14, Analysis of secession vote in Tennessee
GRUMBLING IN TENNESSEE
We copy the following from the Memphis Avanlanche, which is about as wild on the idea of secession as any paper south of the Potomoc-
Governor Harris has issued his proclamation announcing the first vote of separation, but why does he not order the election? Can it be possible he is conniving at the combination making in the Legislature by certain Congressional aspirants, who, afraid to submit their claims to the people, are attempting to take the election in their own hands? Freemen of Tennessee, your representatives are betraying your dearest rights. They are attempting to rob you of the dearest franchise of a freeman-the right of representation-and usurp the power in their own hands, under the flimsy pretext that we are in the presence of an enemy, and it will not do to suffer the people to pass through the excitement of an election. Under this miserable plea, a set of ambitious politicians hope to ride roughbed over your liberties and elevate themselves to power upon their ruins, thinking the presence of an enemy will make you tamely submit till they are firmly enthroned and their heels upon your necks and then defy you. Arise, freemen of Tennessee, and rebuke them-hurl them from power; and if they should have the unblushing audacity to attempt to legislate for you, through self appointed delegates, raise the standard of revolt and crush them as you have nobly done the despotism of Lincoln.
The New York Herald, (New York, NY), July 14, 1861.
14, Release of an Illinois stonecutter from captivity as a Confederate Tennessee prisoner-of-war
ROCKFORD, July 14, 1862.
Col. JOSEPH H. TUCKER, Cmdg. Camp Douglas.
DEAR SIR; The undersigned citizens of Rockford would respectfully represent that John Hayes, now a prisoner at Camp Douglas, was somewhat more than two years ago a worthy citizen of Rockford, Ill., where he had resided ten years and who was known and respected as an industrious man with a wife and large family of children. About that time he went to Tennessee with others in quest of work, and while employed in constructing the stone-work of a railroad in the vicinity of Memphis was coerced as he declares into the Confederate service on penalty of death. Mr. Hayes during his absence previous to the period of his constraint was mindful of the necessities of his family, and everything so far as we are able to learn justifies the conclusion that he is a loyal man, a good husband and a worthy citizen of the North. Many of us are well acquainted with him and his family, know him to be a good citizen and do not hesitate to unite in an urgent request that he be released and sent home to his family in Rockford, who require his efforts in their support in the absence of his oldest son who has been absent more than a year doing service as a soldier in the Union Army. If such action is consistent with your duties, by granting this request you will confer a favor on the undersigned and relieve the distress of a worthy family.
Yours, very truly,
M. J. UPWRIGHT, Sheriff.
[And fifteen others.]
ROCKFORD, July 14, 1862.
Col. JOSEPH H. TUCKER, Camp Douglas.
DEAR SIR: I have no personal knowledge of the matters set forth in the foregoing papers, but on inquiry am fully satisfied that Mr. Hayes would not voluntarily of his free choice join the enemies of the country and that he ought to be discharged from imprisonment. If you can aid in procuring his discharge it will be an act of humanity and aid his suffering family.
Very truly, your friend,
CHARLES WILLIAMS, Mayor of Rockford.
HDQRS., Camp Douglas, July 16, 1862.
Respectfully referred to Col. W. Hoffman, Third Infantry, commissary-general of prisoners, with the additional remark that from personal examination of the prisoner I am disposed to credit the statements herein made. He also seems an orderly, quiet, well-disposed man.
JOSEPH H. TUCKER, Col. Sixty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, pp. 229-230.
14, "Our place was attacked on Sabbath (yesterday) morning about 5 A.M. by 1200 or 1400 cavalry under Gen. Forrest." A Federal surgeon's account of Forrest's raid on Murfreesboro
Union Coll. Hospital
July 14, 1862
I know you will feel much anxiety to hear from me on account of the reports from this place and I hope to be able to send this to you soon to relieve all your fears. Our place was attacked on Sabbath (yesterday) morning about 5 A.M. by 1200 or 1400 cavalry under Gen. Forrest. They came from Chatanooga [sic] or that vicinity and must have made a very long & hasty march to get here as they did. I heard them coming early in the morning & raised up in bed to look out of the window & in a moment they came galloping down the road past the Hospital, yelling & shouting. Our whole house was alarmed & all were up & dressed that were able to get up. I had been quite down for several days & unable to sit up at all, but soon got out & dressed in my common clothes. I started out to the camp of the 9th Mich. across the lots to see the fight, but that Reg. Was only half there and it was easily overcome – with 7 killed & 30 or 40 wounded. The rest taken prisoner and marched by here early in the day – with I am sorry to say – nearly all the inmates of the Convalescent Barracks. It is said that the men fired out of the building & killed some of the cavalry & were in consequence carried off. Rob. went off in company of several [Confederate] officers – well mounted [sic] & will get good fare I presume & will soon be sent back. It will give him a good chance to see a little of secesh life & mingle a little with the chivalry. I had almost forgotten my story. I staid out till I got my feet wet in the wet grass & I was very tired & faint tho' I was only about half an hour. The 9th men fought well [sic] whenever they had a chance but were overpowered. They formed as skirmishers in front of the Hospital on College street and for a while kept the cavalry at bay. The company at the Court House also fought well & killed many of the secesh, but were finally obliged to surrender. Capt Rounds with the rest. Col. Lester, [of the] Reg. 3rd Min. was next attacked & I heard the cannon begin to boom & then I thot the day is ours & went in to Mrs. Eatons [sic] & went to bed. The Confed. Cavalry were repulsed in their first charge and came back on a keen run through the village past Mrs. Beard's & so on I don't know how far. Soon there was another rally & charge & the cannon bellowed at frequent intervals through the forenoon. I felt perfectly safe in the thought that the Reg would hold its ground with the four [sic] pieces of cannon. Had not the slightest idea that they would be captured – and when I heard a big shout all along the streets I supposed that it meant nothing of any consequence. Soon however the rumor came that the Reg & Battery had surrendered – like dogs [sic] which alas proved too true. They were all marched by on the Woodbury pike with the 4 cannon. Little did we dream Sat. night that before another sun would set the old flag would be trailed in the dust & the gay U. S. soldiers of Murfreesboro would be marched between Confed. Troops to Dixie. Gen. Crittenden and Staff were captured in the first part of the fight & through his influence I suppose, Col Lester was induced to surrender. The 3rd had lost no men & were in good position of their own choosing, & ought to have stood against twice the number of cavalry here yesterday[.] Oh what a fall was there, my countrymen[!] The men of the 3rd Reg were very indignant at Col. Lester[.] They also took Col. Duffield & staff & Col. Lester's Lieut. Cols. & Capts., etc., without limit about 900 rank & file. The also carried off all the guns [and] ammunition, forage wagons, mules etc., etc., and all the Q.M. & Commissary stores such as clothing boots & shoes and then burned the Depo[t] & the St. Charles Hotel & several other buildings. Many of the citizens seemed to feel very happy at the sight of their own army & at the disgrace of ours, but they treated us with great courtesy. They helped to bring in our wounded & now this morning gave us a large quantity of nice articles for the sick & wounded to eat & to use for dressing their wounds. They showed themselves very kind and considerate, and I shall do what I can to repay their kindness.
