July 8, Memphis Military Protection
THE DEFENCES OF MEMPHIS.
There are three fortified posts in Memphis, Tenn., the positions for which are indicated by the following.-
A. Breastwork, two hundred yards long, on a high bank commanding the river, composed of cotton bales, two bales in height. It is simply a row of bales running parallel with the river, with no side or rear defenses.
B. A three gun battery, open in the rear.
C. Four gun battery, made of sand, open in the rear, and very roughly made.
Besides these the principal streets leading to the levee are barricades with cotton bales and sand bags, which has created considerable dissatisfaction and petitions have been presented to the Common Council to have a carriage way made through them.
There are not more than two thousand soldiers at present stationed at Memphis, a large body of the troops having gone to Virginia.
They have also there two pieces of Bragg's battery and a thirty-two pounder.
There are no men in camp opposite Memphis on the Arkansas side, as some of the prints have represented. Until you reach Randolph, fifty miles above, there are no more bodies of troops. Fort Harris, about half way between these towns, is deserted. Randolph is fortified.
New York Herald, July 8, 1861. 
9, Excitement in Travisville and Fentress County; a letter to U. S. Senator Andrew Johnson
Travisville Tenn July 9th 1861
Hon Andrew Johnson
Our whole country was thrown in to intense excitement yesterday by the arrival among us of some 300 Volunteers from East. [sic] Tenn [sic] for the purpose they say of making all the Union men leave of swearing them to support the Jeff Davis Confederacy but they have not attempted to do either the on or the other yet and just so soon as they do attempt it we are determined to defend ourselves the best we can [.] we can whip double the number that is here but we donot [sic] intend to make the fairest attact [sic] [.] we have no arms except our Country rifles and shot guns which we intend ueing [sic] they should make any attempt to drive out the union men of Fentress County. if [sic] we can get help we are determined not to submit to them, and if we can not get it a great many of us will have to leave for Kentucky until the government can send us aid[.] I see in the papers that you are making arrangements for arms and men for the defence of East. [sic] Tenn. Fentress County is determined to stand with East Tenn [sic] in any event. I can refer you to the Hon. Horace Maynard as to responsibility for myself [.] if [sic] you can make time to drop me a line please do so and directed your letters to me at Albany Ky[.]
I Remain your Obedient Servant
C. B. Ryan
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 4, pp. 553-554.
9, Indelicacy and murder in Memphis
Indecency.—Men and boys are occasionally seen bathing from steamboats on the landing, and at the foot of Beal street. The river police are looking out for such and intend introducing them to the recorder.
Infanticide.—A bundle was found on Sunday sunk in the bayou at Wellington street bridge, by means of some heavy pieces of iron attached to it. On examination the contents proved to be the body of a fine, new born, male child.
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 9, 1861.
9, Shot, grape shot and railroad chairs
Memphis Manufactures.—On looking in at Bradford's foundry, yesterday, we found a portion of the hands busy casting shot of twelve, twenty-four and thirty-two pounds, and constructing grape shot of six and twelve pounds. They were also making railroad chairs, for which they have an order for twenty thousand from the Little Rock railroad. These were formerly always obtained from the North. House fronts of very elegant design are also cast at this foundry. This is practical southern independence.
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 9, 1861.
9, Memphis' welfare office's dire report
Almoner's Report.—The city almoner reports to council that he gave assistance in May to 52 persons, in June to 180, in July to 27; total, 260 persons relieved. The amount of provisions was, of flour 2498 lbs.; bacon, 136 lbs.; meal 812 lbs.; rice, 236 lbs.; potatoes, 714 lbs. Among the persons to whom assistance was given were 67 widows with children, and 9 soldiers' wives. There is a sum of $33.75 that the almoner is owing for bacon, assistance, and drayage. He has given his labor for five weeks gratuitously, but having himself a family to support, he is unable longer to perform the duties. Mr. Underwood has been faithful and diligent in performing his duties; more care or impartiality could not be shown than he has manifested. Messrs. Stillman & Breen generously furnished the room for storage and distribution. Mr. Underwood informs us that he has a list of 67 families, which he has visited and whose condition he well knows, these are all in a state of positive destitution, and without assistance must be reduced to a condition fearful to contemplate. By Ald. Robinson's resolution, the city ceases to give the relief to afford which the office of city almoner was originally created; and unless the action upon that resolution is reviewed, the destitute have no recourse but chance charity. The subject invites attention.
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 9, 1861.
9, "I found a much more hostile and embittered feeling among that people towards the Confederate Government than I supposed to exist." Confederate concern about Unionism in East Tennessee
WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, July 18, 1861.
His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Nashville, Tenn.:
SIR: I would respectfully ask your attention to the accompanying extract from a letter written by Mr. Yerger, of Corinth, Miss, dated July 9, and communicated to the President by Mr. W. P. Harris, of Jackson, Miss., and subsequently referred to this Department. In inviting your attention immediately to the suggestions it contains, I would remark that from the apparent indications in that section, as well as from the concurrent testimony of other writers, additional troops, in my opinion, should be sent forward without delay. If the guns at Chattanooga are not being manufactured for us, they ought to be secured at once, and a reconnaissance of the points described ought to be ordered.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.
"Availing myself of the privilege you were kind enough to accord me, I will now venture to make some suggestions for your consideration. Being delayed in my passage through East Tennessee, I found a much more hostile and embittered feeling among that people towards the Confederate Government than I supposed to exist. I found the emissaries of the Lincoln Government active and constantly engaged in exciting hatred and animosity towards our Government. I believe the people only await the occasion to rise in revolt against the Confederate Government. Numerous instances of active organization came to my knowledge. I do not think there is an adequate Confederate force in that region to maintain us securely. At Chattanooga is a foundry engaged in casting cannon, which could easily be seized by the people and to that use for themselves. I found two 6-pounders and one 12-pounder nearly complete--for where intended I did not learn. I will call your attention to three points on the line of the railroad that, if occupied by a hostile force of 3,000 men with one or two batteries of flying artillery, could easily and successfully cut off all communication between Virginia and the Southern States it seems to me. The first point to which I will call your attention is at the foot of Lookout Mountain, where the railroad passes between the mountain and Tennessee River. At this point an inconsiderable force, with a small battery, could successfully resist the advance of a very large force. So at the second point above Chattanooga, at a tunnel which passes through a spur of the mountain, a small battery could effectually prevent the advance of the cars with any number of troops; and, lastly, at a defile beyond London, near the Tennessee River, a small force could prevent all transports of men and munitions. These points all lie in the most disaffected region, and, in my opinion, if not occupied by Confederate forces in less than a month, will be by hostile men. I think that at least a reconnaissance should be made of the locality. All this may have been called to your attention, or may, in point of fact, be of no value. If so, set down and excuse the error because of my zeal and desire to protect the service from injury. I feel that my thus addressing you might seem presumptuous in one go unused to military affairs; yet I assure you a most earnest desire to be of service prompts me. The conviction that more is necessary to protect us from the outbreak of the disaffected in East Tennessee than is generally supposed induces me to call your attention to these facts. I think at least 2,500 or 3,000 troops should be properly stationed at these points in this district of country to keep our way open. The twelve-months' men of Mississippi now at this point could be much better employed there than here, and if it should become necessary to disarm those people of the weapons they have, could effectually and successfully accomplish it if under the command of some discreet commander. If this point is kept quiet by the presence of an imposing military force, there will be no other part of East Tennessee that will be able to give any considerable trouble."
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, pp 369-370.
9. Status of war footing, economy and Union sentiment in Memphis
News From the South
Rebel Movements in Tennessee. A Northern gentleman, who has been living at the South, lately left Tennessee for Pennsylvania, and under date of July 4, gives the Lancaster Express an interesting statement of his experience and observations among the rebels. It furnishes another confirmation of the fact that many loyal citizens have been overborne by the rebellious leaders; that through the vilest misrepresentation by the Southern press and by the chiefs of the revolt, the people of the rebel States have been grossly deceived concerning the purpose of the North-for when it was well known that he was about to leave Memphis some wondered whether it would be safe for him to go North, and many sent letters and packages to their friends-and that a strong Union feeling still pervades the breast of many in the South.
It is true, he says, that many persons have been frightened from the South, many have suffered indignities, some lost property, and others life, at the hands of rebels. Invidious reports are daily circulated, to drive the timid into the army, or force them to leave the South. No one is required to swear fealty to the confederacy unless he enters the army; but to profess loyalty to the federal government, and a willingness to take up arms in its defence would, in West Tennessee and Arkansas, be to invite a halter about one's neck. There is, however, a daring neutrality which a few bold spirits have asserted and maintained from the beginning of the rebellion, and under cover of which they have, up to this time, conducted their business without fear or molestation. Such men do as they please, go where they please, using their own judgment as to the times and occasions, and acting accordingly, boldly through not defiantly, profess themselves to be Northern men, and to have no part in the quarrel, though ready and willing at any time to defend their property and lives against attack, from whatever source.
The recent election in Tennessee, in which the State was vote out of the Union, does not fairly reflect the relative strength of parties. The Union men in West Tennessee declined voting for prudential reasons; thousands of strangers and boys voted for secession; no manner of propriety was observed in holding the election, but so highhanded and rampant was secession that Union men deemed it not worth the powder to make a fight. Many persons have enlisted in order to protect themselves and families from insult and want, who will, on the first opportunity, hoist the flag of the Union and march to the tune of Yankee Doodle. This is not guessing. Companies well drilled and equipped might be named, the majority of whose members are ready to walk into the federal army over the dead bodies of their officers, rather than fire a gun at the Stars and Stripes. The Germans especially are loyal and will lose no time, when occasion presents, to take their true position.
An Irish captain, at a meeting of officers, when waxing warn in discussion, said to his fellows in command, "My men are poor; they have families to support, who are deprived of bread by reason of this war; we were satisfied with the country as it existed; you politicians broke it up, and now, if you expect us to fight for you, you must give us pay and take care of our families." This speech produced a fluttering; ropes and hanging and expulsion were talked of, but, fortunately for the chivalry, not attempted. Flour, corn and vegetables are in great abundance in the valley of the Mississippi; meat, groceries, drugs and medicines are scarce, and the stocks will soon be exhausted; saleratus and all the salts of soda are in great demand; the; stocks of many qualities of dry goods are entirely exhausted, and their want produces great inconvenience. It will be impossible to literally starve out the rebels; yet they can be made to feel the pressure of want, in the absence of many of the little conveniences of life, and in being deprived of a few things which, though not absolutely essential to existence, it is very annoying to be without. To supply the sinews of war just now engages the attention of the leaders. Small arms, artillery and ammunition are not possessed in great abundance; yet it must be not be inferred that the enemy is unarmed. To a certain extent they are well armed; but to supply outfits for new recruits is the great trouble. The machine shops everywhere are engaged in preparing implants of war; foundries are casting shot and shell; wagonmakers are preparing wagons and gun carriages; powder mills are being erected at Nashville, and a percussion cap establishment has already begun work. All business other than that connected with military matters is at an end, and nothing is thought of but how to fight or how to escape from the war. The mode of raising companies is peculiar to the times. Some personal ambitions for military fame, starts out to raise a company; he secures a place for holding meetings and drills, and by secures a place for holding meetings and drills, and by dint of perseverance in the cause of self-glorification gathers around him a few followers, who assist in obtaining the requisite number by persuasion, threat or promise. They are then drilled, officered and accepted; afterward armed, sworn in and marched to camp. There are now in Memphis twelve hundred and eighty men enrolled in the Home Guard, commanded by Colonel L. V. Dixen, a native of Virginia, and a man of experience and ability. One hundred and sixty of his men are unarmed. Of the companies armed, some have old United States muskets, some Kentucky rifles, some shot guns, some promiscuous arms, one company Maynard rifles, and one Sharp's rifles. At Randolph there are three thousand men, with eight cannon mounted under the bluff, facing the river, and twenty-one guns not mounted for want of carriages. This might be made a strongpoint; but under the present regime it is a very dangerous position for the rebels to occupy. At Union City, near the Kentucky line, and twenty miles from the river, is an encampment of 10,000 men, well armed, commanded by General Clark. They have six thirty-two pound guns lying on the cars, unmounted, which it is thought are kept in that position so that they may be easily placed beyond the reach of General Prentiss, should he make a descent upon the camp. Along the line of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, between Union City and Corinth, the crossing of the Memphis and Charleston road, ninety miles east of Memphis, in small camps, there a about 6,000 troops, promiscuously armed. All these troops, to the number of 25,000, can be concentrated at any point between Columbus, Ky., and Memphis at twenty four hours' notice. General Gideon J. Pillow is commander of the forces of West Tennessee. He makes his headquarters at Memphis, and is actively engaged fortifying the city. While no one doubts the courage of General Pillow, his insufficiency in the planning and conducting a campaign is the town talk of his division. His orders and movements give general dissatisfaction, and unless some more able leader be sent to the defence of Memphis the case is a hopeless one for the rebels. Board fences are built across the street out through the bluff, and on the bluff are cotton bales and piles of plank, behind which men are expected to find shelter. A back woodsman, at a single stroke, will demolish the fence, and a ball form a thirty-two pounder would send their board piles, in the form of a thousand splinters, whizzing about he heads of many rebels. The cannon are mounted under the bluff in a manner rendering them useless against a force by land.
New York Herald, July 9, 1861.
9, News from Cleveland and Athens, Tennessee
~ ~ ~
The Cleveland (Tenn.) Banner of the 9th [July] says that [Richard M.] Edwards, who declared he would not swear to support the Rebel Constitution, was elected from Branley (i.e. Bradley) county to the House by five hundred and ninety-eight majority, and that the nine members in Lower East Tennessee are Union men.
The Athens (McMinn county) Post says it is reported that several companies in that county have been organized to resist the action Tennessee becoming a member of the confederacy, and hopes the rumors are without foundation, as the county has decided majority for the South.
~ ~ ~
Daily National Intelligencer, August 15, 1861. 
10, Letter from J. E. (James) Taft at Camp Trousdail [sic], Tennessee to James Caldwell at Camp Fisher, Virginia
Camp Trousdail [sic], Tenn.
July 10, 1861
Mr. James Caldwell
It is with the greatest of pleasure that I now take the opportunity of writing you a short letter to let you know that I am well at this time and I hope when these few lines come to hand they will find you enjoying the same. I have not been sick a single day yet and feel like I could fall ten Yankees bye [sic] myself. Jim[,] Mr. Tipps has told me that your corn looks very well. He says that the field next to the spring would find it the titest [sic] place we ever seen[,] we don't have the privilige [sic] of a nigger. [sic] We draw money the 8[th].
You must excuse me for not writing sooner as I have such a bad chance to write.
Well I have no more news to write at this time-give my love to all and write me whether you have got a fine patch of water melons & musk melons, if so I intend to try to come to see you all the first of September meeting. So nothing more at this time.
Please write soon to
J. E. Taft
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 2, p. 27.
11, Concern about secret societies and loyalty to the Confederacy in the Tennessee/Georgia border counties
MEESVILLE, BRADLEY COUNTY, TENN., July 11, 1861.
SIR: The startling state of the public mind in this country lying as it does upon the Georgia boundary impels me to again importune your early attention in some effective manner to this section of the South. It is fortunate that we are not now left to conjecture the purposes of the Union men in East Tennessee who are in arms, or the probable number of them in this county. On a Sunday, July 7, an alarm was given that a troop of secessionists had entered the county to disarm the Union men. By some means unknown to our friends here in twelve hours near 1,000 Union men were in arms at different rendezvous and disclosed a most complete organization, secret hitherto in its character and numbers. The alarm proving to proceed from a mere jest the party immediately dissolved only to hold themselves in readiness at like short notice to rally again with their rifles and shotguns and with such ammunition as they have.
I must assure you that from the Georgia line to Cumberland Gap a like feeling to that here developed exists and not the slightest obstacle could be interposed by the Southern men so overwhelmed are they by numbers to the movement of Lincoln's troops should they enter our territory in the direction of Georgia; neither can we unaided strike a singly blow with any effect to suppress an outbreak which may any day occur here.
If it be true as we understand that a large majority of the people of Eastern Kentucky are like to our East Tennessee people then may an army move from the Ohio River to the Georgia line (north) without the slightest impediment from our present defenses.
Can you not take action to avert disaster now so threatening not only to the true men in East Tennessee but so demoralizing to the great movement of the South! No moral influence of any kind whatever will do it; physical power when exhibited in force sufficient may and I believe will prevent it.
WILLIAM G. SWAN, Knoxville, Tenn.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 828.
11, Donations to the Southern Mothers' Association
Southern Mothers' Association.—The southern mothers desire gratefully to acknowledge the reception of a large and timely donation of chickens from the ladies five miles east of Cold Water depot, Mississippi, through the hands of W. Powers; also, of $52 from friends in Panola county, Miss.; of $24 from city schools, Nos. 6 and 24, through Dr. A. P. Merrill, and of $22.60 collected on the steamer Hartford City, during a fourth of July pleasure excursion, and presented to the society by Mrs. Halstead. During the five days ending Friday night, when the change of the time of meeting made a report from the surgeon necessary, there had been sixty in the rooms; of these one had died, making two since the opening of the rooms, twenty-two had been discharged, and fourteen removed by order of Col. Hindman, of the 2d Arkansas regiment, leaving twenty-three in the rooms from different regiments, but mostly of the 1st Arkansas regiment, Col. Clabourne. The illness of the secretary has prevented an earlier publication. Some of the soldiers are extremely ill, though better than when they entered the rooms; some have been in a most critical condition.
Mary E. Pope, Secretary.
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 11, 1861.
11-12, Correspondence between William Richardson Hunt, Captain of Ordnance of Tennessee, and L.P. Walker, Confederate Secretary of State regarding manufacture of rifle cartridges
MEMPHIS, July 11, 1861.
Hon. L. P. WALKER:
I am turning out 60,000 to 70,000 cartridges per day. Can I order from Wytheville (Va.) mines? The agent writes me that they are making four tons per day, but will not supply me without an order from you. None can be had elsewhere. I have a supply for a week on hand, and must stop unless I can procure lead.
WM. RICHARDSON HUNT, Capt. of Ordnance for Tennessee.
RICHMOND, VA., July 12, 1861.
WILLIAM RICHARDSON HUNT, Capt. of Ordnance, Memphis, Tenn.:
If the cartridges you manufacture are held subject to the order of this Government, you can have the supply of lead.
L. P. WALKER.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, p. 387.
8, Entreaty to Major-General Ambrose Buell from Pillow family or special temporary suspension of hostilities
COLUMBIA, July 8, 1862.
I am exceedingly anxious to send for my brother's family, now in Mississippi. Gen. Negley refers me to you for permission, which I shall be much obliged to have.
HDQRS., Huntsville, July 19, 1862.
JEROME PILLOW, Columbia:
It would give me pleasure to grant your request, but until your brother can himself return to Tennessee under that protection which all loyal citizens of the United States are entitled to you will, I think, agree with me, on reflection, that it is best his immediate family also should not return; I mean those who naturally look to him for protection and with whom he should communicate.
D. C. BUELL.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 107, 183.
8, Federal utilization of contraband labor to build Fort Pickering in Memphis
MEMPHIS, July 8, 1862.
I commenced gathering contrabands last Saturday [5th] to work on fortifications; they are now at work. On account of the limited force here we are only fortifying south end of city to protect stores and our own troops. Col. Webster has been too unwell to push this matter, and I have no other engineer. Secessionists here have news from Richmond by the south which makes them jubilant. I would like to hear the truth.
U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 82.
8, Brigadier-General G. M. Dodge orders arrest of persons refusing to take the oath of allegiance in the Central Division of the Mississippi River, General Orders, No. 6
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 6. HDQRS. CENTRAL DIVISION OF THE MISS., Trenton, Tenn., July 8, 1862.
The commanders of posts and provost-marshals within this command will arrest and hold in confinement any person refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the United States Government. They will arrest all officers and soldiers returning from the rebel army who do not come forward voluntarily deliver themselves up and take the oath as prescribed. Any person detected in intimidating by threats or otherwise any person from giving in their allegiance to the United States Government or using disloyal language in any way whatever will be arrested and punished to the utmost extent of the law. This division extends from Columbus to Humboldt along the line of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad.
By order of Brig. Gen. G. M. Dodge
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, p., 151.
8, Report relative to Federal repairs of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad
HDQRS. CENTRAL DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Trenton, Tenn., July 8, 1862.
