at Camp Trousdale, in drawing arms, a soldier received the identical musket which he bore through the Mexican war, bearing his name, which he inscribed upon when he was then in the service of his country.
Daily Picayune, July 13, 1861. 
12, Special Orders No. 130 issued, taxing planters to indemnify U. S. Army for losses sustained on June 30 skirmish at Morning [a. k. a "Rising"] Sun
SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 130. HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Moscow, Tenn., July 12, 1862.
Col. McDowell, commanding the Second Brigade, will march with the effective strength of his command early to-morrow morning to Rising Sun, Tenn. He will take post at the point where the attack was made by rebel cavalry, supposed to be under the command of Col. Jackson, of the so-called Confederate Army, on the division train about July 1 [June 30, see above]. He will there levy on the planters in the vicinity for a sufficient number of horses, mules, wagons, &c., to entirely cover the losses sustained by the United States Government in the above-mentioned attack.
An agent of the quartermaster's department will accompany Col. McDowell, and will receive the property and give receipts, stating that it was taken to compensate the United States for losses sustained from the attacks of guerrillas, and in pursuance of General Orders, No. 60, July 3, 1862, of Maj.-Gen. Grant.
Col. Mungen, of the Fifty-seventh Ohio, will send an officer to accompany the expedition, who will point out the road and the position of the trains when the attack was made.
By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 96.
12, Slave woman jumps from window
A negro woman belonging to Mr. Tobin, on Main street, jumped Saturday night, from a window forty-seven feet from the ground, and broke her leg. Dr. Laski was called in, and reported the woman likely to recover.
Memphis Daily Union, July 15. 1862
12, Letter of John A. Ritter, 49th Indiana Volunteers
July 12, 1862 from Camp Cotrell, Tenn.
Camp Cotrell Ten [sic]
July 12 62
Dear Margarett [sic]
I set down this pleasant morning to write you a few lines. I am well. I Recd yours of the 2nd of July. The mails have been verry [sic] iregular [sic] since we left the Ford so much so that we have been for near a week at a time with out any mail. It is expected that the mails will be regular in a short time. The mail is to be carried daily from Crab Orchard to Barberville [sic] in hacks. The amount of mail is so great that it cannot be carried on horse back. A large amount is left at the different post offices. A gentleman told me that he was in the post office at London & that there was at least fifteen Bushels of mail in that office awaiting transportation. We have just been paid off from an other two months [service?] for March & April. There is due us two months more May & June. The drunken paymaster will be a long time before he get arround [sic] a gain probably two months longer. I understand that he is ordered to Washington. I hope to be disciss [sic] from service.
I send you $200.00 dollars if you want any thing spend the money freely for it. I think if I was you and had as much money as you have got I would get me a good sewing machine one that would not get out of Fix. I think singers the best and I would have it warrented [sic] by responsible partys.[sic] These are only sugestions [sic]. Act acording [sic] to your own Judgment. I had a fellow call on me yesterday claiming me as his son. His name was William Ritter. He had a son that emigrated to Ind[iana] about thirty years ago hearing that there was a Ritter in an Ind[iana] Reg[iment] he concluded that it was his son but he was mistaken. The fellow was green but that is nothing uncommon in this country. It is astonishing the amount of Ignorance that there is in this Country. The natives seam friendly but I expect that it is the power of uncle Sam that Keeps them as Loyal as they are. A sesesh will not do to trust ____? _____? When we were at Big Creek Gap A Teneseean [sic] went to his home from the Army. The sesesh [sic] neighbors called on him and implored his protection that they had done but little and was forced to take sides with the south and that they had not done any thing in the way of actual hostily [sic] to the govement [sic] only express their simpathy [sic] for the south and as soon as our army moved a way to ward the gap these same fellows were making arangements [sic] to have the man arrested for Treason to the southern confederacy. I am tired of [handling?] such men so easy. We had twenty five prisners [sic] that were to be sent to Lexington. One company from our Reg[iment] was detailed to take them. They spoke to me about it. There was to be aroun [sic] ten days Rations for the trip. I told them that it would not take ten days rations to do me that I Knew that the prisners [sic] would all try to get a way and that I would [____?] them before I was out two day and that they would all be shot in the back so they concluded that they would not send me. I spoke this in a joke but I believe that they thought that I would Kill the last one of them. I did not want to go. It would have been a long hard march.
Liut [sic] Charles has not yet Returned to the Reg[iment] Liut [sic] Faucett is [recovering?]. He is not very stout yet he does most of the buisness in the quarters which is verry [sic] considerable. No one that never had the experience the amount of buisness [sic] that there is connection with the Army it would take a good clerk to Keep up the buisness [sic]. I send per Liut [sic] Thms Barr $1166.00 to be express to John B Buskirk Orangefille Care of Nugent & [vestal?] Orleans. This money belongs to the men of my company. I also sent 80.00 Campbellsburg & 40.00 to [______?] making 1280.00. There is not much over half of my company present. They are scatterd [sic] at Lexington & at their homes. I have orders to Report all that are at home on sick furloughs as deserters. We think it hard often that we cannot be Furloughs but when we see how the system is abused it is no wonder men get furloughs and get home and never come back. There are men at work on their farmes [sic] etc. all that are at home had better begin to brake out or they will get in to trouble by some men inosent [sic] & good men have to suffer but this is the way the world goes. I must close hope you will be of good cheer.
Yours as ever
John A Ritter
12, Expulsion order in Memphis
Memphis, July 12.- General Grant has issued an order requiring the families of all persons connected with the Confederate army, or Rebel Government, to leave the city in five days, or take an oath that they have not and will not furnish information to the enemy. This sweeping order has been madein consequence of the constant communication between persons and the Rebel army and their friend here. The order has caused considerable excitement..
Philadelphia Inquirer, July 12, 1862.
13, Action at and surrender of Murfreesborough
No. 1.-Maj. Gen. D. C. Buell, U. S. Army, commanding Army of the Ohio, including General Orders, No. 32.
No. 2.-Brig. Gen. T. T. Crittenden, U. S. Army, commanding at Murfreesborough.
No. 3.-Findings of a Court of Inquiry.
No. 4.-Maj. James J. Seibert, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry.
No. 5.-Capt. John M. Hewett, Battery B, Kentucky Light Artillery.
No. 6.-Col. John C. Walker, Thirty-fifth Indiana Infantry.
No. 7.-Col. William W. Duffield, Ninth Michigan Infantry.
No. 8.-Lieut. Col. John G. Parkhurst, Ninth Michigan Infantry.
No. 9.-Col. Henry C. Lester, Third Minnesota Infantry.
No. 10--Col. John F. Miller, Twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry,
commanding at Nashville.
No. 11--Maj. Gen. J. P. McCown, C. S. Army.
No. 12--Brig. Gen. N. B. Forrest, C. S. Army.
Reports of Maj. Gen. D. C. Buell, U. S. Army, commanding Army of the Ohio, Including General Orders, No. 32.
HUNTSVILLE, ALA., July 15, 1862.
My information, up to the night of the 13th, from Murfreesborough was that the Ninth Michigan had been captured, but that Col. Lester's regiment and Hewett's battery were doing well, and felt confident of being able to hold out. Re-enforcement were being started from Nashville. It appears that before they arrived Col. Lester surrendered, at 4 p. m. the same day. I have no particulars, and at present no remarks to make upon what appears to be a most disgraceful affair. Of course it may embarrass me considerably. I have been busy to counteract it. The word is the interception of the Chattanooga road, which was just completed. I had taken the precaution to place some twelve regiments on that route until it should be securely established. We will go to work again.
D. C. BUELL, Maj.-Gen.
HUNTSVILLE, ALA., July 19, 1862.
As nearly as I can ascertain the force captured at Murfreesborough on the 13th consisted of nine companies of the Third Minnesota, under Col. Lester; six companies of the Ninth Michigan, four companies of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, three companies of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, and two sections of Hewett's Kentucky battery. All except Col. Lester's regiment and the artillery, including Col. Duffield and Gen. T. T. Crittenden, seem to have been completely surprised in the town and captured without time or opportunity for resistance. The case of the rest of the command was but little better. They maintained their position until 4 o'clock and then surrendered. I had concentrated a larger force at that point to occupy McMinnville, but a considerable portion of it had been sent away a day or two before to Kentucky to meet the difficulties there. I regard the whole affair as most disgraceful and demanding prompt and vigorous treatment. It has also caused serious delay in the means of supplying the army so that it can move on the Decatur route. The difficulty has been increased by damages to bridges by swollen streams. Every effort is being made to remove these difficulties and I hope to have the Murfreesborough road repaired and in working order in a very few days. It is not my habit to plead difficulties or represent them even; but it is important that they should be somewhat understood, lest impossible expectations should be formed, and the opinion taken up that this army is idle and has nothing to do but march rapidly along the road. Our lines of supply are very long and difficult to protect; for, without ascribing hostility to the mass of the people, there is still enough of hostile and bad element to involve us in all the difficulties of operating in an enemy's country.
D. C. BUELL, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
Maj.-Gen. HALLECK, or ADJUTANT-GEN. U. S. ARMY.
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 32. HDQRS. ARMY OF THE OHIO, In Camp, Huntsville, Ala., July 21, 1862.
On the 13th instant the force at Murfreesborough, under command of Brig. Gen. T. T. Crittenden, late colonel of the Sixth Indiana Regiment, and consisting of six companies of the Ninth Michigan, nine companies of the Third Minnesota, two sections of Hewett's (Kentucky) battery, four companies of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, and three companies of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, was captured at that place by a force of the enemy's cavalry variously estimated at from 1,800 to 3,500. Its appears from the best information that can be obtained that Brig.-Gen. Crittenden, and Col. Duffield, of the Ninth Michigan, with six companies of that regiment and all of the cavalry, were surprised and captured early in the morning in the houses and streets of the town or in their camp near by, with but slight resistance and without any timely warning of the presence of an enemy. The rest of the force, consisting of the Third Minnesota and the artillery, under Col. Lester, left its camp and took another position, which it maintained with but few casualties against the feeble attacks of the enemy until about 3 o'clock, when it was surrendered and marched into captivity.
Take it in all its features, few more disgraceful examples of neglect of duty and lack of good conduct can be found in the history of wars. It fully merits the extreme penalty which the law provided for such misconduct. The force was more than sufficient to repel the attack effectually. The mortification which the army will the feel at the result is poorly compensated by the exertion made by some- perhaps many- of the officers to retrieve the disgrace of the surprise. The action fit to be adopted with reference to those who are blamable, especially the officers highest in command, cannot be determined without further investigation.
In contrast to this shameful affair the general commanding takes pleasure in making honorable mention of the conduct of a detachment of 22 men of Companies I and H, Tenth Wisconsin Regiment, under the command of Sergts. W. Nelson and A. H. Makinson. The detachment was on duty guarding a bridge east of Huntsville, when it was attacked on April 28 by a force of some 200 or 300 cavalry, which it fought for two hours and repulsed in the most signal manner. Such is the conduct that duty and honor demand of every soldier; and this example is worthy of imitation by higher officers and larger commands.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Buell:
JAMES B. FRY, Col. and Chief of Staff.
Report of Brig. Gen. T. T. Crittenden, U. S. Army, commanding at Murfreesborough.
I submit the following report of the affair of July 13, 1862, at Murfreesborough, Tenn.:
While at Athens, Ala., I received the special order of Maj.-Gen. Buell assigning me to the command of the post of Murfreesborough, and went there as speedily as possible. I arrived there on the same train with Col. Duffield, of the Ninth Michigan, on July 11. The next day I assumed command of the post and Col. Duffield of the Twenty-third Brigade. Having no instructions, and knowing nothing of the affairs at the post, I had several interviews with Col. [Henry C.] Lester [Third Minnesota], then in command, and from his statements, made both to myself and Col. Duffield, it was evident that he apprehended no danger. He stated that the only points from which the enemy could approach were McMinnville and Lebanon, that there was no force between Chattanooga and Murfreesborough, and that Morgan's force was far beyond Lebanon, en route for Kentucky.
Col. Lester had separated his forces on or about June 23, 1862, leaving five companies of the Ninth Michigan and about 80 men of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry at the old camp, and removing the Third Minnesota Regt. [sic] and Hewett's First Kentucky Battery (four guns) about 1 1/4 miles northeast of the former camp. This was the whole force there on July 13, except one company Ninth Michigan posted in the court-house as provost-guard, altogether numbering about 950 effective men.
I appointed Lieut. [Henry M.] Duffield, Ninth Michigan, acting assistant adjutant-general, Lieut. C. H. Blakey, who had been previously acting, having left for Minnesota on recruiting service on July 12.
Lieut. Duffield, under my orders, proceeded at once to prepare a morning report, but did not complete it that day.
I then went with Col. Duffield to look for a proper camp for the whole force, as I would not permit it to remain separated. I found the water, the scarcity of which Col. Lester assigned as the reason for such division, abundant to supply 5,000 men and a good camp ground within a quarter of a mile of the former camp. I examined other camp sites, but preferred the first, and ordered Col. Duffield to concentrate his force there.
The same day I rode out with the officer of the day and made an examination of the pickets. Being dissatisfied with its strength and locations, I directed Maj. Seibert, commanding the cavalry, to double his cavalry force on all the roads to Lebanon and McMinnville, which he did, but withdrew them at night, in accordance with the custom and orders of Col. Lester under which he had previously acted, of which custom and order I was entirely ignorant. There was no such order on the order-book, it being merely verbal. I had doubled the cavalry on the points of danger, as a temporary strengthening of the pickets, until next day, when I had ordered a much larger detail for picket duty from the infantry. My temporary headquarters were opposite to and about 75 yards from the court-house.
I have been informed that Col. Lester had some intelligence of a cavalry force of the enemy assembling near McMinnville, but he did not inform me nor did I have any information of impending danger. I found things negligently and loosely done at the post and attempted to remedy all the negligence I saw there.
At daylight of July 13 Gen. Forrest, with 2,500 cavalry, consisting of four regiments and one battalion--among them the First and Second Georgia and Seventh Texas, having marched 48 miles between noon of the 12th and that time--surrounded and captured the pickets on one of the roads to McMinnville without the firing of a gun, rushed at full speed into the camp of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry and into the court-house square and streets of the town. Passing through the cavalry camp they attacked the Ninth Michigan, which was ready to receive them. Severe fighting at this point resulted in driving the enemy back some 300 yards after repeated assaults, both sides losing heavily.
Col. Duffield, commanding Twenty-third Brigade, was severely wounded early in the action and carried from the field. He was paroled at once, and I have had no report from him.
Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst, commanding the Ninth Michigan, after holding his camp nearly hours against superior numbers, finding the enemy were surrounding him with their whole force and having no hope of re-enforcement (not receiving any reply to several messages for assistance sent by him to Col. Lester), surrendered his force, then reduced to 134 men. This fragment of a regiment, under its gallant lieutenant-colonel (Parkhurst) splendidly, and deserves honorable mention. Their loss was 11 killed, 86 wounded, and 36 missing.
Company B, Ninth Michigan, the provost guard, made a resolute defense of the court house for three hours during repeated assaults, killing 12 wounding 18 of the enemy. They did not surrender until the court-house was set on fire. During these hours of suspense only an occasional shot was heard from the Third Minnesota and Hewett's battery. Of course their comparative quiet showed that they were not attacked in force. From the reports of Col. Lester and Capt. Hewett and from other sources I learned that their commands turned out promptly, marched unattached nearly half a mile and were there halted by Col. Lester. Except slight changes of position, they remained there from 4.30 a. m. until 2.30 p. m., twice or three times menaced by small squads and once attacked by about 300 cavalry. The latter were repulsed by the fire of the skirmishers and one volley from two companies on the left flank of the regiment. Within three-quarters of a mile of their position they heard the fighting at the court-house for three hours and during seven hours and a half the fit at the Michigan camp.