We have about 49 wounded here & there are several at the Convalescent Hospital & I presume some in town at private houses. There were about 150 killed & wounded on both sides pretty much equal I judge. The Confederate soldiers who were wounded were left at different private houses – Some say as high as 60.
They took away all the private property of the officers and all the medical stores, etc., etc. I have lived one whole day & nearly two under the Stars & Bars [sic] & may have to several more but you will not get this tilll the Stars & Stripes wave over this place again. My private property is all [sic] safe & nothing about the Hospital [was] injured or carried away – although, they came here several times & repeatedly threatened to take our men away, but I think they only took one or two. The rest are too sick or are needed to take care of them. Our provisions are nearly all gone & now there is no commissary to go to. I hope to see a different state of things soon.
[Wm. M. Eames]
William Mark Eames Papers
14, The reaction in Nashville to news of Forrest's raid on Murfreesboro
The news from Murfreesboro yesterday caused intense and universal excitement. People crowded the streets, moving restlessly from one corner to another, and using their conjectural faculties to the best advantage in the endeavor to comprehend the true "situation." Official quarters were besieged at all times, and whenever a word was dropped, concerning the fight at Murfreesboro, the listening populace would catch it up and retail it throughout the city, each one adding his own views to make it the more plausible. A thousand and one rumors and counter-rumors gained currency, and all had their believers and elaborators. Even the ladies were carried irresistibly along by the waves of excitement; many of them appeared upon the streets to witness the state of feeling as it "really was." Should nothing else grow out of the alarm everywhere evident yesterday, it will leave an amusing impress upon the history of Nashville. Our statement of the Murfreesboro affair is obtained from high authority, and it contains few, if any, inaccuracies.
About 2 o'clock, P. M., a chariot and band paraded the streets, with a banner bearing the inscription: "Union Men, Rally under Brigadier General Wm. B. Campbell!" The effect of such a display can better be imagined by our readers than described by us. At 5 o'clock, the music and a number of followers entered the Representatives Hall, at the Capitol, where Gen. Campbell was to have addressed the people. Hon. Wm. B. Stokes appeared upon the stand, and briefly addressed the crowd, telling them of the threatened attack on the city, and proposing the adjournment of the meeting until five o'clock this evening, at which time Union citizens were enjoined to report the names of all persons willing to enlist for the exigency. After this announcement the meeting dispersed.
Nashville Dispatch, July 15, 1862.
14, Report on Confederate cavalry burning cotton and stealing slaves north of Memphis
COTTON HAULING AND COTTON BURNING ON THE MEMPHIS AND OHIO RAILROAD.
The confederate cavalry scouring the country North of this city, and near the line of the Memphis and Ohio Railroad, have, within the past few days, we learn, destroyed several lots of cotton collected on plantations and designed for sale in the city. Yesterday, three negro boys, with drays loaded with cotton, while between Union depot and Hickory Wither, on their way to the city, were overtaken by a squad of Confederate cavalry. The negroes, mules, drays, and cotton were confiscated, the drays burned and the negroes and mules taken along. The negroes and teams were owned in this city' one of three captured boys, a likely negro, and his team, being the property of Captain Dick Tuckers, of the night police, another belongs to R. B. Joiner, Esq., and the other is a negro well know in the city, named Foster, formerly the property of S. B Williamson, Esq; No doubt more cotton and drays have met the same fate in that portion of the country, but the above is the only affair of the kind that has reached us.
Macon Daily Telegraph, July 14, 1862.
14-15, Correspondence between Confederate and Federal generals relative to Union policy of exiling Memphis civilians to Confederate lines
HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, July 15, 1862.
Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT:
Inclosed I send you Gen. Thompson's letter and my reply. As the envelope indicated that the matter was local I took the liberty of opening it and sending a reply.
Trusting that my action will meet your approbation, I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,
ALVIN P. HOVEY, Brig.-Gen.
SENATOBIA, MISS., Monday, July 14, 1862-1 o'clock p. m.
Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT, U. S. A., Memphis, Tenn.:
GEN.: Upon my return from Grenada this day I find a copy of your Special Orders, No. 14, of July 10, ordering the families of certain parties therein named to leave your lines within five days.  If, general, you intend to carry this order into effect, which we of course presume you will, the cause of humanity will require that you make some arrangement with us by which the helpless women and children who will thus be turned out of doors can be provided for; for you must well know by this time that nine-tenths of the people of Memphis come under your law, for there is scarcely a respectable family in that city who have not a father, husband, or brother in our army, or are the widows and orphans of those who have fallen bravely fighting for our cause.
The present terminus of the Mississippi and Tennessee Railroad is at Coldwater Station, which is 34 miles from Memphis, and our regular lines are on the stream of the same name, near the station. We do not know where your regular lines are, and therefore ask that you will please define some point in a southerly direction from Memphis to which the fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, or friends of the exiles can go in safety to meet them, or that you will extend the time for leaving, as it is not possible that the number covered by your order can get transportation to Coldwater within the time granted, and I would not for an instant suppose that you propose that the little feet that will thus be driven from their homes and birth-spots should plod the weary distance of 30 miles.
At the same time, general, that I make this appeal to you I feel it my duty to remark that you must not for a moment suppose that the thousands who will be utterly unable to leave and the many who will thus be forced to take the hateful oath of allegiance to a despised government are to be thus converted into loyal citizens of the United States or weaned from their affections for our glorious young confederacy; and whole to "threaten" were unsoldierly, yet to "warn" is kindness, and therefore, general, I would tell you to beware of the curses and oaths of vengeance which the 50,000 brave Tennessee who are still in our army will register in heaven against the persecutor of helpless old men, women, and children, and the general who cannot guard his own lines.