Capt. M. ROCHESTER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Columbus, Ky.:
CAPT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the work done by the troops under your command on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad from Columbus to Humboldt: At Columbus the overflow of the Mississippi River had damaged and destroyed a portion of the track. This was railed and a new track run to the water's edge for the purpose of unloading cars. At the crossing of Little Obion River was the first bridge out, formerly a Howe's truss, with 90 feet span, the entire wreck of which, bolted together, had to be taken out of the stream. It was replaced by a single bent trestle 110 feet long and 30 feet rise. The danger of a single bent trestle of such light was overcome by placing a crib in the center of the stream, with stringers from bank to bank, on which was built the trestle-work, all above the common stage of water. The next bridge out was at the Bayou Des Shay. This was replaced with a single bent trestle of 90 feet length and 25 feet rise, making a substantial bridge; a water-tank was also built at this bridge. Between this point and Big Obion were some four wooden culverts, partially burnt, and one beam-truss bridge, somewhat damaged; the track was also torn up in places, all of which was repaired. At the Big Obion River a Howe's truss of 120 feet span had been burnt. The height of this bridge and the depth of water precluded replacing it speedily with a permanent structure. The track was therefore changed and a temporary bridge on the lower side of the stream was put in. Three large cribs were built, capped with bolsters and heavy stringers, the whole 130 feet long. A new grade was thrown up around the old trestle-work some 600 feet long, thus lowering the bridge some 10 feet, and leaving the old bridge in such shape that a new truss can be built at any time without the detention or delay of trains. This temporary work was put in 15 feet of water, and the cribs are very irregular, but at the same time strong and substantial, and would last a long time if the stream at extra high water did not rise above them. All the work was delayed some ten days for want of proper tools. As soon as they arrived the work was pushed and completed in about twelve days; and by the time the rolling stock arrived the road-bed for the entire division was covered with weeds, rendering it impassable for a loaded train. These have all been thoroughly cleaned off. The tanks, all except one, were damaged, and in most cases pumps taken away. These have been replaced on every 12 to 15 miles of the road, and the troops are so distributed that every bridge, trestle, and wooden culvert, every station and switch, are guarded; and this portion of the read is in a condition that good machinery will take over it 25 loaded cars with ease.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen., Comdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 81-82.
8, Scout to Mount Pleasant and La Fayette and Rising Sun
MOSCOW, July 8, 1862.
I had dispatched a train for Memphis and escort of a regiment, but upon receiving your dispatch that we could depend for supplies on Columbus I ordered the train from La Fayette. I have just sent a scouting party of 100 cavalry to Mount Pleasant and La Fayette and propose to send a brigade to Rising Sun, where wagon train was attacked, to recover the 6 broken wagons and to take a number of mules from the neighboring planters, according to Grant's orders, to make good the loss. There are small bodies of cavalry all around the country, but I can hear of no large parties or any infantry. If infantry advance from Tallahatchie they will most likely move toward Germantown. Weather is intensely hot and dust very bad. We have abundance of water here in Wolf River.
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 83-84.
8, Letter to Military Governor Andrew Johnson asking for protection for a cotton factory in McMinnville
Murfreesboro Tenn. July 8th 1862
Gov A. Johnson
I live as you doubtless remember near McMinnville and am one of the few Union man [sic] of the County of Warren, and now look for the time soon to arrive when that few will have to leave our homes and all that may be dear to us. the [sic] Southren [sic] Cavalry are now in the mountains of this and adjoining Counites [sic] and are threatneng [sic] all the Union men. I learn that Gov Harris & the Hon A Ewing [sic] are at Beersheba Springs. [sic] which clearly indicate that the Southren [sic] Cavalry are near in force[.] I came here this day to ask Col. Lester for protection to our Cotton Factory at McMinnville as it is threatened by a Company of Cavalry [sic] that is now forming in the Counties of Coffee and Warren. Col. Lester tells me that there will be a force at McMinnville soon. You will confer a very great favor on me and my partner by forwarding the force. this [sic] will be handed you by Mr. Walling who is a very much persecuted Union man, and any thing [sic] you could do for him will be a favour highly appreciated[.] I must again refer you to my friend John Lellyet Esqr. for my standing, and hope it will not be long before I can visit you without the fear of being destroyed for it[.]
yours truly Asa Faulkner
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 543-544.
8, One class-conscious Cumberland Plateau woman's view of Confederate conscription
....If I could only hear from Fayette! He would soon be at home if it were not for the conscript law, compelling all the privates to stay two years longer. I don't like to wish anyone any harm, but I wish that the mean cowardly wretches who made the law had to stand in the places of the poor honest fellow whom they have beguiled into this unhappy war,[EMPHASIS ADDED] and kept there by such low-lifed [sic] tyranny. I believe that if the boys knew all that we know, they would rise "en masse" and come home at the peril of their lives; as it is there will be some tracks made with the heel toward the camps, and many a soldier who is put on guard will be "found missing" when his time is out.
Diary of Amanda McDowell.
8, Federal situation report relative to distribution of troops to protect railroads in Southwest Middle Tennessee from guerrillas and Confederate cavalry
COLUMBIA, July 8, 1862.
Col. J. B. FRY:
At Reynolds' Station, two companies Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania; at Lynnville, two companies Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania; at Culleoka, one company Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania; at Duck River Bridge, one company First Kentucky Cavalry; at Franklin, one company Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry. Have no further control, but have inquired; will send you report as soon as received. There is constant danger of the bridges being destroyed; several attempts, one nearly successful, have been made. There are numerous straggling parties of returned cavalry and guerrillas infesting the lower counties, who are constantly committing depredations. As they are aided in a measure by the disloyal citizens it is hardly possible to drive them all away. If no cavalry can be distributed along the railroad it will be necessary to mount a few of the infantry to scout and patrol.
JAS. S. NEGLEY, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 110.
8, Special Orders, No. 132.
Headquarters, District of West Tennessee
Memphis, July 8
All crossing of the river in skiff or private boats is positively prohibited.
Private boats crossing either way will be seized and turned into the Quartermasters [sic] Department; [all] owners or passengers arrested and required [sic] to take the oath of allegiance, or be placed on the Arkansas shore and admonished not to be caught within the Federal lines again on pain of being dealt with as spies.
The Navy is requested to co-operate with the military, on the enforcement of this order.
By command of Major Gen. U. S. Grant
John A. Rawlins, Assistant Adjutant General
Memphis Union Appeal, August 10, 1862.
8, "The Population of Memphis." [see July 7, 1862, "Present Population of Memphis," above.]
At the close of an editorial in our last issue, on "the Population of Memphis," we promised to return to the third class therein referred to. In doing so we shall be brief.
It may be thought strangely of that we had so little about the first and second classes and so much about the third class. In explanation of this, it is sufficient to say, that the persons first alluded to are peaceable and quiet citizens, and deserve commendation rather than blame; whilst the class last named are a pestiferous brood that nothing but hard blows will bring to their senses.
These men remind us of an anecdote told by a Canadian at a Fourth of July Celebration, in Cattaraugus county, New York. The volunteer militia of the county had turned out in all "the pomp and circumstance of glorious war," to commemorate the very memorable Fourth. A regular "spread faced eagle" orator had been provided for the occasion, and delivered he in all the magnificence and splendor usual on such occasions. After dinner came the regular and volunteer toast, and when the patriotism of the audience was at its highest point, the Canadian arose and begged the favor of a short audience, which was readily granted. "Gentlemen," said he, "I feel, though a citizen of another government, the fires of '76 burning warmly upon the altar of my heart, and if it would not be considered presumptuous, would read you a sentiment" "Go on, go on," exclaimed his hearers! "No, gentlemen, I have no right to obtrude my views upon you." "Read, read," shouted the patriots! "Well, gentlemen, since you so determine, I yield. The Volunteer Militia of Cattaraugus County: In Peace, They are first for War, in War, they are first in Cattaraugus Swamp!" [sic] Thus it is with this third class of men in Memphis. Battle after battle has been fought, and from the hour of the first gun was fired at Sumter up to within a few days ago, the path to the Southern army was open to them, but they would not go. They turned the whole thing into a speculation, and have shown that their patriotism was circumscribed by the most sordid motives.
What should be done with these men? If the Government is lenient, it is attributed to fear; and if it use severity, it is called cruelty. What, we again ask, should be done with them? We venture to suggest that they be required to behave themselves, or be removed as disturbers of the peace.
Memphis Bulletin, July 8, 1862.
8, Letter of John A. Ritter, 49th Indiana Volunteers
July 8, 1862 from Camp Cotrell, Tenn.
Camp Cotrell, Ten. [sic]
July 8, 1862
It is eight months to day since I entered the service. In some Respects It seames [sic] but a short time. Time passes of rapidly in the army. I presume that it so happens that one that does his duty does not take time to think how time is passing but in many things it seames [sic] long. It seames [sic] a long time since I saw the children. So long in all probability that little Billy would not know me but as to the balance, I expect that they would readily recognize me. They perhaps have grown very much: how this I can only conjecture. I presume that the changes would be more susceptible to me than to any that has been with them all the time.
If our once beloved Country was at peace I would love to be at home. I Recd. yours of the 2nd of July, also one Sunday last. The mails have stoped [sic] for a while. I do not Know wheather [sic] they will be regular for a while there is to be a regular daily mail for here to Crab Orchard in packs but they have not comensed [sic] yet. I hope it will not be long I was verry [sic] much out of sorts when I got no mail and perhaps the letters that I have sent home have been delayed and at best I think that the letters lay in the office several days before Starting. At the office at the ford it was Kept [sic] by a woman and a large amount of mail matter on hand & frequent missent letters would likely occur. Since the army has been in this Country Several little one horse establishments have grown to be large. This is especialy [sic] true in mail maters. We have fine pleasant weather at present excepting it is quite warm. The nights are cool. I read the two chapters sited to me and I feel like they strengthen me. I have faith to believe that I shall get home. On the 22 of March when we were marching up on the Batterys [sic] I felt like that I was marching on to certain destruction but when they opened fire the first shot that fell near me & exploded & I unhurt. I felt like that was not be harmed by them that I should be spared to return to you a gain. I still believe the same will a firm confidence in him that ruleth all things for good and I think it only a question of time. I think and hope it may not be long.
I have no idea when we will leave this place. I think it will be a long time. The Sect. of War Telegraph Gen. Morgan to fix himself so that he could hold it and as long as there are rebels in reach there will be force enough to hold it. I have spent two days passing through the intrenchments. They are verry [sic] extensive. I walked till I was tired down. No one would have had an Idea of the strength of the place it could only have been taken by a regular seage [sic] or by strategy [sic] as was the case. They believed that we had a much larger force than we did have. He made them believe that they would be surrounded & all chances of getting provision cut off. They could have taken all our provision with out any one to resist them. We left it at Flat Lick with out any force to protect it for ten days but they did not come out of their hole but comensed [sic] moving. We got close after them. They burned a lot of their provision, destroyed everything that was of much value. I am in tolerable good health. I have the headache every day or to [sic].
Yours As ever,
Jno. A. Ritter
8, "I hope it will make the last one of them sick." Kate Carney on the Oath of Allegiance
This morning Ma & sister Amanda went down to see Bro. Jno. carrying his provisions &clothes. Jose Turner came in William's barouche and is staying with Rosa. Mr. Watterson, a Confederate prisoner who had taken the oath came up on the cars, said he thought Bro. Jno. would be paroled &come up tomorrow. He ate dinner with us, seems very polite, & quite intelligent & if he hadn't taken the oath, I would think him quite nice. I must confess to be crowded into the filthy jail, filled with vermine [sic], with little air, scarcely food to sustain life, & then threatened if they did not take it they would be forced in their cells, or else lose their life. It is awful to think of those low born Yankees (Andy Johnson at the head of them) acting towards our men so cruelly. The Yankees did not succeed in taking a single one of our men prisoners last night; but bringing 19 citizens, old & young, making no exceptions, & when the ladies sent the poor men their dinners, the Yankees ate it up & sent word it was very nice, that they enjoyed it. I hope it will make the last one of them sick. Mr. Joe Ewing is among the number of prisoners. Our little army outside of town numbers 75, but the Yankees did not get to see them. Prisy seems intensely gratified whenever she hears any bad news for our army & quite angry when we rejoice over bad news over the Yankees. I understand the Union men are getting considerably frightened.
Kate Carney Diary, July 8, 1862.
8, Objections to the Oath of Allegiance in the Bluff City
The Oath of Allegiance at Memphis.
The Memphis Avalanche finds serious fault with the form of the oath of allegiance prescribed by Gen. Grant. It says it has been taken by but comparatively few of the old merchants, citizens, and property-holders. The objections are thus stated:
"The uncertainty of the results of war, with the changes and vicissitudes of fortune, in such contests, constitute, with many, grave objections to taking the oath as prescribed; and, with many other peculiar circumstances connected with their affairs and business, it presents to them almost insuperable objections. One objection offered to our people is, that the oath compels persons to swear to certain political views as to the nature of the relations of the States to the Federal government which the great mass of our people do not believe to be correct. To them, under the circumstances, the oath seems to contain false tenets. Now, a person may not believe in the right of a State to seceded, yet, at the same time, he does not believe that the Federal authority is paramount. He may believe that the Federal authority is only paramount to the extent of its delegated powers. This has been from the foundation of the government up to the present revolution and war, the construction placed by a large majority of the people of the United States on the Federal constitution. Not only this, the adjudication of State and Federal have given the same construction to the powers of the Federal government; yet the oath as prescribed requires the citizen to swear irrespective of this distinction. It does seem to press the conscience a little too much where such political convictions be honestly entertained.
"If it were not for the required oath, we are satisfied that a considerable trade would spring up with the back country. Many little lots of cotton would come in, if the planters were permitted to ship it without having the oath put to them. They would cheerfully give their parole of honor, and observe it with punctilious fidelity not to carry information to the hostile forces, if they were permitted to escape the oath. We learn that Gen. Grant, to accommodate the objection stated, has determined to modify or change the oath. We will lay it before our readers as soon as we may procure a copy of it."
Chicago Times, July 8, 1862.
8, Guerillas kill two Federal pickets at Pierce's Mill near Murfreesboro
Another Guerrilla Raid—Two Federal Soldiers Killed and three Wounded!
We learn from Adjutant Blakely, of the 2ed Minnesota Brigade, Col. Lester, that five pickets of this Brigade were sent out yesterday, from Murfresboro to Pierce's Mill, eight miles distant on the Lebanon pike. While at their post they were attacked by a party of men, supposed to be citizens of the neighborhood, and two were killed and three wounded. The attacking party had no horses, and are supposed to belong to the neighborhood. Seventy-five soldiers were immediately sent out in search of the assassins, who, we hope will be treated as common murderers, and not as prisoners of war. No man who joins these bodies of murderers, who do not carry on regular warfare, has any right to claim the treatment due a soldier. It is assassination to kill men as these pickets were killed and the perpetrators should be treated as such when taken. Self-preservation imperiously demands it. If vengeance be not inflicted, men will refuse to come as soldiers to a State where murderers are treated as their equals, and receive the courtesy extended to prisoners of war
Nashville Daily Union, July 8, 1862.
8-9, Confederate guerrilla attacks upon cotton wagon trains and other miscellaneous acts of insurgent warfare in Bedford County environs
No circumstantial reports filed.
Shelbyville Ten. [sic]
July 10th, 1862.
His Excellency Andrew Johnson
Dear Sir. [sic]
Pardon me for writing to you, at this time I hear you have been quite unwell-but the urgency of the business on had, requires prompt, and vigorous action. The Guerrilla's [sic] in this and adjoining counties have become so bold, as to demand at our hands, the prompt enforcement in regard to them.
On Tuesday morning [8th] about 10 oclock [sic] they attacked a train of cotton waggons [sic] nine miles beyond Fayetteville, and burned sixty-five bales of cotton-and took one mule the property of D. F. Jackson, and two fine horses the property of Robert Sanders, both loyal men of my county. On Wednesday night [9th] they burned fifty bales of cotton, on waggons, [sic] three miles this side of Fayetteville-
On Tuesday night [8th] the took from G. W. Castleman of my county two fine horses, because of his devotion to the Government of the United States-and a few night before one from W. J. Shofner for the same cause-These Gentlemen [sic] live in that part of the county next to Lynchburg-Lincoln c[oun]t[y]. It is evident that since the fight at Richmond-they have become emboldened-and are rapidly organizing their bands. On one night last week near Cornersville Giles c[ount]y-they burned a load of cotton from Wm Gosling of my county-a true Union man.
Now, would it not be better for us all, that we should immediately, order "Military Commissions," under the petitions of A. L. Stamps & W.S. Jett, forwarded to some weeks ago-and let them act. [sic]
The people [sic] were alarmed when your proclamation was first issued, but as no Action [sic] has been had under it, they seem to have lost all terror about it[.] It must be enforced [sic] to have the desired effect-otherwise it will be considered a dead letter [sic] --
We have to strike hard, fast and rapid [sic]-and I feel the sooner the better. I however make these suggestions, confiding in your own judgment-with all the facts before you-
We are here with but a small force-but doing well.
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 545-546.
9, Special Orders, No. 23, HDQRS. 1ST DIV., DIST. OF JACKSON, TENN, July 9. 1862, Relative to Oath of Allegiance to U. S.
All citizens over eighteen years of age residing inside the picket-lines of the U. S. forces at this place are required to appear before the provost-marshal by Saturday, 12th instant, 12 o'clock p. m., and take the prescribed oath of allegiance to the Government of the United States of America. All who fail to comply with this order by the above prescribed time will be arrested and disposed of as prisoners of war. Prisoners who have heretofore been paroled do not come with the purview of this order.
By Command of Brig. Gen. John A. Logan
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, p. 162.
9, Tightened discipline of Union forces in Memphis environs
SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 133. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., July 9, 1862.
Complaints of recent irregularities, brought to the attention of the general commanding, render necessary the publication of the following orders:
I. Officers, non-commissioned officer, soldiers, and persons in the service of the United States are forbidden to trespass upon the orchards, gardens, or private grounds of any person or persons, or in any manner whatever to interfere with the same, without proper written authority so to do. Marauding, pilfering, and any unauthorized and unnecessary seizure or destruction of private property is prohibited by General Orders of the department, Nos. 8 and 13, series of 1861, and will be punished with the extreme penalty imposed by the laws of war, which is death.
II. Commissioned officers of companies will not pass their camp lines without written permission of their district, brigade, or regimental commanders, and then only on official business or other urgent and satisfactory reasons, to be given in the letter of permission. Non-commissioned officers and soldiers are prohibited from leaving camp at any time, except when detailed on duty or on written permission of their regimental commanders, who may grant such permission to not more than three men at any one time from each company to be absent under charge of a non-commissioned officer, who will be held responsible for their good conduct.
III. The pickets and guard reliefs will remain at their immediate picket or guard stations, unless in the discharge of proper military duty, and will not straggle therefrom, under penalty of being arrested and severely and summarily dealt with.
IV. No commissioned officer, non-commissioned officer, or soldier will be permitted to be absent from camp after retreat.
V. The military police, patrols, and picket guards will arrest all persons found violating any of the provisions of this order, either by trespassing upon the gardens, orchards, and grounds herein mentioned, or seizure or destruction of private property, or being outside of camp lines or straggling from their guard stations without proper authority. Commissioned officers to be reported to district, division, or brigade headquarters, and non-commissioned officers and soldiers to be taken before the provost-marshal.
VI. Officers of regiments, detachments, and companies, and officers of the day, and of police are enjoined to use their utmost diligence in making known and enforcing all orders necessary for the safety of the command and the city.
By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant:
JNO. A. RAWLINS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
The foregoing special order, published for the locality of Memphis, is hereby extended to the entire command, and will be strictly enforce.
By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 87-88.
9, Initiation of Federal anti-guerrilla actions in the Humboldt, Trenton, Kenton, and Union City environs
No circumstantial reports filed.
9, Special Orders, No. 13
District of West Tennessee
Office of the Provost Marshal General
Memphis, Tennessee, July 9, 1862
* * * *
All passes heretofore issued to citizens, either by the Commanding General, the Provost Marshal General, the Provost Marshal of Memphis or any other officer which may have been issued without the party being required to take the oath of allegiance or give the prescribed parole of honor, are hereby revoked.
No pass will be granted in any case hereafter, except upon the taking of the oath or parole.
The parole will be substituted for the oath only in special cases (at the discretion of the officer authorized to grant passes) where the party lives beyond the protection of our army.
By command of Major-General Grant
Wm. S. Hillyer, Colonel and Provost Marshal General
Memphis Union Appeal, August 10, 1862.
9, "…if he was not a Southern prisoner, I might say how presumptuous…." A young war-widow, Brother John and rumors of war
Ma & Sister Amanda came up from Nashville, & some man not knowing sister A-- was married fell very much in love with her. I expect if Bro. John had been on the train he would have kicked the fellow off. Poor Bro. John failed to get paroled. Couldn't have a trial, on account some say of Andy Johnson [being] sick (others drunk, more likely this last). The widow Corcan (the name Miss G. Reeves is known by) was on the train carrying on extensively with Rounds, much to the disgust of all modest & refined people. William Carney took Sister Amanda & Josie Turner out home this afternoon. Mrs. Kate heard, came out all dressed up on horse back, looking very spry. Quite a warm ride, but suppose a young widow would say "never mind the weather so the wind don't blow." She came to enquire of Ma about a cousin of hers that was a prisoner. As soon as she left, Ma & cousin Ann went up town, while away Mrs. Adnerson & Kate came out, staid until Ma returned. They wanted to hear from their father. It is rumored all the Yankees except the cavalry are to leave here. Hope our men will bag them before they get very far. Ma was advised not to visit much after Friday. It is thought Morgan's men are near here. Much to my astonishment Ma spoke in high terms of Mr. Riddell. Mrs. Anderson said her father, Judge Marchbanks, thought him quite a nice young man. I am glad every body thinks that, as I have been out calling with him on the girls. Charley Marchbanks wrote back word for Kate to tell me that he thought Jessie Sikes really believed me in love with him. "Fiddle sticks" if he was not a Southern prisoner, I might say how presumptuous, but I will only keep a powerful thinking.
Kate Carney Diary, July 9, 1862.