The Third Minnesota was a splendidly drilled regiment. The officers and men were anxious to fight, but Col. Lester held them there without seeing any enemy in force. Col. Lester received two dispatches from Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst, begging for aid, but would afford none. When all was lost except his own command Col. Lester went under a flag of truce to see Col. Duffield, and there saw the enemy, who had not dared to come within range of his artillery, and was impressed with what he saw-that he returned, determined to surrender. This is proved by his calling a council of this company commanders and his lieutenant-colonel [Chauncey W. Griggs]. They, by a viva-voce vote, decided to fight. Part of them went from the council. Col. Lester reopened and reargued the matter. A ballot vote was taken and the force was surrendered. This was done by the statements and influence of Col. Lester. Lieut.-Col. Griggs bitterly opposed the surrender and voted against it to the last. Not a man was killed in the line of the Third Minnesota during the day. I state the facts without comment.
With a few men I held my headquarters until after the court-house was taken. I early sent a messenger, in citizen's clothes, with orders to Col. Duffield, but he could not pass through the enemy's lines. They had quarters surrounded from the time they entered the square. I submit copies of reports made to me and refer to them. I respectfully demand a court of inquiry into the disaster at Murfreesborough.
T. T. CRITTENDEN, Brig.-Gen., late Cmdg. Post.
Lieut. Col. J. P. GARESCHE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, Tenn., November 26, 1862.
Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant-Gen. of the Army, with the request that his case may receive prompt attention and that Col. Lester be ignominiously dismissed from the service. 
As Capt. [John A.] Tanner is under my command, I propose to avail myself of the authority delegated to me by the Secretary of War and shall dismiss him. Gen. Crittenden I will order to duty.
W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg. Department.
Findings of a Court of Inquiry.
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 4. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., January 24, 1863.
I. At a court of inquiry, convened at the city of Nashville, December 17, 1862, by Special Field Orders, No. 19, Hdqrs. Fourteenth Army Corps, Department of the Cumberland, on the request of Brig. Gen. T. T. Crittenden, to investigate and give an opinion on the facts connected with the surrender of the troops at Murfreesborough, under his command, of which court Brig. Gen. James G. Spears was president Col. Joseph R. Scott, Nineteenth Regt. [sic] Illinois Volunteers, was recorder, the following facts were found were found upon the testimony:
1st. That he (Gen. Crittenden) assumed command of the post at Murfreesborough on the 12th day of July, 1862, between the hours of 9 and 10 o'clock a. m.
2d. That he found the camp had been divided for three weeks previous and the forces separated.
3d. That he rode out on the morning of the 12th July, with Col. Duffield, commanding the Twenty-third Brigade, and selected a camp, and told Col. Duffield to concentrate the whole force there at once.
4th. That he rode out and inspected the pickets with the field officer of the day, and not being satisfied with their strength and location, ordered Maj. Seibert, commanding the cavalry, to double his cavalry patrol on the roads leading to Lebanon and McMinnville.
5th. That the pickets on these roads were re-enforced, but were withdrawn at night without the knowledge of Gen. Crittenden, as was the custom of the post by order.
6th. That he ordered morning reports to be made out and one-fifth of the entire effective force to be detailed as grand guards.
7th. That he examined the brigade order books, and ordered a plot of the town and its approaches to be made.
8th. That he consulted fully and freely with Col.'s Lester and Duffield, did a large amount of executive business, and was constantly employed until 9 p. m. July 12.
9th. That he was informed, on what should have been good authority, that there was no force of the enemy nearer than Chattanooga, with the exception of small parties of guerrillas, and that there was no danger of an immediate attack.
10th. That the attack was made upon the Ninth Michigan Infantry and Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry and the town at daylight on the morning of the 13th July.
11th. That the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry was immediately overpowered. That the Ninth Michigan Infantry was promptly formed and repeatedly repulsed the enemy. That about 8 o'clock a. m. they took a more sheltered position, which they held until 12 o'clock, when they surrendered; their commanding officer being wounded and having lost nearly one-half their number in killed and wounded.
12th. That one company of the Ninth Michigan Infantry, acting as provost guards, held the court-house in the town until 8 o'clock, when they surrendered after it was set on fire.
13th. That Gen. Crittenden surrendered himself and staff at 8 o'clock, having endeavored to communicate with the troops but failed, owing to the stopping of his message by rebel guards. 14th. That the Third Minnesota Infantry and Hewett's battery of four guns, under command of Col. Lester, being 1 1/4 miles from town and about the same distance from the Ninth Michigan Infantry and cavalry, immediately on hearing the attack on these places marched up the turnpike and took position in an open field, with woods in front, about 600 yards distant, where they remained until about 12 o'clock, cavalry occasionally appearing in their from in small parties, which were driven off with shot and shell from the battery, after which they fell back about one-half mile, near their camp, and remained there until they surrendered.
15th. That the estimated number of troops at the post was about 1,040; that of the enemy 2,600.
Upon which statement of facts the court give the following opinion:
"We therefore are of the opinion from the evidence that Brig. Gen. T. T. Crittenden did all that should be expected of a vigilant commander fronted time he took command until the surrender. We find no evidence that impugns his skill or courage; on the contrary, he was very active on the day before the attack up to 9 p. m. in obtaining information and placing the post in a proper state of defense. Although it may be said that he should have immediately concentrated his forces and that any delay in so doing was dangerous, yet we find an ample apology for the delay in the facts that he was an entire stranger to the place and country, and that he was assured by Col. Lester, who had preceded him in the command for two months, that there was no danger of an attack and that no enemy of importance was nearer than Chattanooga".
All which is published for the information of the army.
II. The general commanding after a careful examination of the testimony adduced before court of inquiry, is of opinion that the defeat of our forces under Brig. Gen. T. T. Crittenden at Murfreesborough was chiefly owing to the withdrawal of picket guards from the roads leading to the town during the night and to the separation of the forces at the post; that the post was taken by surprise and the forces overpowered by being attacked in detail, all which would have been provided against had the timely of Gen. Crittenden been obeyed.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:
C. GODDARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
Report of Maj. James J. Seibert, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry.
GEN.: I respectfully submit the following as my report of the battle at Murfreesborough, Tenn., on Sunday, July 13, 1862:
I first assumed command of the cavalry attached to that command, consisting of the Third Battalion Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, and one squadron of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, on May 29, but was called to Nashville on duty on June 19, returning again on July 6.
When I first assumed command it was the custom, as well as the order, of Col. Lester, then in command, to send out daily from the cavalry a patrol of 5 men on each of the seven pikes leading to and from the town, starting out in the morning and returning in the evening. This order was not changed while I was in command until the day before the occurrence. When you assumed command you ordered me to double the number of the patrols on the roads to Lebanon and McMinnville, which was done. When the patrols returned in the evening I received the report daily from each of the non-commissioned officers in charge, which, after committing to writing, I handed to Col. Lester.
The attack was made at daybreak in the morning, and I first saw the enemy when charging on my camp, which was a short distance to the right of the Woodbury pike. I had not over 80 duty-men in camp at the time of the attack, most of whom were captured there. We then left camp and joined the Ninth Michigan and surrendered with them at noon. I lost 5 killed and 20 wounded.
Before closing this report I would state that a report reached me about midnight that several men were seen in the night between our pickets and the town on the Bradyville pike. I immediately mounted 12 men and went to the points named, but after examining the fields and several houses and barns on the Bradyville and Woodbury pikes and discovering no signs of the enemy I returned with the men to camp, having reached it only a little more than an hour before the attack.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JAMES J. SEIBERT, Maj., Seventh Pa. Cav., Cmdg. Cav., Twenty-third Brigade.
Gen. T. T. CRITTENDEN, Cmdg. Forces at Murfreesborough, Tenn.:
Report of Capt. John M. Hewett, Battery B, Kentucky Light Artillery.
GEN.: I have the honor of making the following report of the part taken by my command in the fight at Murfreesborough, Tenn., on July 13, 1862:
Before it was fairly daylight my camp was alarmed by rapid discharges of musketry in the direction of the Ninth Michigan camp and in town, distant 1 ½ miles. I immediately ordered my horses harnessed and immediate advance would be made on the town. I left my park with the guns of one section advanced and the other passed to the rear, my caissons in the center.
I rode to the color-line of the Third Minnesota Regiment, which was forming, and informed Col. Lester that I was in motion. He ordered me to wait till he came up. On his joining us I asked in what ordered we would advance on the town. He said he would halt in the old field on our left and wait for orders. The firing was still brisk in town. Twenty minutes or half an hour later the enemy was seen on our left flank 1,000 or 1,500 yards distant. I opened fire on them; they instantly dispersed. I then placed the other section on the turnpike (the extreme right), in charge of Lieut. [Albany A.] Ellsworth, who was in position but a few moments when the enemy were discovered advancing from the town in considerable. A few rounds drove them protection into the woods immediately in our front and half a mile distant from our line. We then briskly shelled the woods for a few minutes, driving them out. Nothing further was seen of the enemy for nearly an hour, when they were discovered in our rear and about the same time saw the smoke from our camp, which they had gained. I ordered the guns from one section to shell them out, which was done. In few minutes after a charge was made on us by 200 or 300, which was repulsed, the enemy retiring into the woods in front of the line. We again shelled the woods briskly for several moments. An hour later they were discovered tearing up the railroad track, half or three fourths of a mile below. They were shelled from this. The train from Nashville had before this passed up and stopped under our guns. We saw them but occasionally for the next five or six hours. They made no further demonstrations of attack. We remained during this time, say from 4.30 a. m. till 2 p. m., in an open field, front, rear, and both flanks open to cavalry. About 2 o'clock we were ordered to fall back 500 yards toward our camp and take position in front of a frame house. We remained here about an hour, when Col. Lester, in answer to a flag of truce, went into town. Returning, he surrendered the entire command. Up to the moment of surrender the utmost confidence was evidence by the officers and men. My command bore themselves like men. I turned over, by order of Col. Lester, three 6-pounder smoothbore and one 10-pounder Parrot gun, with the general property of the company. Officers and men lost all their clothing, blankets, &c., in the burning of the tents.
Lost 1 killed, 3 wounded and 9 missing. Seventy men were surrendered, though but 51 were fit for duty.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. H. HEWETT, Capt., Cmdg. Hewett's Battery, Kentucky Vol. Artillery.
Report of Col. John C. Walker, Thirty-fifth Indiana Infantry.
SHELBYVILLE, TENN., July 13, 1862.
SIR: An engagement has been going on at Murfreesborough nearly all day between our troops at that place and the enemy under Col. Starnes. I give you the reports as they come to me through messengers of Col. Hambright, who is stationed at Wartrace. It seems from these reports that Col. Starnes, with about 5,000 cavalry and two pieces of artillery, attacked Murfreesborough this morning. After two or three hours' fighting he succeeded in taking prisoners seven companies of the Ninth Michigan Regt. [sic] and the entire provost guard. It is said that Gen. Crittenden, of Indiana, is also taken prisoner. Since this the First Kentucky Battery was engaged for several hours in shelling the rebels. The battery, I believe, is sustained by the Third Minnesota Regt. [sic] Toward evening the enemy withdrew to the woods.
I cannot vouch for the details of this statement, but will add that the cannonading has been heard distinctly at this place during nearly the entire day. Col. Matthew, Fifty-first Ohio, arrived at this place this evening and will await further orders. Under existing circumstances I have taken the responsibility of ordering my regiment to this place, for the purpose of co-operating, if necessary, with the other troops in this vicinity. In the course of a day or two I will have the regiment proceed to Elk River Bridge, unless order are received directing me to do otherwise.
Trusting that my action in the premises will meet with your approbation, I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. C. WALKER, Col. Thirty-fifth Indiana.
Col. J. B. FRY, Chief of Staff, Huntsville, Ala.
Report of Col. William W. Duffield, Ninth Michigan Infantry.
MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., July 23, 1862.
COL.: Although I had not yet formally assumed command of the Twenty-third Brigade, yet, as Brig. Gen. Thomas T. Crittenden and the other officers of the command have been captured and forwarded to Chattanooga, permit me to submit the following report of such portion of the attack made on the 13th instant as came under my own personal observation:
I arrived here, after an absence of two months, on the afternoon of the 11th instant, coming down on the same train with Brig. Gen. Thomas T. Crittenden, the newly appointed commander of the post, and found that several material changes had been made in the location and encampment of the Twenty-third Brigade since my departure. Instead of the whole command encamping together, as it had done, it was separated into two portions and several miles apart. The brigade had never been drilled as such nor a brigade guard mounted. Each regiment furnished its quota of officers and men and watched certain roads; and, worse than all, the commanding officers of the respective regiments were on ill terms with each other, and this feeling, upon one occasion, had broken out into an open personal quarrel. The result was a great lack of discipline and a bitter feeling of jealousy between the different regiments, manifesting itself in the personal encounters of the men when they met upon the street. There was no order, no harmony. The parts of the machine did not fit well, and the commanding officers seem either not to have possessed the will or the ability to adjust them. Gen. Crittenden and myself, immediately after our arrival, visited the several camps, discussed the impropriety of a divided command, and decided upon a concentration; but as neither of us had assumed command we deferred it until the morrow. But on the morrow the blow fell, and the danger we anticipated became a reality. Gen. Crittenden made his headquarters in town, while I preferred camping with my own men, and therefore pitched my tent with the five companies of the Ninth Michigan Volunteers.
The force then at Murfreesborough was as follows: Five companies (A, C, G, H, and K), Ninth Michigan Volunteers, Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst commanding, 200 strong, together with the First Squadron Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, Capt. Levi Chilson, 81 strong, were encamped three-fourths of a mile east of the town, upon the Liberty turnpike; one company (B) Ninth Michigan Volunteers, Capt. Rounds, 42 strong, occupied the court-house, the other companies of the Ninth Michigan Volunteers having been ordered to Tullahoma a month since, while nine companies of the Third Minnesota Volunteers, Col. Lester (one company being on detached duty as train guard), 450 strong, and Hewett's First Kentucky battery, two sections, 72 strong, occupied the east bank of Stone River, at a distance of more than 3 miles from the encampment of the detachment of the Ninth Michigan Volunteers.
Orders were received from Nashville the evening of the 12th instant directing the First Squadron Fourth Kentucky Cavalry to proceed immediately to Lebanon. The total effective strength of the command at Murfreesborough on the morning of the 13th instant did not therefore exceed 814 men, including pickets.
The attack was made at daybreak on the morning of the 13th instant by the Second Cavalry Brigade, C. S. Army, Brig. Gen. N. B. Forrest, over 3,000 strong, consisting of one Texas regiment, Lieut.-Col. Walker; the First and Second Georgia Regiments, Col.'s Lawton and Hood; one Alabama regiment, Col. Saunders, and one Tennessee regiment, Col. Lawton [?]. The noise of so many hoofs at full speed upon the macadamized roads was so great that the alarm was given before the head of the column reached our pickets, about 1 mile distant, so that our men were formed and ready to receive them, although they came in at full speed. The Texas and a battalion of one of the Georgia regiments, in all over 800 strong, attacked the detachment of the Ninth Michigan Volunteers. So fierce and impetuous was their attack that our men were forced nearly to the center of the camp; but they fell back steadily and in order, with their faces to the foe. But upon reaching the center of the camp their line was brought to a halt, and after twenty minutes of nearly hand-to-hand fighting the enemy broke and field in the wildest confusion, followed in close pursuit by one company as skirmishers. A squadron of cavalry at this time launched at their heels would have utterly routed and annihilated them. Indeed so great was their panic that their officers were unable to check the fugitives for a distance of 7 miles, and Col. Wharton, commanding the Georgia regiment, was subsequently arrested by Gen. Forrest for misconduct under the fire of the enemy.