The bearer of the flag and of this letter, Capt. Edward E. Porter, C. S. Army, is authorized to agree with you with you upon the points asked in the foregoing.
M. JEFF. THOMPSON, MO. S. G., Brig.-Gen. on Special Service, C. S. Army.
MEMPHIS, TENN., July 15, 1862.
Brig. Gen. M. JEFF. THOMPSON, C. S. Army, Senatobia:
I have yours of the 14th instant in relation to Special Orders, No. 14, heretofore issued by Maj.-Gen. Grant.
I herewith sent you Special Orders, No. 15, which considerably modifies the order to which you allude. You will permit me to say that your sympathies are entirely out of place, as truth and history must record the fact that the Southern people residing in localities where both of our armies have been camped prefer the continuity of the "Northern invaders" to have protection of the Southern chivalry.
You are too well versed in the science of war to be ignorant of the fact that these orders are far more mild than could have been expected after the treatment that helpless Union families have received at the hands of the rebels in this city. Add to this the fact a large part of all the information received by you can be traced directly through the families excluded by these orders, and your application for sympathy in their behalf is somewhat amusing.
The great error that the Federal officers have committed during this war has been their over kindness to a vindictive and insulting foe.
Your threats and intimations of personal danger to Gen. Grant are in bad taste, and should be carefully revised before publication; whether he "cannot guard his own lines" the history of the battles of Shiloh and Donelson will fully show.
Should any families embraced within the orders above alluded to be obstinate and refuse to comply with Orders, No. 15, they shall be escorted to the distance of 10 miles from this city to such points as they may request.
ALVIN P. HOVEY, Brig.-Gen., Comdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 99-100. 
14, "Sulphur-Water Baths."
The undersigned respectfully informs his friends and the public at large, that his BATH HOUSE [sic] at the Sulphur Spring is now in operation. Persons wishing either a warm or cold Sulfur Bath, can be accommodated at any hour, both day or night.
For the information of strangers, I would state that the Bath House is on the hill, a short distance north of the Sulphur Spring, a cool and pleasant retreat from the heat and dust of the city.
Fielding P. Cook
Nashville Daily Press, July 14, 1863.
14, "Here's Your Mule" 
"Here's Your Mule"
Come Soldiers, listen to my lay
Here's your mule, your long eared mule
I'll sing the warriors of the day,
Here's your mule, &c.
Old General Bragg, he leads the way,
And moves his army twice a day,
And once at night, I've heard them say
Here's your mule, your long eared mule
I'll sing the warriors of the day,
Here's your mule, &c
The Yankees thought us in a trap
While we were up at Hoover's Gap-,
But when around the fox he says
Fast through the cornfields old Bragg flees
His coat all tattered in the breeze
Here's your mule, &c.
He burns the bridges and supplies
To save his army from surprise,
He marches on with warlike skill,
Until he's safe at College Hill
Here's your mule, &c.
Here General Polk, he takes command
And rules the roost with skillful hand
This he o[rders?] and his dashing aids
Their marks on history's page have made
By daring deeds on dress parade
Here's your mule, &c.
Nashville Daily Union, July 14, 1863.
14, Merchants in Franklin seek recompense for losses sustained during Confederate raid on Franklin [see also June 4, 1863, "Confederates rob stores in Franklin" above and January 9, 1864, "Petition to Military Governor Andrew Johnson seeking recompense as a result of Confederate raid" below]
July 14, 1863
Gov. Andrew Johnson
On the 4th of June 1863 certain persons hostile to the Government of the United States from three to five hundred in number banded together as Rebel Soldiers led by Forrest [and] Starnes &c entered the town of Franklin Tenn.-and robbed the undersigned of ten thousand and seven dollars worth of Goods, Wares and merchandise[.] That is to say they robbed Sinclair and Moss of eight thousand dollars. H.C. Sinclair being the looser of three thousand dollars individually, S.H. Bailey twelve hundred dollars and John B. Cliffe fifteen hundred dollars worth. Now as we upon honor believe that the above depredations were committed upon us for and in consideration of the fact that we were known by the leading depredators (many of whom we were acquainted with as citizens of Williamson County prior to the rebellion) to be loyal to the Government of the United States. We most respectfully present these our grievances to your Excellency with the earnest desire that you will inforce [sic] in our behalf your Excellencies Proclamation issued at Nashville May 9th 1862.
Yours truly, Also [sic] at the same time and in the same manner they took from J. B. Lilly a fine horse worth two hundred dollars. He being personally known to them to be a union man and a friend of the Government of the United States[.]
Sinclair & Moss
by A.W. Moss
John B. Cliffe
J. B. Lilly
S. H. Bailey
H. C. Sinclair
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 289-291.
14, Brigadier-General Gideon J. Pillow proposes conscript sweeps in Middle and West Tennessee
CHATTANOOGA, July 14, 1863.
Brig. Gen. W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff, &c.:
If the general commanding can place at my disposal a body of cavalry to cover and protect my work, I propose to enter Tennessee-West and Middle--and organize as cavalry all the population of those divisions of the State that can be drawn into the service. I am satisfied a large body of troops can thus be gotten up who will otherwise be lost to the service for the balance of the war. My application embraces the stragglers from the Army as well as the citizen population. These stragglers in Tennessee cannot be reached and drawn out except in this way. The simple question to be decided is whether as a matter of policy we had better get these men into the service as cavalry or lose them altogether. Both Congress and the President have sanctioned the principle of recovering in new commands stragglers in the special law passed legalizing the organization of Maj.-Gen. Hindman in the Trans-Mississippi Department, in which were embraced many stragglers from the Army of Tennessee. I would not of course desire to undertake a service of this kind, except with the view of providing a command, if successful, for myself. This force kept in Tennessee would not only protect that country, but by operating upon the enemy's line of communication with his base of supplies, and harassing his rear and forcing him thus to weaken his front in order to keep up his line, would give material aid to Gen. Bragg's army in any future movement forward. If I undertake this service I should deem it essential to success to have entire control, under the commanding general of the department, of all organizations within those regions. I comprehend in my plan of operations the organization of that part of Alabama north of Tennessee River, and to be allowed the services of all supernumerary officers of that portion of the Army of Tennessee from that section of the country.