9, "I go to Nashville every other day and come back the next day." A. A. Harrison's letter home
July 9th, 1862
I take my pen in hand to inform you that I am well at present and hope these few lines may find you all enjoying the same blessings. The boys from Hardin are all well except Jo & Hugh Patterson. They are both right puny and have been for some time. They have got a discharge and will be at home in two or three weeks. There is a new doctor now and he says they are disabled and that they shall both be discharged and the Colonel and Captain are both willing. The men here are very healthy as yet but it is getting awful hot down here. I lost my office sure enough but I have got an easier one although there is not so much pay in it. I have got the office of Colonel's Orderly and mail carrier to Nashville. I go to Nashville every other day and come back the next day. The cars leave here at 11 o'clock and get to Nashville at 3. Then they leave Nashville at 10 a.m. and get back here at 2 p. m. There was 4 soldiers killed near Murfreesboro day before yesterday by guerrillas. Two of them belonged to the regiment. We have been expecting to be attacked for some time. But no rebels ----- as yet. The Col. and Captain ----- but very little about ----- me staying away so long. And the Capt. A ----- been better than com [sic] ----- since I come back. I don't know when I will get home again. I don't expect there will be any more furloughs given to anybody. There is a general order from the Secretary of War to grant no more furloughs. We learn from the papers there has been some hard fighting at Richmond and I am afraid our men got the worst of it and I expect the war will last two years yet or longer. You must get along the best you can and try and be contented until I can get home again. You must write as often as you can. I would like to hear from home every day if I could. Jo has not got a letter for 3 or 4 weeks and he don't like it a bit. We are expecting the paymaster every day and as soon as we are paid I will send you some more money. So nothing more at present but remaining your affectionate husband until death.
A. A. Harrison
Absolom A. Harrison Correspondence
9, Contempt for the Union flag manifested in Murfreesboro
A gentleman of Murfreesboro writes to us that several girls of respectable families in that place, on passing his residence on the 4th, threw rocks and dirt at a Union flag flying in his yard. On coming out, they hurried away; but, after a while, the she rebels again sneaked up, stole the flag, and burned it in the presence of several rebel ladies whom they had assembled in their yard. What a dirty set of strops those girls must be; a negro kitchen wench would have better manners. Within the last day or two the flags on the dwellings of at least three Union families of this city, have been pelted with rocks and sticks by the children of rebel families. No boy or girl would dare to do such an outrage did he not know that it would be winked at, if not openly approved, by older ones at home. It is a little thing, a contemptible thing, we admit; in ordinary times too insignificant to be noticed, but at a time like the present the parents of such vulgar, dirty little ruffians should be kept on bread and water in the work house for at least a week. When they got out they perhaps might teach their children something about common decency and civility. Public safety demands that every symptom of treason be punished.
Nashville Daily Union, July 9, 1862.
10, Letter from "Lizzie" to Military Governor Andrew Johnson, concerning anti-Union feelings in Clarksville
Clarksville, Tenn., July 10th, 1862
To Honble [sic]. Andrew Johnson.
It would require a new language and faculty combine to express to you the morbid state of feeling the rampant and diabolical opposition now extant in this whirlpool of secessionism: no logic, however powerful, no admissions in their favor, however conciliatory in strength or purport; no evidences of marked benefits, which under the present rule is slowly, yet surely accruing to them serve to convince them of their madness, of tier wild, fanatical error.
A poor widow with five children, was requested by a Federal Officer to make a Union Flag, which she did, and for which she received the compensation of three dollars; the ladies of this place called on her, "en masse'", [sic] and with bitter denunciations, told her, in the future there should be a total withdrawal of their favor and charitable aid, and herself and children left to endure the horrors of privation and want:
So soon as my arrival was made known, and my numerous friend of past years with all their happy reminiscences gathered around me, the first query, was, [sic] "what are you"?-emphatically-strong as chain of triple steel [I answered]-Union!-[sic] to the heart, unto death! Was, is, and ever shall be my reply!
Sorely have I been denounced, my kindest and most generous emotions outraged; the noblest sentiments of my patriotism reviled; and myself dubbed as a "Lincoln Spy," [sic] and absolutely forbidden to breathe a single aspiration that has for its crowning joy the song of freedom:-with a stout heart and a brave courage I go on my way, one prayer in my soul, one solemn adjuration on my lips, "Union forever, as it was, as it is, "It must and shall be preserved"!-[sic]
Each day, I thank my God, that the assurance is given to me, through my unvarying belief in his immutable wisdom and beneficent goodness, that in our nation is strength, and through that strength we shall be sustained. In this struggle, I read anew the crisis of our own life, and the strife before us in the page of history brings into clearer interpretation the conflict that we are always waging, more or less earnestly, with stubborn circumstances or unkind men. It is from this very fact, our whole life being such a struggle, that we are led to take so intense an interest in war, until, upon the issue of battles, we hang our hearts, as well as our fortunes.-[sic] How proud I am that mine is the privilege to vindicate the American name, and for all who bear the proud insignia of Americans, do I vindicate it; and truly do I believe that not far distant is the day when those who are now in arms against us will profess a pride in bequeathing to their children the one noble name which they are now doing so much and so vainly to disparage and destroy.
The defied me to walk under the Union Flag erected in this place; without defining precisely the governing power of that national spirit which possessed me, for it felt more easily than defined, I did walk under it! [sic] and looking upon the dear old Stars and Stripes that had won so many successes over sedition, felt that thrill of my pulses which mounting to my head, told me more in that brief moment what our nationality means than any disquisition, however learned, upon the value of the Union or the authority of the Constitution.
Oh! What a long while the taint of secession will rest upon every district that has been infected with the virus of treason, and the very fact should make us more eager to purify ourselves by removing every malignant character, and giving at all times, and under all circumstances, solid proofs of our loyalty.
Surely, there can be nothing but madness itself in this persistence to feed the sources of treason by depriving any section of the rights and duties of citizenship who wish to be loyal to the Government and why we should care how summarily all malignants are dealt with who may persist in embroiling the country in feuds, and the sooner the rope is about their necks the better for their neighbors and the whole world. Never before have I had so just an idea, of the spirit which has plunged the nation into so fearful a war; the earnest vindictiveness, the deep, calm bitterness of hate is to me a tragic revelation of the kind and extend of crime that the spirit of a society familiar with injustice promoted, and the qualities of character that it produces. There is but one other Union woman in this place beside myself so far as I can ascertain:-quite a feeling of joy seemed to animate the hearts of the poor Union Officers, stationed here; they gave me every expression of it; by calling on me and presenting me with a magnificent Bouquet, and giving me a fine serenade, playing all of our National airs, and overtures from our finest Opera's; [sic] Do not suppose my valued friend that I am forgetful of your past kindness to me, on my return through Nashville I shall fully reciprocate it, [sic]
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 547-548.
10, Secret Agents in Memphis
There is not the least doubt but that Memphis is today infested with a gang of prowling and sneaking spies. A class of her population, sympathizing with the rebellion, remain here for no other purpose than to carry on in a sly and stealthy manner, a treasonable correspondence with the Confederate authorities. They harbor spies sent here by the rebels, and if their homes were properly searched, they would be found to be existing dens of treason. They are by far the busiest bodies in Memphis, prompted to their dirty work by a desire for something to communicate to the rebels by means of the emissaries, who find their ingress and egress, with the assistance of the resident traitors in our midst. I suggest to the Federal authorities the great necessity of searching thoroughly every man, woman, child or negro [sic] crossing the lines.
It is the only effectual way to stoop the treasonable correspondence, which is mutually kept up, and is going on this very day. The longer such state of things exist the worse it is, and the more it impedes the progress of putting down the rebellion. It is a prime necessity that we should be more vigilant of the actions of our now silent [sic] enemies who reside in Memphis. But three months ago squads of armed men paraded the streets of this city, both day and night, seizing, in a ruffianly [sic] and savage manner, every poor man-such men as Senator Hammond, of South Carolina, notoriety, styles the "mudsills of society" they chanced to meet and entering business houses and private dwellings, dragging [sic] men-loyal citizens of the United States-from their business and destitute wives and children, compelling [sic] them by brutal force, to work of fight in the damnable crusade against the government of the United States.
For weeks a number of these poor fellows, having no means of defense, were retained in the militia camp under a guard appointed by the colonels and captains and not even allowed a furlough to go to see their families or to arrange the business by which the gained a livelihood. I saw wives, daughters, mothers and sisters, whose pathetic tenderness ever characterize the nature of kind charitable, true-hearted and virtuous woman, wade through water and trail through mud, with baskets on their arms, carrying necessary provisions to the camp for their husbands, fathers, sons, and brothers, but on their arrival at the camp-ever to be remembered on account of its many disgraceful scenes-the officers, true to their brutal instincts, would drag and force them away from those near and dear to them in the most ruthless and cruel manner that ever disgraced barbarism, or demonized men. Think of such conduct enacted in a country by a people claiming to be civilized! Must the vile perpetrators of these foul and diabolical outrages on Union men and poor families be permitted to go unpunished, to walk the streets of Memphis unwhipped [sic] of justice?
These colonels, captains and press-gang bullies of the militia, though in favor of coercing Union men into the service of the Confederacy- the black conspiracy of eternal infamy-took special care themselves to keep out of this war, lest their own precious bodies might catch the reward of their own cowardly treason. Some of these bloodthirsty vampyres [sic] are here yet; their stealthy tread, which sounds of suspicion, and their easy spoken lips which smack of [common thuggery(?)], still disgrace the sidewalks and befoul the atmosphere of our own city of Memphis, which should be cleansed of such treason-mongers. They are spying around in the nooks and corners, in the alley and the dark dens, where they, as emissaries of the Disunion leaders, talk treason and devise schemes "for the taking of Memphis" by the Confederates, who skedaddled from here like so many thieves in the night. For the sake of our country, let the treason mongers be ferreted out.
Memphis Union Appeal, July 10, 1862.
10, Major-General U. S. Grant receives permission to send families of Confederate officers in Memphis south of Federal lines
MEMPHIS, July 10, 1862.
Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Corinth, Miss.:
There are a great many families of officers in the rebel army here who are very violent. Will you approve of sending them all south of our lines?
U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.
CORINTH, July 10, 1862.
Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Memphis, Tenn.:
Yes, if you deem it expedient.
H. W. HALLECK, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 88.
10, "Secesh Shylock or 'the Silent Partner'"-Anti-Semitism in Federally occupied Memphis
In 1860, when the flag of our country floated in majesty over the city of Memphis, before a traitor band had marred the immortal name of Jackson upon the monument which patriot band had reared to his memory in Court Square, the aforesaid formed a partnership to do business in this city. One was a silent partner. He is a man more than half a century old; his locks are glistening for eternity. Why was his name withheld from the world in his lawful business? Proof shows that the old man had been doing business further south, where secession was of earlier growth and patriotism withered sooner than here. Suspected of that crime of loving his country, his goods were taken from him and he driven from the sacred soil. He came to Memphis; went into business with the aforesaid. His time, his toil, his money and the credit of a son in the East were his stock in trade. Their business thrived. His name was withheld [sic], lest those who stole his property and banished him from his home would find him here, and take from him "the little" he had saved from the former wreck. It was not so much for himself that he was a "silent partner." He labored to establish a business for his son in the East, who purchased goods and shipped them to this city for the firm. Thus matters stood until the slimy dragon [of] secession had crawled into Tennessee.
The old man had been agent making purchases for the partnership. He saw in the future his retirement from business and his son standing in his place. How little he knew what awaited him. The moment the train stopped he was seized and dragged to the calaboose like a felon. In vain did he ask "what have I done?" In vain did he plead that he had done on [sic] criminal act. His grey hairs could not shield him, he was charged with being a Union man. Hurried into a cell for loving his country. Through the grated hole in the wall he is informed that his property has been seized by the "Confederate authorities, and he, the old man, granted the merciful privilege of leaving the State in thirty minutes. Guarded by a cordon of traitor bayonets, he packs up a few clothes in his carpet sack, and is hurried beyond the lines. He was guilty of loving his country. Where was Shylock, he who had enjoyed the confidence of the exile, he whom the old man had labored to mutually profit? Where was he? Why was he not present to assure the gray haired partner that his rights in the firm would be respected? Ah! he was one of the accusers!
Scarcely had the old man started upon his exile ere Shylock formed a new partnership-a partnership permitted to flourish because its members were traitors to their country-ignores the rights of the silent and banished partner, and repudiates the debts contracted in the East. A few days since the silent partner returned protected by the Stars and Stripes. Shylock scarcely knew him-had no regard for him. Shylock had invested the profits of their partnership in cotton. Armed by the authorities of the law, the silent partner seized it, and now that justice has returned her seat, it will be adjudged to the old man, who asks if the debts of the old partnership may be paid. What will be the verdict in the Court where there is no shuffling, where we are all compelled to give in evidence against ourselves, over to the truth and forbear all our faults.
Memphis Union Appeal, July 10, 1862.
10, Special Orders, No. 14, relative to sending Confederate sympathizers south of Federal lines in Memphis environs
District of West Tennessee
Office of the Provost Marshal General
Memphis, July 10, 1862
The constant communication existing between the so-called Confederate army, and their friends and sympathizers in the city of Memphis, despite the orders heretofore issued and the efforts to enforce them, constrains the issuing of the following order:
The families now residing in the city of Memphis, of the following persons, are required to move south beyond our nines within five days from the date hereof:
I. All persons holding commissions in the so-called Confederate army, or who are voluntarily enlisted in said army, or who accompany and are connected with the same.
II. All persons holding office under or in the employ of the so-called Confederate government.
III. All persons holding State, County or municipal offices, who claim allegiance to said so-called Confederate government, and who have abandoned their families and gone South
Safe Conduct beyond our lines will be given to the parties hereby required to leave, upon application to the Provost Marshal General, or the Provost Marshal of Memphis.
By command of Major-General U. S. Grant
Wm. S. Hillyer, Colonel and Provost Marshal
Memphis Union Appeal, August 10, 1862.
10, The continuation of public education in occupied Memphis
At a called meeting of the members elect of the new Board of School Visitors, at the office of James Elder, Esq. On the 7th instant, I. S. Clark, in the chair, the Board was organized by electing James Elder, President; I. S. Clark, Secretary, Sam. Tighe, Treasurer. Vacancies appearing in the Third and Fifth wards, T. B. McEwen, Esq., was duly elected to fill that in the former and, and Thos. H. Allen, Esq. the latter. The next meeting of the Board takes place at 4 PM at Mr. Elder's office, No. 4 Madison street. We are assured that nothing will be wanting on the part of the board to prosecute the schools for the coming year with the utmost efficiency. They will be thoroughly exacting in the competency of teachers, not only in scholastic attainments, but in a proper discipline; and it is to be hoped parents will co-operate in such measures as shall secure punctual and regular attendance on the part of pupils. Our common schools ought to take a high stand, and we are certain will, if those for whose benefit they are established will second the efforts of the Board and teachers.
Memphis Union Appeal, July 10, 1862.
10, "Expatriations of the Light Fingered Disciples of Mercury."
We hear from municipal authorities that all thieves and other disreputable characters, politicians excepted, will be sent out side the lines in a day or two; and if they should attempt to again attempt to honor the City of the Bluff with their presence, they will be promptly received and attended to by the military authorities. "The way of the transgressor is hard, "but never so hard as when it leads to Secessia.
Memphis Union Appeal, July 10, 1862.
10, Guerrilla attack at Holly Tree Gap, near Franklin
Nashville Daily Union, July 12, 1862.
Franklin, Tenn., July 10, 1862.
Editor of Nashville Union:
Sir: As Mr. Barnett, wagon-master of the 69th Regt. O. V. I., and Capt. T. H. Reynolds, sutler of 78th Pennsylvania Regt., were returning from Nashville in an open buggy, last evening, about 8½ o'clock, they were fired upon at a point distance five miles from here, known as the Holly-tree Gap, by a number of guerrillas in ambush. Mr. Barnett, though severely wounded, will doubtless recover. Capt. Reynolds was killed instantly, being struck by as many as a dozen shot, several of them ranging towards the heart. Mr. B. having made good his escape by hard driving, informed the military authorities here of what occurred, who immediately ordered out all the available force of cavalry, with a wagon, to recover the body of Reynolds, and to find out the cowardly assassins.
They returned about 1 o'clock. A. M., without having obtained any clue to the perpetrators. Has it come to this, that a person dare not travel on the public highway for fear of being murdered by parties of white-livered scoundrels in cold blood, and in 13 miles of the Capital.
Such an act, as atrocious and so cowardly, demands a prompt and severe punishment inflicted upon guilty parties when found.
Nashville Daily Union, July 12, 1862.
Bushwhacking.—Captain Reynolds, Sutler of the 78th Pennsylvania regiment, and a wagon-master of an Ohio regiment, while en route for Columbia, yesterday evening, were fired upon a party of bushwhackers, Captain Reynolds being instantly killed, and his companion receiving several shots from which he cannot recover. Capt. R., it is said, was pierced by at least ten balls. The wounded man was conveyed to Franklin, near which place they were assailed.
On Wednesday last, Capt. Wilkinson, Sutler of a Michigan regiment, met his death in a similar manner, in the same vicinity, about fifteen miles from this city. All of these officers were on their way to Gen. Buell's army.
Such intelligence as this can only awaken feelings of acute pain in every humane breast, and we sincerely hope measures will be taken to operate effectually against this system of warfare.
Nashville Dispatch, July 11, 1862.
10, Special Orders, No. 14, on the expulsion of Confederate sympathizers from Memphis
The following is the federal order in relation to the women and children of Memphis. These poor creatures have but five days to pack up or sell their property and go, Heaven knows where, to beg or starve. Their little all must be abandoned to Yankee murderers, and they exiled. Is it not atrocious?
Special Order No. 14.
District of West Tennessee,
Office of the Provost Marshal General,
Memphis, Tenn., July 10, 1862.
The constant communication between the so-called Confederate army and their friends and sympathizers in the city of Memphis, despite the orders heretofore issued, and the efforts to enforce them, has induced the issuing of the following order:
The families now residing in the city of Memphis of the following persons are required to move south beyond our lines within five days from the date hereof:
First. All persons holding commissions in the so-called Confederate army, or who have voluntarily enlisted in said army, or who accompany and are connected with the same.
Second. All persons holding state, county, or municipal offices, who claim allegiance to said so-called Confederate government, and who have abandoned their families and gone South.
Safe conduct will be given to the parties hereby required to leave, upon application to the Provost Marshal of Memphis.
By command of Maj-Gen'l U. S. Grant.
Wm. S. Hillyer,
Provost Marshal Gen'l.
The above order, with the following, published about the same time, expels nearly two-thirds of the people of Memphis from their homes, and drives them shelterless upon the cold charities of the world:
["]1. Traitors and rebels who refuse to comply with the laws and support the constitution of the United States should not be permitted to remain within the camp lines of the federal army. At this time the corporate limits of the city of Memphis are within the lines of the United States forces; and all male residents, or sojourners within the limits of said city, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, who are capable of bearing arms, are hereby required to take the oath of allegiance to the United States, or leave the limits of said city within six days after the publication of this order.
II. If any persons within the limits of said city shall hereafter publish, speak or utter seditious or treasonable language towards the government of the United States, the Provost Marshal shall, upon proof of the fact, banish every person so offending to the State of Arkansas.["]
There must be a retribution in reserve for the authors of such heartless cruelties.
[Little Rock] Arkansas True Democrat, July 30, 1862.
10-12, Report on a Federal scout in the third subdivision, West Tennessee, and suggestion for frequent reconnaissances
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF JACKSON, Jackson, Tenn., July 12, 1862.
Col. J. C. KELTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
In obedience to my instructions Col. Leggett, commanding the third subdivision of my district, has exercised his usual vigilance in the discharge of duty. He reports that one of his most reliable scouts, who returned on the 10th instant, rode with 60 of Jackson's cavalry one whole day, and that he visited several of the enemy's camps, the relations of which to Grand Junction, as also the force occupying them, are illustrated by the accompanying diagram. 
The scout also learned that the rebel cavalry were under orders to make continual forays in the direction of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad for the purpose of harassing us, interrupting our communications, and seizing our supplies. I would add that the rebel cavalry frequently visit Davis' Mill, south, Spring Hill, southeast, and Saulsbury, east of Grand Junction. For the space of 30 miles east of the Junction the line of the road is unoccupied by us. These points are within another district and beyond my military jurisdiction, as limited and defined by Maj.-Gen. Halleck; besides I have not the force adequate to protect them in addition to the different points now guarded by me.
In order to prevent the enemy from crossing the railroad and disturbing the flanks and rear of my position at the Junction frequent reconnaissance should be made over the country indicated by the red dotted line appearing on the diagram. The addition of another regiment of infantry or two or three more companies of cavalry would enable Col. Leggett to do this. Cannot you place one or both of these at my disposal for that purpose? There can be but little of anything for either the infantry or cavalry now at Humboldt to do. The force now under my command is disposed along the roads from the Junction to Humboldt and from here to Bethel, a regiment of infantry and most of my cavalry being at present at Brownsville.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN A. McCLERNAND, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.
HDQRS. THIRD SUB-DIV. OF THE DIST. OF JACKSON, TENN.,
July 10, 1862.