During this attack both officers and men, with one single exception, behaved very handsomely. There was no excitement, no hurry, and no confusion. Everything was done calmly, quietly, and in obedience to orders. But it is with the deepest shame and mortification that I am compelled to report that one officer of Michigan has been guilty of gross cowardice in the face of the enemy. Capt. John A. Tanner, of Company K, Ninth Michigan Volunteers, at the first alarm left his quarters, abandoned his company, and fled from his command under the enemy's fire, and I therefore inclose you herewith charges preferred against him for violation of the Fifty-second Article of War. Capt. Charles V. De Land, Company C, Ninth Michigan Volunteers, deserves special mention for cool and gallant conduct throughout the action and the fearless mode in which he led his company as skirmishers in pursuit of the enemy when repulsed. Also First Lieut. Hiram Barrows, of Company A, same regiment, for the tenacity with which he held his ground, although sorely pressed by the enemy. The loss of the detachment of the Ninth Michigan Volunteers had been very severe for the number engaged, amounting to 1 officer and 12 men killed and 3 officers and 75 men wounded. The enemy's loss has been much more severe than our own. More than double the number of their dead were buried with ours and their wounded are found in almost every house. Among their wounded are a colonel, a major, two adjutants, and one surgeon. I inclose you herewith the surgeon's report of the killed and wounded of the Ninth Michigan Volunteers.
Not having been present at the subsequent surrender of the detachment of the Ninth Michigan Volunteers, under Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst, I can only state the facts as reported to me, which show that this force, isolated and reduced by killed and wounded to less than 75 men, after having held their ground from 4 a. m. to 1 p. m., were compelled to surrender or be cut to pieces by the entire force of the enemy. I am reliably informed that Company B, Ninth Michigan Volunteers, under command of First Lieut. L. J. Wright, held the court-house against an incessant attack by a greatly superior force from 4 a. m. till 7.30 a. m., and did not surrender till the enemy had possession of the lower story of the building and had started a fire, with the evident intention of burning them out.
Of the surrender of the Third Minnesota Volunteers and Hewett's First Kentucky Artillery, under command of Col. Lester, I cannot speak from personal knowledge nor have I received any information from sources sufficiently reliable to warrant my communicating to you any details. Indeed I would much prefer not to do so. The circumstances of the case, as reported, bear painfully on the honor of a brother officer now a prisoner of war, and who is therefore unable to defend himself.
I inclose a list of killed and wounded of the Third Minnesota Volunteers, furnished men by the assistant surgeon of that regiment, amounting to 2 killed and 8 wounded,* one of whom was killed and 2 wounded in line, the remainder in camp.
In the early part of this attack I received two gunshot wounds, one passing through the right testicle, the other through the left thigh. These, although very painful and bleeding profusely, did not prevent me from remaining with my own regiment until the attack was repulsed, when, fainting from pain and loss of blood, I was carried from the field, and was therefore not a witness of what subsequently occurred. At noon the same day I was made prisoner by Gen. Forrest, but, in my then helpless condition, was released upon my parole not to bear arms against the Confederate States until regularly exchanged.
I remain, colonel, your obedient servant,
WM. W. DUFFIELD, Col. Ninth Michigan Infantry, Cmdg. Twenty-third Brigade.
Col. J. B. FRY, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Chief of Staff, Huntsville, Ala.
SEPTEMBER 20, 1862.
Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant-Gen. It is gratifying to discover anything to mitigate the mortification of the affair at Murfreesborough. This report seems to do so as far as Col. Duffield is concerned, but does not alter the general features of the affair.
D. C. BUELL, Maj.-Gen.
I respectfully recommend that Capt. John A. Tanner, Company K, Ninth Michigan Volunteers, be dismissed from the service for cowardly abandoning his company at the battle of Murfreesborough.
H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief.
EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.
Report of Lieut. Col. John G. Parkhurst, Ninth Michigan Infantry.
LIEUT.: I have the honor to make the following report of the battle of Murfreesborough, Tenn., on July 13, 1862. Before giving the particulars of the battle I beg leave to report the strength and condition of the Ninth Regt. [sic] Michigan Infantry at the time of the attack:
This regiment, with the Third Regt. [sic] of Minnesota Infantry, Hewett's Kentucky battery, and a portion of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, had been encamped in one encampment, in the city of Murfreesborough, for some months, under the command of Col. Duffield, when, on May 9, he was assigned to command of the troops of Kentucky, and Col. Lester, of the Third Minnesota, assumed command of the forces at Murfreesborough.
On June 26 the force at Murfreesborough was divided and its strength greatly reduced by the Third Minnesota Regt. [sic] and Hewett's battery being sent 1½ miles north of the city of Murfreesborough, on the Nashville pike, leaving the Ninth Michigan and a squadron of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry occupying the old camping ground, and the only troops in the city.
On June 30, agreeably to an order received from Col. Lester, this force was further reduced, and Companies D, E, F, and I, of the Ninth Michigan, were sent to Tullahoma. Company B, Capt. [Oliver C.] Rounds, of the Ninth Michigan, was occupying the court-house, situated three-fourths of a mile from camp, and acting as provost guard for the city, leaving only five companies of my regiment in camp. From these companies heavy details for picket and other duties were constantly made, so that the force in camp was about 250 strong.
The weakness of my camp and the divided condition of the forces at Murfreesborough were observed by Gen. Crittenden upon his arrival and viewing of the camp on the 12th, and the danger to be apprehended in consequence of such division was remarked upon by both Gen. Crittenden and Col. Duffield, who returned to Murfreesborough in company with Gen. Crittenden, and it was by them determined to reunite the forces at once.
At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 13th I was aroused by the sentinel at my tent and informed that the enemy was advancing upon the camp. I at once turned out and gave the alarm in camp. The companies in camp turned out with alacrity, but before they had time to form a square the enemy, mounted and some 1,200 strong, with terrific yells, dashed upon us from three directions, armed with double-barreled shot-guns and Colt's navy revolvers. Some of my men gave way under this charge, but the majority of them stood firm and returned the first fire with great precision and fatal effect. After discharging their pieces the enemy retired and dismounted a part of his force and advanced upon us mounted and on foot. I rallied my force, and, although the effect of the fire of the enemy was terribly severe, my officers and men stood their ground with heroic courage and poured a destructive fire into the enemy's ranks until he began to yield. Seeing this, I took advantage of it and ordered my force to advance and charge upon him. In obedience to this order my men, with a yell equal to that of the Texans, made a charge, driving the enemy before them until he was completely routed from my camp and driven out of and beyond reach of the camp of the Pennsylvania cavalry and brigade headquarters. I immediately ordered Company C, Capt. [Charles V.] De Land, to advance in pursuit, as skirmishers, as far as the second street in our front, which he did in good style, doing good execution and holding the line I had indicated to him and driving the enemy still farther in retreat.
Finding an opportunity I immediately occupied my time in preparing for another attack, and marched my force into a garden in front of camp, which was inclosed by a cedar-post fence, and made use of such forage as I had in camp to barricade Maney avenue, which led to our right, and made use of the transportation wagons for a protection on our left, thus securing quite a formidable position. After having secured this position and learning that Col. Lester had not advanced upon the enemy I dispatched a courier to Col. Lester, informing him of the fight and of the superior force of the enemy and that Col. Duffield was wounded and had left the field and that my loss had been very heavy, but that we were then in a good position and could make a successful defense if we could be re-enforced, and asked him to send re-enforcements.
The enemy kept up a series of attacks and feints and he was as often repulsed.
Not hearing from the courier, I dispatched a second courier with similar information as to our position and urged Col. Lester to advance to our relief, informing him that we were receiving frequent attacks from a vastly superior force, but that we could hold out if they would re-enforce us. After some four hours' time I received information that my couriers had been arrested by order of Col. Lester as spies and that a courier from Col. Lester had come over to ascertain our position. About 9.30 o'clock I sent by the courier who came from Col. Lester a written statement of our position and requesting re-enforcements at once, knowing that if Col. Lester would join us with his force we could drive the enemy from the city or capture his command.
I received no reply from this dispatch nor from any that I sent to Col. Lester, though he has since informed me that my couriers as well as my dispatch through his own courier reached him and that his courier had no trouble in returning to his camp. I leave Col. Lester to account in his report or otherwise for his neglecting my repeated calls upon him for re-enforcements.
The forces attacking my camp were the First Regt. [sic] Texas Rangers, Col. Wharton, and a battalion of the First Georgia Rangers, Col. Morrison, and a large number of citizens of Rutherford County, many of whom had recently taken the oath of allegiance to the United States Government. There were also quite a number of negroes [sic] attached to the Texas and Georgia troops, who were armed and equipped, and took part in the several engagements with my forces during the day.
Simultaneously with the attack upon my camp Company B, Capt. Rounds, was attacked at their quarters in the court-house by a large force of Georgia, Tennessee, and Kentucky cavalry. This company fought nobly and held their position for two and a half hours, killing and wounding a large number of the enemy's forces, and until the enemy set fire to the lower part of the court-house, when they were compelled to surrender.
We maintained our position, despite the frequent attacks and desperate efforts of the enemy to destroy us, until 11.30 o'clock, when a flag of truce was sent to us, with a demand for a surrender, of which the following is a true copy, viz.,:
MURFREESBOROUGH, July 13, 1862.
COL.: I must demand an unconditional surrender of your force as prisoners of war or I will have every man put to the sword. You are aware of the overpowering force I have at my command, and this demand is made to prevent the effusion of blood.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
N. B. FORREST, Brig.-Gen. of Cavalry, C. S. Army.
Col. J. G. PARKHURST.
This communication I forwarded to Col. Duffield, who had been wounded in the first charge and removed from the field, asking for his order or advice in relation thereto. Col. Duffield returned the communication with a message that he should leave the matter entirely to my discretion. Meantime I had ascertained that Gen. Forrest had concentrated his entire force, save one squadron, which he had stationed on the Nashville pike, near the camp of the Minnesota regiment, in the immediate vicinity of my camp, hemming us in on all sides, and was preparing to make a charge upon us with his entire command, having surrounded us, and evidently intending, with this overwhelming force, to execute the threat contained in his demand for a surrender. Seeing our position, and concluding that I had nothing to hope for from Col. Lester, having vainly looked for aid from him for seven hours, and ascertaining from actual count that I had but 134 men, including a few of Maj. Seibert's Pennsylvania cavalry, who had retreated to our lines, I called a meeting of my officers to consider the demand for a surrender. The officers of the regiment, after considering our position, deemed it rashness to attempt to withstand the forces now brought against us, numbering over 1,800, and unanimously voted to surrender, and at 12 o'clock, eight hours after the commencement of the battle, I surrendered my command as prisoners of war.
My loss in the battle was as follows: Of the five companies in camp, killed, 11; wounded, 86; missing, 36; total, 133. Of Company B, at the court-house, wounded, 3; missing, 1; total, 4. Making a total loss of 137. I append hereto a correct list of the killed, wounded, and missing.
In the engagement I received a shot below the knee of my left leg, but no injury resulted from it.
The loss of the enemy was very much greater than mine. Among their killed is Col. Anderson, of one of the Georgia regiments, and among their wounded is Col. Wharton, of the Texas Rangers. A large portion of their officers were either killed or wounded.
I cannot speak in too high terms of the conduct of my officers and men, who, with only one exception, behaved nobly, fought like heroes, and conducted themselves like veteran soldiers; and where all behaved so well it would be invidious to attempt to discriminate. The exception I feel it my duty to mention. Capt. John A. Tanner, of Company K, at the first fire of the enemy retreated to the woods. This conduct needs no comment. Justice will overtake him.
Subsequent to the surrender my command, including many of the wounded and sick from the hospital, were marched to McMinnville, some 40 miles from Murfreesborough, where the non-commissioned officers and privates were paroled. The commissioned officers were marched to Knoxville, Tenn., and sent thence to Madison, Ga., where we were confined in an old filthy cotton factory, which was alive with vermin, and we were there compelled to provide ourselves with food, which was furnished, through the guard at the rate of $2 per diem per man.
I beg leave to further report that, though assured that our private property would not be taken, everything nor worn upon our backs was taken from us. Our trunks, which we were assured we could take with us, were broken open and the contents stolen or appropriated by greedy rebels.
While on the march to Knoxville I was ordered to dismount and surrender my horse, which Gen. Forrest instantly appropriated. Other officers were deprived of their horses.
I remain, lieutenant, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. G. PARKHURST, Lieut. Col., Ninth Regt. [sic] Michigan Infantry, Cmdg.
Lieut. H. M. DUFFIELD, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Murfreesborough, Tenn.
Report of Col. Henry C. Lester, Third Minnesota Infantry.
LIEUT.: I have the honor to report the share taken by my regiment in the action at Murfreesborough, Tenn., on Sunday, July 13, 1862.
The attack was made about daylight upon the camp of the Ninth Michigan, the pickets having been captured without firing a shot. With the first alarm my regiment was formed in line and marched from camp toward town, for the purpose of effecting a junction with the other troops, the camping ground of the two regiments having been necessarily separated about 1 ½ miles in consequence of scarcity of water. We had proceeded nearly half a mile when the enemy appeared in force in the woods in our front, and also upon our left flank. Line of battle was at once formed upon the crest of a hill and we opened upon the enemy with shell. The firing was principally directed to the woods in front, where they were evidently forming for a charge. In the mean time a small force had made its way through a corn field on our left and attacked our camp, which, after a sharp skirmish with the camp guard they took, killing or capturing the guard and firing the tents. Some time was passed in shelling the woods, when a train arrived from Nashville, and was only stopped when it had reached a point opposite our position and distant from it about 100 yards. As soon as the enemy had seen the train pass they commenced to tear up the track between it and Nashville, and were repeatedly driven off by the artillery. A charge was made upon our left from the woods, but was easily repulsed, with some loss to the enemy. At this time a scout returned from the camp of the Ninth Michigan, reporting the enemy in strong force on the Lebanon road between the Michigan regiment and our position; and as the force in front seemed to be still too strong to attempt to push through with any prospect of success I determined to maintain my own position for the present. The firing in town having ceased for some time I sent a scout through the corn field to try and get news from our friends, but the effort was unsuccessful, the enemy being still in strong force on the Lebanon road. Shortly after a soldier of the Ninth Michigan came through and reported his regiment as having surrendered. Thereupon we fell back to a farm-house a short distance in our rear, which being surrounded by a fence I expected to make as strong as possible and to hold until the end.
While taking up our new position a flag of truce appeared, borne by yourself, and sent at the request of Col. Duffield, commanding Twenty-third Brigade, for the purpose of procuring an interview with me. I returned to town with the flag and had an interview with the colonel commanding, in which I learned that we were attacked by the rebel Gen. Forrest with a brigade of cavalry. Learning from the colonel that the enemy were in overwhelming force, and that even should the road be uninjured the forces at Nashville were absent upon an expedition and that there was no hope of re-enforcements, at his suggestion I agreed to refer the matter of surrender to my officers. Accordingly the matter was represented to them as derived from Col. Duffield, and the great majority, looking upon further resistance as involving the certainly of an ultimate defeat with great loss, and with no possibility of an escape or assistance, it was decided to surrender, which was done at 3.30 p. m.
The force surrendered by me consisted of about 450 infantry. The enemy's force consisted of about 2,600 troops, together with some hundreds of citizens of the country between McMinnville and Murfreesborough, being in all about 3,000 men.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. C. LESTER, Col., Cmdg. Third Minnesota.
Lieut. H. M. DUFFIELD, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Twenty-third Brigade.
Report of Col. John F. Miller, Twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry, commanding at Nashville.
NASHVILLE, July 19, 1862--12 p. m.
GEN.: Statements of prisoners and others establish these facts:
Complete surprise of the Ninth Michigan and cavalry at about 4 a. m. Enemy attacked Michigan camp and provost guard in town simultaneously, approaching in two directions between roads; no grand guard; pickets only in roads; Michigan troops in discord; men killed in tents attempting to form a square; Col. Duffield wounded; failed to form, and surrendered. Provost guards in court-house did most fighting, holding enemy at bay perhaps an hour, killing 10 rebels; surrendered; part cavalry attempted to join Michigan regiment; did little fighting; surrendered.