GID. J. PILLOW, Brig.-Gen., C. S. Army, &c.
OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 2, p. 637.
14, Complaints about poor discipline in the Army of Tennessee infantry and cavalry units
There is a woeful lack of discipline in some of the cavalry and infantry commands of our army of Tennessee, which should be remedied-if a remedy is practicable. Young and indiscreet officers, detached from their commands with small squads of men, have committed gross offences [sic] in permitting their companies or commands to destroy fences, rob hen-roosts and apple orchards, etc., without making an example of the offenders. Particularly in the cavalry commands has this abuse been most prevalent, in the neighborhoods where they have encamped. We have known one or two instances in which young officers, "dressed in a little brief authority," have taken possession of farmhouses, gardens and all, picketing their horses on beautiful lawns, and tieing them up to the trees, when an encampment quite as acceptable, might have been selected with the exercise of a little energy and patience. There can be no excues [sic] for this wanton destruction of private property, and we fear, from the accounts and complaints which reach us from various quarters that the officers aforementioned are too apt to lord over the unsophisticated citizens of the rural districts, who has no means of ascertaining to what extent the authority of the military may command his property, his rights, and his liberty. We would advise such of our people as are hereafter troubled by those annoyances, to report the fact to the commanding officer of the Regiment, Brigade, or Division, and we feel pretty sure he will be righted.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 14, 1863
14, Domestic violence in occupied Memphis
A gentleman named John Maher, having a difficulty with a lady on whom marital ceremonies had bestowed the right to share his bed and board -- in point of fact, his wife, did strike her yesterday at their home of bliss on Jefferson street. The timid creature sought protection in one of the laws myrmidons in short, a policeman. Ere proceeding on the seldom successful search, however, she called to condole with a sweet, sympathizing spirit known to mortals as Mrs. Conway. Together they started to do that which philosophers and men in anger have repeatedly asserted to be a sublunary impossibility -- find a policeman when wanted. They didn't find the policeman, but Mr. John Maher found them, and mistaking Mrs. Conway for his wife played a knife into her body, inflicting a wound that will probably for some days incapacitate her for a seat in the board of aldermen -- or on any other board without serious and painful inconveniences.
We read in an evening issue an appeal to benevolence of the community on behalf of Mrs. Conway, whose breath, or reporter says, there gently floated an aroma of the spirit of Bourbon whiskey. As the woman has children, however, we trust the good and charitable people appealed to will do something for them. [sic]
Maher was arrested by the Provost's guard and is now detained in the Irving Block.
Memphis Union Appeal, July 15, 1863.
14, "The Carter Scouts" [see also April 18, 1863, Capture of wagon train and seventy Federal prisoners by Carter Scouts and April 25, 1863, Capture of seventy-five Federal prisoners by the Carter Scouts above]
No branch of the army service is probably as efficient, nor by its rapid daring, sudden and startling moves, produces such happy results to the cause of the Confederacy, as the Scout corps of our cavalry.
Ubiquity is the Scout's name, and when and where that enemy least expects him then and there he will make his appearance, over hill and valley, through morass and mountain fastness, pouncing like the eagle upon its prey, and sure to strike a sudden and fearful blow, or else extricate otherwise un assisted, hard pressed and bewildered troops. A sure and safe friend, a fierce and active foe, skillful, wise and ever vigilant, the Scout is an invaluable aid and a dangerous adversary. He is ever in the path of glory, everywhere honor awaits him. His is a wild, reckless, free life, full of dangers, privations and excitement, but just enough of these to render it spicy and entertaining. The Scout lives in story, ages after he is gathered to his father, when many another hero has died and been forgotten and history silently records his fame.
Capt. Carter of Wheeler's scouts is a medium sized man, a little over forty years of age, with quick grey eye, ever on the alert, quick witted, and keen at encounter, a man of nerve and action, and yet a plain, old fashioned Middle Tennessee farmer; unselfish patriotism made him a soldier something over a year ago. His will, ability and talents have made him a leader whom men love to follow; a scout and captain in whom every confidence in placed. His command composed of the yeomanry of Middle Tennessee, hard and daring sons of a chivalrous State, is an integral portion of that young Murat's famed coups.
At first attached to Douglas' battalion of Partizan [sic] Rangers, Carter's scouts did effective service during his who term, always active, ever ready. During the Murfreesboro fight they served as Wharton's guides with the advance guard of that command.
On the 18th of April 1863, Carter captured a train of cars, over 70 prisoners, and a large lot of Government stores. On the 25th of April he captured seventy-five more prisoners, among whom were no less than fifteen commissioned officers.
Capt. Carter has now been authorized to raise a regiment for Wheeler's corps.
We trust the Tennesseeans [sic] will rally to his standard, as a leader worthy of their gallant State.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 14, 1863.
14, "Hon. Neill S. Brown"
We were yesterday much gratified to take by the hand our old friend and former townsman, and fellow refugee from Nashville--the distinguished son of Tennessee whose name heads this paragraph. We are doubly gratified to find Governor Brown in the enjoyment of good health and spirits, despite the annoyances of his long but unavoidable sojourn among the yankees [sic], and despite the gloom which temporarily seems to pervade the community. No citizen of the State has suffered more at the hands of the enemy, not only in the destruction of his property, but also, in the gross misrepresentations of his position towards his native South, than Governor Neill S. Brown. While all of his friends and fellow citizens felt assured of his unalterable devotion to the South, and his own people, a few, not acquainted the heart of the man, here in Tennessee, were credulous enough to accept as genuine, the slanderous reports in the yankee [sic] press at Nashville, concerning his public speeches and acts, while an involuntary residenter [sic] among the invaders of his State. We have not doubted his loyalty a moment. And we sympathized with him deeply, in the embarrassing situation in which the evacuation of the State by our troops left him, after the fall of Fort Donelson. He has outlived all these misrepresentations, and his recent course by word and deed, not only puts them to silence forever, but proves how true he has ever been to that cause in which his distinguished brother has won such renown in the field, and in which his two gallant sons have been zealously engaged since the beginning of the war.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 14, 1863.
14, "ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY DOLLARS REWARD."