Capt. C. T. HOTCHKISS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
CAPT.: I have not much of interest to report to-day. Inclosed please find a rough and hasty sketch of the country immediately around me, I have ridden all over the country for some 10 miles about me on the east and south. I sent out a very reliable scout belonging to my command, who returned this evening after an absence of four days. He rode with 60 of Jackson's cavalry one whole day; was in their cavalry camp at Salem, 18 miles from here; also cavalry camp 6 miles west of Salem, 14 miles from here, and into their infantry camp 4 miles southeast of Salem. The number at each camp I have marked on the map. He would have gone to Tallahatchie, but he could not in the time I had allotted him, for I more particularly desired to understand what was going on in my immediate front. As near as he could gather from camp talk there is no design to attack with infantry or artillery very soon, but the cavalry are ordered to annoy us and to make a dash at the railroads and our provision and forage trains whenever they can do so. From the map you will see that I am considerably exposed upon my left. The rebels come almost every day to Davis' Mill, south (6 miles from here), and to Spring Hill, southeast, and Saulsbury, east. We have no troops for over 30 miles from here in an easterly direction.
What I most fear is that their cavalry will work north of us by way of Saulsbury and destroy the railroad this side of Middleburg, viz.,:., the trestle-works 10 miles north of here. I keep a squad of men there, but with so much front to protect my force is not fully adequate. I should have either two full companies of cavalry or a regiment of infantry in addition to my present force. As it is, it takes all my cavalry for pickets and forage duty, leaving none to protect the line of railroad. To properly guard the line of railroad and protect myself from any surprise the section of country represented within the red dotted line should be reconnoitered every day.
I will, however, do the best I possibly can with what I have and keep you notified of what is going on here.
A telegraph office is a necessity here, but we have none.
M. D. LEGGETT, Col. Seventy-eighth Ohio Vol. Infantry, Comdg. Post.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 94-96.
11, Federal patrols initiated to stop Confederate cotton smuggling in Middle Tennessee
HDQRS., Huntsville, July 11, 1862.
Gen. NEGLEY, Columbia, Col. LESTER, Murfreesborough,
Col. HAMBRIGHT, Shelbyville or Wartrace,
COMDG. OFFICER, Tullahoma,
COMDG. OFFICER, Elk River Bridge, Chattanooga Road:
A party of about 200 Starnes' cavalry captured a cotton and sutler's train at 12 last night, about 16 miles north of Huntsville, on Fayetteville road. Half of the party, with the wagons, went toward Winchesters and the other half toward Shelbyville. Be on the alert and try and intercept them. The cavalry along the line south of Murfreesborough should watch the roads and scour the country for this purpose, and infantry posted on the thoroughfares over which the rebels with their prize could escape. This information is sent to commanding officers at Columbia, Murfreesborough, Wartrace, Shelbyville, Tullahoma, and Elk River. The cavalry should be notified by the officer nearest to them who gets this dispatch. Commanding officer at Elk River will communicate this information to the troops south of him and act in concert with them.
JAMES B. FRY, Chief of Staff
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 123.
11, Special Orders, No. 15, providing exceptions to Special Order, No. 14 by means of a parole [see July 10, 1862, "Special Orders, No. 14, relative to sending Confederate sympathizers south of Federal lines in Memphis environs" above]
District of West Tennessee
Office of the Provost Marshal General
Memphis, Tennessee, July 11, 1862
* * * *
In order that innocent, peaceable, and well disposed persons may not suffer for the bad conduct of the guilty parties coming within the purview of Special Order No. 14, dated July 10, 1862, can be allowed from the operation of said order No. 14, by signing the following parole, and producing to the Provost Marshal General or the Provost Marshal of Memphis, satisfactory guarantees that they will keep the pledge therein made.
I. I have not since the occupation of the city of Memphis by the Federal army, given aid to the so-called Confederate army, nor given or sent any information of the movements, strength or position of the Federal army to anyone connected with said Confederate army.
II. I will not during the occupancy of Memphis by the Federal army and my residing therein, oppose or conspire against the civil or military authority of the United States, and I will not give aid to the so-called Confederate army, nor to any person on operating therewith.
All of which I state and pledge upon my sacred honor.
By command of Major-General Grant
Wm. S. Hillyer, Provost Marshal General
Memphis Union Appeal, August 10, 1862.
11, "There is a kind of indifference manifested; that love for our cause which should actuate all of our ladies is not shown by all in this section." Censure of the dearth of female hospital volunteers in the Morristown section of Confederate East Tennessee
Morristown, July 11, 1862.
Dear Confederacy: :…
I have often wondered why we have not in this section a Ladies' Hospital society. They are numerous in other localities, but here we are as it were shut out from the female world, and I verily believe that if a squad of ladies from one of these ever to be remembered institutions were to visit one of our patched up receptacles for the sick, the boys would be frightened to death, and the amount of damage it would cause cannot be estimated. In Knoxville there is to be found the only one in the whole country. In a great many instances our sick had to lie upon the floors, with but one blanket, yet the surgeons are attentive, kind, and are daily diligent in getting better accommodations. Now, I know the female character too well to admit that an association or a branch of one here would allow this. There are some noble spirits among the ladies of East Tennessee, but whence this almost utter abandonment of charitable feeling? We want here the spirits of the daughters of Virginia and Georgia and all of our Southern ladies generally. There is a kind of indifference manifested; that love for our cause which should actuate all of our ladies is not shown by all in this section. It certainly cannot be a disgrace to offer at least a kind word, and for a moment to forget family for a thought of our brave boys and the cause we love so well. Ladies of East Tennessee! rally! rally! If you can possibly save a life for the country, do it, and aid our Surgeons in their tedious endeavors to do what you alone can remedy! Many mothers will bless you, and fathers will bless you, besides little children will emulate your deeds. Knoxville has taken the lead, and by judicious management your association can achieve a reputation equal to those older.
T. D. W.
Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Georgia], July 16, 1862. 
11, Skinny-dippers offend citizens of Nashville
Bathing is highly promotive of physical health and vigor, when indulged in at seasonable times but many of our boys make a practice of selecting midday, while the sunshine is almost hot enough to consume them, for this purpose. Parents should see that their children do not thus expose themselves to sickness, and possibly death. To say nothing of the impropriety of such conduct in open day, and where they may be seen by hundreds, it is very dangerous and indiscreet.
Nashville Dispatch, July 11, 1862.
11, Parole oath for Confederate partisans in the Bluff City
Paroling Rebels in Memphis.
District West Tennessee, Office of the Provost Marshal General, Memphis, Tenn., July 11, 1862
* * *
In order that the innocent, peaceable and well disposed persons may not suffer for the bad conduct of the guilty parties coming within the purview of Special Orders No. 14, dated July 10, 1862, can be relieved from the operations of said Order No. 14, by signing the following parole, and producing to the Provost Marshall General or the Provost Marshal of Memphis, satisfactory guarantees that they will keep the pledge therein made:-
First-I have not, since the occupation of the city of Memphis by the Federal Army, given any aid to the so-called Confederate Army, nor given or sent any information of the movements, strength or position of the Federal Army to anyone connected with the said Confederate Army.
Second-I will not, during the occupancy of Memphis by the Federal Army, and my residing therein, oppose or conspire against the civil or military authority of the United States, and that I will not give aid, comfort, information or encouragement to the so-called Confederate Army, nor to any person cooperating therewith.
All of which I state and pledge upon my sacred honor.
By command of Major-General Grant.
Wm S. Hillyer, Provost Marshal-General.
Philadelphia Inquirer, July 21, 1862.
11, 12, Recorder's Court in Nashville
The court room, yesterday morning, afforded a picture well worthy a place in the pages of Leslie's Budget. All the different types of woman's frailty and man's debauchery were displayed in relievo, various orders of intellect, were dotted throughout the group, and the lights and shades of a few genteel and virtuous countenances, gave a delicate touch to the scene. Recorder Shane, as monarch of this photograph of nature, applied his peculiar principles of criticism, much to the improvement of its complicated parts, and to the financial advantage of the art society, of which he is an honored member. But let ambiguity give way; here comes….
Three warrants were issued against Mrs. Horn for tippling. From the testimony, it was elicited that Mrs. Horn had only kept a cask of ale or beer in her house, as most English people do, for hospitable gift to her friends. Dismissed, corporation assuming costs….
R. B. Johnson and Mary Gibson were the next called, and a rich case they made of it. Mary said that Johnson, at the time of their rumpus, was excessively funny, cut up all sorts of funny capers—looked funny, talked funny, and fought funny—In fact, he was veritably a funny man, but more especially when his funny faculties were fetched into play by frequent fumbling with French brandy, fresh ale, or frightful "red eye"—then he was fancifully, frantically funny. Johnson, in his funny freaks, mistook Mary for a masculine, and commenced wrestling with and fighting her, under this funny delusion, as if she were not of the feminine gender—she, not caring to undeceive him, fell afoul of him, and in turn treated him in the same unfeminine way; tore his hat into atoms, and not very tenderly removed a handful of wavy locks from his addled cranium. One of Johnson's witnesses humorously recited the particulars of what he saw of the engagement; he had gone to buy a horse from Johnson, and while the trade was pending the interesting fracas commenced. Mary, as he said, being well fortified, and inclined to bring heavy shot into the action, and Johnson at the same time trying to outflank the enemy, exposing witness to an enfilading fire, he told Johnson the horse trade could be effected at another time, and retreated from the field in great disorder. Johnson, for his funny interest in this affair, subscribed $3, while Mary was not insisted upon to take stock.
Eliza Kelly, for using obscene language, and for disrespectful conduct toward her neighbors, disbursed $8.50….
Henry Hays, a free negro, as black as a moonless and starless night, and as ugly as Beelzebub, was arrested for living in adultery with Nancy Osborne, a representative of the white race, but surely the most ignominious specimen that ever disgraced the name of woman. At the request of Nancy, the case was continued until this morning, the guilty wretches being required to give bond for their appearance, to go to the workhouse, which latter alternative they chose, we believe.
Nashville Dispatch, July 12, 1862
The attendance yesterday morning was very slim; but the few who did grace (or disgrace) his Honor's presence, were dealt with rigidly and to the full extent of the law, for their misdemeanors were aggravating in the extreme.
The introductory case was against Margaret Smith, an Irish woman, arraigned by Mr. Marling for making use of vulgar language in the presence of, and directing fearful threats against himself and wife. She had been under arrest for the same offence, some days ago, when the court let her off on the promise that she would forthwith leave the quiet and respectable neighborhood in which she had fallen like an angel of darkness. Her appearance in the court room—with a chubby little babe in her arms—would have excited pity instead of blame, she would have been an object of official clemency instead of punishment, had not the traces of dissipation, of neglect of person and character, and a spirit of undue resentment, stamped her as undeserving. The Recorder thought her a confirmed nuisance, imposed a fine of $8, and repeated his order for her to vacate the house which she had rendered so obnoxious to peaceable citizens.
Lucy Spee must have devoted a large half of her time to the consumption of crab apples or some other acrid substance, for several witnesses deposed that she was in a terribly crabbed humor on Thursday last, and insisted on having a fistic bout with a certainly locality in arms. By the extraction of $15 worth of Lucy's sourness, the Recorder was under the impression that she would regain her usual neutrality of temper. Remains to be seen….
The prosecution of Henry Hays and Nancy Osborn, the hideously black son of Ethiope, and the wretched apology of a white woman, who made their first appearance at the tribunal yesterday, was renewed by M. M. Brien for defence. The evidence was all ex parte, and were justice to be fully satisfied, these loathsome creatures would spend the balance of their lives in the confines of some earthly Hades, to endure living tortures equal to the blackness and enormity of their crime. The witnesses in this case were amazed at the critical calephism [?] of Recorder Shane: he wound them up closely by his minute questioning and forced from them the whole truth, in all its abominable shapes. The heaviest penalty of the law was applied—a fine of $54 each; neither being so affluent as to meet the demand, they will exercise their skill in stone masonry, for the benefit of the corporation, during the next two months. Admirable.
Nashville Dispatch,, July 13, 1862.
8, Scout from Germantown, Tenn.
Report of Col. La Fayette McCrillis, Third Illinois Cavalry.
GERMANTOWN, July 8, 1863--10 p.m.
Scout to-day within 8 miles of Hernando. Met rebel scout of 10 men; killed a lieutenant and 1 man; took 1 man prisoner. No rebel force, but a few scouts this side of Coldwater. No other force heard of on our south front. No loss on our side. Negroes report [R. V.] Richardson at Hickory with 400 men.
L. F. McCrillis, Col., Commanding First Cavalry Brigade.
OR, Ser. Vol. 24, pt. II, p.666.
8, Patrol from Union City to Gardner's Station [see July 7-9, 1863, Patrol, Union City to Jackson and Trenton environs above]
8, Nashville prostitutes loaded on Idahoe [sic]
The steamboat Idahoe [sic] was at Branch Lick Wharf, yesterday afternoon, receiving as passengers a number of cyprians, who were bound for some northern port, under the late orders of the military authorities. At five o'clock there were upwards of a hundred on board and they still continued to come. Amongst them were the most degraded of their class. The boat was to have left last night, and we suppose she got off.
Nashville Daily Union, July 9, 1863
The commotion amongst the ladies [who] dwell in suspicious places was inconceivably great yesterday. Squads of soldiers were engaged in the laudable business of heaping furniture out of various dens, and then tumbling their disconsolate owners after. Many very affecting scenes of abdication from long occupied domiciles took place. But they were not allowed to enact them all on terra firma; a boat was chartered by the Government for the especial service of deporting the "sinful fair" to a point where they can exert less mischief, and about forty of them took passage. Where they will be sent, is not stated in the order enforcing the exodus. A variety of ruses were adopted to avoid being exiled; among them, the marriage of one of the most notorious of the cyprians to some iniquitous scamp. The Provost Marshal didn't regard the separation as wicked or unchristianlike [sic], so he compelled the artful daughter of sin to take a berth with her suffering companions, and she is on her way to banishment. This course toward bad women will have a salutary effect upon the morale of the soldiers in this Department – at least we hope so.
Nashville Daily Press, July 9, 1863.
8, "But on the other hand, those men who let their feelings and prejudices induce them to aid, abet, permit, or endorse, the insult or oppression of our people inside the lines of the Rebel Government, have little grounds to expect to pass scathless through our hands." An expatriate's warning to Confederates in East Tennessee
A THREAT FROM AN EAST TENNESSEE REBEL.
We find the following unique epistle in the Nashville Press of the 10th:
We have been shown the following private letter which has been forwarded to the parties to whom it was addressed.
The allusion to inhuman treatment refers to his father, who was long imprisoned in Macon, Georgia, and finally died of ill treatment received at the hands of the Southern chivalry, much of which was no doubt, instigated by the men the Major has addressed.
We know Major Thornburg; we know no braver of better man than his father, and the Major comes of the right stock, and has the mell to do what he says, and will not fail to comply with his promise.
We advise these gentlemen to take his advice and heed his warning; it is to their interest and they better profit by his notice fairly given:
Nashville, Tenn., July 8, 1863 Messrs. Wm. Brazelton, Jno. R. Branner, W. D. Fain, Stokely D. Williams, A. J. Mountcastle, and others:
Knowing as I do, the influence you wield in both civil and military affairs in a considerable portion of East Tennessee, under the dominion of Jeff. Davis, and that your influence may prevent the oppression and outrages often already felt by the loyal citizens of the Federal Government around you, I have addressed you this letter.
You know that is probable that the Federal Government will sooner or later take possession of East Tennessee. You know also that there are now about fifteen thousand loyal Tennesseans in our army who in despite of the anathemas and epithets hurled at them by your people and press, are armed and drilled soldiers, smarting under the wrongs they have received from citizens and soldiers, before they were driven from their homes, and feeling and more keenly the wrongs inflicted upon their unprotected and defenceless families during their absence, and will be with difficulty restrained from inflicting upon you a just and terrible retribution. You doubtless expect our commanding officers to prevent this, but the fact had long since and repeatedly demonstrates in the rebel army, that commanding officer can not always prevent the letting of unnecessary blood; and from the tone of letters written and editorials in your papers, you cannot expect more discipline in our army than you see in yours. Let me explain my meaning by giving you my own feeling and intentions upon my return to East Tennessee. If I find that through the influence of prominent men who, to a considerable extent, shape public opinion, and thereby control the actions of citizens and soldiers, the interests, safety and rights of our families and loyal citizens have not been totally disregarded, I will use every exertion to treat enemies of the Government in the manner prescribed in the most civilized rules of war.-But on the other hand, those men who let their feelings and prejudices induce them to aid, abet, permit, or endorse, the insult or oppression of our people inside the lines of the Rebel Government, have little grounds to expect to pass scathless through our hands. Your negroes and other property may not suffer, but look out for your heads. For instead of endeavoring to restrain others, I will use whatever small command I may have in punishing those who bring harm to that family, who by the inhuman acts of your government, has left me with their principal protector, and at the same time assist those under me in paying similar debts. Believing I write to you the universal feelings of officers and men, in our East Tennessee regiments, I ask you to use every effort in your power to prevent the civil war, from becoming still more fearful and bloody in East Tennessee than it has yet been in any other portion of the country.
I am, gentlemen, respectfully your obedient servant,
J. M. Thornburg.
Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, July 17, 1863
8, Letter from Joel Watters, 10th Volunteer Illinois Infantry Regiment, at Headquarters Co. K 10th Ills Nashville to His Brother, Samuel T. Watters
Head Qrs Co K 10th Ills Nashville July 8th/63
Dear brother I take the present time to write you a few lines….well everything has been excitement for the last week in Nashville we had one of the grandest fourth of Julyes I ever witnessed the Stars and Stripes floated from most every house top and window of the city the soldiers and citizens marched out to the shady groves on the outskirts of town and the grass flew higher than tree tops with their dancing and kicking up of heels. there was stands for speaking and some of the best orators of the day was in attendance Parson Brownlow, Profeser McCoy Gov Johnson and other to numerous to mention they gave the bogus confederacy fits you bet. Our colored brigade marched out like regulars with a black Col mounted an a fine horse sash on and a sword like a sythe blade swung to his side a band of niger minstrel at the head of their colums playing Hail Columbia hapy land hail ye heroes of the colored brig and they marched around the City and the way they cleared the streets of vehicles and everything that opposed them the sun was in a partial eclipse for about 2 hours finally they went to the government yards south of town asuch on other fume was raised with their fidling and dancing every thing passed off very quiet except a few souldiers and citizens got tight but that was all looked over by the military authorities being it was the fourth of July. Well Gen Rosecrans has got the rebs about scared out of their boots and they are abandoning Tenn the news was confirmed here this morning of the surrender of Vicksburg to Gen Grant on the fourth inst the big guns here made the hills quake for miles around and caps flew high in the air the news is here that Gen Mead is slay mashing Lee and his whole army and caputreing every thing he has got since he made the raid into Pennsylvania if it is so I thin the southern Federacy am busted. one brigade of our division is at Murfreesboro since Rosecrans moved our Regt is guarding trains on the R.R. from here to Tullahoma 2 companys every day Co K goes tomorrow there is details made out of each company to guard the contraband camp at present
Your affectionate brother
Joel Watters Correspondence.
8-August 3, 1863, Col. Robert V. Richardson's Report on Activities in West Tennessee
JULY 8, 1863.--Scout from Germantown, Tenn., etc.
JULY 10, 1863.--Skirmish at Bolivar, Tenn.
JULY 13, 1863.--Skirmishes on Forked Deer River and at Jackson, Tenn.
JULY 16-20, 1863.--Scout from Germantown, Tenn.
AUGUST 3, 1863.--Scout from Fort Pillow and skirmish near Denmark, Tenn.
Report of Col. Robert V. Richardson, C. S. Army.
SELMA, ALA., August 10, 1863.
SIR: About five weeks ago I reached West Tennessee. I found my regiment, the Twelfth Tennessee Cavalry (partisan rangers), badly scattered, the effect of my long absence, and the intermeddling of certain officers who had gone into West Tennessee during my absence and sought to take command of my men. I immediately set about collecting my men and forming new companies. I found a lively feeling of patriotism to prevail among the people, which was greatly stimulated by the knowledge of my appointment as chief for the Bureau of Conscription of West Tennessee, and my proclaimed intention to put the laws in force without delay. Very soon there were not less than forty new company organizations on foot throughout West Tennessee; some of these were soon formed, others dragged. I designated a day for the meeting of the Twelfth Regiment; about one-half met me; but the Yankees getting wind of my arrival and movements came out in force from La Grange, Memphis, and Germantown to break me up. Fortunately I had only designated to my company officers the place of meeting, and we met, but our Yankee friends went to Galloway's Switch, one of our camps, expecting to find us, when our real place of meeting was about ten miles distant. I saw that I could not successfully fight the force of the enemy, and by making a night march passed around his camp to his near, and crossed the Big Hatchie River and went on my way collecting my new recruits. I then designated Jackson as a place of general rendezvous, where I hoped to be able to collect enough new companies to organize two new regiments and the balance of the Twelfth. The enemy again got news of my movements and came out from La Grange in force, 2,000 strong, with one battery of artillery, to break up and disperse, if not capture and destroy, the forces there to be collected. As soon as I learned of their movements I ordered my men to Cotton Grove. Here I met with Col. Jeff. Forrest and Col. Wilson with about 200 men each, both belonging to Col. (now Gen.) Roddey's command, who had just come into West Tennessee for the purpose of recruiting and completing their regiments. Together we had about 800 men. Their men well armed, by men indifferently, about half having none at all.