Third Minnesota, 1½ miles in rear, formed on alarm; had Hewett's battery, left their camp and reserve ammunition; marched short distance, halted, took position, waited for attack; enemy, some in front and flank. At 7 a. m. burned camp, charged on battery; were repulsed with slight loss; made several weak attempts to charge. Infantry hovered about in woods; but little firing by infantry. Enemy showed signs of intention to retreat; burned depot supplies; surrender demanded; men anxious to continue fight; colonel and six captains anxious to surrender. Infantry had plenty ammunition; battery short, but had 64 rounds left; surrendered at about 3 p. m.; loss, 2 killed, 5 wounded in Michigan. Col. Lester reported as having been stupid with fear, some complain, cowardly; strength of enemy, five regiments; average estimate, 1,800. Marched the prisoners 7 miles beyond McMinnville. Whole force left for Chattanooga, moving rapidly.
Jealousy of officers, causing separation of troops beyond supporting distance in sudden emergency. Bad picketing, lack of skill, vigilance, and personal courage on part of officers caused the disaster according to testimony.
Loss of Ninth Michigan, 14 killed and 63 wounded.
JNO. F. MILLER, Col., Cmdg. Post.
Maj. Gen. D. C. BUELL.
Report of Maj. Gen. J. P. McCown, C. S. Army.
CHATTANOOGA, TENN., July 17, 1862.
Col. Forrest dispatched me as follows:
Attacked Murfreesborough 5 a. m. last Sunday morning; captured two brigadier-generals, staff and field officers, and 1,200 men; burnt $200,000 worth of stores; captured sufficient stores with those burned to amount to $500,000 and brigade of 60 wagons; 300 mules, 150 or 200 horses, and field battery of four pieces; destroyed the railroad and depot at Murfreesborough. Had to retreat to McMinnville, owing to large number of prisoners to be guarded. Our loss 16 or 18 killed; 25 or 30 wounded. Enemy's loss 200 or 300.
Leaves to-day for re-enforcements coming from Kingston.
J. P. McCOWN.
Gen. BRAXTON BRAGG.
HDQRS. ARMY OF MISSISSIPPI, Tupelo, Miss., July 18, 1862.
Brig.-Gen. CHALMERS, Cmdg. Cavalry, Army of Mississippi:
GEN.: The general commanding directs that the above dispatch be read to the troops.
Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,
D. H. POOLE, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
Report of Brig. Gen. N. B. Forrest, C. S. Army, commanding Cavalry Brigade.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., July 22, 1862.
GEN.: I have the honor to forward the report of an engagement of our forces under the command of Col. N. B. Forrest and the enemy at Murfreesborough, Tenn., the 13th instant. A portion of the captured property has been brought in and turned over to the department. Col. Forrest is now on his way to Columbia, Tenn., purposing the destruction of the railroad and bridges between Nashville and that place.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
Gen. S. COOPER, Adjt. and Insp. Gen., Richmond, Va.
------- ---, 1862.
SIR: We left Chattanooga on July 9 with the Texan Rangers, under Col. Wharton, and the Second Georgia Cavalry, under Col. Lawton. We made a forced march of nearly 50 miles, reaching Altamont on the night of the 10th instant. After resting one night we passed on to McMinnville, where I was joined on the night of the 11th by Col. Morrison with a portion of the First Georgia Cavalry, two companies of Col. Spiller's battalion, under Maj. Smith, and two companies of Kentuckians, under Capt.'s Taylor and Waltham. After this junction my whole force was about 1,400 men, and both men and horses were much jaded and worn by their long travel. After feeding and refreshing for a single day and being joined by some few volunteers I left on the 12th at 1 o'clock for Murfreesborough. It was over 50 miles to our destination, but there was no halt except for a short time to feed the men and horses.
We approached Murfreesborough about 4.30 a. m. and fortunately captured the pickets of the enemy without firing a gun. I then learned that there were two regiments in and near Murfreesborough, one the Ninth Michigan and the other the Third Minnesota, 200 Pennsylvania cavalry, 100 of the Eighth Kentucky, and Capt. Hewett's battery of four guns, numbering in all 1,400 or 1,500 men, under the command of Gen. Thomas Crittenden, of Indiana. There were said to be two camps, one in Murfreesborough of one infantry regiment and the cavalry, the other with the artillery about a mile distant, and a small force with the officers in the court-house and private houses around the public square. I decided immediately to attack the camp in town and the buildings, while the camp with the artillery should be held in check until the first was stormed and surrendered. Col. Wharton with his Texan Rangers was ordered to charge the camp in town. He moved forward in gallant style at the head of his men, but owing to the urgent necessity of using a portion of the Rangers for the attack on the buildings he did not carry with him but two of his companies. This fact, however, did not abate his courage or that of his men. They charged over the tent ropes right into the camp. Col. Wharton was soon severely wounded and the command of his Rangers devolved on Col. Walker.
Col. Morrison with a portion of the Second Georgia was ordered to storm the court-house while the balance of the Texan Rangers were attacking the private buildings. After two or three hours' hard struggle the court-house was fired and surrendered to Col. Morrison. The private buildings were also cleared by the Rangers and Gen. Crittenden and his staff surrendered.
Lieut. Col. [Arthur] Hood, of the Second Georgia, with a portion of his force was ordered to storm the jail, which he did, releasing many prisoners confined for political offenses; he also took the telegraph office, capturing the operator.
Col. Lawton, with the First Georgia, the Tennesseeans [sic] and Kentuckians, was ordered to attack the second camp with the artillery, which he did with great efficiency for several hours. The Tennesseeans [sic], under Maj. Smith, and Kentuckians, under Capt.'s Taylor and Waltham, stood the fire of shot and shell like veterans. The Georgians, under Capt. Dunlop and Maj. Harper, made a gallant charge almost to the mouths of the cannon. After fighting them in front two or three hours I took immediate command of this force and charged the rear of the enemy into their camps and burned their camps and stores, demoralizing their force and weakening their strength.
The force of Texan Rangers sent to attack the first camp was so small that, although they fought with desperate courage and great skill, they were gradually driven back.
After the court-house and private buildings were surrendered and the fight had lasted five or six hours I prepared my whole force to storm both camps and summoned them to surrender. After some parley Col. Duffield surrendered the infantry and artillery.
My aide, Col. Saunders, rendered me efficient aid until he was severely wounded by a ball from the court-house. Maj. Strange, my adjutant, also performed his whole duty. Lieut.-Col. Walker and Maj. Harrison, of the Rangers, acted with their usual daring and bravery. All the officers and men who acted bravely cannot be particularly mentioned, but they acted their part nobly.
After the action was over I detached Maj. Smith to burn a railroad bridge below Murfreesborough, which he executed well. I intended to burn a railroad bridge above Murfreesborough and gave orders for the purpose, but by mistake they were not executed. I had the telegraph wire cut and a large portion of the railroad track torn up. I found four car-loads of provisions on the railroad track and the depot house full of stores, all of which I burned.
There were between 1,100 and 1,200 privates and non-commissioned officers captured and brought to McMinnville and paroled on condition not to serve until exchanged. The officers have been already sent to Knoxville, in charge of Col. Wharton (and I trust have safely reached their destination), except one or two who were wounded and left at Murfreesborough, on condition to surrender when restored to health.
I captured four pieces of artillery--three brass pieces and one Parrott gun--which are still in my possession, with harness and ammunition. There were some 50 or 60 large road wagons with the mule teams, harness, &c., captured. I burnt some of the wagons, which could not be got away, and sent you the balance. There were a large number of cavalry horses, saddles, and small-arms, with the ammunition, captured, and such as I have not been compelled to use are also forwarded to you.
In consequence of our being compelled to leave Murfreesborough, and not having received reports of the killed from some of my command, it is impossible to report accurately my loss. My best information is that we had about 25 killed and from 40 to 60 wounded. Among those killed is Lieut. Green, of the Tennessee Battalion. The reports of the officers under my command when furnished will show more definitely the loss.
The enemy lost about 75 killed and 125 wounded. The pecuniary loss to the enemy must be near half a million of dollars.
N. B. FORREST, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Brigade of Cavalry.
Maj. H. L. CLAY, Adjutant-Gen., Army of East Tennessee.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. I, pp. 792-811.
A woman's account of the raid on Murfreesborough
It is all over-and a glorious victory remains with the South! All day Sunday we were fearfully anxious as to the result--in the afternoon I became very uneasy indeed. I expected every moment to see flying fugitives come panting in jaded horses--and I watched the road narrowly....About dark I saw two men ride past--then two more--then a squad of some 15 or 20 looking very tired as I thought--"Ah" I said to myself--"here they come, I feared it would be so!" Presently I heard a great "Fuss" up on the road and told Cooper to run up to the "white gate" and ask the news. He bolted off, but soon returned--saying that the men said we had a victory--taken lots of prisoners--and these mules. I was incredulous it seemed to me I could not [sic] believe our good fortune. But Cooper said they had the mules sure enough, [sic] so I began to give way to hope--a little....in a short time 13 wagons filled with the "blue bellies" (as the boys call them) came along.....When Darlin' came home from town, at a late hour, he confirmed the joyful intelligence--a complete victory had been gained!...Scores of the men stopped...for water--the poor fellows were wearied down as well as their horses. They had gone since Saturday without food or sleep--Many of them if they had to stop and wait awhile for anything--threw themselves off their horses on the ground, and in a moment were asleep. It was 12 o'clock when we got home after the [wagon] train had passed. By the moonlight we saw it all pretty well, except the first column of prisoners who passed before the moon rose out of her eastern clouds. They had about 1300 prisoners--4 cannons and caissons--large lots of mules and horses--and a great many fine wagons filled with arms, prisoners and so forth. One of the [Texan] Rangers showed us a flag he had taken. We took it into the parlor where a wounded soldier was sleeping and examined it. It was a beautiful banner, elegantly made of the finest silk, and embroidered-belonged to the 9th Michigan Infantry-presented to the commander Col. Wm. Duffield, by the ladies of Detroit. I shall never forget the scene which passed before upon this evening. Did I ever think to see the "stars and stripes," a captive banner [sic] and not weep over it? I felt so badly to see it thus I confess-it was the old flag I had loved so long. But was I sorry to see the men who had treated us all so badly a few weeks before, brought up again as prisoners, no, [sic] you may be sure I didn't weep over that! Well here were they, and here were the conquerors....Next morning D. Hardeman and one of his comrades came out to see us and get some breakfast. They told me all about the fight [at Murfreesborough]. It was a complet [sic] surprise--they took the pickets dashed into town and charged the camp before the Yankees knew they were there. The ladies were perfectly wild with excitement--cheering on the men, and showering "God bless you'--and they could not be kept out of the streets the' bullets were flying in every direction. They boys said it had a bad effect on them--the ladies excited them so much that they didn't know what they were doing, and fired at random. They charged the Yankee camp however [sic] and took it, burning all the tents etc. The cannonading which we heard was the Yankees shelling their own camp, to drive our men out of it....The Provost-marshal [sic] whom they made prisoner wanted the soldiers to shoot him then and there, and show him no mercy whatever. The soldiers however were very kind to the prisoners, they would not even eat provisions which our citizens had provided for them, until the prisoners were served. On Tuesday night about bed-time 1320 of the prisoners being paroled, passed here on their return to Murfreesboro. [sic] They seemed very jolly--chattering and singing as they passed. There was a fine band among them, belonging to a Minnesota Regiment. Their instruments and all arms which they claimed as private property our men returned to them. Indeed, our gallant fellow behave all through this like true knights--they were so gentlemanly and quiet too among the citizens--showing such a marked difference between themselves and the Yankees, who visited us only a short time previous. They brought Dr. Armstrong up with them, a prisoner. The excitement ran high against him here, and some of the soldiers were a great deal exasperated--the citizens however, (among the first of whom was the Col. got up a petition in his favor signed by all our best men, which was presented to Gen. Forrest, who generously released Armstrong and allowed him to return to his family upon his promising to keep quiet and behave himself in [the] future. Forrest said he would hold any Southern soldier responsible if they molested him. There are indications it is said that A. is "turning over" fast, and will go into the Southern army as a surgeon. I cannot but smile at times when I see how people's opinions vacillate in times like these. [sic] I used to think "Vox Populi Vox Dui" was a great truth. [sic] I smile now and remember I ever thought so. The popular voice is the wind's voice...
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, entry for July 17, 1862.
Kate Carney's eye witness account of Forrest's Raid on Murfreesboro
How to begin, I know not. I was aroused early this morning by firing. It has surely been an eventful day. I knew the firing must come from our own brave boys. Sprang from my bed, rushed to the window, called to cousin Ann & Bettie, we dressed hurriedly, not knowing what moment our house & yard would be full to overflowing with either our men or the frightened Yankees. The blue coats began to make a bee line through our yard & front yard, asking Pa to protect them, but he told them to push on, & acting on his advice they kept moving. It was amusing to see how frightened they were, although it was such a serious time, I prayed for victory, while I hissed the frightened Yankees on, expecting every minute to received a parting shot from some of them. Just think, only the day before they were our masters, I thought what would be our fate, if our poor fellows were whipped. The engagement grew general in a few moments. Persons dared not venture out on the square, if they did a report & a vacant saddle would be seen as the horse would dash by, carry[ing] their fate to their comrades. Our boys, after forming behind some one story buildings, made a bold rush gaining the court house, but many fell ere they reached the door, and although the Yankees had every advantage they were forced to surrender, & our prisoners turned out to seek their families & friends. Two of them stopped on their way home out here, Mr. Peyton & Mr. Brothers. They looked so happy but who did not except the dusky forms that hovered around our front steps. The gentlemen were afraid to venture up town, as they were firing from the houses, so much it was dangerous to go on the street. In the meanwhile they had attacked the camp down by the river where the battery was stationed, & on the approach of our men threw themselves into a hollow square with their artillery, pointed to resist a determined attack, and as our men had nothing but shot guns they could not get in range & were compelled to fall back three times. But later in the day a flag of truce was sent, & in a few minutes they consulted, surrendered 1500 men including sick & wounded, including cannons, Camp equipage, which was mostly burnt, & small arms. This is one of the greatest victories of the war considering the number engaged. Gen. Forrest reports 2700 men consisting of his men & Texas Rangers. (a number were Georgians) With a single piece of artillery besides being the attacking party, I'm sure the hand of Providence guided & directed our boys, for without a higher power that handful of men could never have succeeded against such odds. Our Great Father saw our suffering & travails. Gen. Duffield was wounded early in the engagement, & taken to Maj. Maney's. Gen. Crittenden surrendered to Mrs. Hagen, the lady with whom he was boarding. He was the man that came up to have several of our men hung tomorrow. Some say that was why the attack was hurried. Yes old Gen. Crittenden said we had not a right to the air we breathed (just yesterday). I would like to have asked him who had a right now. Two Genl's, four Col's & ever so many Lt's, Capt's and others [were captured]. A glorious haul. Gen. Duffield was paroled with a number of others that could not be taken away on account of their wounds. When Col. Lester went up on the square, he asked where is the army that took us, & Gen. Forrest proudly answered here they are, pointing to our handful of dirty & worn down by travel boys that stood by. A nobler set never breathed than those rough looking fellows. Nobler hearts never beat. The poor fellows that were waiting for the Yankees decision about surrendering, went fast to sleep so fatigued were they [by] forced marches & no rest. The Yankee Col. awoke our officer by saying "we surrender, we surrender." That gave the Yankees some idea how independent our boys were. We saw a Texas Ranger ride hastily over to Mrs. Laws, & Ma thinking he needed something made us run over and ask [if] we could do anything for him or any of the rest of his comrades. He was introduced as Mr. Dodd of Ky. (though now a Ranger), thanked us, [but said] he had been provided for by the kind ladies up town. Found him quite nice. Saw a Mr. McKa [sic] come riding up kissing his hand & we all rushed out to shake his hand. Pa asked if he had ever met him before, but he said no but I'm a Confederate soldier. Very proudly he replied. We insisted so, he had to get down, come in & get breakfast, but would take nothing to drink, which made me think all the more of him. Said he never drank anything. While he was breakfasting we trimmed his hat off beautifully with flowers, not knowing then & until sometime afterwards that he was a single man. He had heard that two stray horses were here, & thought one of them might be his, but neither were, but sent us word by cousin William Tilford this afternoon that he found his, & many thanks for our kindness. That morning as our soldiers were starting to attack the camp by Maj. Maney's, we saw two of our men coming toward our house. We insisted on them getting down & having something to eat. They said as they were about to charge the enemy they didn't have time, but finally said they would take a strong cup of coffee, & while they were drinking it the Yanks surrendered without any trouble. We had gone up into the garret to see the fight, but everything was very quiet. In the evening those two Rangers returned & ate supper with us. Lieut. Fort & AJG Robinson. When they got here not a servant was on the place, and we had to take their places until their return. The Yankee Provost Marshall was found hid between two feather beds, in Miss Corean's bed. The cover spread up & pillows upon it. It was at Mrs. Reeves' that he was captured. Mrs. Reeves & the girl treated our men shamefully. Said they didn't permit such ragged men to come to their house. Our men permitted Col. Parkhurst to go by and tell Josephine goodbye. Our men did better than the Yankees for they never allowed our boys to say goodbye to either mother or sister, much less sweetheart. They pressed Mrs. Reeves' carriage into service to take one of the wounded soldiers off, & when it was returned they cut up considerable, said they would never again ride in it. As if the Yankees had not time & again took our carriage, horses & everything else they could lay their hands on.