On the evening of the 4th of July, while engaged fighting the enemy on the mountain, my boy was sent to the rear with my saddle horse. A red sorrel without any white, fast racker and thin in order. The boy was ordered to Bridgeport, when he reached within about three miles of the river, some officer commanding infantry, without giving the boy his name, or telling him where he could be found, dismounted the boy and gave the horse to the officer, who rode of leaving the boy to make his way back the best he could, and wherever he choose. [sic] After [five] days' absence, the boy came up without the horse. I regard this a very bad treatment. The horse has [good?] saddle qualities. I paid $500 for him 4 months ago in Middle Tennessee, and will play any person $150 to bring him to the command, or $100 for information as to his whereabouts. If the officer who dismounted the boy will take the trouble and time to inform me where my horse can be had, I will be under obligations to him. James R. Lester, Capt. Commanding Co. F., 4th Tenn. Cavalry.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 14, 1863.
14, Letter of Captain Anthony Wayne Caldwell, 5th Tennessee Infantry in Chattanooga to his father, Col. R. D. Caldwell, relative to morale and prospects for the Army of Tennessee
Camp Near Chattanooga
July 14, 1863
As it has been sometime since I wrote you I avail myself of the opportunity to acquaint you of my welfare and also the Confederate view of the great events that are now dividing attention of the world. And I will say it has been about four months since I heard [from] you by letter and that a reply to this would give me as much pleasure as anything in your power to grant. I have heard of your losses on Negros [sic] & cannot help feeling the sting it costs in the weakness of our Government in not being able to protect its citizens from the ravages of the pusillanimous fore-But since our late reverses I think that we had just as well reconcile our selves to the wages of hardships and poverty for to this we well all most probably be reduced in the prolongation now likely to be given to the contest. And it appears to me that life with only a sufficiency of bread and water more preferable than all the luxury and gilded halls of an Eastern Satrap by submission to so mean and deceptive a fore as our enemy. The submission is a thing contemplated by no [Confederate] soldier in the field.
True True [Middle Tennessee] has fallen, yet the head of the rebellion still rises as proudly and defiantly amid the seas of bloody carnage fissure [sic] as when it was wreathed with the crown of freedom. True[,] Gen. Bragg has given the enemy possession of the abundant harvest of Middle Tenn. yet is there enough of the Gallant Old State left to us on which to place a line of fortification that will cost the blood life of many a mean Yank to take. And[,] true to that[,] Gen. Lee after giving them a severe test of his armies capturing many prisoners at Gettysburg in Penn. has had to fall back on some distance yet it will cost more mean blood and "Greenbacks" to subjugate the "South" [sic] than all their energy and know rascality can bring to bear.
And to among all our reverses soon cheering rumors begin to revive our drooping spirits. It is said that Gen. Morgan with his usuall [sic] boldness & gallant boldness [sic] has passed through Ky. & is now beyond the Ohio dealing out to the frightened wretches small doses of what their cowardly kindred have given you some much of.
The army is located in & around Chattanooga (a place akin to that where the old "Boy" lives), though owing to the extreme bad condition of the roads we are without tents not being able to haul them, it still continues healthy beyond belief. We are all housed now under blankets stretched Tent fashion, two men to a blanket, and so accustomed have we become to every & all changes that there is no perceptible change in the cheerfulness &content[ment] of the soldiers. If victory could only be granted our Armies there is [sic] no deprivations that would he to severe for the endurance of our soldiers. All the boys are perfectly well except Wm. Wall &: he is able to be up & is now writing to his Father. The 5th. [sic] has grown to be very small, but the more she has to encounter the more valiant she becomes, thus supplying to some extent in gallantry what she has lost in numbers. We still remain with the 4th. [sic] & everybody being so well pleased with the situation expects it will remain so until the expiration of our term of service. Cousin Will Wilkerson was up to see me today, he is & has been for sometime in the Comisarry [sic] Dept. John is Adjt. in a Tenn. Cavalry Regt. [sic] Cousin Will had visited Cousin George Lile's window since our annual [gathering] at this place & says that she made enquiry for me & sent a very cordial invitation for me to visit her which I shall do if an opportunity offers during our stay here. She is living at her Fathers [sic] about half way up Look Out [sic] Mt.
Jimmy is Lieut. as I have before informed you, he is now in Miss.-under Col. Breckenridge. I had a letter from him (& have just answered it) asking for Brother Robert a Lieutenancy if he wanted it. I gave him his address accepting the position. I haven't heard from Bro. Robert tho' [sic] since his command got to Canton about a month ago. I heard from Bro. Jimmy through his Brother-In-Law [sic] he is still in the service Commissary for a Brigade, he was there on a visit to his wife. Sister Alice is well. I never hear from Bro. Sam. It is so dark that I will have to close-
Give my best love to Ma and all the children & remember me as you affectionate son,
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 4, pp. 58-59.
14, "This is truly a war upon private citizens & private property." Aftermath of the attack on Jackson
All hands gone. The last (Hurst Regmt.) left about 2 o'clock this evening. The federals left some of their wounded here, doubtless carried many with them. I have understood they had killed 6 at the bridge (Campbell). One thing certain their ambulances were engaged in bringing their wounded from the field a good portion of the night. A lady, Mrs. Gamewell & her little son, remained most of the night alone attending to two Confederate wounded, some 30 yards on from the others & witnessed the ambulances carrying off their wounded & tried to get them to haul in the two wounded which they refused to do. Four Confederates & one Federal were buried today, died since the fight. Among them Lieut. Pig [sic] of Biffle's Regmt. [sic]
Hurst went to the hospital before leaving to parol [sic] the wounded, took some exception to a remark made by a young Lady made to Dr. Still, saying that it was directed to him (Hurst). He became furious, called the Lady a d____d slut & told her if she did not get out he would kick her out as quick as he would kick any damned proud slut. There were other ladies present & several Physicians. I heard those present repeat his language & worse than I have here written it. This is truly a war upon private citizens & private property. They pass thro' [sic] the country, burn & rob.
Robert H. Cartmell Diary.
14, "Captured by Guerrillas."