Col. Forrest's scouts had found the enemy in force, estimated at 2,000 men, near Mount Pinson, east of Jackson, moving in the direction of Swallow Bluff, on the Tennessee River. The enemy seemed to anticipate that we intended to-evacuate West Tennessee by that route, crossing at Swallow Bluff and passing into North Alabama, and their effort first appeared to be to cut us off from this line of egress. I was satisfied from the numbers of the enemy's force that he had brought from La Grande all his available mounted men, and that the line of exit from West Tennessee through the enemy's lines near La Grande was feasible. I therefore countermarched from Cotton Grove and gathered up all my men that I could then reach near the route I expected to take all my men that I could then reach near the route I expected to take, and by crossing the Forked Deer at Poplar Corner, passing through Wellwood, and publicly stating that I intended to cross the Big Hatchie at the ford near the block-house, I made a rapid march during the night of the 29th of July, gained the bridge, crossed the Big Hatchie at Bolivar at daybreak on the morning of the 30th of July in the rear of the enemy's forces, threw the planks off the bridge, and stopping in Bolivar only long enough to distribute to my wearied and hungry men a barrel of crackers purchased there, resumed the march toward Middleton, on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. At 12 m. on the 30th of July, in one mile of Middelton and one mile of the water-tank, both fortified, and between the two, I passed the road. The movement was so sudden and unexpected that the Yankees did not fire a gun at us, but scampered to their works for protection. I fired a short trestle and tore down the telegraph wire as I passed, as a memento of our transit, and passed at my leisure on toward Ripley, Miss. The country from the Memphis and Charleston Railroad to Ripley is nearly desolated. Tippah and Tishomingo Counties have suffered much from the savage barbarity of the enemy; scarcely a field is planted on the way I came. More than half the dwelling houses are vacant, and the charred remains of many dwellings attest too clearly the sufferings of the inhabitants.
On the 2d day of August, instant, I reached Okolona with 600 men. I am now camped at Pikesville, eight miles from Okolona, and have come here to get the arms for my men which Col. Gorgas, under your order, granted me. I have brought with me about one-half of my own regiment, the Twelfth Tennessee Cavalry (partisan rangers), and parts of two new regiments now in progress of formation. The remainder of these regiments I expect will pass the enemy's lines and join me at Okolona; if not, as soon as I arm and equip the men I have with me, I shall return to West Tennessee and not only complete the organization of the two new regiments, but think I will be able to organize about 5,000 men. Indeed, I feel certain that this number can be raised in West Tennessee during the present and next month if I can give assurances that you will arm them. My plan of operations in this: First, to organize a mounted force of sufficient strength to hold West Tennessee and go where it pleases-say from three to five regiments, making from 2,000 to 3,000 men; then to recruit the old regiments of the Provisional Army by the strict enforcement of the conscript laws in West Tennessee. As we may expect our occupancy of West Tennessee be contested the force for operations there must have the element of rapid motion-therefore mounted-but at the same time must have the reliability of infantry; therefore it must be composed of cavalry proper, mounted infantry, rifles, and horse artillery.
It will be impossible to establish camps of instruction in West Tennessee, but a suitable place can be chosen on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, in Mississippi. There are in West Tennessee many stragglers, absentees, and deserters from the Provisional Army. The Government has no transportation there. It is difficult to send them to their commands when they are arrested. Many of them are poor and have no horses. The country is pretty well exhausted of horses by the Yankees and my mounted men. It will not be safe to send them through the enemy's line afoot. The only alternative left me is to impress horses or mules from the small stock of animals left to mount them. Many of these men are good soldiers. They do not want to return to their old commands, because they have not lost all pride of character, and do not want to be pointed at by their comrades as deserters. They are anxious to join me, and would mount themselves if they were assured that they would be permitted to remain in my command. If you will allow all such who will mount themselves to remain with me, I will more than repay their old commands by conscripted recruits. It must be borne in mind that these men are wholly within the enemy's lines and cannot be withdrawn except by my command or other similar ones. To allow them to join me is to restore that much lost strength to the armies of the Confederacy. Any order or communication you may see proper to make on this subject, or any other, if addressed to me, to the care of Gen. Ruggles at Columbus, Miss., will reach me.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
R. V. RICHARDSON, Col. Cmdg. and Agt. of Bureau of Conscription in W. Tennessee.
OR. Ser. I, Vol, 52, pt, I, pp. 73-74.
9, "The writ of habeas corpus, is a bulwark of liberties, and I will not vote, except in a most extraordinary case, for its suspension…." William M. Cocke throws his hat into the ring for the Second Confederate Congressional District of Tennessee
I am a candidate from the Second Congressional District to represent you in the next Congress of the Confederate States, It is proper to remark that I have been an ardent and devoted friend to the South, and counseled resistance to Federal power, ever since the fall of Fort Sumter in April, 1861. I shall if elected, support the war with whatever talent I may possess; to which end the highest and sternest dictates of patriotism demand that the monthly pay and the soldier should be increased. A graceful country should remunerate him for his sacrifices and toils. While the price of every thing has advanced some five, some ten fold the pay of the soldier remains the same.
I shall endeavor to correct some of the unjust and oppressive features of the tax bill so that all classes without distinction shall alike feel its burdens.
The writ of habeas corpus, is a bulwark of liberties, and I will not vote, except in a most extraordinary case, for its suspension, and thereby place the citizen in the power of the military, to be arrested and imprisoned without warrant or charge, with no power in the courts to redress the wrong. This would be a military despotism, such as the Lincoln Government in the North, where their prisons are filled with unoffending citizens, and no court dare to release them. I would hail with delight a speedy peace, but must bring with it a perfect and permanent national independence of the South. [sic] Our desolated country-the blood of martyrs-the pain and anguish of our widows and orphans, all-all cry aloud for permanent separation and independence, and we will be content with nothing else.
One word about the Winchester Convention. I was in it, and insisted that it should make no nomination for this district, inasmuch as the great body of the Southern vote was not represented. I requested that the people might be permitted to select their own candidate, but his request, so reasonable, was denied, and a nomination made. Whether or not you will sustain that nomination remains to be seen. Your obedient servant. Wm. M. Cocke.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 14, 1863 and Knoxville
Daily Southern Chronicle, July 10, 1863.
9, Major-General P. H. Sheridan cautioned to prevent "willful and needless depredations"
HDQRS. TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Winchester, July 9, 1863.
Maj. Gen. P. H. SHERIDAN, Cmdg. Third Division:
GEN.: Gen. McCook desires you to carry into execution in your command the instructions contained in the inclosed letter. While he appreciates the condition in which your troops have been placed, and the necessity of foraging upon the country for supplies, he wishes every effort made to maintain discipline and protect private property from willful and needless depredations. The great majority of the people of his country are disloyal, and he is willing to see them deprived, in the proper manner, of whatever is essential to the support and safety of the army, provided that sufficient subsistence is left in all cases to supply the present necessities of families. Disloyalty does not forfeit the rights of humanity, which every true soldier will respect. All forage, provisions, and animals required for the use of the army must be taken and receipted for by regimental, brigade, or division quartermasters.
All officers are authorized and directed to arrest thieves, pillagers, and stragglers.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. P. THRUSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 526-527
9, "City Council-Public Health;" seeking a solution for the small pox and contraband problems in Nashville
To-morrow evening there will be a meeting of the Common Council, and also of the City Council; the latter to elect a Board of Education, and the former to receive and act upon reports presented from the various Departments. Among the reports will be found one of great importance to every citizen, and resident-it is that of Spencer Chandler, the City agent of the Pest House. From it we learn that the small-pox is on the decline-the white patients being reduced from 18 to 7, and the black from 18 to 16. These figures would be a cause of congratulation were it not for one fact, namely, that the slight reduction of cases among the negroes [sic] is rather accidental than as indicative of any real check to the progress of the disease.
Mr. Chandler, than whom none are better qualified to judge, fears an increase not only of small pox, but of other diseases, among the blacks, unless some measures be adopted by the civil or military authorities, or both, to place the contrabands in healthy encampments, with guards and overseers to see after their health and morals. These contrabands are scattered over the city and suburbs, and are crowded together by dozens and fifties [sic], many of the men living in idleness, some by thieving, a large number of the women by prostitution, and all in filth, breeding disease, which will spread like wildfire over the city. So barefaced are these black prostitutes becoming, that they parade the streets, and even the public square, by day and night.
An order has just been received notifying all the white prostitutes to leave town immediately. Why not issue a similar order against the blacks? If military necessity demands the removal of the first, it certainly will require the latter, if the police and our own eyes are to be believed.
But leaving morality out of the question, let us look at the case in a sanitary point of view. Mr. Chandler tells us that wherever he finds a case of small pox among colored people, the house from which it is removed is crowded with inmates. How many of these inmates of a filthy den have contracted the disease? Among how many others will they spread it? How long [a] time will elapse before it breaks out in camps, or in hospitals?-(for many of the occupants of these dens spend their days in hospitals [sic]). These are questions to be reflected upon seriously by our City Fathers, if they would preserve the health of the city.
Mr. Chandler has already consulted with Gov. Johnson on the subject of encamping all contrabands in a healthy locality, and we are informed he looks favorably upon the subject, and Mr. C. recommends that proper measures be taken to carry out his suggestions, or some other, to preserve the health of the town. We commend the subject to the Common Council, feeling confident they will do what seemeth [sic] best to them.
Nashville Dispatch, July 9, 1863.
9, "Departure of the Cyprians;" the expatriation of Nashville's prostitutes
Yesterday [8th] a large number of women of ill-fame were embarked upon three or four steamers, and transported northward. The number has been estimated at from one thousand to fourteen hundred-probably five or six hundred would near the mark. Where they are consigned to, we are not advised, but suspect the authorities of the city in which they landed will feel proud of such an acquisition to their population. We hope the commanding officer will issue an order as soon as possible, ordering off all contraband prostitutes -- they contribute considerably more toward the demoralization of the army than any equal number of white women, and certainly have no more claims upon our sympathy.
Nashville Dispatch, July 9, 1863.
The statement of John M. Newcomb seeking reimbursement for damages sustained to the steamship Idahoe in July relative to damages to the "floating whore house."
Washington D. C.
August 16, 1865
Hon. E. M. Stanton
Secy. of War
I must respectfully beg leave to draw your attention to the following statement of facts in relation to my claim for subsisting 111 prostitutes from Nashville, Tenn., to Cincinnati, Ohio, and back to Nashville, on board my steamer "Idahoe."
On the 8th of July 1863, while my boat was under charter by U. S. [sic] and in service at Nashville these prostitutes were put on board of her by a detachment of soldiers who were ordered to do so by Lt. Col. Spaulding, pro.[vost] mar.[shal] gen. [eral] and Capt. Stubbs, asst. quartermaster who were acting under orders of Gen. Morgan. I protested against their putting these women on my boat. She being a new boat, only three months built, her furniture new, and a fine passenger boat. I told them it would forever ruin her reputation as a passenger boat if they were put upon her. (It has done so. She is not and has since been known as the floating whore house [sic]) and pointed out to them old boats that were in the service at the time which would have answered the purpose as well as mine, but no, they said I must take them. Being in the employ of the govt. and the control of Capt. Stubbs the quartermaster, I was compelled to keep them on my boat. On the same day that they were put on board I was ordered to start with them to Louisville. I asked Capt. Stubbs how these women were to be subsisted & he told me I would have to see Gen. Morgan about that. I saw Gen. Morgan and he told me to subsist them myself. I entreated of him to let the gov't subsist them, that it could do much less [sic] (more?) than I could. His reply was, "you subsist them." When I found Gen. Morgan determined that I should subsist them, I had to buy meat and vegetables at enormous high prices [sic] from storeboats along the river, and in addition at many places to buy ice and medicines, these women being diseased and more than one half of them sick in bed. I applied to other commissary's of sub. [sic] along the route, for commissary stores, to feed these women; but at each place was refused by the officer in charge, and the civil as well as the military authorities would not allow my boat to land, and put guards along the shore to prevent me from doing so. When leaving Nashville I applied for a guard to be put on board. Gen. Morgan told me I did not need any, but to take charge of them myself. Having no guard I could not keep men along the route from coming on board to these women, when at anchor, and being angered because I strove to drive them away both themselves and these bad women destroyed and damaged my boat and her furniture to a great extent. When I arrived at Louisville I stated my grievances to Gen. Boyle and he gave me a guard and ordered me to proceed to Cincinnati and await further orders there. I remained in the stream opposite Cincinnati because I would not be allowed to land for thirteen days, when I was ordered to Nashville again with my cargo of prostitutes.
I wish to say to your honor that I was compelled to subsist these women, that it cost me all that I have made a charge for to do so, that the claim is merely a reimbursement of my money which I had to expend while complying with the orders of the officers of the United States government; that I could not have this money he returned me at the place where I was ordered to perform this service because officers who ordered me would not direct a settlement of my account to be made. I had to leave my business and travel from Cincinnati to this place to see if I could collect it-it being over two years due me. I am here now one week going from one office to another, to see to get my papers, and to effect a settlement, which I have not yet done, unless your honor will please direct payment of this account so justly due me, and for a long time.
The enclosed order from the officers directing me to perform this duty are herewith respectfully submitted for your consideration.
Your Obt. Sert.
John M. Newcomb
Statement of John McComb.
9, "They had been celebrating or as they expressed themselves, taking Vicksburg [sic]." Frank M. Guernsey's letter to Fannie
July 9th, 1863
Glory be to God, peace on earth, good will to men. We have been overwhelmed for a few days past with such glorious news that our camp and the City have been almost in an uproar ever since. The first news we received was of the unconditional surrender of Vicksburg with thirty one thousand prisoners, eighty stands of colors, one hundred and fifty cannon and fifty thousands stands of arms. Genl. Hulburt [sic] ordered a salute fired from all the batteries in Memphis and I tell you there was a great popping of guns for about an hour. We had just got quieted down to our regular duty when we heard the glorious news from the east how Genl. Meade had whiped [sic] Lee and taken about thirty thousand prisoners. This news we received yesterday. I had been out in command of a Picket outpost all night and when I got back to Camp a little after noon, I found quite a number of officers pretty drunk. They had been celebrating or as they expressed themselves, taking Vicksburg. [sic] I joined them in one bottle of wine and then left them to take Richmond, [sic] which I guess they took if wine could take it. They were all gloriously tight before they got through.
You asked me how I spend the Fourth? In camp like a good boy. We received an order from Headquarters the night of the third, for every officer and soldier to remain in their respective camps during the day as an attack was expected so here I remained all day waiting for a fight, but nary fight came, there was no celebration here only a salute fired.
9, Dread of flagging morale in Confederate Knoxville
Letter from Tennison.
Mr. Editor: During a sojourn in your goodly city, under circumstances rather favorable to a just observation of men and things, I cannot say that I was very deeply impressed with the conviction, that, for unselfish patriotism and stern devotion to the Southern cause, the population of Knoxville stood pre-eminent. Indeed, I must confess to a disappointment of my expectations with regard to the spirit of your people, at least, as I saw it manifested around me. I fear they do not sufficiently realize the danger of their position, that they either do not comprehend or are wilfully [sic] blind to the perils of the hour. As this crisis of our fate as a nationality, and when it is known of all men that East Tennessee is an especial goal, toward which the Federals are pushing their worse than savage legions-ready to be welcomed by still more relentless allies in our midst. What did I see looking from my position as almost a stronger to you-a people [sic], firm and determined, banded together as brothers, all of one mind and heart, resolved and ready to resist "to the last extremity," the approach of vandal feet to your territory-a society [sic] of women-noble and true hearted-awake to a knowledge of all that subjugation means-engaged in preparing food for the sick in hospitals; bandages and lint for the wounded in battle; clothing and haversacks for the soldier in the ranks; encouraging with sweet and brave words of cheer, their husbands, brothers and lovers, to go forward and assist in expelling the vile race from our border, thus assuring them of their capacity to "suffer and be strong,: under every difficulty and deprivation, rather than their homes should be yielded to a cruel foe-a community [sic], old and young, male and female, animated and governed by one and the same glorious impulse to perish or be free-to suffer no relaxation or [illegible] till [illegible] should be accomplished! Were the officers and soldiers, whom I saw around your city, engaged in requiring and requiring that discipline and good morale, without which an army is but a mob; and the absence of which, is so detrimental to the service, and is sometimes even fatal to success! Were the politicians and "famous men" among your, bending all their engergise [sic] to unite and harmonize and encourage the people, and to uphold and support the government with all their influence and ability.
I cannot, in justice to truth, answer these questions in the affirmative. There are honorable exceptions I know, and with pleasure I chronicle the fact, but that many of your citizens are chargeable, either with criminal indifference to the cause of the South, or with downright complicity with the enemies to destroy it, is certainly true. I have no inducement to libel or any desire to misrepresent the people of Knoxville, for like them, I belong to East Tennessee, and am identified with all that concerns her welfare. Yet a current knowledge of our position, even when that knowledge is mortification, is much better for us than to live under a delusion. One third of your people, we will say, are Southern in feeling, in sentiment, in sympathy. Is the proportion large! Leaving out all those connected with the government, either in its civil or military administration. My charge against them is "criminal indifference to the cause of the South." Is it supported by testimony worthy of credence? I could discover no signs of an organization among you to aid the military in case of necessity. I could hear of none who were interesting themselves in behalf of such organization. I did not find any evidence that your women-accomplished, handsome and intelligent-were busy in employment for ameliorating the condition of the sick soldier, or were making any efforts to add comforts to those able to fight. I could see nothing of the kind. I heard of no movement on hand for any such purposes. On the contrary, I saw no lack of spirit in furthering private [gain?]. I could perceive no discussion in demagugerism [sic] with aspirants for political preferment. Very little sign of good feeling or fraternity. But slightly display of religious sentiment or christian charity. No gathering together in [illegible] or brotherly unity. In fact, no sameness of view or purpose, as among a people dreading personal and political degradation, and determined to avert it or die bravely contesting its ground; I stood aghast at the sight. The two thirds left, I class with the open or secret enemies of the South; do you doubt their complicity with its enemies to destroy us. How many of them would hesitate to give aid and comfort to the North, in case they were backed by Federal bayonets. How few, even now, ever fails [sic] when opportunity offers, to throw their influence against us. If these things are so, and we cannot close our eyes to the fact, is not our position full of peril?
To think this fertile land, with pleasant homes, our fair women and children, our public edifices and private resorts, our schools and christian sanctuaries, may at any time, be desolated, polluted and perhaps destroyed; our institutions overthrown, and all that is near and dear to us, under the dominion of a merciless despot; and to feel that the danger is not realized or comprehended by one in ten of our population, and is anticipated with indifference or grim satisfaction by another large class among us, presents a spectacle to my mind that caudles my blood and horrifies me beyond description. I would not necessarily alarm anyone. I am not disposed to deal uncharitably with our rule[r]s or our citizens, but I would urge them both, by all that is sacred and dear to us as a community, to rouse them from the lethargy everywhere pervading our camp and councils-to cease all personal strife and bickering, and yielding all secondary considerations, to concentrate and direct all their energies of mind and heart to the one great purpose of delivering our country, and bringing back our people to the true path of virtue and happiness.
Home, June 12th, 1863.
Holston Journal, July 9, 1863.
9, Instructions on the collection and consignment of cotton along the Elk River
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND,
Tullahoma, Tenn., July 9, 1863.
Your dispatch of last evening is received….
* * * *
Send the cotton you have on hand to Elk River in your empty wagons. Turn it over to the quartermaster there, with directions to ship it to W. G. Brownlow, United States Treasury agent at Nashville. Col. Truesdail has no authority to issue orders by command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans. Your course toward Rev. Mr. Helm is approved. If he continues to be pestilent, send him north as a prisoner.
* * * *
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 524.
10, One Federal soldier's opinion of church singing in Memphis; excerpt from a letter home
But Alas for the vanity of human hopes, the men were on the one side and the Ladies on the other, and the fair ones being I suppose bashful did not like to keep up with the men, so they kept half a bar behind and made the confoundest Discord I have ever heard in my life, [sic] A concert of Cats would have been music [compared] to it.
George Hovey Cadman Correspondence.
10, Capture of outpost at Union City
JULY 10, 1863.-Capture of outpost at Union City, Tenn.
No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Alexander Asboth, U. S. Army, commanding District of Columbus, Ky.
No. 2.-Col. John Scott, Thirty-second Iowa Infantry.
No. 3.-Maj. Edward Langen, Fourth Missouri Cavalry.
Reports of Brig. Gen. Alexander Asboth, U. S. Army, commanding District of Columbus, Ky.
HDQRS. DIST. OF COLUMBUS, 6TH DIV., 16TH A. C.
COL.: I beg have to report that, on the 10th instant, about 7 a. m., the advanced cavalry post of Union City was surprised by a rebel force 600 cavalry, under Col. [J. B.] Biffle. Our loss is from 90 to 100 men killed, wounded, and prisoners.
I immediately ordered Col. Scott, Thirty-second Iowa Infantry, with six companies of his regiment, by railroad, to Union City, but the rebels had left the place an hour before his arrival. Inclosed please find Col. Scott's report, showing that the disaster was caused by the total neglect of the officers to follow even the ordinary military precautions, not to speak of my peremptory and repeated orders distracting the utmost vigilance.
As the rebel force is rapidly increasing in the District of Jackson, by recruit and conscripting, I requested Maj.-Gen. Schofield to reinforce me, and last night 600 men arrived from New Madrid as a temporary loan.
Feeling the great importance of holding our communications and river navigation open and uninterrupted, I again respectfully request that some additional cavalry and a battery of light artillery may be sent me, and now that Vicksburg has fallen, and troops can be spared from there, I ask that, if possible, Montgomery's brigade, comprising four of my old infantry regiments, may be ordered back to this district.