Kate Carney Diary, July 13, 1862.
Texas Rangers at Murfreesboro.
Knoxville, Texas, July 22, 1862.
Messrs. Editors: On Saturday, the 12th of July, at 12 o'clock, the expedition which had been moving forward from Chattanooga, left the vicinity of McMinnville, about 1600 strong. After a continuous march of fifty miles, the gray dawn of the quiet Sabbath found the command all safely within two miles of Murfreesboro. Being halted here, the arms were examined and the plan of attack agreed upon. The order was given to move forward and the Texas Rangers occupied the position which they had filled through the entire march and led the advance. In a few minutes a gun fired and the pickets on the Woodbery [sic] pike were the prisoners of the advance guard. This report electrified the whole regiment and they dashed forward to the charge. Col. Forest had ordered Col. Wharton with his Rangers and Col. Lawton with the 2nd Ga. regiment, to attack the encampment on the right after entering the town. When this point was reached, Col. W. at the head of his men, dashed forward. They had already awoke the stillness of the morning by the terrific yell and this added to the grandeur of their charge. By some means the regiment had been divided and of the eight hundred assigned him for this difficult work, but 120 were with him, the remainder of the regiment with Col. Lawton's, having followed Col. Forrest. Supposing the whole designated force was with him, he charged through the brigade yard, then into the 7th Penn. Cavalry—some 126 being present—through this into the 9th Michigan, already formed into a hollow square for their reception. During all this time, the Rangers were doing fearful execution with their guns and pistols.
The fire now being exhausted and the support failing to come up, they reloaded in the face of the enemy and charged on foot. Thus did this little Spartan band fight for four long hours on foot and horseback as circumstances justified. Still supposing that reinforcements would come to their relief, they heroically continued the fight against four times their numbers, inflicting dreadful havoc upon the enemy at every point.
It was in one of these foot charges whilst mounted on his horse, that Col. Wharton received a very severe wound in the left arm from a minnie ball. Nothing daunted, he still led his men and directed all the movements until Lieut. Col. Walker came up. Then handing over the command he retired. Col. Walker was assisted by Maj. Harrison, and commanded until the final surrender, at 11 o'clock. For four long and bloody hours this noble little band did the work assigned to 800 men, and undoubtedly to their gallantry and the persistent determination with which they conducted the attack at each charge, is mainly attributable the final glorious issue. The remaining three fourths of the regiment were, by some strange blunder, led to another position of the field, and hence were not permitted to engage in this desperate conflict; hence all their fighting was unavailing. Surely, if gallant bearing and glorious success, gained by desperate and determined fighting, is ever acknowledged and commendably rewarded in this great struggle for honor and home, for happiness and liberty, then should "Murfreesboro" be written in golden letters upon the battle flag of Terry's old regiment by order of the Commanding General. Modern times do not furnish an instance where the badge of honor has been more gloriously won by deeds of noble daring. But let the figures tell the story of the heroic conduct which made this devoted band of 120 successful, and won the final victory of the day. Already the veterans of Woodsonville and Shiloh, they added fresh laurels to the name of Texas Rangers, in the brilliant battle of Murfreesboro'. During the different charges they killed and wounded thirteen in the 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry, and the 9th Michigan (infantry) one hundred and three, as their own officers acknowledged. Among these Lieut. Chase was killed, and Gen. Duffield was seriously wounded. It is said this camp would have earlier surrendered, but they could not distinguish the field officers, it being a characteristic of Texas Rangers, for every man to dress according to his taste and circumstances. But this result was not achieved until every fifth man was killed or wounded. During this time they brought out about 100 prisoners and fired the brigade wagons, thus destroying a large amount of forage, and also securing a large number of mules and horses. When the final surrender took place, some 300 or 400 came from this camp. It was here the principal fighting took place in the morning, and this decided the glorious victory of the day.
Although the Georgians gallantly stood up under the galling fire of the enemy at the Court House, where he was protected, yet whilst pouring a deadly fire into their ranks, he in return suffered but little.
They at one time charged upon Capt. Hewitt's celebrated Kentucky battery and were repulsed. It was afterwards surrendered with the whole, whilst the 3d Minnesota sustained no general attack.
But this one hundred and twenty who were thrown upon a greatly superior force, had to meet the enemy face to face, and every man felt the responsibility of his position and most nobly did each one do his duty. Their loss was over one half of the killed and wounded in the action. Among the most conspicuous was Adjutant Royston whose chivalric bearing was observable, wherever duty called and dangers were to be met. Perfectly cool in every emergency, he proved himself a stranger to fear. Col. Wharton being wounded, and unable to remain with the command, was entrusted with bringing the prisoners through to this city, where they arrived safely yesterday. Company B, of the Texas Rangers, acting as guard.
Among the forty five officers is found Gen. T. T. Crittenden, of Indiana, with one Colonel, two Lieut. Colonels, one Major, eleven Captains, and twenty-nine Lieutenants. The privates, some 1100 in number, and several officers, including Gen. Duffield were all paroled previously. Thus acted one portion of that command in the most brilliant and successful expeditions of the war. The enemy was perfectly surprised, and everything co-operated to make our arms successful. He was injured to the extent of one half a million dollar's worth of property, the greater part of which was secured to our government. It has struck confusion into the ranks of the insolent enemy, and we cherish the hope that soon gallant old Tennessee will be freed from the rule of despotism, and her sons and daughters will once more be free.
[Marshall] Texas Republican, August 9, 1862.
13, Skirmish near Wolf River
JULY 13, 1862.-Skirmish near Wolf River, Tenn.
Report of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, U. S. Army, commanding Fifth Division, Army of the Tennessee.
MOSCOW, July 14, 1862.
Yesterday one of our forage trains, guarded by 50 cavalry, was fired on by a party that immediately fled, having killed 1 man and wounded 3 of ours. The attacking party was composed of horsemen, but their dress was not clearly seen in the ambush. I believe they were citizens, hastily called together to fire on the train as it was returning loaded, and have sent a strong party to bring in 25 of the most prominent of the vicinity, each with a horse, saddle, and bridle, whom I wish to send to LaGrange and thence under guard to Columbus by to-morrow's train. I am satisfied we have no other remedy for this ambush firing than to hold the neighborhood fully responsible, though the punishment may fall on the wrong parties. The scene of the occurrence was 7 miles out south of Wolf River, and 2 ½ miles from where I have a regiment on picket.
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. I, p. 23.
13, Union Report Relative to Confederate Scorched Earth Policy and Necessity to Encourage Agricultural Production
CUMBERLAND GAP, July 13, 1862.
Hon. E. M. STANTON:
Everything shows that the enemy expects to be driven from East Tennessee. He destroys crops of all kinds. It is his military policy to devastate the country, as it is ours to preserve and encourage production. This requires a firm and steady hand. Our service suffers for want of cavalry at Jonesville. A band of mounted marauders are congregated, who commit under and robbery with impunity. I have ordered them to be surrounded and destroyed, and to do that I have been compelled to send a regiment of infantry on a four-nights' circuitous march over the mountain ridges to obtain a distance which a thousand cavalry could make in one night. I am not sanguine of the success of the expedition. A similar one we have sent in a manner to try to capture 300 of the enemy's cavalry at Wallace's Cross-Roads, near Clinton. Both parties should reach their destination before daylight to-morrow morning.
GEORGE W. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p.142.
13, Fall of Murfreesboro to Confederate Forces and Federal Measures to Retain Control of Middle Tennessee
HDQRS., Huntsville, July 14, 1862.
Gen. SMITH, Cowan, or on the road:
The troops at Murfreesborough surrendered at 4 p.m. yesterday. One of the plans of the enemy and, I think the most probable, will be to sweep down the railroad. Make your dispositions accordingly. Those here indicated must vary according to circumstances. Leave a force of two regiments at least about Dechered, and push forward two regiments by cars to Duck River. The bulk of the force at Tullahoma to go to the same point. The force at Wartrace to fall back to that point if in danger. If the enemy should have made too great progress it may be necessary to make your stand this side of Duck River, but it is of great importance to save that bridge. See that you bridges are guarded, and send your trains back the moment you can unload them, so as to run no risk. Wood is marching on Fayetteville. Troops will reach there to-night. I calculate on getting supplies to you, but if not you must by some means live. Pay for what you take. Economize to the last degree. There are in all about ten regiments on your lines, including Walker's and Matthews'. The latter is probably at Wartrace. If you should fail and Duck River, which I do not at all apprehend, Elk River is the next most important point.
D. C. BUELL.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 145.
12, Scout to Bolivar environs, skirmish with and dispersal of R. R. Whites' guerrillas at Clover Creek near Big Hatchie
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Report of Maj. Datus E. Coon, Second Iowa Cavalry.
LA GRANGE, TENN. July 17, 1863.
SIR: I have to report the following in regard to the recent scout to and skirmish at Jackson, Tenn.:
According to order received on the night of the 11th, my command (the Second Iowa Cavalry) was in the saddle at 4 a. m. of the 12th. The two 12-pounder howitzers were also in column and amply provided with all necessary ammunition. Taking the Bolivar road, we were at 12 m. in that place, a distance of 22 miles. After a halt of a few moments, we moved forward northeard, when we soon struck the Big Hatchie River, and on crossing discovered the railroad bridge across the same and the trestle-work on the north side had been set on fire; the bridge entirely burned down; and the trestle-work also nearly consumed. On inquiry, learned from a negro [sic] that it was done by [R. R.] White's band of guerrillas, which was then encamped some 8 miles distant. My command having the advance, I moved forward cautiously for some 7 miles, when two guns were fired in front, and the advance company gave chase to two soldiers (a patrol), running them into their camp before they could give the alarm. The company in pursuit came upon them at Clover Creek, near a church, where they were at the time, some 30 in number, amusing themselves at a game of cards. The scattering of hats, boots, coats, knapsacks, &c., can be more easily imagined than described. It is sufficient to say that while our men were giving them two or three shots each from their revolving rifles, they skedaddled, some bootless and hatless, others guiding their horses by a simple rope halter. We camped that night at Foon's plantation, on the same creek.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24 pt. II, p. 677.
12, Political position announcement by John H. Savage, former Colonel of the 16th Tennessee Infantry and candidate for the Confederate House of Representatives for the Fifth Tennessee District (Smith, Macon, Wilson and DeKalb counties):
No caucus has been held in the Confederate States until the meeting at Winchester, which nominated my competitor Gov. Foote. This system [enables these men] to appoint your rulers. Under the pretense of union, harmony or party necessity, you have often been forced to vote contrary to your better judgment. It is for you to say whether your votes are to be thus controlled. In any event, important legislation will be demanded of the next Congress. If the war continues a reorganization of the army will be necessary.
The Regulations and Article of War are of but little protection to subalterns and privates against the grossest wrongs committed by superiors, and need amendment to maintain discipline and the spirit of the soldier. General officers should be held responsible for injuries to citizens resulting from their negligence, and want of discipline. Enough has occurred to injure our cause, and cast a shadow on the glory of our arms. In some sections, the people have been robbed of their property with impunity, which could have been prevented by commanders.
Your Governor [Isham G. Harris] is sworn to execute your laws -- yet no efforts have been made to enforce them and thus good [people] have been left without any protection. The seizure of the arms of loyal citizens, was in violation of the Constitution, and an insult to freemen; they ought to be returned, and the right of the citizen to keep them secured. It were [sic] better if every citizen owned a gun.
When peace shall be made, the army should be reduced at the earliest moment practicable. A military government or large standing army is not necessary. A people may be so educated and armed as to repel invasion or defend their rights against usurpation. My views upon the subject are published in my report upon the "Old Soldiers Bill" which passed the U. S. House of Representatives.
To assist the voter in judging whether Gov. Foote or myself is the better friend of the soldier and the country, it is hoped that a few facts maybe stated without subjecting me to the charge of vanity. I have been elected four times to represent my birth-place in the Congress of the United States, and claim to have been at all times a consistent friend of the South....
My competitor has served in both Congresses and has tried his skill upon the army, conscription, taxation, impressment and other subjects.
I have been twice discharged as a private soldier from the armies of the United States in 1836-7, and served as an officer under Gen. Scott in the battles at the city of Mexico. At the beginning of this war I considered it a duty to take charge of the sons of my friends and constituents, and teach them to be soldiers. My regiment (16th Tennessee) met the enemy in Virginia, South Carolina, Perryville and Murfreesboro -- maintaining the honor of your arms by toilsome marches, and the loss of many brave men. It is not my fault that I am not now in the service. It was my wish to remain, if it could have been done without a violation of those customs that have governed modern armies. My resignation was forwarded because a gentleman in all respects my junior, and not in the line of the army, was promoted and placed in command over me. The army and my conscience approve my course. If not worthy of promotion I was unfit to command a regiment. If wronged, it would have been unjust to the living and the dead to submit to a system of favoritism, which has done more, to create dissatisfaction and destroy the spirit of the soldier than any other cause. The friend of the laws, equality and order-the enemy of combinations, partiality and artifice, I shall contend whatever be the result of this election.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 12, 1863.
12, Federal depredations following the Tullahoma Campaign, the observations of Brigadier-General John Beatty
Our soldiers, I am told, have been entering the houses of private citizens, taking whatever they saw fit, and committing many outrages. I trust, however, they have not been doing so badly as the people would have us believe. The latter are all disposed to grumble; and if a hungry soldier squints wistfully at a chicken, some one is ready to complain that the fowls are in danger, and that they are the property of a lone woman, a widow, with nothing under the sun to eat but chickens. In nine cases out of ten the husbands of these lone women are in the Confederate army; but still they are women, and should be treated well.
Beatty, Citizen Soldier, p. 296.