On Tuesday last [14th] three sutlers on their way from this city to Murfreesboro', and one from Murfreesboro' to Nashville, (who do not wish their names used,) were "gobbled up" by half a dozen guerrillas at the eleven-mile post on the Murfreesboro pike. Their adventure was somewhat romantic. The three going from this city were in a two-mule wagon, filled with a new and complete stock of sutlers' goods, and the one returning to Nashville was riding a very fine and much-prized horse, but luckily he had no other valuables of consequence. Just as the four sutlers met at the mile-post, the six mounted guerrillas popped out of a fastness on the road side, presented revolvers, and ordered a surrender. Parley was not thought of, the four men, although well armed, being thrown completely off their guard by the surprise. They were helpless and as prisoners had to submit to may verbal indignities and the loss of their weapons fortheith. The conversation with their captors was very elegant and interesting to the sutlers. After appropriating what articles suited their fancy, and a vain effort to burn the wagon and its remaining contents, the rebels caused the three owners of the mules to mount them and the lone sutler to straddle his horse hastily, and precede or accompany them through the wild untrodden forests and thickets, over hills and across gorges and streams, for a distance of ten miles, to a ford on Stone's river. Here the captives fully expected to be murdered and thrown into the angry flood; but their considerate masters let them off with a through robbing. Their money, jewelry, watches, clothing, etc., to the value of about $1000, were borrowed [sic] by the rebels, who then turned them loose to find their way back on foot. BY following the horses' tracks as they had come to the river, (the ground being wet and yieldy [sic]) the relieved [sic] sutlers safely piloted themselves out of the otherwise strange and unknown woods and crags, and found the wagon as they had left it. The three companions were accommodated by a farmer with another team, and they resume their advance to Murfreesboro. The fourth was not so fortunate; he had to walk to the next station, Antioch, where, on Wednesday evening he took the train for this city. These captives were closely catechised [sic] by the brigands, but no information of value was imparted to them. They said, in answer to a question, that they had [sic] belonged to Major Dick McCann's Battalion of cavalry, but the sutlers are satisfied, from the manner of their capture, and their treatment, that they were in the power of just so many citizens of the vicinity where they were surprised, or a set of ruffians who have deserted the Confederate army, and adopted the life of highwaymen. The victims suggest that the only way in which they can be caught, if for a small force, provided with at least a week's rations, to secretly patrol their hiding places, using every caution against discovery until the unsuspecting guerrillas fall into their grasp. As these freebooters imagine their concealment will be for ever unexplored, such an experiment might succeed. There is at present but little safety for lone travelers in that region.
Nashville Daily Press, July 17, 1863.
14, "A House of Refuge."
In all the large cities and towns in the North and East, they have houses of refuge and correction. Here, however, if a frail female falls, and commits a wrong act, or in other words, forfeits a place in genteel society, and happens to violate the ordinances of the city, she is immediately arrested and carried to the stationhouse [sic], where there are no adequate arrangements for her accommodation. Could we not have a "house of refuge" and correction for dissipated and fallen women? [emphasis added] It is true that many of them are beyond redemption, and no act of kindness to recall them to the path of rectitude and virtue could be successful in accomplishing the object. But there are others, who have not traveled the road to degradation so far; perhaps these might be recalled, their youthful years would justify such a hope at least. Harshness cannot recall them, scorn will only drive them further, but separation from vicious associations may do much.
Memphis Bulletin, July 14, 1863.
14, "Please tell me Governor, what to do?" Mildred A. Hall's plea for debt relief. [see February 20, 1863, "Governor Johnson's Confiscation Proclamation," above]
[Nashville] July 14th 63
To His Excellency
Have you ever thought of the difficulties that surround & embarrass me—"a poor, lone, defenceless [sic], woman"? brought on too, some of them [sic], by your own Proclamations? Will you not release me? My Creditors & especially Ben Clarke [sic] are persecuting me. I am sick in bed, by boarders are leaving me in consequence of my sickness--& if you do not send for Garret & Grover [sic] -- both Constables-- & give them orders to collect for me--& release me from the Clark suits & persecutions—then Governor—you had just as well put me in the Penitentiary & be done with it. I have paid this year's house rent--& Clark has sued me for last year -- or rather the balance of last year—
Garret has had at least a thousand dollars worth of my accts ever since March and the cowardly man has not brought me a dollar.
There is a hackman in the city, Jerry Stoddard [sic], that owes me one hundred dollars & the scamp wont [sic] so much as let me ride in his hack. He owns two hacks & is rich-- how can I make him pay-- he has boys too—that might be hired out.
Please tell me Governor, what to do? I have bought no clothing this year
Respectfully Mrs. Dr. Hall
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 292.
14, "GUERRILLAS IN WEST TENNESSEE."
The steamboat O'Brien from Fort Pillow, came down to this city yesterday [13th], bringing Captain Clark, who was a bearer of dispatches from Colonel Wolfe, commanding the Union forces at that point. From him we learn that Gen. Richardson and Col. Jese [sic] Forrest, with a cavalry force, variously estimated at from two to three thousand men, were at Brownsville, Tennessee, on Friday last, the 10th instant.
On that day, a scouting party from the fort had a skirmish with a portion of the enemy's forces. The result was favorable to our side. One captain of the rebel force was captured and brought to Fort Pillow. The name of the prisoner is Hayden, and from him the strength of the rebel forces was ascertained.
It is probable that the rebel strength is over estimated, as information from other sources does not place their strength at more than one thousand men. The supposition is, that the rebels have designs against Fort Pillow.
Memphis Bulletin, July 14, 1863.
14, Federal Indignities in the Strawberry Plains Environs
[From the Mobile Register.]
The Yankee Raiders in Tennessee.
The following extracts from private letters received from Strawberry Plains will show something of the tender mercies of the Federal raiders and Tennessee renegades at that point. Mrs. F. A. Butler writes:
Dear Mother: The bridge was burned, depot and commissary. Frank's store, our lodging room and our house were about taking fire just as the (Federals) left; some men—paroled Confederates—brought water, and kept it from burning. We are utterly ruined, but, thank God, Mr. Butler escaped a few minutes before they got in. They told aunt Tillah "he would have seen hell, if he had been here," and told some one else they would have burned him. I can give no idea of the destruction. All our houses are rifled from garret to cellar. Every article of clothing I have is utterly destroyed—not a vestige left, scarcely—not a pound of meat nor provisions of any kind.
Our private letters were rifled, and are now scattered everywhere around their camp fires. Mary's guitar was carried off.
The books are some torn, some stolen. Your negroes [sic] escaped, after trying to hide as many things as they could. Uncle Jeff worked faithfully, as did Ed. and the women. The warehouse was burnt, Ben. Mitchell's and Mrs. Nelson's house and everything she had. Not a change of clothing was left for her children.