Should the general commanding direct Gen. Dodge to move force to Jackson and above, I would request to be informed in time, so as to be enable to co-operate as far as my limited force will admit.
Respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant,
Report of Col. John Scott, Thirty-second Iowa Infantry.
HDQRS. THIRTY-SECOND IOWA INFANTRY, Camp near Columbus, Ky., July 11, 1863.
CAPT.: In obedience to the verbal orders of the general commanding, I have the honor to report that, on the 10th instant, with the effective men of my command (164 enlisted men, 9 line officers and 5 officers of the field and staff), I proceeded by rail to Union City, Tenn.
I found on my arrival at that point, at about 3 p. m., that the place and Federal forces had been captured by rebel forces, said to be under Col. Biffle, of Forests' command, at about 7 a. m. It was a complete surprise, and no organized resistance was made. From information received, I may state the loss at 2 killed, 8 wounded, about 90 prisoners, 116 horses, and transportation and camp equipage at the post destroyed.
I estimate the rebel forces at about 650. They retired in the direction of Troy. At about 2 p. m. I found the citizens in burying our dead and caring for the wounded. The latter, except one man, not able to be moved, I brought to post hospital at this place. The former I left to be decently buried by the citizens.
The names of the killed are Henry Rosengoetter, private Company C, Fourth Missouri Cavalry and Henry Stribbers (or Strubberg ), private Company E, Fourth Missouri Cavalry.
The only mention that both officers and men of my command behaved well, and confidently advanced upon the town, believing it to be them occupied by a superior force.
You most obedient servant,
JOHN SCOTT, Col. Thirty-second Iowa Infantry.
Report of Maj. Edward Langen, Fourth Missouri Cavalry.
COLUMBUS, KY., August 8, 1863.
CAPT.: In obedience to orders from headquarters District of Columbus, Ky., Maj. G. Heinrichs, commanding post Clinton, Ky., ordered, on the 26th day of June, 1863, Company C, Capt. C. Rosa, and Company I, of the Fourth Regt. [sic] Missouri Volunteers Cavalry, both companies under command of Capt. C. Rosa, to Union City, Tenn., as advanced post, and continued there until the 10th day of July 1863, where we were in the morning between 9 and 10 o'clock surprised by a rebel force superior in numbers.
The rebels surrounded the place, and, after a short fight, in which 2 were killed and 8 men wounded, the whole command was captured, except 2 men, who escaped to Clinton, Ky.
All the camp and garrison equipage, books, and papers belonging to said companies were also taken and partly destroyed by the enemy, who, left the place two hours after their first appearance, taking along with them all the officers and men as prisoners except dead and wounded, the former unburied, the place. Brig.-Gen. Asboth sent, as soon as he heard of the disaster, re-enforcements by railroad, which found the place evacuated by the enemy, buried the dead, and brought the wounded to Columbus, Ky., in hospital of killed, wounded, and prisoners of both companies. [list not found]
Your most obedient servant,
EDWARD LANGEN, Maj. Cmdg. Detachment Fourth Missouri Volunteers Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 822-824..
10, Skirmish at Bolivar
JULY 10, 1863.-Skirmish at Bolivar, Tenn.
No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, U. S. Army.
No. 2.-Lieut. Col. James F. Drish, One hundred and twenty-second Illinois Infantry.
Report of Brig. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, U. S. Army.
CORINTH, MISS., July 11, 1863.
GEN.: The force that went to Bolivar met the rebels and drove them out, killing 1 and wounding several, taking 1 captain and several privates prisoners. The force that went north to Purdy drove the rebels north toward Jackson. Newsom, Biffle, and Forrest are all raising regiments in that country. Richardson is said to be on Hatchie, near Denmark.
G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen.
Report of Lieut. Col. James F. Drish, One hundred and twenty-second Illinois Infantry.
SAULSBURY, July 10, 1863.
COL.: The Eleventh Illinois Cavalry, sent out from here this morning, met the enemy at Bolivar, and engaged them, and drove them across the Hatchie. They were about 80 strong, supposed to be Richardson's command. We killed 1, wounded several, and captured 1 captain and some men. There is no force of the enemy on this side of the Hatchie. Maj. Funke was in command of the force from this place.
The Second Iowa joined after the fight was over.
J. F. DRISH, Lieut.-Col., Commanding Regiment.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 667.
10, Skirmish in Cocke County
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
10, Expedition up the Duck River to Centreville, Lynnville, Lawrenceburg
No circumstantial reports filed.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Tullahoma, Tenn., July 10, 1863.
Col. J. T. WILDER:
The general commanding directs you, as soon as your command is in good condition, to send a detachment, or go with it yourself, to Columbia and Centreville, and explore the country along the Duck River. Make easy marches, so as not to wear out your animals. Gen. Stanley will soon make an expedition, via Huntsville, to Pulaski and Lawrenceburg. He desires to let the people understand that we completely occupy the country. Bring in all the able-bodied male negroes [sic] (slaves of rebel masters) you can find, together with horses and mules. The greatest possible care must be taken to prevent pillage and marauding. Make sketches of the fortifications at Columbia, and gather all the intelligence you can. One-half of your command will be sufficient for the expedition. You can be gone six or seven days if necessary.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Tullahoma, July 10, 1863.
Maj.-Gen. STANLEY, Chief of Cavalry:
The general commanding has ordered Col. Wilder to go on an expedition up Duck River as far as Centreville. This renders it unnecessary for you to send any part of your force to Columbia, as ordered this morning. You need not go higher than Lynnville, and may go to Lawrenceburg if you think it important to do so.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 527-528.
10, Expedition from Huntsville, Alabama, to Pulaski, Fayetteville, Tennessee
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Tullahoma, Tenn., July 10, 1863--10.15 a. m.
Maj.-Gen. STANLEY, Chief of Cavalry:
GEN.: Your dispatch of 8.30 p. m. is received. The general commanding will leave the Huntsville expedition mainly to your discretion. He desires you, however, to make a thorough examination of the railroad route in that direction, and also send a part of your force along the Athens and Pulaski road to Columbia. Send a small party also to examine the railroad to Fayetteville. He desires to have the people of Middle Tennessee realize that we have actually taken possession of the country. It appears probable from all accounts that a part of Forrest's train is still in the neighborhood of Pulaski. If this be true, it should be secured. Make short marches, so that your horses may be in even better condition on their return than when they start. There is no pressing emergency in this matter, and it is desirable to have your horses fresh for larger operations to be undertaken soon. The horseshoes you need will be here this morning, and will be forwarded at once.
Your treatment of guerrillas is approved. The lawlessness of which you speak on the part of our soldiers on foraging parties will make bushwhackers faster than any other thing. I have already mentioned, in former dispatch, that the general commanding desires you to gather and send in to the provost-marshal-general all the able-bodied male negroes [sic] (slaves of rebel masters) you can find. Your proposed expedition will probably be fruitful in this respect, as well as in the collection of horses and mules. The general commanding thinks one division of your command will be a sufficient force for the expedition.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
P. S.-It seems to be confirmed that John [H.] Morgan has crossed the Ohio at Brandenburg, and now threatens Louisville from the north. Louisville under martial law.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 526-527.
10, Black prostitutes replace white prostitutes in occupied Nashville
It is the mistaken opinion of some of our good citizens that the flight of a large number of white harlots from our midst will prove an infallible cure of the evils so justly complained of and so utterly demoralizing to the military camp and the city. But the sudden expatriation of hundreds of vicious white women will only make room for an equal number of negro strumpets....Unless the aggravated curse of lechery...as it exists among the negresses [sic] of the town, is destroyed by rigid military or civil mandates, or the indiscriminate expulsion of the guilty sex, the ejectment of the white class will turn out to have been productive of the sin it was intended to eradicate and in a hundred fold more excessive and loathsome ratio. This community has endured long enough the humiliating improprieties of negro females, publicly connived at and brought about by soldiers and others every day of their lives. We dare say no city in the country has been more shamefully abused by the conduct of its unchaste females, white and Negro [sic], than has Nashville for the past fifteen or eighteen months. It is time a summary and effectual remedy was applied where it is most needed; and we trust that, while in the humor of ridding our town of libidinous white women, General Granger will dispose of the hundreds of insolent black ones who are making our fair city a Gomorrah [sic]. In the essential work of suppressing such a glaring and hurtful evil, let there be no partiality shown-not the least."
Nashville Daily Press, July 10, 1863.
10, "Falling Off."
The advance of the Army of the Cumberland has produced quite a change in the various branches of trade in Nashville. Dullness may be said to hang like a pall over some of our business houses. The soldier population has been thinned out by orders to march to the front with regiments, and those that have been doing garrison duty are made to stand to their posts more closely. Many of the restaurants and drinking salons are experiencing significant falling off in customers, owing to the decrease of officers and men; and it is not erroneous to suppose that the stampeded of Magdalenes has a great deal to do with the reduction of orders of epicurean luxuries. The causes named have lent a very uninteresting monotony to our city for two or three days; but we predict that many advantages will ensue when we shall have grown used to a reduced population, and little trade!
Nashville Daily Press, July 10, 1863.
10, "Extensive Furniture and Grocery Sale. By Geo. Shields & Co. Saturday, July 10."
Consisting in part of dried peaches, dried apples, crushed sugar, flour, smoking and chewing tobacco, and other groceries. Also, parlor, bed-room and kitchen furniture in great varieties, Brussels and Ingrain carpets, bureaus, washstands, wardrobes, bedsteads, feather-beds, shuck, moss and cotton mattresses, chamber sets; also fine sofas, chairs, divans, ottomans, and other parlor furniture; also a large consignment of china and glass ware in every variety. Sale to commence a half-past nine o'clock precisely.
Geo. Shields &. Co. Opposite Sewanee House
Nashville Daily Press, July 10, 1863.
10, "Common Council;" the fate of the bill preventing lewd women from riding in hacks in Nashville
* * * *
The bill from the Board of Aldermen to prevent lewd women from riding in hacks, and to regulate the hack fare, was read, and passed on its first reading. The rules being suspended, it passed its second reading, when a motion was made to insert in the first section the word "knowingly." Amendment adopted, when M. M. Brien's opinion was asked as to the merits of the bill. The Judge thought those now having licenses would not be bound by the law, and stated that he had voted against the bill in the Board of Aldermen. A motion was then made to lay the bill upon the table, which was adopted, and the bill lies on the table.
* * * *
Nashville Dispatch, July 10, 1863.
10, All the wrong news; F. J. Paine at Sweetwater, to his sister, Mary, in Washington, Tennessee
To Miss Mary L. Paine
Via Athens, Tennessee
Sweetwater, Tenn., July 10th/63
My dear Sister,
I drop you a line this morning to let you know I arrived at this place in due time, and found the command still here, and hear no talk of them moving soon. I have no definite or reliable news from any point, we hear various rumors from different points but I do not know that any of them are considered reliable. We also have a report that Vicksburg has been evacuated, also that Pemberton and Johnson [sic] made an attack on Grant and routed his entire force, and that we are still in possession of Vicksburg. But the reports seem to be so contradictory that there is no telling any thing about certainly [sic] But we will certainly hear in a day or two. I have been fearful for some time that they would finally succeed in taking Vicksburg, but I hope it may not be so. We got in the rear of Rosecrans and made a dash into Murfreesboro, capturing and destroying two trains of cars, a large amount of commissary stores, and it is said they burnt a train of wagons numbering 700. If that is true it will cut off the supplies of the enemy and they will not be prepared for an advance for some time yet. It is also reported here and thought to be reliable that Genl. Lee has captured Forty thousand of the enemy in Pennsylvania and that they are now on their way to Richmond. That if true is a good draw he has made upon them. I have not heard from Hab since I came up. There has been a good many soldiers going up on the road but I have not learned whose command they belong to. I think Browns [sic] Brigade will be up if they have not come yet. I suppose Buckners [sic] force is all coming into this department. I have not been able to learn anything about what the next move will be, but I think things will develop themselves in a few days so I can form some idea of what the next move will be. I will write to you again in a day of two. I have tried to buy some sugar to send home, but the Gov. price now has got up to one dollar per pound and I thought it better to do without than to give that price. There is soda here. I will send 2 pounds by someone passing in a day or two. Write to me as soon as you get this direct to Sweet Water.
As ever your Brother,
F. J. Paine
TSL&A Confederate Collection. Box 11, Folder 2, Letters Paine, F. J.
10, "I went out some 12 miles into the country, picked up all the corn I could find, then went to killing cattle, sheep, hogs, chickens, wherever I could find them. Had lots of fun…." Hiram Russell, 21st Wisconsin, to his wife and family
Camp, 21st Wisconsin Volunteers
July 10th, 1863
13 Miles from Tullahoma and about 50 Miles from Chattanooga. Another Railroad near Dechard [sic] Station, about 3 miles from Foot of the Mountains. Mud and Water Bound.
To my dear wife & babies,
Today is the 18th day since we left Murfreesboro and [it] has rained constantly until yesterday, everyday, muddy is no name for it. On the 3rd week of July we forded [the] Elk River, it was up to the men's necks. Stringing ropes across for them to hang on to. There were some drowned of the Regulars. Had quite a little fight on this side of the river, took a few prisoners. Have been camped at our present campaign ground for 3 days waiting for our trains, which are to bring us rations, hard tack [sic] is scarce. You wished me to give you our day's program, will give yesterdays; First, I was sleeping very nicely about 5 o'clock and Rudolph Otto, who does my cooking and waits on me now, called me and said breakfast was ready. I got up and eat [sic] my breakfast, had some hard tack and coffee. Soon after, a detail came for me to take charge of, a forage train. I went out some 12 miles into the country, picked up all the corn I could find, then went to killing cattle, sheep, hogs, chickens, wherever I could find them. Had lots of fun, went to every house I saw and they would all plead strong, but I told the men to load the wagons. I would ride ahead with a few cavalry and when I saw a pretty girls [sic] would make love to her [sic] until the train came up, leaving the cavalry outside as a guard. They are all Secesh but still most of them are very sociable when they meet a good looking Yankee, as they call them especially, an[d] being pretty good looking myself, got along very well. Do not wish to be understood that I done anything improper [sic]. Got back to camp about sundown, found a quarter of a roasted lamb, some new potatoes &coffee ready for my supper. Have plenty one day to eat, perhaps the next go hungry [sic]. About 9 o'clock went to bed early tired but found myself alright this morning. We expect our train today, some fifteen hundred wagons and if they come, expect we shall move on over the mountains to Chattanooga, where we shall have a big fight I expect….It has been some days since I have received a letter from you, had two more letter, but no letters from you. Write often, with love to all
Correspondence of Hiram Russell, 21st Wisconsin Volunteers,
Stones River National Battlefield Park Collection
10, Scout and skirmish near Brownsville [see July 14, 1863, "GUERRILLAS IN WEST TENNESSEE," below.]
10, Correspondence from the First Tennessee Cavalry at Sweetwater Valley
Encampment 1st Tenn. Cavalry
Near Sweetwater, July 10, 1863
SWEETWATER VALLEY-ATHENS CONCERT-MADISONVILLE TABLEAU.
Editors Southern Chronicle: It is not to be supposed than Gen. Pegram consulted the individual wishes of his command in appointing Sweetwater valley as the place of rendezvous for his troops, yet if he had taken pains formally to consult them, he could not, perhaps, have selected a location more in accordance with their wishes.
This is the "garden spot" of East Tennessee. The lands are fertile and the country, taken as a whole, is beautiful. Here jaded horses may find food and rest, and their riders an ample supply of nourishment for the inner man. The people, in the main, are kind and benevolent and not destitute of refined Christian hospitality. True, some of the mountainous sections of the country are infested with tories and bushwhackers who have committed occasional depredations upon the property, and in some instance have not spared the lives of a few of the citizens; but these do not constitute a very large of dangerous class. They are at least not a source of terror at the present juncture of affairs because of the presence of Gen. Pegram's brigade. Some efforts have been made to catch the murdering thieves, but there seems to be a good deal of indifference in relation to their capture, for the impression seems to prevail pretty generally in these quarters that if they were all captured-even in the very act of murder and robbery-and turned over with full proof to over kind-hearted authorities, the negligence of the prison guard or the intercession of some "milk and cider" Southern men would immediately procure their release. There are many so-called Southern men that all times studiously endeavor to obtain favor with Lincolnites and tories in order to save themselves and their property in the event of Federal invasion. These men make themselves conspicuous in securing the release of the most obstinate and villainous wretches, and thus oftimes do our cause ten-fold more harm than the most pernicious Lincolnite. Yet "with their mouth they profess much love" to the cause of the South. Alas! SELF [sic] is their only object of love.
Leniency is good in its place, but may be abused. Its fatal abuse accounts for many of the disturbances that are chronicled in the papers of the day.
But there are other things of which it our desire to write, and would fain cultivate a gentler tone in entering upon the description of scenes soothing to the heart in places where the rude alarms of war disturb not the quiet heart.
On Monday night last, it was our fortunate pleasure to be at the entertainment in the hall of Athens Female College. It consisted of tableaus, charades, and a concert, gotten up some lady refugees, for the benefit of the hospitals at Athens. It had no immediate connection with the College, though several of the teachers and pupils of the school had in it a conspicuous part. Not having a programme of the exercises we cannot enter minutely into details in the description.
The music of piano forte and guitar was almost excellent. The instrumental pieces-some of them long and difficult-were executed with skill and the highest order that did no little honor to those engaged. The songs were selected with taste and sung with a beauty and sweetness rarely squalled. The array of beauty upon the occasion was imposing beyond description from our feeble pen. To paint the loveliness of ladies were assembled, we shall not attempt. The exercises closed at half past 10 o'clock.
On the Wednesday night following, it was our pleasure to be present an entrainment of a similar character in the town of Madisonville. In this there was with us a very agreeable disappointment. Never having been at Madisonville before, and not being favorably impressed with description s of the place, we had prepared ourself [sic]for only such an entertainment as might be expected in an obscure country village. Indeed, we should not have gone at all, but for the prospect of a pleasant ride on the way thither with a very agreeable young lady, supposing that that would make ample amends for the poverty of the entertainment, or repay us for all trouble even if there were no tableau or other entertainment at all. The hall was entered with a mood almost despondent. But the curtain soon arose and all gloom was banished. As it was removed there was displaced to view a semi-circle of beautiful young ladies. In the centre, a few paces to the front, stood a young lady dressed in Confederate colors, holding in her hands the stars and bars.
"Dixie" then was sung with spirit and grace. The next was a tableau, "Contentment better than Wealth," and "Preparing Moses for the Fair," and the "Daughter of the Regiment."-Then followed the "Confederate toast," sung by two sweet little girls with elegance and animation. This was really a treat. "The Tea Party" was a ludicrous affair that we shall not attempt to describe. "Old fashions and New" represented our ancestors in a manner that certainly could not have been very gratifying to the sticklers for "old times."
"Matrimony," a charade, represented to the life the passions and habits of more ages than one. It was designed to hold up to contempt those people who love and marry (or rather who marry without love) merely for fortune and rank, and also to represent in their true light the appropriateness and felicity of those marriages that are based upon true affection, where all sinister motives are spurned and abhorred. It was a scene from which the thoughtful student could easily derive a profitable lesson and sample food for reflection. There was another scent that "held the mirror up to nature" as realized in some household-"Domestic Bliss." A lady-or rather a woman-stood before her husband with a broom-stick in her hand as if in the act to strike. He, gallant knight, stood with a tea cup in hand ready to hurl it at her. "Sic transit gloria mundi."
"Good old times" had a representation in the form of a plainly attired lady at the spinning wheel and a pretty rough looking customer acting the part of a cobbler. It occurs that "good new times" would have been just as appropriate a designation, but a criticism was not ventured. There was a variety of vocal and instrumental music, the former much better than the latter, not from want of skill on the part of the performer, but because of a defective instrument.
The excellency of the entertainment in other respects, however, more than made amends for that deficiency. With the exception of the concert at Athens we have not seen so many interesting young ladies together in a long, long time. If there was an old bachelor in the assembly, I dare say his heart did sorely ache that night, as upon his pillow he thought of the lovely beings that so gracefully acted their respective parts.
It was not the pretty faces witnessed that alone inspired admiration and respect for the denizens of Madisonville on this occasion.-There were other qualities manifest. There is something in the world far more lovely than a pretty faced; for, "as a jewel of gold in swine's snout, so is a fair women which is without discretion."
Every gentleman of sense, young or old, can endorse and realize in his heart, even if he does not while amidst the silly and gay, dare to express the sentiment of Burns when he says
"A bonnie lass, I will confess,
Is pleasant to the e'e,
But without some better qualities,
She's no a lass for me."
Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, July 14, 1863.
10, "We say this in no spirit of braggadocio, for we well know that we may yet have a bloody and desperate battle at Chattanooga; but we desire to inform the public that the time has come to re-possess East Tennessee." Scrutiny of the future of the war after Bragg crosses the Tennessee River away from Chattanooga
EAST TENNESSEE AT LAST
A dispatch which we publish this morning from the southeast says that Bragg has retreated across the Tennessee river with his rebel army, from which it seems that the river where the previous struggle occurred was not the Tennessee, but a smaller stream, called Elk river. This river rises in the second range of the Cumberland mountains, in Grundy county, Tennessee, and flowing a considerable distance W.S.W., empties into the Tennessee river near the Muscle Shoals, in Alabama. It offers the first natural line of defence after an army has retreated from the exterior range of the Cumberland mountains. It covers Alabama and Georgia, and by delaying an army of invasion at the Elk, a rebel general could gain time to prepare a formidable defence at the Tennessee river.