12, Temporary occupation of Lewisburg [see July 11-18, 1863, "Federal Cavalry Expedition Encompassing Shelbyville, Farmington, the Occupation of Lewisburg, Columbia and Centreville; Excerpts from a Letter by Major James A. Connolly, 123rd Illinois Volunteers, to his wife, July 21, 1863" above]
13, Federal Capture of Columbia [see July 11-18, 1863, "Federal Cavalry Expedition Encompassing Shelbyville, Farmington, the Occupation of Lewisburg, Columbia and Centreville; Excerpts from a Letter by Major James A. Connolly, 123rd Illinois Volunteers, to his wife, July 21, 1863" above]
13, "A Family Poisoned"
The family of Capt. James Hughes, residing on College street, South Nashville, were poisoned Monday evening. It is supposed that arsenic was put into a portion of the food which constituted their supper, and of which they had eaten. Capt. Hughes, Mrs. Hughes, Master Hughes, and Miss Hughes, a daughter of Capt. Hughes (who was spending the evening with her relatives,) and four negroes [sic], were more or less affected by the poison. The Captain, his wife and niece are very seriously poisoned. It is believed that the poison was put into a mess of butter of which cakes were made, and into a dish of fried chicken; inasmuch as a son of Captain Hughes, some fifteen years of age, did not partake of either the cakes or chicken, and escaped. A little negro girl, who had runaway, was on Monday caught by Capt. H. and sent home. She did not eat any supper, although repeatedly pressed to do so by one of the negroes [sic] who is badly poisoned. This fact caused her to be suspected, and she is under arrest. We learn that she denies the charge, and accuses the cook, who is herself amongst the number poisoned, though slightly. It is stated also that the cook was recently chastised and made threats of revenge.
It is a sad affair. The guilty party should be punished severely.
Nashville Daily Union, July 15, 1863.
13, Excerpt from the Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, commending the officers under his command and relative to skirmishing between gunboats and guerrillas on the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers.
U. S. MISSISSIPPI SQUADRON FLAG SHIP BLACK HAWK, Off Vicksburg, July 13, 1863.
* * * *
The war on the banks of the Tennessee and Cumberland has been carried on most actively; there has been incessant skirmishing between the guerrillas and gunboats, in which the rebels have-been defeated in every instance. So constant are these attacks that we cease to think of them as of any importance, though there has been much gallantry displayed on many occasions.
* * * *
DAVID D. PORTER, Acting Rear-Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron.
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 25, p. 277.
13, Resolutions from the State Union Convention
Nashville, Tenn. July 13 1863 [sic]
I have the honor to enclose to you a copy of the resolutions reported by a Committee and adopted by the Convention or Meeting of Union men recently assembled in this City.
Very respy Your Obt Servt
Horace H. Harrison Secretary [sic]
July 3, 6, 1863
Resolved that all laws ordinances and resolutions passed by the Legislature of Tennessee since April 12, 1861, intended to affect constitutional changes in the government of the State and to Separate it from the Federal Union, are unauthorized, the work of usurpation, and therefore void.
Resolved that in view of these circumstances and the condition of the State resulting from such pretended legislation, it is of vital importance to the people to elect a Legislature to meet at the capitol, on the 1st Monday of Oct next or as soon thereafter as practicable.
Resolved that as the overthrow by treason of the civil powers of the State has demanded the exercise of the power granted to the Federal Government to guarantee to every State a republican form of government – that this convention Cordially approves the action of the President in the appointment of Andrew Johnson Military Governor of Tennessee. [sic]
Resolved that we request Gov Andrew Johnson to issue writs of Election, and appoint such agents as may be nescessary [sic] to hold Elections for members of the Legislature on the 1st Thursday in August next or as soon thereafter as may be expedient, and that he provide Such [sic] agents with the means of carrying out the purpose, [sic] of such appointment.
Resolved that we fully approve the course of policy of Gov Johnson as Military Governor of the State and pledge to him our hearty co-operation and support, in whatever measures may be requisite for the restoration of Tennessee and her people to their Civil and Federal relations[.]
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 288-289.
13-14, Federal surprise descent upon, occupation and evacuation of Columbia
The Federals came into Columbia about 2 o'clock p. m. [and] surrounded many soldiers and took them prisoners and] took many horses[,] mules &c great alarm & running amongst our soldiers &citizens (2 Regts [sic] of cavalry) I now has [sic] this happened that no one knew the Federals was near until they were in & around the Town shooting & driving all around the town. It seems there has been a screw loose somewhere why is this so, [sic] have our people become indolent & lost their energy or what is the matter.
Diary of Nimrod Porter, July 13, 1863.
The Federals left Columbia about 12 o'clock today, after taking all the horses (& some negroes [sic]) they could git [sic] they left on the road to Mt. Pleasant.
Diary of Nimrod Porter, July 14, 1863. 
Report of Col. Edward Hatch, Second Iowa Cavalry, commanding Expedition.
HEADQUARTERS SECOND CAVALRY BRIGADE, LaGrange, Tenn., July 19, 1863.
In compliance with orders of Col. Mizner to proceed to Jackson, there attack and disperse the Confederate force at that point, then scour the country in that vicinity, returning to LaGrange as soon as possible, left camp on the morning of the 12th of July, with 360 of the Third Michigan, 300 of the Second Iowa, and 200 of the First West Tennessee Cavalry. Marched northeast through Bolivar, camped 14 miles from there on the Denmark road, and was joined there by the Ninth Illinois Infantry, 300 strong. Moved on the morning of the 13th to Denmark. There learning the enemy were concentrating, and, in compliance with the order of Col. Biffle [Confederate commander], posted through the country, all squads and companies and parts of regiments were to meet at Jackson for organization, pushed on immediately by the Brownsville road, sending Col. Hurst with the First Tennessee Cavalry round by the Woodville road, the only approach to the town where the bridges crossing Forked Deer River and sloughs were left standing. Companies of the Third Michigan Cavalry, commanded by Capts. Nugent and Dyckman, carried rapidly in a lively skirmish all the bridges but the three nearest the town (there are sixteen in all). The enemy, having a very strong position, held the last three bridges until the Ninth Illinois could drive out the enemy's skirmishers on the right, and two companies of the Third Michigan had crossed the stream well up on the enemy's left. As soon as our men had opened on the flanks, and one of the Third Michigan guns had shelled the woods on the right of the bridges, I ordered Capt. Nugent and Capt. Latimer's companies, of the Third Michigan Cavalry, to charge and carry the bridges, which was quickly and gallantly done. Capt. Reese and Capt. Lattimer, of the Third Michigan, with their companies, quickly taking possession of a log house on the enemy's left, held them in check until the howitzers of the Third Michigan had shelled the woods in front. Leaving two companies to guard the bridges, moved my lines forward, the Ninth Illinois Infantry on the left, the Third Michigan in the center, with the saber companies of the Second Iowa on the right flank, and the Second Iowa Rifles in reserve, our skirmishers driving the enemy toward town, where he had taken a strong position, holding two forts on the south side of Jackson and the curtain connecting them with dismounted men, with mounted men on the left in line and in force sufficient to overlap my right. The Ninth Illinois had approached the forts within 300 yards when the enemy poured in a volley too high to do any hurt. Col. Phillips took them immediately in a dash so rapid that the rebels had not time to reload, many throwing down their arms and flying in great disorder. At the same moment of Col. Phillips' attack, the enemy's mounted force in large number threatening a charge, I charged them with the saber companies, riding down and breaking up their line.
The enemy's flight had then become a thorough rout, our mounted rifles and sabers charging them in every direction. Many of the companies were 6 miles east and north of town, and scarcely had the Ninth Illinois Infantry rallied on the northeast side of Jackson, and collected its men, when Biffle (Confederate), with his regiment and one battalion of Roddey's old regiment, in all 800 strong, approaching on the Trenton road, attacked the Ninth with great spirit, and, by constantly outflanking Col. Phillips, compelled him to fall back. Rallying four companies on his right, of the Second Iowa and Third Michigan, drove the enemy back, holding him in check until my lines could form in force enough to whip him. Biffle, with his Confederate re-enforcements, had gradually concentrated the broken forces first attacked and scattered, consisting of Cols. [J. A.] Forrest's, [N. N.] Cox's, and [J. F.] Newsom's regiments, with a dozen or more detached companies, with the evident determination of driving us back. On my right were six companies of the Michigan and Iowa Rifles, in the center the Ninth Illinois Infantry and one howitzer, and on the left six companies of the Second Iowa Rifles. Col. Moyers, with a portion of the Third Michigan, was holding in check a force on my right and rear. At the moment of attack I was obliged to send the First Tennessee Cavalry, about 200 strong, to check Roddey's battalion, which attacked my left and rear. The enemy then attacked with great spirit, coming on rapidly in the face of sharp firing, forcing the left, and the Ninth Illinois, in the center, back to a ridge near town. Wheeling my right to the left, I drove out the enemy pressing the Ninth Illinois. I then advanced the entire line rapidly, driving the enemy from ridge to ridge, advancing my guns, and shelling the forts and rifle-pits on the north side of the town, killing many of the enemy. On the right the enemy were broken and flying before Col. Moyers. It was then nearly dark. I immediately pursued them on the different roads from 10 to 15 miles. The night was very dark and foggy, and it was impossible for me to ascertain the direction in which the enemy had fled--supposed it was the Trenton road. At daylight in the morning learned they were retreating in detachments toward the Tennessee River, and that [R. V.] Richardson, with 400 men, was crossing the Hatchie at Estenaula. Sent the First Tennessee Cavalry eastward, toward Lexington, with orders to return by the way of Mifflin, Montezuma, and Bolivar, or Montezuma and Purdy; the Ninth Illinois Infantry by Bolivar, to Pocahontas; the Third Michigan by way of Denmark, Dancyville, Wesley's, and Somerville, and the Second Iowa by Estenaula, Whiteville, and Newcastle.
The women of Jackson, previous to our attack on the town, carried ammunition for the enemy in a very gallant manner under fire.
During the attack on the town, the enemy barricaded the streets and fired from the windows. Lieut. Humphrey, of the Second Iowa, was wounded severely from shots from a window. On one street, however, two companies of flying rebels were mistaken, in the smoke and dust, for our men, and were badly handled by a party of the enemy behind a barricade. Our men having found thirty barrels of whisky, it gave me as much trouble to save the town from fire during the fight as it did to whip the enemy, and from the same cause we lost a large number of prisoners. I saved the town from burning by the greatest exertions, and protected all the private dwellings. The stores, I regret to say, were plundered by negroes [sic] and stragglers during the fight. In one we found seventeen kegs of powder.
The companies of the Third Michigan, who gallantly carried the bridges, are deserving of great praise. Lieut. Wilson, of the Third Michigan howitzers, shelled the rebels out of a strong position, with credit to his firing. Col. Phillips fought his men splendidly, advancing at a double-quick 3 miles, driving, killing, and wounding many of the enemy. The saber companies of the Second Iowa Cavalry charged with the greatest boldness. After we had obtained a foothold north of the river, the enemy was driven so rapidly at all points that his fire was not in the least effective, firing whole volleys over our men.
On my return, Capt. Dyckman, of the Third Michigan, with three augers and four axes, constructed a pontoon at Estenaula, on the Big Hatchie River, 175 feet long, in four hours, over which we crossed the command, our artillery, and wagons in perfect safety. The enemy had 4 captains, 3 lieutenants, and 31 men killed, and not less than 150 wounded. We destroyed 300 stand of arms and captured about 200 horses. The conscripts which the enemy had in confinement were allowed to go before we entered the town, and escaped to their homes; said to be from 300 to 400....There are from ten to fifteen slight wounds, not disabling the men from duty. I have, therefore, not reported these men as wounded.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
EDWARD HATCH, Col. Second Iowa Cavalry, Comdg. Second Cavalry Brigade.
OR, I, 24, pt. II, pp. 674-675.
Report of Lieut. Col. William K. M. Breckenridge, Sixth Tennessee [US] Cavalry.
GRAND JUNCTION, TENN., September 28, 1863.
Our regiment was in the rear, and, after crossing the river, I was ordered to take charge of all the wagons and led horses, as the men were mostly dismounted, and as the command advanced I moved up the led horses until I arrived at the edge of town. I there received an order from an orderly to take charge of the prisoners and picket the town. I then rode up to the court-house, where the prisoners were, and while there a citizen came to me and reported that the citizens were carrying out whisky by the bucket-full and giving it to the men, and I rode over to where they were and had the whisky all spilled that I could find.
I then went to where my reserve was, and sent Lieut. Lewis with 10 men to destroy all the liquor they could find. In a short time he came to me and said that the men were breaking into the houses, and I ordered him to go and stop them, and to arrest every man he found in a house. He then went off, and in a short time returned and told me of Mrs. A. A. Newman's millinery shop or store, and I ordered him to put a guard over the house. There were a good many stragglers around town, and after dark I and another officer of the command, I do not know his name or regiment, heard a noise at a door, and started to see about it, and on the way I found about 30 men, I suppose, in and in front of a store. He said they belonged to his regiment, and I ordered them out, and the owner then shut the door and we went on, and in a few minutes returned; they were trying to get in again. I sent the officer to send them off, and I spent the most of my time that night in running from place to place trying to keep everything quiet and seeing to the wounded. And in the morning, when Col. Hatch returned to town, the men broke open houses and took all they wanted, and took buggies and wagons and loaded them with goods and boots, &c. I stood in the court-house yard and saw a portion of his command pass, and nearly every man had something that had been taken out of the place.
W. K. M. BRECKENRIDGE, Lieut.-Col. Sixth Tennessee Cavalry.
Statement of Lieut. Samuel Lewis, Sixth Tennessee Cavalry.
GRAND JUNCTION, TENN., October 4, 1863.
I was in command of my company, and was held back in charge of some prisoners. When the regiment advanced I moved up into the edge of town. Col. Breckenridge being informed by a citizen that the citizens were giving our men whisky, Col. Breckenridge ordered me to take some men and proceed to all suspicious places in town and destroy all the whisky I could find; and while I was searching for whisky, I went into one millinery store belonging to a widow lady, and found her very much excited about the soldiers carrying out her goods. She demanded of me a guard. I went to Col. Breckenridge and related her circumstances to him, and he told me to give her a guard. I then advanced to the court-house and took charge of the prisoners, with James J. Smith, lieutenant of the same company. I remained there all night, writing paroles for prisoners. Next morning I went out some distance north of the court-house, where the wounded were, and fell in company with Col. Hurst. We had a conversation about the way the soldiers were treating the citizens. He ordered me to go and tell my men not to interrupt anything in town. As I was returning to my command, I saw Col. Hatch's men, of the Third Michigan, or the Second Iowa Cavalry, breaking open store-house doors and carrying out goods of almost every description.
SAMUEL LEWIS, Lieut. Company A, Sixth Tennessee Cavalry Volunteers.
Statement of Lieut. Edward L. Harden, Sixth Tennessee (Union) Cavalry.
GRAND JUNCTION, TENN., October 4, 1863.
In reference to Col. Hatches fight at Jackson, Tenn., on the 14th [13th] of July, 1863, I was in command of my company that day, and was held back to support one of our guns, and remained there until the fight was over. When I was ordered back to town it was getting dark. About the time I returned to town, one company of the Third Michigan Cavalry was there, and was breaking open houses and taking what they wanted. I saw them taking goods out of the houses myself. Col. Breckenridge ordered me to go and stop them, and I went and ordered them away, and they went off. But just as soon as I went away they went back to breaking open others, and taking what they could carry. I went, then, and told the captain commanding them, and he turned round and yelled out to them to take those horses away from the doors, and not let them kick them down, and that was all he would say to them. The next morning, when Col. Hatch and his command came through, his men would stop all along the line, and run to the houses and take what they wanted; and at Mrs. A. A. Newman's millinery shop I saw the Third Michigan Cavalry carrying the things out and burning them, and taking what they wanted with them.
EDWARD L. HARDEN, Company F, Sixth Tennessee Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, pp. 679-680.
Report of Maj. Datus E. Coon, Second Iowa Cavalry.
* * * *
On Monday, the 13th, nothing of interest transpired until orders were received to move three saber companies to the front, when within miles of Jackson. The three companies ordered up were E, L, and M, Capt. William W. Eaton commanding.