We are almost destitute, but I am not discouraged, nor have I grieved for a moment.
The very trees in the yard are wilted at their poisonous presence.
If those are my best friends, may I be saved from all such.
Ah! mother, all your precious treasures and mementoes of other days are gone. But you and Mary can bear it bravely, I know, like true Southern women, as you are.
Your clothes are torn in rags, what few they did not steal. They tore down the window curtains, filled them full and carried them off. Every drawer, box, wardrobe and trunk are empty, and the floors are covered with trash, papers, flour, sugar, rice, etc.
Mr. Puckett and Capt. Ford showed the right spirit, though they lost all their clothing. The cannon balls passed through the store, one through Dr. Goodman's house, and Frank's old house by the stable is torn to pieces by the balls. They fought all around the hospital.—But it is useless to add more. We have waked this morning after sleeping as soundly as if we had all our goods, chattels and children around us.
They rifled the negroes [sic], stole their money, tore up Alice's silk dress and bonnet, &c.—They are not satisfied, you may depend on it. This is only the beginning. Stay where you are.
Mr. Butler writes: Thank God we are all spared our lives, though I am a sufferer to the extent of many thousand dollars, which I cannot now estimate. I saved my most valuable papers, books, and money, and, thank God, myself and children and negroes [sic], with some of my household furniture. I have no complaint to make, as I have always said and believed that I would suffer if the Federals should ever get here. They did not leave me an ear of corn, a blade of hay, a pound of bacon, or indeed anything that they could consume or destroy. Such are the facts. The good book says we shall be tried by fire. I have offered up my all to God and my country, and by these I expect to fall or stand.
Savannah [Georgia] Republican, July 14, 1863.
14, Reports relative to Brigadier Gideon J. Pillow's threat in Macedonia, Carroll County
HDQRS. SIXTH DIVISION, SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Columbus, Ky., July 14, 1863.
Lieut. Col. HENRY BINMORE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Hdqrs. Sixteenth Army Corps:
COL.: I beg leave to inclose a report written this day, at noon, at Mayfield, by I. N. Beadles, and brought by two Union, citizens (William Hall and J. T. McIntosh) this evening from Mayfield, reporting Gen. Pillow with 6,000 rebels at Macedonia. This is corroborated by the inclosed telegram from Paducah, sent by Col. Martin, commanding post. That there is also a considerable force on the Obion, there can be no doubt, and I respectfully suggest the urgent necessity of a movement in force, on Gen. Dodge's part, from the line of the Mobile and Cincinnati Railroad northward, to prevent a junction of these several rebel commands and an attack by them, like that recently made by Morgan on the Ohio River, upon some of the weak points on the Mississippi or Ohio Rivers, and the consequent and inevitable destruction of property and temporary suspension of communication and supplies.
Maj.-Gen. Burnside has not sent me the 800 men promised by him; only some 375 effective have arrived at Cairo. To meet Pillow's and Forrest's united forces, in addition to the return of the infantry and cavalry ordered from my district, two light batteries are urgently required.
Respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant,
MAYFIELD, KY., July 14, 1863.
Dr. [Edward] Arbuckle, of Henry County, Tennessee, has just arrived here, and says Gen. Pillow is at Macedonia, 15 miles south of Paris, Tenn., with about 6,000 rebel troops, one-half mounted and the other half on foot. On dress parade yesterday Gen. Pillow told his troops they would remain until Forrest came in, whom he was then looking for.
Dr. Arbuckle is a reliable gentleman; is a surgeon in the Federal army.
I regard the report as strictly correct.
I. N. BEADLES.
J. T. MCINTOSH.
PADUCAH, July 14, 1863.
Train out to-day to Tennessee line. My detective reports information received that Gen. Pillow was at Macedonia, some 12 miles from Paris, with 6,000 men. He thinks it reliable. I can hardly credit it.
JAS. S. MARTIN, Col., Cmdg. Post.
COLUMBUS, KY., July 14, 1863.
Col. MARTIN, Cmdg. Paducah, Ky.:
It is reported that the rebel Gen. Pillow was yesterday, with 6,000 men, at Macedonia, below Paris, awaiting Gen. Forrest. I have ordered Lieut.-Col. Black, commanding Fort Heiman, to fall back on Paducah, in case the above should prove true.
COLUMBUS, July 14, 1863.
(Received July 15.) Maj.-Gen. SCHOFIELD:
As the rebel Gen. Pillow is reported at Macedonia, below Paris, Tenn., with 6,000 men, and Forrest expected to join him, I would request you to send me any additional re-enforcements you can possibly spare.
CLARKSVILLE, July 15, 1863.
Gen. JAMES A. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff, Tullahoma:
Gen. Asboth telegraphs that Pillow is at Macedonia, which is in Carroll County, Tenn. Don't know his force. I sent 200 mounted men this evening to look into the matter.
S. D. BRUCE, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 531-533.
14, Newsprint shortage in Knoxville
SCARCITY OF PAPER.-The very Dickens seems to be to play along the paper mills in the last few weeks-they have all got our of order. We have been on a week's tour endeavoring to buy or borrow enough to keep up with our present demand, but think it is not improbable that we well have to suspend unless our subscribers will adopt the plan suggested by a backwoods editor-namely, send in their white handkerchiefs and old linen. We can strike off our forms on them, and after they have read the news, they can wash them out and return them for another impression.
They say that "misery loves company;' but it did not afford us any alleviation of our one sorrows, during our travels, to met with half a dozen of our contemporaries in exactly the same predicament with ourselves. We shall live in hopes that something may "turn up" to enable us to avoid the catastrophe of withholding the Register from our anxious patrons even for a day; but if reduced to that necessity, we shall give timely notice, and try to make up for the lost time when the mills get to going again.
Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, July 14, 1863.
14, Whereabouts of R. V. Richardson's Partisan Rangers
HDQRS. DIST. OF MEMPHIS, Memphis, July 14, 1863.
Maj.-Gen. HURLBUT, Comdg. Sixteenth Army Corps:
GEN.: Parties who have fled from the neighborhood of Richardson's camp report that he is still near Shelby Depot. His rolls are estimated to contain the names of 2,000 recruits and conscripts, but that he has not more than 200 actually in camp. I can hear nothing of the story which was current a day or two ago of his having artillery. Later information has no account of artillery.