Rosecrans has passed the Elk in force, and driven Bragg from that line, after a sharp fight. A very rough mountain region lay between the Elk and Tennessee rivers, full of good positions, in which Bragg may have hopes to be able to make a stand or entangle Rosecrans. But notwithstanding these advantages, he appears to have been forced by Rosecrans' strategy to retreat from the mountains, and take up his line of defence on the other side of the Tennessee river, at Bridgeport, in the northeastern corner of Alabama, near the Tennessee line. From this point to Chattanooga the distance is short, and there is a railroad in operation, of which Bragg has possession.
When we call to mind the terrible struggle which took place near Murfreesboro last December between Bragg and Rosecrans, the fearful loss of life, and the exertions required of Rosecrans to maintain his footing, it is really surprising that our army has overcome so easily all the obstacles presented by immense fortifications, strong lines, formidable mountain passes and well-defended rivers, and now stands within hail of the rebel stronghold at Chattanooga. Bragg has abandoned the whole length of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, with all its branches, and that, with the Memphis and Charleston Railroad to Bridgeport, now revert to us, and will be firmly held. He has given up all the western valleys of the Cumberland range, and makes the Upper Tennessee river, from Chattanooga, his western line of defence.
We do not put much faith in the statements respecting the demoralization of Bragg's army. If it were so, he would speedily call back from Kentucky the rebel bands now engaged in marauding there, and call in aid from other quarters. Indeed we must candidly say that we think Rosecrans is entering upon the most difficult part of his task, since the further he persues Bragg the more distant he must be from his base at Murfreesboro, although his possession of the railroads will overcome this difficulty. If Bragg is in a condition to fight at all, he will make a desperate stand at Chattanooga, but if forced to relinquish it by Rosecrans' superior numbers and strategy, he would not risk a siege which might end in surrender. His obvious course, then, would be to make a protracted retreat, as we have before observed, defending first the line of the Hiwassee and next that of the Little Tennessee.
Bragg's steady abandonment of one postion after another must indicate that his forces are much weaker than has been supposed, and that he is endeavoring to gain time for reinforcements to reach him. His retreat is opening to us the whole extent of the mountains and valleys traversing Tennessee, North Carolina, Kentucky and Virginia, and exposing to capture that great through line of railway which the rebel generals have guarded so carefully, Chattanooga is the key of this region, and should Bragg fail to defend it, the possession of East Tennessee is only a question of time. This famous valley district is at once the heart of the Union and the main stay of the rebellion. We have never been able to approach it because it was too fiercely guarded. It commands at once Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and a portion of Kentucky.
Contrary to the general belief, this region will be given up by the rebels while a ray of hope remains of holding on to it. If they lose it, the rebellion is crushed past all redemption. It would have accomplished nothing had we carried the war into this valley before crippling the rebel strength elsewhere for then it would only have been necessary for the rebel generals to concentrate an overwhelming force in this valley and destroy our army. But have disposed of the main portion of the rebellion, and cleared so much territory of the rebels, we now able to approach the key position, and place ourselves in command of the entire south. The rebel generals have no longer the ability to concentrate against an overwhelming force in East Tennessee. If Bragg, Morgan, Buckner, Johnston, Price, Marmaduke, Magruder, and all the rest of the rebel headers in the west, were to unite forces against Rosecrans, the release of Grant's army at Vicksburg enables us to outnumber them two to one.
We say this in no spirit of braggadocio, for we well know that we may yet have a bloody and desperate battle at Chattanooga; but we desire to inform the public that the time has come to re-possess East Tennessee. We find an impression gaining ground here at the north that Lee's army on the Potomoc is likely to be reinforced from Bragg's. This is an error. All the men who could be spared from that army have been sent away weeks ago, and nonce can be spared now without giving up East Tennessee, which no rebel general in his senses would do, unless all hope of the rebellion were gone.
From the very commencement of the war the rebels have clung with desperate tenacity to this mountain range, well knowing that it was the real backbone of their military position. While they held it they cared not for the loss of the coast and the principal cities. From these mountain fastnesses they sallied forth to fight battles, to desolate, to ravage, to plunder, to surprise, to invade and to retreat. But now their last armies are in the field. There is no scope in the south for another levy of men. They are beaten everywhere else, their armies are dwindling down, their territory shrinks away from their grasp, and they must fight their last in these valleys. It may be taken for granted that Bragg will be reinforced from some quarter, but this cannot be done without seriously impairing the fortunes of the rebellion in the field. As it must be evident that Johnston's campaign in Mississippi is mere moonshine. And that he cannot defend Jackson or resist Grant anywhere, and it is impossible to reinforce him without abandoning all Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas, we presume that he will be sent to reinforce Bragg, provided he can succeed in effecting a junction, which is now rather difficult.
Price and his coadjutors seem to be acting without orders, and to be beyond the reach of any. Nevertheless we presume that in the present emergency orders will struggle through our lines, and that he will attempt to collect all his forces and join Bragg, as he once before, with his coadjutor Van Dorn, was ordered to join Bragg and Beauregard at Corinth, and did so, leaving no rebel troops at all west of the Mississippi river, except in Texas. Indeed, the solution of the great riddle seems to be rapidly approaching, and the scattered forces of rebellion will soon be gathered together somewhere in one or two mighty armies, to be precipitated upon Meade and Rosecrans in a final struggle.
With Vicksburg and Port Hudson in our possession, as the latter must soon be, and the Mississippi river being hopelessly gone, the rebels would no longer have any cause for retaining there some forty thousand troops contending for nothing. These would, therefore, be likely to be ordered either to join Bragg at Chattanooga, or some other threatened rebel band east of the Mississippi river. Unless this concentrated force should be made very soon, Grant and Banks will be apt to leave no such force to concentrate, for Grant is released now, and his immense army will make quick work against Johnston and the rest. The end, we trust, is rapidly approaching.
North American and United States Gazette, (Philadelphia, PA) July 10, 1863
10- ca. 12, Reconnaissance from Cowan toward Jasper [See July 4, 1863, Reconnaissance toward and engagement at University above]
11, "[N]early all that time we have had to live off the country;" Letter of Jacob W. Bartmess, Co. C., 39th Indiana, at camp in Winchester, to his wife in Indiana, relative to the destruction caused by foraging during and after the Tullahoma Campaigns
July 11th. 63.
Camp at Winchester Ten. [sic]
Dear Wife ---. We are now in camp at Winchester, a little town about four miles in the rear of the camp that I wrote from the other time. It has been 17 days since we left Murfreesboro. It has been quite a hard trip. Our supply train just came up to us yesterday evening the first that we have seen of it for nearly two weeks. Nearly all that time we have had to live off the country. We would go out foreageing [sic] as we call it. and where ever [sic] we could find any corn we would take it for our horses. and then go in the smokehouses and take hams and shoulders or side meat or any thing that could be found to eat. Chickens, geese, turkeys, hogs, and cattle were taken very freely. We had to get corn meal wherever we could for bread. I got three plugs of tobacco at Tullahoma each about one foot long, which did me very good service. I traided [sic] some of it to the 101st Ohio reg't [sic]. for crackers and in this way kept in something to eat.
There are a great many black berrys [sic] here and the largest one you ever seen. A lot of us went out yesterday and got all that we wanted to eat. And brought some to camp [sic].
Well Amanda you ought to see us go into oats fields and meadows with our horses. I tell you, you would see oats and grain suffer. and [sic] wheat fields that have the wheat cut and shocked we go into and carry out the wheat to feed, and make beds to sleep on. I tell you that the country is perfectly ransacked[.] have stirring new here now. but I expect you have heard it all. The boys are in good spirits, thinking that the war will close this summer.
We have taken quite a number of prisoners. Many of them came and gave themselves up and have taken the oath of allegiance and some of them have enlisted to fight for the union. They say that there are any amount that would desert the rebel army if they had a chance.
J. W. Bartmess.
11, Assistant Special Treasury Agent William G. Brownlow on Federal Trade Policy in occupied Nashville
TO THE PUBLIC.
By an agreement between the Treasury and War Department, at Washington, the trade within certain trade Districts, in the [current?] Rebellion, has been turned over to the Assistant Special Agents of the Treasury Department [sic] and to the Board of Trade under the printed Regulations. Mr. East permits goods to come into Nashville, and I permit shipment out [sic] of the City, acting, as a matter of course, within the limits of the orders given us, and in accordance with the acts of Congress concerning such trade. Under these regulations I have given certain permits to certain parties, living within our lines, to take supplies home upon a small scale. Some of these permits have been disregarded by the Provost Marshal, and the Pickets have been instructed by him, not to let the pass. Parties may reflect upon me, but I am not to blame. I did what I had a right to do, and as proof of it, I give one of the orders furnished me, to go by, in the discharge of my duties. It may in the meantime swerve to give the Provost Marshal an idea of his duty:
General Orders No. 88, War Department – Article 1st.
That no officer, of the Army of the United States nor other person connected therewith shall authorize or have any interest in the transportation of any goods, wares, or merchandize (except supplies belonging to or contracted for by the United States, designed for the military and naval forces thereof, and moving under military or naval orders, and except, also, Sutlers' supplies and other things necessary for the use and comfort of the troops of the United States and moving under permits of the authorized officers of the Treasury Department) into any State declared by the President to be in insurrection; nor authorize, nor have any interest in the purchase or sale therein of any goods or chattels, wares, or merchandize, cotton, tobacco, or other product of the soil thereof; nor the transportation of the same, except as aforesaid, there from or therein; nor shall any such officer or person AUTHORIZE, PROHIBIT, OR IN ANY MANNER INTERFERE WITH ANY SUCH PURCHAWSE OR SALE OR TRANSPORTATION WHICH SHALL BE CONDUCTED UNDER THE REGULATIONS OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, unless under some imperative military necessity [sic], in the place or section where the same shall be conducted, or unless requested by an agent or some other authorized officer of the Treasury Department, [sic] in which case ALL COMMANDERS OF MILITARY DEPARTMENTS, DISTRICTS, AND POSTS WILL RENDER SUCH AID IN CARRYING OUT THE PROVISIONS OF THE SAID ACT, AND ENFORCEING [sic] DUE OBSERVANCE OF THE SAID REGULATIONS OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, AS CAN BE GIVEN WITHOUT MANIFEST INJURY TO THE PUBLIC SERVICE. [sic]
I have given the above, with a view to set myself right, and with no view to cross the path of the Military authorities.
W. G. Brownlow, Assist. Sp. Ag. Tr. Dept
Nashville Daily Union, July 11, 1863.
11-14, Reconnaissance from Cowan to Anderson
JULY 11-14, 1863.-Reconnaissance from Cowan to Anderson, Tenn.
Report of Col. Joseph Conrad, Fifteenth Missouri Infantry.
CAMP COWAN, TENN., July 14, 1863.
SIR: In accordance with orders from division headquarters, dated the 11th instant, an expedition, consisting of the Second and Fifteenth Missouri Volunteers, left Camp Cowan on the same day, and marched 7 miles on the railroad track, starting at 3.30 p. m. and reaching Tantalon Station at 7 in the evening. Found the track in good order to within 1½ miles of Tantalon, where three bridges across Crow Creek are burned at small intervals. The tunnel is not damaged. The Crow Creek Valley, road which myself and staff were obliged to take, is so much damaged and obstructed by abatis that no vehicles can pass.
Started from Tantalon at 5 a. m., on the 12th instant, and marched 8 miles to Anderson Station. Four large bridges cross Crow Creek, and are, like the rest of the track and small pieces of trestle-work, entirely intact and in pretty good condition. The rails along the whole road are much worn and need repair. The country road also is much better and unobstructed. The mountains open at Tantalon, emitting Crow Creek, whose valley gradually widens into slopes of rich and highly cultivated land, promising an abundant harvest of cereals and stock of good cattle. At Anderson 7 prisoners were taken, all of whom are deserters from the rebel army, desiring to take the oath of allegiance. They represent [that] the mountains full of deserters, [that] the rebel army much demoralized, and in nearly a starving condition.
On trustworthy information, it appears that the enemy are at the junction below Bridgeport, and that the railroad is uninjured to the Tennessee Bridge, one span of which is burned on the north side of the river. Rumors of two brigades of cavalry having recrossed the Tennessee near Bridgeport, but could be traced to no reliable source. There is a road direct over the mountains from Anderson to Bridgeport, distance only 10 miles to the river, practicable, however, only for cavalry.
The valley road is in good condition and practicable for movements of the necessity of guarding constantly the bridges over Crow Creek, as they are both substantial and very high above the ravines which they span, and would, if destroyed, require a long time to reconstruct.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
JOSEPH CONRAD, Col., Cmdg. Fifteenth Regt. [sic] Missouri Infantry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 824.
11-18, Federal cavalry cxpedition cncompassing Shelbyville, Farmington, the occupation of Lewisburg, Columbia and Centreville; excerpts from a letter by Major James A. Connolly, 123rd Illinois Volunteers, to his wife, July 21, 1863
* * * *
The first day [11th] out we arrived at Shelbyville at noon...toward evening of that day we passed through a village named Farmington, and on inquiry I found that our village of Farmington, [Coles] County, Illinois, was named after this one by a man who emigrated from here many years ago. At Farmington we found the Federal flag waving from many houses, children clapping their hands in greeting and women waving Federal flags and laughing through their tears of joy. On reaching the square with the head of our column, about ten well dressed, intelligent looking young ladies, each with a flag of their own manufacture, met us and invited us to stay there that night, saying we were the first federal soldiers they had seen for a year, and we must encamp there for the night, and they would furnish the officers supper, lodging and breakfast, and would have a "Union Dance" once more for our benefit as well as our own, but we couldn't stay.
The next day [12th], on getting within three miles of Lewisburg, the county seat of Marshall county, I took 50 men and started ahead at a gallop, with orders to dash in suddenly and surprise the place. The Spencers were unslung and ready for action, pistols were drawn and forward we dashed at breakneck speed, right into the public square before the astonished citizens knew there was a Yankee within 40 miles of them. When they realized the astounding fact that they we were real live Yankees the women began to scream, and the merchants shut their doors, but I ordered the stores opened. We then went to the jail which they have used during the past two years as a prison for Union citizens, and in a few minutes the flames were bursting out of the roof and the jail was in ruins before we left the town. Union men had no rights which this town respected, and we handled them accordingly.
The next day [13th] upon reaching within five miles of Columbia, the county seat of Maury county, one of the finest counties of the state, I was ordered to take 75 men and go forward rapidly, to surprise that place also; on getting within 3 miles of the town we discovered two rebel officers eating dinner at a farm house. They started to run, and one of them, a lieutenant, got away, but the other, a captain, we captured. I sent him back to the main column, and dashed on to Columbia. On getting in sight of the place I was surprised to find it was evidently a town about the size of Mount Vernon, Ohio. I knew there were rebel soldiers there and that there were fortifications, but I hoped to surprise them and give them no time to assemble, so with a good pike ahead we put spurs and after a run of less than a mile we dashed into the public square by different streets, and the startled soldiers who were sauntering about, and in saloons, stores &c. raised the cry-"Yankees!" "Yankees!" and started to run in all directions, some firing as they ran, but my boys, with their Spencers, fired too fast for them and they soon dropped their guns and surrendered. We captured 3 lieutenants and 30 privates here.
While riding along one of the streets a woman called me and told me that [two Confederate officers] Captain Bullock and Lieut. Col. Gantt had left the town at the opposite side from which we entered, just as we entered, so taking half a dozen men I started in pursuit of them and ran them 3 miles, getting within half a mile of them, but their horses were fresh and I had run mine 6 miles, so I had to give up the chase for fear of killing my horses, but the second day after this [15th], as I dashed into Centreville, the county seat of Hickman county, with the advance guard, a little after daylight, I had the pleasure of capturing the same two gentlemen who were not expecting us there at all, but Gantt was not secured until one of my men shot him through the arm and leg, as he was running away through a field of standing grain, wounding him so badly that we couldn't take him with us, so I paroled him to report to our military authorities at Nashville as soon as his wounds would permit.
I was then 8 miles from our main body, so I returned to it. We were then 80 miles in a straight line [west] from our camp, and hearing that Col. Biffles, with a superior rebel force had crossed the Tennessee River and was moving toward us, we turned southward, went within about 30 miles of the Alabama line, collecting Negroes, prisoners and horses all the time, then turned northeast and moved back to camp. After leaving Columbia and going toward Centreville we passed right by the home of ex-President Polk. It is a large comfortable looking house on a large lawn with buckeye trees all around the front fences. We had a hard trip, but I enjoyed it very much.
….Strange to say, all through the country we traveled they had not heard of the fall of Vicksburg, and even the Lieut. Col. whom I paroled, who was a prominent Tennessee lawyer and educated gentleman, had not heard of it, and could not believe it, when I told him. The officers we brought in with us as prisoners became very much attached to our command, and seemed to be sorry to leave us. They were extremely depressed when they saw the late papers and one of the Captains, after reading the news, said to me: "Major, the confederacy is played out, it's humbug, and my fighting is done. Come what may I'll fight no more."
Three Years in the Army of the Cumberland, pp. 105-111.
8, "Provisional City Council, July 8, 1864-Minutes of Previous Meetings Read and Adopted."
Mr. Winter presented the following report, which was adopted: Upon a resolution in relation to contracting with the Gas Company, for lighting the streets, the special committee submits to the Board the proposition of the company to charge the city $4 per month per foot, and recommended that the proposition be adopted by the Board. Mr. Loughlin prepared a number of bills against the city, which was approved. Mr. Loughlin remarked that it was current upon the streets that it was the intention of Gen. Washburn to appoint suitable persons to assume the duties of Aldermen for the several wards of this city, and therefore moved an adjournment to the call of the chairman. Adjourned.
Memphis Bulletin, July 9, 1864.
Robert T. Gossett and Oliver [Obed] C. Crossland were executed on Friday [8th] under sentence for killing Depew and others in October last.
Nashville Dispatch, July 10, 1864.
We published, on Monday, a description of Robert T. Gossett and Obed C. Crossland, condemned by a military commission here on the 8th of July, for murder. The sentence was carried out yesterday morning. We append a description of them, and a few incidents:
Robert T. Gossett, a citizen of Springfield, a small village on the Edgefield road, about thirty miles north of this city [Nashville], formerly belonged to the 24d Tennessee Rebel Infantry, was a strong built man, dark complexion, dark hair, dark hair and eyes, and a heavy black moustache. He was sent here in the early part of February, charged with the murder of Mr. Depew, James Mattux and B. F. Binkley, in October last. He was found guilty. He protested his entire innocence, and to last hoped for a pardon from the President.
He was in good spirits and did not seem to fear his fate. On Tuesday last [5th], he stood at his cell door, apparently taking to himself. He said: "To-day is Tuesday, to-morrow is Wednesday, the next day is Thursday, and the next is Friday." "Yes," said the guard outside, "and the next day is Saturday." "I can't see it," answered Gossett.
Obed C. Crossland was a citizen of Jackson county, Tenn. He was 40 years of age, though he had the appearance of a man of 60. His height was about five-feet six inches, his hair, once black, now sprinkled with gray; gray eyes and of slender build. He was received here in January last, since which time he has been in close confinement. He was charged with the murder of two brother, James and William Ridges, sometime during the summer of 1863, and found guilty of the crime. He also protested his entire innocence. He seemed much distressed, and dreaded his fate. He had no the self-possession and confidence that Gossett exhibited, perhaps in consequence of leaving a family. His manner was cowed and sullen, saying but little. On Wednesday night he told an officer that he believed that if there was a hell that he was going to it. On Friday morning, however, he said that he was ready to die and believed he would go to heaven.
The gallows was erected in the yard and but few witnesses were admitted. At a quarter past 10 the guard came in and took a position around the scaffold. A few minutes after, the condemned men were marched in, their arms bound and bareheaded. They walked with a firm step and mounted the fatal platform with composure. After the ropes were passed over their heads and their legs and their legs pinioned, their sentence was read to them, and Gossett was first asked if he had anything to say. He spoke in a low town and said in the substance that he was an innocent man; that he never murdered those men, and knew nothing about it. He was ready to die, but he died as innocent as the babe unborn.
Crossland was then asked if he had anything to say. He also asserted his entire innocence, and that he was not in the vicinity when the murder was committed, and knew nothing of it till it was done. He said that he had witnesses that could have proved him innocent, but he could not get them. A brief prayer was then made by the Rev. Mr. Woodward, Chaplain of the 31st Wisconsin V. I. During the prayer a communication was hanged to the officer in charge of the execution, and it was painful to witness the keen attention that Gossett gave to the document. Perhaps the unfortunate man fancied it was his reprieve. After the prayer was concluded, the Chaplain bade them both good bye. They both expressed the belief that they would meet in Heaven. The fatal cap was drawn over their heads, and at half past ten the drop fell. Crossland died almost instantly-his neck being broken by the fall. The fatal noose around Gossett's neck did not slip up close, his neck was not broken and the unfortunate wretch died of strangulation. He was a powerful man, and after hanging eight minutes the convulsive heaving of his broad chest showed that he clung to life very tenaciously. After handing fifteen minutes the attending surgeon pronounced life extinct, they remain suspended for twenty minutes, and were then cut down, and placed in the plain coffins prepared for them.
Of their guilt, there was no doubt, as a number of witnesses swore positively that they were guilty of the alleged murder. It was also proved that Gossett, after shooting one of his victims, told a comrade that he "always stuck a pin in a dead fly to see if he was dead," and then ran his bowie-knife through his victim's foot, who lived long enough to tell of the occurrence. Mercy, to such men, is worse than useless, as the world is bad enough without their presence.-Nash. Press.