By order, I remained some ten minutes for the balance of the command, which were then waiting for the lead horses to pass a narrow defile on the bridge. As soon as over, my rifles were formed in squadron column on the right of the Michigan cavalry. But very soon there was a general strife to see who should be first to charge the town, which was fairly done by the three companies above mentioned. They charged the town and penetrated it in almost every conceivable direction. In one instance they were met by a superior force, and the street blockaded, but by a flank movement to the right and left they succeeded in capturing some 20 of the enemy's cavalry. In one place the conflict was so close between Company M and a superior force of Forrest's men that one man, named H. H. Burner, had a hand-to-hand fight after exhausting all the weapons in his hands.
At this time Second Lieut. John K. Humphrey was very seriously wounded, and taken to the nearest house. While this was being enacted to the front, the left flank was furiously attacked by Col. Biffle's, regiment (Ninth [Nineteenth] Tennessee Cavalry), and on my arrival at that point I sent an orderly to Lieut. Belden, directing him to say that should he need assistance he would send for me upon that street. At this time the enemy was pressing two companies advanced as skirmishers very hard, and threatened to drive in our entire left flank. Having sent, by order of Col. Hatch, two rifle companies to the front to support the three carbine companies, I could only dismount two companies (B and F), and send them to the support of the infantry, the balance of my regiment having been detained at the bridge by led horses and teams. But in due time the First Battalion, Capt. Charles C. Horton commanding, arrived, when I sent them to the left of the infantry, that I might, if possible, drive in the enemy's right. About this time Lieut. Reed, with one howitzer, arrived. I ordered it planted immediately, which was done, and several shells were thrown into the midst of a squad at a distance of near 600 yards. The effect was good. The enemy soon left, not being able to keep steady amid the explosion of shell.
Immediately after the rebels had dispersed, a white flag appeared in the road running north, and waved there for some five minutes, when I directed a mounted orderly to advance with a white handkerchief and ascertain the cause. In a short time he returned, and reported that the flag was displayed to protect wounded soldiers in a house near by.
Col. Hatch then ordered me to collect my men and pursue as fast as possible. In a few moments all were up, and, throwing out heavy flanking companies, I moved forward as fast as practicable through thick timber and undergrowth. On advancing some 3 miles, we came to the conclusion that there had been but a small squad retreating on that road; but owing to the long march of the day, besides the engagement, which occupied from 12.30 p. m. until 5.30 p. m., we halted and camped for the night at 7 miles distance from Jackson.
Early in the morning of the 14th, I moved back to Jackson, forming a line of battle facing the east, where I remained until about 10 a. m., when I received orders to move toward LaGrange, on the road we came.
On the 15th, my men assisted in building a floating bridge over the Big Hatchie at Estenaula, which was done, and the command crossed over in some eight hours.
On the night of the 15th, we camped 24 miles north of LaGrange, reaching camp at the same place some time before sunset of the 16th.
The entire casualties of this engagement were Second Lieut. John K. Humphrey, Company M, wounded by musket ball, and also by a spent ball in left shoulder blade, and Second Lieut. Frank L. Stoddard, Company B, elbow dislocated by being thrown from his mule in the charge, and 2 men only missing.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
DATUS E. COON, Maj., Commanding Second Iowa Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, pp. 677-678.
MEMPHIS, TENN., July 15, 1863.
Lieut. Col. JOHN A. RAWLINS, A. A. G., Dept. of the Tenn.:
* * * *
The evident intention of the enemy is to occupy West Tennessee with cavalry, and conscript until they can raise force enough to threaten the railroad or the river posts. Col. Forrest's regular cavalry, 700 strong, with revolving rifles, are at or near Jackson, and, united with Biffle's and other bands, gave a severe fight to Col. Hatch on the 13th at that place. They were defeated, with loss on our side of 30 to pursuing them toward Trenton.
* * * *
S. A. HURLBUT.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 515.
MEMPHIS, TENN., July 15, 1863.
Brig.-Gen. ASBOTH, Columbus:
GEN.: Hatch, with his cavalry, met the enemy at Jackson on the 13th. Captured 40 prisoners; killed and wounded many. Drove them out of Jackson by a charge, and was following them toward Trenton. If they are driven across the Obion, you must co-operate with him. In the meanwhile, enjoin and enforce the most rigid discipline and preparation at all your posts. I expect Kimball's division soon, when I shall send you three regiments.
S. A. HURLBUT.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 515.
BATTLE AT JACKSON, TENNESSEE.
Colonel Hatch Triumphant.
Two Rebel Companies Captured.
It is known to our readers that for several days past the Confederates, under various leaders, have been making themselves as troublesome as possible to the people of West Tennessee. Col. Ed. Hatch, who has done such excellent service heretofore in punishing the rebels in North Mississippi, started from Lagrange last Sunday [12th] morning, to look after the Confederates, then in Jackson, Tennessee. His force numbered about 1300 men, and on reaching Jackson about noon Monday [13th], he found Col. Jesse Forrest in possession of the town, with about 2000 or 2500 men. Immediately he gave battle, and a most desperate fight occurred, lasting for about three hours. Finally Col. Hatch led a desperate charge with sabers and pistols, driving the rebels in and through the town, and capturing two entire companies. Col. Hatch's loss was 40 to 50 killed and wounded, that of the enemy estimated at three times that number. At last accounts, Col. Hatch had left a garrison in Jackson, and was in full pursuit of Forrest and his retreating forces.
We trust that we shall speedily have the gratification of announcing that every armed rebel and guerrilla has been driven out of West Tennessee.
Memphis Bulletin, July 16, 1863.
"Rebel Operations in West Tennessee"
Col. Hatch Goes After Them.
Defeats Them in Three Battles.
Kills and Captures a Large Number
For some weeks a considerable force of rebel cavalry, under command of Colonel Jesse Forest, has been annoying the defenseless citizens of Madison, Henderson and Haywood counties. The rebels, no doubt, supposed that they had their own way. Jackson, Tennessee, became their headquarters. From this place they were wont to make their marauding raids for the purpose of capturing horses, and such other property as they could use. The property of Union men especially suffered, horses, mules and cattle were driven off. Of course the chivalry [sic] did not think to compensate the owners. Such a state of affairs, however, could not last long. Col. Ed. Hatch, of the 6th Iowa cavalry, was sent out to chastise the rebels. We learn from gentlemen who has [sic] come in from that section of country that he has most effectually succeeded. Col. Hatch met and defeated Forrest at Jackson, Tennessee, on the 13th inst., and made a triumphant entrance into that place. On he 14th Col Hatch went in pursuit of the retreating rebels. He succeeded in overtaking them near Spring creek, when another fight occurred, resulting in the discomfiture of the rebels. He succeeded in capturing forty prisoners. The rebel loss in killed and wounded amounted to sixty-seven. After this successful result, Colonel Hatch sent a portion of his forces to make a detour in the neighborhood of Cageville, which is a post village of Haywood county, and where a rebel force had been recently committing some depredations. This party was likewise successful, having met about one hundred rebels a few miles from that place. A skirmish ensued, in which the rebels lost twelve of their number prisoners, four killed, and seven wounded. Col Hatch's losses were very light, only some seventeen killed. The roving bands of guerrillas, who have been troubling the citizens of our State, will learn that they cannot trespass on our Union soil with impunity.
Memphis Bulletin, July 18, 1863.
The Capture of Jackson, Tenn.
The following authentic details of the taking of Jackson, Tenn., by Col. Hatch, of the 6th Iowa volunteers, gives further particulars of that gallant affair than any we had previously received:
The 2d Iowa and 3d Michigan regiments were led by Col. Edward Hatch against the rebels, who held the place, under command of Gen. Forrest. These regiments stormed the fortifications and, after one of the sharpest cavalry fights of the war, in which the enemy's cavalry fought better than the attacking party had ever before known them to do, a complete victory was gained and the proud flag of the Union floated above the fortifications at Jackson. The enemy's cavalry were fiercely attacked by General Hatch, and his men rode them down like nine-pins, putting them completely to flight. The enemy acknowledge that they had a large superiority of numbers, and that they were whipped; this stamps the battle as a gallant affair.
The 9th Illinois infantry, under Col. Phillips, charged one of the forts, and in spite of an obstinate defense, gallantry took it. The force of the enemy consisted of the 9th Tennessee rifles, and the troops under Cox, Newsome, Nealy, and some guerrilla leaders. Their prisoners confessed that not less than twenty-five hundred of their troops were present in the engagement.
The enemy had one hundred and seventy eight men killed and wounded, including ten commissioned officers. One hundred and fifty prisoners, regular troops, were taken; four hundred conscripts were allowed to go. Among the material captured were three hundred stand of arms.
Memphis Bulletin, July 21, 1863.
Hatch After the Confederates in West Tennessee.
Lagrange, Tenn., July 16, 1863
Special Correspondence of the Memphis Bulletin.
Col. Hatch left Lagrange on the 12th inst. with the 2d Iowa and the 3d Michigan cavalry, each regiment having two twelve pound howitzers attached, the 1st West Tennessee cavalry, and a part of the 9th Illinois mounted infantry, numbering in all 1,300 effective men, and proceeded to Bolivar, and front thence to Jackson, but way of Denmark, where he arrived on the 13 inst. about noon.
The enemy's pickets were first struck near the bridge over the Forked Deer river, and the Brownsville road. The 3d Michigan, which was in advanced, were immediately dismounted, and sent forward with instructions to drive the enemy back as speedily as possible, as it was feared that he would receive reinforcements, and thus be able to prevent our men from entering town on that road. Co. Hatch was, however, held in check for some time, notwithstanding a vigorous application of shell and grape, which could be used to little advantage, as the ground occupied by our force was low and thickly wooded. At length Captain Nugent called for volunteers to charge the enemy, and if possible drive him from his position. Twenty-five stepped forward, and with these the captain started firing and shouting as he went. This was too much for secesch, and they broke and ran in confusion.
Our men then mounted their horses and prepared for a charge into town. The preliminaries were very soon arranged, and the 2d Iowa, with Col. Hatch at the head, and the 3d Michigan, led by Lieut. Col. Moyers, were presently yelling like demons and going at the top of their speed into town and through it in all conceivable directions.
About fifty of the rebels were encountered in the streets, and a hand-to-hand contest occurred, in which the rebs [sic] struggled nobly, but were overcome and most of them captured. While the charge was being made Col. Bithel's regiment, which was occupying a position to the north of the town, commenced a vigorous attack on the left flank of our charging columns, but were met on their right by the 9th Illinois, and Captain Nugent, who had been sent around to the left for the purpose of cutting off, if possible, some of the enemy who might be trying to effect their escape from town on the roads leading north, and on the right by Col. Hatch himself, who collected what force happened to be near him, and held the enemy in check until our forces could be collected.
A sharp fight, lasting for about an hour, followed, and resulted in a total and complete route of the enemy. The enemy lost in killed thirty-one men, and captured, including wounded, one hundred and thirty.
The bravery displayed by our men was worthy of the high praise. Col. Hatch had his horse shot three times. The colonel commanding the 9th Illinois rode constantly up and down his line of skirmishers during the heaviest of the fight, encouraging his men and leading on to victory.
Memphis Bulletin, July 23, 1863.
13-22, Federal foraging expedition, from Winchester, Tennessee, to Huntsville, Alabama, via Fayetteville and Pulaski, Tennessee.
JULY 13-22, 1863.- Expedition to Huntsville, Ala.
Report of Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley, U. S. Army.
WINCHESTER [Tenn.], July 22, 1863.
GEN.: I arrived here this morning. Mitchell's division is at Fayetteville. Long's brigade is at Pulaski. Minty's brigade, with Turchin is at Salem. Long will go to Lawrenceburg and farther, if he can hear anything of Biffle, and attack him. I brought away in all about 300 contrabands, collected about 500 cattle, and the same number of horses and mules. The mules are good, the horses not so good. A force of 10,000 could be subsisted in the Huntsville country-plenty of corn mutton and beef, and if we don't eat it the rebels will. We need many new saddles.
D. S. STANLEY, Maj.-Gen.
Maj. Gen. W.S. ROSECRANS.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 825.
An Expedition into the Enemy's Country.
A correspondent of the Chicago Times, writing from Normandy, Tenn., under date of July 22, gives the following description of an important expedition:
On the 23rd, Maj. Gen. Stanley, commanding the cavalry, returned from his expedition to Huntsville, Ala. The object of the raid was to collect as many negroes [sic] as possible for service in the colored command, and all the horses and mules yet in the country, for the use of the army.
The expedition, consisting of the cavalry divisions of Gens. Mitchell and Turchin, started from Salem on the 13th inst. Col. Long with his brigade, took the advance on the 12th, while Col. Galbraith, on the same day, with the First Middle Tennessee and Third Ohio, took the road leading to Pulaski, by way of Fayetteville.
The main column proceeded as far as Newmarket [AL] where a halt was ordered, and foraging parties were sent through the country to collect supplies-the command having started with the intention of subsisting off the country.
Irregularities and insufferable outrages in the war of foraging having been practiced by soldiers on former expeditions, the General issued the following order before leaving camp:
Headquarters, Chief of Cavalry, Department of the Cumberland, Burk's [?] House
Five miles from Winchester, July 9, 1863
General Orders, No. 57
Hereafter no soldier will be allowed to enter the house of any citizen in the country through which the command passes. Any soldier violating this order will be arrested at once and summarily dealt with.
The manner of pressing mules and horses for the use of the United States has been repeatedly explained to this command, it is now repeated, that taking of any horse or mule, or other property, without the receipt of a commissioned offer, is theft; and any soldier found in possession of a horse of mule not properly receipted for will be deemed guilty of horse stealing, and upon conviction, such soldier will be whipped, the uniforms stripped from him, and be drummed out of camp. [emphasis added]
By command of
Maj.-Gen. D. S. Stanley
The attention of subordinate officers was especially called to the order, and violations on the part of the soldiers detected in two instances, resulted in the dangerous wounding of one, and the sentencing of another, but a Drumhead Commission, of two years' confinement in the Penitentiary at Jeffersonville, after having one half of his head shaved as a mark of disgrace…..
* * * *
Col. Galbraith passed without molestation through Fayetteville and the country intervening between that place and Pulaski, until his advance guard had entered the limits of the later village. Three hundred rebel cavalry entered the opposite side of the town just as Col Galbraith's command entered on the main road leading to Athens [AL]. A fight ensued, which resulted in the killing of three of the enemy, the taking of fifty prisoners and the precipitate retreat of the remainder. Among the prisoners taken is Gen. Chatham's Quartermaster, who, detained by the charms of a bewitching young wife, to whom he had been married but a few short days, was spending a blissful honey moon, besides collecting, for the use of the rebel army, all the horses and mules in the neighborhood. The fruits of his labors in the way of collecting animals were turned to good account. He was mercilessly torn from the arms of a loving wife, and, together with his booty, turned into Uncle Sam.
Col. Galbraith reached Huntsville by way of Athens, with 200 horses and mules, and nearly 200 negroes [sic].
* * * *
On the following day [21st], Gen. Mitchell came to Fayetteville; Col. Galbraith, with the First Middle Tennessee, was sent to Shelbyville to rid the country of bushwhackers, and to recruit, while the balance of the command moved on to Salem.
The expedition brought into camp, on the 22d, between five and six hundred negroes [sic] and one thousand horses and mules.
It is common to represent that expeditions prove entire successes, but this brought along the evidence, and it is so plain that it is unnecessary to mention that flattering success attended it.
New York Times, August 4, 1863.
12, "Outrages by Guerrilla Bands on the Cumberland Border."
From the Louisville Journal, July 11.