JAMES C. VEATCH.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 512.
14, "A Woman in Men's Apparel" in Nashville
About three o'clock on Thursday night last (14th) the police arrested a suspicious looking character, who afterwards proved to be a woman dressed in male attire. An investigation into the affair established the fact that she had but recently come to this city on a visit, and meeting a Lieutenant, a friend [sic] of her husband and family, a promenade and a disguise was suggested by the officer, which was acceded to by Mrs._____. She was returning to her boarding house when arrested, and, as might be expected, exhibited much uneasiness of mind, when being escorted to the police headquarters. The Lieutenant shortly afterwards made his appearance and deposited a sufficient sum for security, thus saving her from lodging the rest of the night in the workhouse.
Nashville Daily Press, July 16, 1864.
14, "Turned Out;" poor whites displaced by Negroes in Nashville
There seems to be a general disposition on the part of landlords, agents, and the military, to turn out poor white tenants and put in negroes [sic]. We saw one yesterday who sent out to pay her rent, leaving the balance of her money in the house under her bed; when she returned, the house had been broken open, her furniture put on the street, her money gone, and the house occupied by a negro family. During yesterday, nine women went before Recorder Shane for protection against, or redress for, similar proceedings. A number of families were turned out of a house near Jefferson street yesterday, and other occupants placed therein. We know nothing whatever of the merits of these complaints, and therefore can neither approve or censure such proceedings, but suggest that the injured parties make their complaints to the proper authorities, in a plain and brief communication The Recorder has no control outside the corporation limits.
Nashville Dispatch, July 14, 1864.
 GALE GROUP
 Apparently a physician colleague of Eames'.
 Not identified.
 Not identified.
 See also: Douglas W. Cupples, "Rebel to the Core: Memphis' Confederate Civil War Refugees," West Tennessee Historical Society Papers, Vol. LI (1997), pp. 65-73.
 Not found in the OR, but see July 10, 1862, "Special Orders, No. 14, relative to sending Confederate sympathizers south of Federal lines in Memphis environs" above.
 Not found.
 See also: New York Times, July 28, 1862.
 These particular verses satirize General Bragg during the retreat of the Army of Tennessee during the Tullahoma Campaign. It was meant to be sung to the tune of "O' Tannenbaum." It was humorously claimed to have been sung by many members of the Army of Tennessee as the Army of the Cumberland advanced. The precise meaning of the phrase "here's your mule" seems to have been lost, although it was apparently some kind of reproachful remark or insult. One source claims: "According to one Confederate veteran, Captain W.W. Carnes, the cry, 'Here's Your Mule!" originated among West Tennessee [Confederate] soldiers in a camp of instruction at Jackson, Tennessee. The men teased a camp huckster by concealing his mule inside a tent. 'Here's Your Mule!' gave rise to merriment in that camp,' wrote Carnes, "and as the different commands left the Camp of Instruction they took the with them the cry, 'Here's Your Mule!' which spread rapidly through the army until it was in general use by soldiers who had no idea of how it originated, but understood that there was a joke behind it or connected with it some way." W.W. Carnes, "Here's Your Mule," Confederate Veteran, XXXVII (October 1929), pp. 373-374, as cited in Norman D. Brown, ed., One of Cleburne's Command: The Civil War Reminiscences and Diary of Capt. Samuel T. Foster, Granbury's Texas Brigade, C. S. A., (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1980), p. 66. Another reference is found in and revolves around the action at Missionary Ridge. As Federal forces overran rebel positions General Bragg was said to have been present trying to rally his troops saying: "Here is your commander!" to which the troops responded: "Here is your mule!" See Confederate Sam R. Watkins memoirs, "Co. Aytch:" A Side Show of the Big Show (1987 reprint), p. 125. Other interpretations have it that the phrase simply meant "we've been here," or was the result of the "horse liberations" of Confederate cavalry general John Hunt Morgan or a comment upon desertion. The song was most popular in Tennessee and Kentucky. Thomas C. Smith used the phrase in his Civil War memoir Here's Yer Mule: the Diary of Thos. C. Smith, 3rd Sergeant, Co. "G," Wood's Regiment, 32nd Texas Cavalry, C. S.A., Mar. 30-1862-Dec. 31 1862. There seems to be no single meaning for the phrase, although it seems most likely it was some kind of taunt or clever expression and even obscene phrase common to both sides in the war. The lyrics to the song are:
1. A farmer came to camp one day,
With milk and eggs CN s to sell,
Upon a mule that oft would stray
To where no one could tell.
The farmer tired of his tramp
For hours was made a fool,
By ev 'ry one he met in camp
With, "Mister, here's your mule."
Come on, come on, come on old man,
And don't be made a fool,
By ev'ry one you meet in camp
With "Mister, here's your mule"
2. His eggs s and chickens all were gone,
Before the break of day;
The mule was heard of all along,
That's what the soldiers say'
And still be hunted all day long,
Alas! a witless tool,
Whilst every man would sing the song
Of "Mister, here's your mule" (Chorus)
3. The soldiers run in laughing mood,
Of mischief were intent;
They lifted muley on their back,
Around from tent to tent;
Thorough this hole and that, they pushed
His head and made a rule,
To shout with hum'rous voices all
"I say! Mister, here's your mule!" (Chorus)
4. Alas, one day the mule was missed!
Ah, who could tell his fate?
The farmer, like a man bereft,
Searched early and searched late,
And as he passed from camp to camp,
With stricken face-the fool,
Cried out to ev'ry one he met,
"Oh, mister, where's my mule?" (Chorus)
Irwin Silber, Songs of the Civil War, ed. and comp., piano and guitar arrangements by Jerry Silverman, (NY: Columbia University, 1960), pp. 179, 223-224.
 This reference is not explained. Perhaps he meant General Bragg.
 Tennessee, Records of West Tennessee, Civil War Records, Vol. 4, Prepared by the Historical Records Survey Transcription Unit, Division of Women's and Professional Projects, Works Progress Administration, Mrs. John Trotwood Moore, State Librarian and Archivist, Nashville, Tennessee, The Historical Records Survey, June 1, 1939, pp. 58-59. [Hereinafter: W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 4].
 See also: Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 23, 1863.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 About 6 miles east of McKenzie.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
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