Chattanooga Daily Gazette, July 17, 1864.
8, Methodolgy for Identifying a Soldier's Corpse
Dr. Josiah Curtis, well remembered as an intelligent physician and former resident of our city, is exercising the office of medical director at Knoxville, Tennessee, department of Ohio. In a copy of Parson Brownlow's paper, the doctor has sent a printed copy of a circular well calculated to aid in the identification of bodies of soldiers after death. It seems to us it would be a good regulation for general adoption in the army. It is as follows:
Upon the death of a soldier in this military department-whether in hospital or in the field-the chaplain, wherever one if on duty, and in all other cases the surgeon, is instructed, whenever practicable, to cause the name, rank, company, regiment, date and cause of death, last place of residence, and any other items deemed of importance relating to the deceased, to be legibly written upon white paper, with ink, and to place this record in a bottle, to be well corked, and deposited in the coffin, at the foot of the body, before burial.
Lowell Daily Citizen and News, (Lowell, MA,) July 8, 1864. 
9, "Serious Accident"
Vincent West, a citizen of this county, met with a sudden and melancholy death on Saturday last. He was in the employ of Capt. Miller and engaged at the Government Saw Mill on the river, about a mile above the city. While at work in sawing lumber, his foot slipped, and he became entangled in the band, and carried around the wheel, by which his body was crushed in a terrible manner, and his neck and skull broken, causing death instantly. P.B. Coleman, Esq., the Coroner, held an inquest on the body, and a verdict was rendered in accordance with the above facts. Deceased was between fifty and fifty-five years of age, and leaves a mother, wife and one child to mourn his loss.
Nashville Daily Press, July 18, 1864.
9, Panic caused by Federal arrest of Confederate sympathizers in Cleveland
....Mollie G. & Julia Grant came this morn, they are in a great deal of trouble in consequence of being notified to report at Chattanooga. We are making some new calico dresses in case we have to desert our homes. The order was read to us by a sergeant in the dining room, just as tea was ready, stating that all rebel sympathizers had to report at Chattanooga Monday [July 11]. Through the assistance of Chaplain Spence [a Federal soldier] we have been released [from reporting]. How said I feel to think even if we are permitted to say our friend will go, and we cannot even bid them farewell or else we will be accused of sympathizing with them & plotting against the government & be sent off without a thing in the world....
Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p. 257.
9, "Concerning Dogs;" public health and private pets
In another column is an order from Lieut. Col. Harris relative to dogs. The owners of canines are required to have them muzzled immediately, in default of which they will be subject, on conviction before the Recorder, to a fine of not less than five nor more than fifty dollars for the first offense, and five dollars for each hour thereafter that the order may be violated.
The police are required to have all dogs running art large within the city, and not carefully muzzled, killed and removed at the expense of the city.
In view of the fact that a number of mad dogs have been running about of late, this is an important order, and should be strictly observed.
Memphis Bulletin, July 9, 1864.
9, Special Orders, No. 77, the expulsion of a subject of the British Crown from Memphis
Headquarters District of West Tennessee
Memphis, Tenn., July 9, 1864
XV. George Mellersh and William J. Conran, residents of Memphis, have applied for exemption from service in the Enrolled Militia of Memphis, on the ground of allegiance to Great Britain.
It appears from the sworn statement of each of these men, that in 1861 and 1862, they were in the military service of the so-called Confederate States, and that subsequently thereto they came to Memphis and engaged in business, and in 1863 sought and obtained papers of protection as British subjects.
Therefore, in pursuance of the previous of the circular from these Headquarters dated June 2d, 1864, George Mellersh and William J. Conran are hereby directed to be sent outside the lines of the United States forces, not to return during the war.
Colonel J. G. Geddes, Provost Marshal of the District of Memphis, is charged with the execution of this order.
By order of Major General C. C. Washburn
W.H. Morgan, Assistant Adjutant General.
Memphis Bulletin, August 9, 1864.
9, "More Conscripts for the Train Guard." [see July 7, 1864, "Confederate hostages serve as 'railroad guards'" above]
The following additional arrests have been made under General Order No. 74.
D. T. Goodyear,
D. F. Padgett,
G. W. L. Crook,
H. W. Bryson.
A force of some fifteen or twenty of those arrested were sent out on the train this morning, according to the order. It is thought that this course will insure the trains running between this city and LaGrange from all danger of attacks from guerrillas in [the] future. We shall see.
Memphis Bulletin, July 9, 1864.
9, Cracking down on foreigners not declaring immunity from serving in the Memphis Militia
GENERAL ORDERS NO. 28
Headquarters 1st Brigade, Enrolled Militia, D.M., Memphis, Tenn., July 9, 1864.
Pursuant to circular from Headquarters District of West Tennessee, of date June 2d 1864, which required all foreign subjects and citizens within the District of Memphis, claiming exemption from the Memphis Militia, by reason of Alienage, and engaged in business of any character, to enroll themselves for the defense of this city; and whereas, many persons of the above class are still evading the requirements of said circular, it is therefore ordered, that they report to these Headquarters for the purpose of enrollment within ten days from date. Persons failing to comply with this order will subject themselves to arrest and punishment.
By order of Colonel F. W. Buttinghaus
Memphis Bulletin, July 22, 1864.
9, Fresh Vegetables from the Sanitary Commission
FRESH PROVISIONS FOR THE ARMY
The Sanitary Committee on Wednesday sent to the army one thousand one hundred and fifty barrels of fresh vegetables and eight thousand heads of cabbage.
A dreadful accident-but happily unattended with direct loss of life-occurred on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad on the 30th ultima. Three trains left Chattanooga at nearly the same time, the first being a long one, a number of the cars containing wounded soldiers who were being conveyed, to Nashville. While descending a very steep grade near Cowan, Tennessee, the engineer lost control over the second train, which dashed madly into the first one, burling the locomotives and cars of both trains down the mountain. Nearly all the passengers, among whom were three ladies, were wounded, but, strange to say, not one person was killed outright.
Daily National Intelligencer, (Washington, DC) July 9, 1864. 
10, "The Irvin Hospital."
The necessity for a hospital for Government employees has for a long time existed. When we inform the reader that his class of persons in Nashville and vicinity number not less than ten thousand persons, the great body of whom are far away from home, relatives and friends, the above fact will be conceded. No provision was made for their reception into the army hospitals, although very many urgent cases were admitted, rather as a special favor than as a right. At length Captain C. H. Irvin conceived the idea of erecting a hospital for the men in his employ, and at once determined that the project should be made a reality.
Having, [sic] determined, [sic] matter was easily settled; a few acres of the Rutledge property, situated on the hill to the eastward of Howard High School, was selected for the site, and men set to work at once. No time was lost, and about the 27th of May last a sufficient number of buildings were completed to enable the hospital to pen for the reception of patients. The buildings are nearly constructed, with due regard for health as well a comfort, being well lighted, and perfectly ventilated, allowing 1000 feet of space to every patient. At present there are but two wards, each 135 by 22 feet, on the sides of each of which will be a wide verandah, which will not only shade the windows but give an excellent promenade to the convalescents. Another ward will soon be erected, when it is hoped the accommodations will be sufficient for present purposes. The other buildings are neat and appropriate for the purposes for which they were intended-Surgeons' quarters, offices, store rooms, kitchen, dining room, pharmacy, etc., etc.
The capacity of the present building is one hundred, and the ward is course of construction will give bed for sixty more. Since the Irvin Hospital opened, 225 patients have been admitted; ninety-three were in [the] hospital yesterday morning.
The Surgeon in charge is Charles J. Seymour, and he is assisted by Surgeons L. M. Beckwith, T. J. Karber, and Chittenden. Mr. Baldwin is the Steward.
Everything about the building was clean and in good order, and the patients seemed comfortable as possible under the circumstances. On Capt. Chas. H. Irvin too much praise cannot be bestowed for his humane conduct in this matter.
Nashville Dispatch, July 10, 1864.
10, "Important Order;" retaliation for guerrilla action along the telegraph line running from Nashville to Smithland, Kentucky
Maj. Gen. Rousseau has just issued an order to the effect that "the telegraph line between Nashville and Smithland being continual molested by guerrillas and other evil disposed persons, the disloyal citizens living within five (5) miles of the line in either direction will be held responsible for its preservation, and whenever the line is broken or otherwise injured, such disloyal citizens may be assessed to pay damages and required to make all necessary repairs, or assist in making them when notified. The citizens can and must prevent the breaking of the line."
Nashville Dispatch, July 10, 1864.
10, "Sanitary Regulation."
The mayor has given notice to all owners or lessees of houses, sheds, inclosures or vacant lots in this city, to immediately remove all grass weeds and rubbish from the sidewalks and gutters in front of their premises, and to fill all holes in their lots or grounds which may collect water. Flatboats must be kept free from stagnant water or removed without the city limits. On Monday, July 18, and on such succeeding Monday the loose dirt and rubbish in front of each house or loft shall be cleared by the owners or lessees thereof to the middle of the street, and piles made of dirt near the edge of the gutters, where it shall be carted away at the expense of the city. The enforcement of this regulation is entrusted to the Police Department, the Street Commissioner and Wharfmaster, who will arrest and carry them before the Recorder of the city, all delinquents, who will be fined or otherwise dealt with as the offence may demand.
Memphis Bulletin, July 10, 1864.
Our readers should bear in mind that by order of Lieut. Col. Harris, provisional Mayor of the city, all dogs found unmuzzled after Monday, July 13th, will subject their owners thereof to a fine of from five to fifty dollars each, according to the exigencies of the case, for the first offense; and for each time there after as the order may remain unheeded, a fined at the rate of one dollar per hour, will be imposed.
Memphis Bulletin, July 10, 1864.
Citizens should keep their hall-doors locked, as hall-thieves are being heard from in every portion of the city. They assume the character of beggars, going from house to house, and stealing what ever they can lay their hands on without discovery. Night seems to be the favorite time for plying their nefarious trade, and hat racks are made the objects of special attention. It is said that there is an organized band of these characters, of both sexes and colors, with a head or chief, who, Fagin-like, receives and disposes of their booty. If so, the police shall devote a little attention to the matter and, endeavor to break it up at once, by bringing the offenders to justice.
Nashville Dispatch, July 10, 1864.
10, A Confederate Request from East Tennessee
From East Tennessee.—The Atlanta Register extracts as follows from a letter, written by a lady:
Tennesseans will see that their noble women are unconquerable, and bid them come home only when the Confederate army marches triumphantly through their State. "I have one request to make of you, and that is, allow none of our friends to come into the Federal lines, as their presence gives a great deal of trouble. Do not think we are all subjugated, for I do assure you we are not.
We see from the papers that Lee has gained a victory in Virginia, and we expect the same from Johnston. Don't be uneasy about us. We are doing the best we can. The Yanks have taken both of our mules and the wagon and oxen. But never mind, I can get along. I am trying to buy a blind horse to plow. I would rather you would not come home yet awhile, for I do think the rebels will be in East Tennessee this summer. Tell ----- the rebel ladies of ----- are not subjugated, and when we are together some of us will halloo "hurrah for Dixie" every little while. Tell the rebels if they don't want to see old ladies act foolishly, they must shut their eyes when they come through—for we are almost crazy to see them."
Mobile Register and Advertiser, July 10, 1864.
10, "I am opposed to rebels voting." An Argument to Disenfranchise Confederate Sympathizers in Tennessee's Post War State Government
The Voice of Tennessee Unionists.
The Nashville Times publishes an extract from a private letter of a prominent Tennesseean, from which we quote:
["]How can we get a State Government organized in Tennessee? If the rebels are permitted to vote in Tennessee, they will out vote us, and will carry a majority of any Legislature or Convention that may be ordered, and let them get the State Government in their hands and the Union men of the State are utterly ruined We can never live there and permit them to make the laws to govern us. Would it be right to do this? The truly loyal men of my portion of the State have lost all except their honor. They have stood for their country through all that have passed; their property has been taken from them by the guerrillas; many have been killed, and many driven from their homes and forced to spend all their means amongst strangers, in order to save the lives of themselves and families. Now must they return to be governed by the men who caused all this sorrow and distress? I for one oppose it. I will continue to oppose it from beginning to end. The rebels in my county, to a great extent, have remained at home, and are enjoying peace and quiet, whilst loyal men have been reduced to poverty and ruin. I am opposed to rebels voting. I am opposed to rebels holding office, and, in fact, I am opposed to them having anything to do with the Government in any shape or form. I am only willing that they may live in the country provided they behave themselves. I would prefer being ruled by military authority for the ensuing two years to being governed by laws passed by rebels or their friends.["]
The Times also published another communication from a loyalist here, which we extract:
["]Now, if such men as the Ewings, Hardings, and a host of others, too numerous to mention would only use one-twelfth part of their influence to get the people right that they; did to get them wrong they would, in my opinion, have been back to their allegiance 'ere this.-But, no, sir! What little influence they use is to try to keep the people at enmity with the Government. They never associate with the Union men but are always in squads of their own, rejoicing in the supposed defeats of General Grant and General Sherman, and if any news comes to that effect, they always look pleasant, but if to the contrary, they always look sad. Now, sir, in view of the above facts, would it not be the best policy for the Government to stick to strict enforcement of its laws, at least in the case of influential traitors? I, for one, am not willing to give the men who got up this infernal war, and get all their neighbors into it, and kept out of it themselves, the benefit of the amnesty oath. I am willing to give it to the rebel soldiers who are willing to accept it, and show fruits me[a]nt for repentance, and none others.["]
Chattanooga Daily Gazette, July 10, 1864. 
ca. July 10, Champ Ferguson captures 500 U. S. Army horses near Kingston [see also, "June 13-July 15, Raid from Morristown into North Carolina above]
No circumstantial reports filed.
Report of Capt. Robert Morrow, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., U. S. Army.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, Tenn., July 15, 1864.
* * * *
The commanding officer at Kingston, Tenn., reports that guerrillas, under Champ Ferguson, drove off a few days since 500 U. S. horses that Capt. Fry was pasturing within a few miles of that place, and that the mounted force available was inadequate to their pursuit and recapture. Gen. Ammen reports that orders have been given and that efforts will be made to recover the stock and punish the raiders....
I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
R. MORROW, Capt. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 234.
11, Major-General C. C. Washburn seeks sanction for orders to prevent trading with Confederates
MEMPHIS, TENN., July 11, 1864. (Received 9.30 p. m. 13th.)
Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War:
Do you sanction my orders in regard to excluding supplies from traitors and preventing them from bringing in and selling cotton? If so, I hope that the gun-boats may not be allowed to order transports to and at unoccupied points on the river and take up cotton purchased of traitors, as they are doing. I have ordered that no transport shall land except to wood between the mouth of White River and Cairo except at a military post. Shall that order be enforced, or shall cotton thieves and speculators, whether in or out of the Army and Navy, be allowed to abuse our patience?
C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, pp. 170-171.
11, A Cuckhold's Revenge in Nashville
* * * *
Calvin Brown had a wife-he had a wife, some four months ago, until Eli Pickett, by his superior attractions, secured her affections, and lured her from Cal. to himself, about a month ago. Three weeks ago last Saturday night [June 18], while Eli was slumbering in the arms of the faithless Dinah [sic], somebody stole two female dresses and Eli's pants, containing a key and ninety cents. As the thief passed around the porch by Eli's window, the latter thought he saw Cal.'s [sic] physiog [sic] at his window; fearing to die at that moment, Eli allowed the thief to depart in peace, and the next morning he called in the aid of the Civic and military police to have Cal. arrested, for stealing his breeches and threatening his life. Both failed to nab Cal, who was not seen again until last Saturday [9th], when Eli met him on Cedar street, and pistol in hand, demanded that Cal. should accompany him to the office of Provost Marshal. Cal. proved an alibi in the larceny case, and a good character and quiet demeanor in that charging him with disorderly conduct; he was there for discharged, while Eli had to pay a fine of $5.
Nashville Dispatch, July 12, 1864.
11, Brownlow on the Methodist Holston Conference, freedmen, rebels and bushwhackers
Chattanooga, July 11th, 1864.
Dear Editor Chattanooga Gazette.
Being here on business, for a very brief period, I drop you a line in regard to matters and things in Upper East Tennessee. We have just closed out a loyal Methodist Convention, held two days in the Episcopal Church in Knoxville. We had 55 delegates, representing all portions of East Tennessee, and of this number 27 were Preachers, and 28 were Laymen.-And a more loyal and harmonious meeting never convened in the State. A special committee developed the fact, that there are still one hundred and fifteen loyal Preachers within the bounds of the Holston Conference, and the others, whose positions we could not give with certainty, because we could not hear from them directly.
Our convention resolved to return to the old Methodist church again, and called upon the northern Bishops to meet us in Annual Conference at Knoxville, in October next. Our local Methodists in this end of the State, who are the majority in our membership, are resolved never to have these rebel traitors to rule over us, who carried our church into the foul embraces of treason and rebellion.
The proper spirit prevails in Upper East Tennessee, among the People, and they will not be carried astray by a few Copperhead leaders who are still troubled about the nigger. Our people have suffered enough on account of the nigger, [sic] and the will, when opportunity offers, find themselves of the evil. The people at length realize that the nigger is the rebellion and the rebellion is the nigger, and to get rid of the one, they must wipe out the other. [ emphasis added]
I was pleased to see, on the road between here and Knoxville, such fine crops of grass, corn, wheat and oats-it look to me like old times, and certainly like living, if they are taken care of.
I found quite an excitement at Cleveland, as I came on, growing out of an order for rebels to report to this place forthwith, who reside along the Railroad, and for several miles out. This creates a fluttering, and causes many rebels to howl right out. Send them out, I say, and let them go where they can't talk treason and to the prejudice of the Government, to give information to raiders, where and when to strike at our towns, or ever remaining quiet after taking the oath. Rebels are rebels, and the devil is in the most of them, and they should be sent to where he is!
You have the right man in command of this district, Gen. Gen. Steedman, and he is doing a good work, in a country where it is wanting He is one of the few of our military men I have met with who properly appreciate a rebel, and shows how to dispose of one. We have been fooling with traitors long enough. It is time to cease of moderation, leniency and forbearance, and to come down upon them as the enemies of God and man, and as the opposers of law and order. They are burning trains on our Military Railroads, and they are murdering our Union citizens all over the country. Let them be treated as guilty all along these roads, and let their property be destroyed. Let their bushwhackers be killed whenever captured, and in no instance be dignified as prisoners of war.
I am, very truly, &c.,
W. G. Brownlow,
Chattanooga Daily Gazette, July 12, 1864. 
11, Excerpt from "Letter from Chattanooga"
Chattanooga, July 11 
Back again in the "Hawk's Nest," after an absence at the front one month, and what a change is everywhere visible. Filthy streets, dead animals, stagnant sloughs no longer offend the sight. The same hustle about the depots and levees, that was prevalent last winter, greets us today; but we miss the myriads of blue uniforms that three months ago was met in force upon every corner….In this brief time new buildings have sprung into life and if by magic; camps for the reception and treatment of the wounded dot the valley….
Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, July 20, 1864.
 While this article seems to indicate a map accompanied it, no map has been found.
 On September 29, 1861, the very first military engagement in Tennessee between organized Union and Confederate troops occurred at Travisville. It was a Union victory, known at the Affair at Travisville. See below.
 As cited in PQCW.
 GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN
 See also: OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. III, pp. 640-641.
 See also: Soldier's Budget [Humboldt], September 22, 1862.
 Asa Faulkner was born in South Carolina and was a machinist and early cotton manufacturer and Warren County farmer. In 1860 he owned $22,000 in personal property and would serve in the Tennessee General Assembly from 1865-1866 and 1869-1871. The cotton mill he referred to was the second he had built, and was ironically razed by Federal forces in 1863. See Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, fn. 3, p. 544.
 Her brother, drafted by the Confederate Army.
 Most likely a reference to a local Confederate guerrilla unit.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 The Seven Days' Campaign, June 25-July 1, 1862, in Virginia, which resulted in a Federal defeat and retreat.
 Not found.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 In this case the word "rebel" is used by the Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle to mean an East Tennessean who revolts against the Confederate government.
 Perhaps: A mallet; hence, derisively, the head.
 President of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad.
 It may most likely be that Richardson had nothing to do with any of the actions listed in this citation and was engaged in dragooning conscripts for the Confederate army. Apparently the compilers of the Official Records thought differently. Apparently Richardson's activities took place within the context of the skirmishes, and scouts. See for example July 8, 1863, Scout from Germantown, Tenn. above.
 Not found.
 Newcomb was reimbursed in full in October 1865.
 TSL&A, Record Group 29, B.23, f.19.
 Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee refers to this as a skirmish
 The OR does not indicate there was any kind of military action in Cocke County for this date.
 Neither this expedition nor any of the events associated with it are listed in the OR in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee. Connolly returned to camp on the 18th and wrote the letter three days later on the 21st. See p. 105. This account raises questions concerning An accurate enumeration of the kinds of combat events that took place in Tennessee that similarly were not reported in the OR. The same holds true for other states.
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
 An Assistant Quartermaster. See: OR Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, p. 688.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 TSL&A, 19th CN
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
 Perhaps a position atop Lookout Mountain. There was a "Hawk's Nest" in West Virginia.
 GALEGROUP -TSLA 19TH CN
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214