The region of country bordering on the Cumberland river in the vicinity of Clarksville is swarming with bold marauding bands. The guerrilla organizations have sprung into existence as if by magic, and, bidding defiance to all law and authority, they roam through the country, carrying terror with their advance, acknowledging no principle but robbery and wholesale plunder. There is no security in property while they are permitted to occupy the country, and theft and arson may write the gaunt lines of want and poverty to-morrow where prosperity smiles to-day. To oppose the robbers in any of their designs, is but to exasperate the villains and feel the strong arm of swift and terrible vengeance. Your chambers may be ruthlessly plundered, you homesteads reduced to ashes by the firebrand, or even blood and life may pay the forfeit. The scoundrels thus banded together for pillage are desperate characters, devoid of feeling, reckless of life, and men acquainted with the secret paths leading to secret haunts in mountain wilds, or in the jungles of the swamps. Reared among the scenes, they are to them but as the familiar haunts of childhood's love and boyhood's pride. Federal cavalry, unacquainted with the country, lose all of their effectiveness when sent in pursuit of these bold marauders. The guerrillas appear and disappear by unknown paths with such swiftness that their movements become perfectly bewildering to the pursuers. The citizens are at the mercy of the thieving scoundrels, and they can scarcely entertain a hope for deliverance. On last Friday night [8th] a gang of these horse-thieving guerrillas surrounded the house of Mr. Pace, residing on the Cumberland river, twelve miles from Clarksville, and, without cause, in a manner most brutal and cowardly, shot him through the body, wounding him so severely that he has since died. The act was fiendish-a cold calculating murder.
From along the Cumberland border reports come to us dark with darker deeds, and sickening in all their details. Robbery, arson, persecution, and murder make up the horrid catalogue of crime.
On Saturday evening [9th] the down train on the Memphis Branch railroad was fired into at the State line by a party of these roving guerrillas. They numbered twenty-seven, and were under command of a blood-thirsty cutthroat who styled himself Captain Jones. They gang had stationed themselves in close proximity to the road, and on the train passing the point a murderous volley was discharged into it. The cars were badly riddled by the shots, many of the galls passing through both sides of the passenger coaches. A number of ladies were aboard, and their escape from the flying missiles was almost miraculous. The engineer was wounded in the leg. The main fire appeared to be directed toward the locomotive. The villains afterward acknowledged that they entertained an old grudge against the engineer, and that it was their intention to kill him if possible. While the murderous fire continued the engineer stood bravely at his post, and, instead of bringing his train to a halt, pressed on all steam, and accelerated his speed, making good his escape with the entire train. The practice of firing into passenger trains we have frequently condemned as fiendish, and we can only repeat our words in the present case. Every villain caught in the perpetration of such atrocities, partaking of, if not rivaling, the horrible scenes of the Vandalic age, should be shot down, or strung up by the neck, without mercy.
Nashville Dispatch, July 12, 1864.
12-15, Scout in Lincoln County
JULY 12-15, 1864.-Scout in Lincoln County, Tenn.
Report of Maj. John F. Armstrong, Fifth Tennessee (Union) Cavalry.
HDQRS. FIFTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY, Tullahoma, Tenn., July 19, 1864.
MAJ.: In obedience to orders I marched from this place July 12, at 6 a. m., and surrounded the house of Mr. Blade, on Hurricane Creek, about nine miles southeest of this place, and searched for a man by the name of McNight but could not find him. I then went on about two miles and camped, sending back William Shasteen and his brother, former associates of McNight, to watch the house. At about daylight McNight came up, when the Shasteens killed [him], and reported the fact to me. I then sent a detachment back under Lieut. Davis, who carried the effects out of the house and burnt it. I then passed on, crossing Elk River at Manes' Ford. Leaving the Manes' Ford road to the left, I divided my force into two squads, sending one in the direction of Salem, and I moved down the river with the other, finding nothing, but could hear of them in small squads. We met at the Widow's Prior's, eight miles southeast of Fayetteville, at noon on the 14th, and moved out in the direction of the river, trying to secrete my force for the night, camping near the mouth of Stewart's Creek.
I sent Lieut. Davis with a party of men back to the Widow Prior's at about 2 a. m. of the 15th to reconnoiter. I moved out on the Huntsville road, killing 1 man, said to be Garland Miller. I proceed on to the Alabama line, then returned and camped at Fayetteville. The following morning I divided my force into three squads, one under Capt. Couch, which went in the direction of Boone's Hill; another under Capt. Cason, which went by the way of Sulphur Springs, and I took the other and scoured the country between Cane and Morris Creek. The three squads marched parallel, all meeting at Shelbyville, not finding any of the enemy but hearing of them in small squads.
From what I can learn I do not think there are more than fifty armed rebels in Lincoln County. I captured about 20 horses, which I have turned over to the acting quartermaster of this regiment.
J. F. ARMSTRONG, Maj. Fifth Tennessee Cavalry Volunteers.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 357-358.
12-18, Scout from Kingston to England Cove
JULY 7-18, 1864.-Scouts (7th-9th and 12th-18th) from Kingston to England Cove, Tenn.
Reports of Maj. Thomas H. Reeves, Fourth Tennessee (Union) Infantry.
HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Kingston, Tenn., July 9, 1864.
LIEUT.: I have the honor to report to you that on the 7th instant, about 7 a. m., I was informed that there were some guerrillas about Post Oak, seven miles from this place. I immediately went out in person with ten mounted scouts to ascertain the facts. I went out five miles when, I learned correctly that there were about twenty-rebels, under the command of Champ Ferguson, at or near that place pressing horses; so I knew my scout was too weak and returned to camp and pressed all the horses I could and mounted fifty more men and went in pursuit of them. I arrived at Post Oak at 1 p. m., and found that the rebels had taken 113 U. S. horses, which were in pasture there, and went toward Cumberland Mountains. They were then eight hours ahead of me. I pressed on as fast as possible all that day and until 8 p. m., when I was compelled to stop to graze my stock, as I had no feed with me. During the night I learned that there were about 400 more U. S. horses on the mountains at one Mr. Meade's, sent there by T. W. Fry, Jr., assistant quartermaster at this place--this was the first I knew of them being there; so, after grazing and resting my stock, I started out for Crossville, about 4 a. m. July 8, at which place I expected to find them, but there I learned that they (the rebels) had got the U. S. horses on the mountain, and has passed that they having then about 500 U. S. horses and mules. So I resolved to follow them again, thinking I might catch them. A portion of my stock was about giving out, so I ordered out thirty of the best horses to follow rapidly and the others to come on slowly, and again commenced the pursuit, which was continued until 12 m. July 8, without overtaking them, though we were close upon them. They left the road, took into the mountains, and as my stock was very tired I thought it best not to pursue farther. We captured 1 prisoner, retook 2, and several horses, 1 gun, &c., and returned as fast as we could to do our stock justice. Much credit is due the whole command for their untiring energy. Lieut. Patterson, One hundred and eighteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, post acting commissary of subsistence, was with me, and his services much appreciated. Lieut. Piper, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, with his men, did good service. We returned to Kingston, July 9, 5 p. m., without any loss in men or stock.
The leaders of the rebel band were Ferguson, Hughes, Clark, and Carter, all present in person. I lost no
in time in trying to capture them and recover the stock, but as they were so much ahead of me and my stock fatigued I could not possibly accomplish the desired end. The information received concerning their plans, &c., will fully compensate me for the trip. I have the honor, most respectfully, to request permission to mount 100 men and prepare myself with rations, forage, &c., to make one other attempt to recover the stock, as I know that I can do it successfully, besides taking a good deal more property, which they now have concealed in England Cove. This, I am sure, could be done without much, if any, loss. I went within thirteen miles of Sparta, at which place they left the road, and I followed them ten miles farther through the mountains. We are all very much fatigued and worn out. There is a mystery somewhere about them getting the stock, as the man who had it in charge was notified the night before that they were coming, and did not let me know it. I now have him in jail and will investigate the matter.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
T. H. REEVES, Maj., Cmdg. Forces.
HDQRS. FOURTH DIVISION, TWENTY-THIRD ARMY CORPS, Knoxville, Tenn., July 11, 1864.
Lieut. Col. G. M. BASCOM, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Department of the Ohio:
COL.: I have the honor to forward the report of Maj. Reeves, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, commanding at Kingston. It was forwarded to me from Loudon by Lieut.-Col. Patterson, and was received this morning. Orders have been given and an effort will be made to recover the stock and punish the raiders.
Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
J. AMMEN, Brig.-Gen. of Volunteers.
HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Kingston, July 20, 1864.
LIEUT.: The expedition ordered out to recapture, if possible, the Government stock stolen by guerrillas left this place July 12, 1864, with eighty infantry and twenty mounted men. They traveled in the direction of Sparta, Tenn., fifty-two miles, where they took to the right, so as to get into the head of England cove, at which place the stock were reported to be. Just one mile this side of where they turned to the right, the advance guard was fired upon by one rebel, who made his appearance in the road before them. The guard returned the fire and the rebel fled into the woods. The command moved on till 10 p. m., and halted for the night upon the top of the mountain. At daylight next morning [July 13] they descended the mountain and reached the head of the cove, through which the Calfkiller River runs. On reaching that spot they again came upon the bushwhackers and fired some fifty rounds at them, which created quite an excitement in the valley, and all the men fled to the mountains. It was ascertained then that the stock had been divided among the captors and had been driven into different parts of the mountains and counties. However, some few of the stock were found in out-of-the-day places. The citizens would not give any information about the stock nor against the guerrillas, and denied of knowing that any had been brought into that valley. The major commanding found that the citizens were all aiders and abettors to the thieving band. So he commenced to show them the rewards given to such people, and had their stock (private) and everything that his command could consume seized, and plundered every house from there to Sparta, finding in all thirty-three guns, some ammunition, and many articles which could not be brought away. For a distance of fifteen miles down the valley every house where good stock, arms, or goods of a contraband nature could be found, the most unparalleled plunder was committed.
The command charged into Sparta at 4 p. m. July 15, but found no armed rebels. Martial law was at once proclaimed, and every man in town was arrested; then for two hours the cries of women and children were intense, for they all expected the town to be burnt up and all the citizens killed. After plundering the town and examining the citizens they were released, with a few exceptions. The command left that place July 16, 9 a. m., for Kingston with 9 prisoners for various charges and some 25 recaptured Government stock and about the same amount of stock which had been pressed from citizens who were out guerrilla-ing. [sic]
The progress was uninterrupted from there back. Champ Ferguson has about twenty men, and commands them in person. His range is generally in the cove. Capt. Clark has fourteen men, and his range is above Spencer, a small town twelve miles south of Sparta. Camp Kearsy has about thirty men, and ranges near Smithville; while one Dunbar, up in Overton County, has about seventy-five, mostly of Morgan's disbanded crew from Kentucky. These are all the organized bodies now in those mountain ranges, and they are all regular desperadoes, taking no prisoners at all. The command exchanged some few shots with them, as they went down the valley, but no one was hurt. There is a small force of Federal soldiers at McMinnville, numbering about 200 men. They belong to the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry, and owing to the small garrison, are afraid to scout out at any distance. It is thought preparations are being made by the guerrillas to concentrate and make a raid upon some point, though they are so sly that nothing reliable could be obtained. The major-commanding expedition expected to find the guerrillas as he returned at Crossville trying to cut him off, but as he made a big impression about the number of men he had, they were afraid to try it. For the good of the service, there should be at least 100 well-mounted men sent into that cove to stay about one month. They can subsist off the country, as the corps are very good.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
T. H. REEVES, Maj., Cmdg. Forces.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 351-354.
13, Counter-insurgency action at England Cove [see July 12-18, 1864 Scout from Kingston to England Cove above]
13, Confederate cavalry attack on Tazewell and murder of Union citizen
CUMBERLAND GAP, July 13, 1864.
Maj. Day (rebel) was at Tazewell this morning with battalion of cavalry, number not known. He murdered a Union man named Overton. I have sent Col. Davis to intercept him; think it will be accomplished, provided Day has not gone in the direction of Maynardville.
W. Y. DILLARD, Col., &c.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 172.
13, "A Brutal Outrage."
A Mrs. Annie Mason, residing in the vicinity of Court Square, while passing through a by street in the southeastern part of the city, early last evening on her way to make arrangements for the renting of a residence in that quarter, was met and confronted by two men each with a canteen of whisky, who invited her to drink, and on her refusing, and attempting to pass, seized and forcibly carried her into a grove, some distance off, robbed her of all the money she had, tore her clothing almost entirely from her person, bound her to a tree in an upright position, and then commenced the hellish work of violating her person, repeating it a number of times, and quelling her cries by blows and curses. Between each act of violation the person of the unfortunate woman, those fiends in human form sat nearby, drinking and cursing in the most heartless and indifferent manner. [emphasis added] Towards midnight they departed leaving their victim, still tied to the tree, and insensible. She remained in this condition all night, and early this morning was discovered nearly dead, by a woman passing near the scene of the outrage, who gave notice to the military authorities by whom she was removed to one of the hospitals, and tenderly cared for. On regaining her consciousness, she made a deposition, which led to the arrest of one Hugh Burns, who she immediately identified as one of the parties. He denied any complicity in the affair, but was sent to the Irving Block to await the result of further investigate. The other ruffian is still at large, but as careful description of him is in the possession of the authorities, and he will in all probability, be speedily arrested. Mrs. Mason, at the hour of this writing, was in a helpless condition from the injuries sustained. And her death was momentarily expected she is about 30 years of age, a widow, and has one child, a girl aged about eight years. She has always born an exemplary character. It is hoped that the ruffians who so inhumanly abused her, will meet with the severest punishment that can be meted out to them.
Memphis Bulletin, July 13, 1864
 Morgan County Unionists.
 Governor Harris was a Democrat.
 As cited in PQCW.
 As cited in PQCW.
 This famous raid took place on Forrest's forty-first birthday.
 Dismissed December 1, 1862.
 Dismissed, to date September 22, 1862.
 "The voice of the people is the voice of God."
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
John Houston Savage, (1815-1904) Democrat, Born at McMinnville, October 9, 1815 attended common schools, admitted to the bar in 1839, practiced law at Smithville, later moved to McMinnville after Civil War to continue practice. Was attorney-general with the 4th Judicial circuit, 1841-47, presidential elector, 1844 on ticket of J.K. Polk. Elected United States House of Rep., 31-32, 34-35 Congresses, March 4, 1849-March 3, 1853, March 4 1853-March 3, 1859. Unsuccessful candidate for reelection 1859, unsuccessful candidate for Confederate Congress 1863. In Seminole War of 1836, enlisted June 14, 1836, as private in Capt. Wm. Lauderdale's Company, 2d Mounted Volunteers, commanded by Col. William Trousdale. In Mexican War, rank of Major, later 1st Col. Of 14th United States Infantry. In the Confederate army, 16th Confederate States Infantry, June 10, 1861. Wounded at Perryville, KY, October 8, 1862; wounded again Battle of Murfreesboro, December 31, 1862-January 2, 1863. Resigned commission, February 20, 1863. Savage was not elected to the Confederate Congress. Author of Life of John H. Savage, (Nashville, 1903), died at McMinnville April 6, 1903, buried in Riverside Cemetery. See Biographical Directory of the Tennessee General Assembly, Vol. II, 1861-1901 (Nashville: Tennessee State Library and Archives and Tennessee Historical Commission, 1979), pp. 797-799.
 This incident is not listed or otherwise referenced in the OR.
 While not so designated, the fighting in and around Jackson on the 13th of July, 1863, could well be called the "Battle for Jackson." The behavior of some of the Federal soldiers during the entry into Jackson was disgraceful and would later lead Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest to demand reparations. This was particularly the case with Mrs. A. A. Newman's millinery shop. See: February 7, 1864, "Citizens of Jackson pay tribute to Federal Colonel Fielding Hurst to prevent the razing of the town."
 The OR lists this as the Forked Deer Creek. A newspaper account below lists it as Spring Creek. Given the fact that there are three forks to the Forked Deer River (North, Middle and South) and that there is no Forked Deer Creek listed listed on any map of Madison County, and there is a Spring Creek, which flows into the Middle Forked Deer River the skirmish most likely took place in those environs to the north east of Jackson.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214