10, A Connecticut-Tennessean offers support to the Confederacy
NEW HAVEN, CONN., April 10, 1861.
Hon. JEFFERSON DAVIS:
MY DEAR SIR: I am a native of Tennessee, the stepson of the Hon. John Bell, of that State; the brother-in-law of Capt. John Pope, of the topographical engineers, the relative of Mrs. Mary McRee, in whose husband's company you served as lieutenant. I enter into this personal detail that I may, in some degree, prove to you that my connections are respectable, and that my statements and propositions may be received with some confidence. From present indications war seems to be resolved upon. If this dead contingency should arise, I can, without the slightest difficulty, raise and equip from this city two companies of 100 men each to serve under your command, every man a Democrat, upon whom you can rely. I have an independent fortune, and do not ask pecuniary assistance from any quarter. I only ask from you that you will receive these companies and grant for the war commissions to such officers as they may elect. I am a lawyer by profession, a graduate of Yale College, served in the Mexican war, was present at the siege of Vera Cruz and the battle of Cerro Gordo, and on account of my health have resided in this city for the past six years. Mr. Toombs is acquainted with my family, and will, I doubt not, assure you of its respectability; but I believe you know my mother, Mrs. John Bell, whom you have met in Washington.
With my most ardent wishes for your personal welfare, and for your successful administration amid the difficulties and embarrassments which encompass you,
I remain, with great personal esteem, most respectfully, your friend,
OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, p. 216.
10, Confederate physician's bravery and workers' donation for wounded soldiers
Bravery of a Surgeon-We are informed by soldiers who participated in the battle of Shiloh, that Dr. W.C, Cavanaugh, Surgeon to the second Tennessee (Colonel Walker's) regiment, displayed much bravery upon the battlefield. He extracted balls on the field and made those who tried to "play of wounded" go back to their posts. All who saw Dr. Cavanaugh speak in the highest praise of him.
The employees of...Winn & Co., (saddle & harness factory) handed Mr. Lofland, treasurer, six hundred and seventy dollars yesterday for the benefit of the wounded soldiers [of Shiloh].
Memphis Argus, April 10, 1862.
10, Confederate report on five day scout, Hickman to Union City to Dresden, relative to strong Union sentiment in West Tennessee and difficulties with independent companies
HDQRS. CAVALRY, Trenton, Tenn., April 10, 1862.
Maj. GEORGE WILLIAMSON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Corinth, Miss.:
MAJ.: I have just returned from a five days' scout in the direction of Hickman; remained one night at Union City, and thence toward Dresden. The enemy's cavalry did not make their appearance. I found everything quiet on my line. The Union feeling throughout the upper country is very strong, and the management of these men is one of the most delicate and perplexing of all to me. Our Southern friends beseech me not to interfere with the Union men, since they will be certain to report them, and thereby bring down a retaliation on the part of the Federal troops much more harsh and severe than any that we could have the heart to show our enemies. I have therefore determined not to arrest any Union sympathizers unless known to be aiding and abetting the enemy.
I have made a reconnaissance of the country above this, and am of the opinion that there is no line nearer to the enemy than the one from Dresden through this place across to Dyersburg to be convenient to a telegraph office. There seems to be but little disposition displayed by the citizens of Weakley and Obion Counties to sell provisions and forage to the Confederate Government, since they invariably refuse to take Confederate notes in payment.
The Obion bottoms are at present almost impassable, which will prevent my forming a new line above this point. I can guard the line, however, by sending out from time to time strong scouting parties to operate in the country about Union City and Dresden.
The independent companies attached to my command are an expense to the Confederacy and do very little service, since they are not acquainted with the country. I would respectfully recommend the merging of all these companies (with the exception of Dillard's) into one, and have the election of company officers, then muster them into one, and have the election of company officers, then muster them into service for the war, and if they do not wish to do this, discharge them. They are now a heavy expense for the service rendered. Capt. D. G. Reid, with a squad of 15 men, is operating on my line under the authority of Gen. Beauregard, and I would state for the information of the general commanding that he is doing great damage to our cause. He is reported to me by good citizens to be engaged in taking horses from Union men on the line and near Dresden, thereby causing the Union men to retaliate upon our friends; in fact, I consider the party a nuisance, and have the honor to request his removal from my line.
I was sufficiently near Island 10 on last Sunday and Monday to hear the firing, which was very heavy. I presume you have heard the result; it is reported by parties from there that one gunboat ran by the island on Friday night and two more on Sunday night; our batteries were abandoned and spiked Monday and the infantry force surrendered on Tuesday morning; a good many poor made their escape and are coming in here daily.
Capt. Neely's company arrived here to-day; Haywood's company not yet arrived. I would respectfully request that Capt. Robertson's company be ordered here at once, as I need them very much. I have lost the copies of my order and my report of the Union City affair, and would like to have copies of both sent me. For the present my headquarters will be at this place.
I am, major, with high respect, your obedient servant,
W. H. JACKSON, Col., Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 407-408.
10-June 3, Confederate Report and Correspondence Relative to the Victory at the Battle of Plum Point and Measures Needed to Defend the Mississippi River. Report of Brigadier-General Thompson, Missouri State Guard
CONFEDERATE STATES RIVER DEFENSE SERVICE,
Gunboat General Bragg, May 10, 1862--10 p.m.
GENERAL: At a council of war held last night by the captains of the fleet it was determined to attack the enemy this morning, to cut out a gunboat which for the past two days has been guarding the mortar boat.
We started at the commodore's signal at 6 a.m. and steamed round the point in front of Fort Pillow. The boat guarding the mortar boat immediately started into the current and ran for the shoal water on Plum Point. The General Bragg, Captain Leonard, which had the lead, ran rapidly at her (supposed to be the St. Louis), striking her a glancing blow on the starboard bow and receiving a broadside at 10 feet distance. The Bragg then backed out, and the Sumter. Captain Lamb, passed on, striking the same boat on the starboard quarter, and continued up stream to strike another. The Van Dorn, Captain Fulkerson, which came next, went up to the mortar boat and fired into it at 20 yards distance, and, passing for larger game, ran into another large gunboat, and then, unfortunately ran ashore, where for several minutes she sustained a terrific cannonade until she backed off. The Price, Captain Henthorne, which was third in the line of attack, went gallantly in, and struck a large gunboat, supposed to be the Benton, and also received several point-blank shots. The other boats of this fleet, viz, the Beauregard, Colonel Lovell, Jeff Thompson, and Little Rebel, were not able to get into the fight, except with their guns, but it is worthy of note that the gunners on the open forecastle and sterns served their guns steadily amid a shower of missiles without one casualty.
The Little Rebel was Commodore Montgomery's flagship, and ran about amid the storm as heedlessly as if charmed.
A tiller rope on the General Bragg was accidentally cut, which prevented her from again returning to the charge, and as the difference in speed had opened the gap between our boats so far, and as the enemy's boats were enough injured to repay our attempt and damage fourfold, the commodore hoisted his recall, and we fell back, cheering and shouting.
Our loss has been: W. W. Andrews, steward on the Van Dorn, killed; third cook on the Bragg, mortally wounded, and eight or ten slightly wounded, among whom is Captain Fulkerson--a contusion on the hand, more painful than dangerous.
Where all acted so handsomely it would be invidious to discriminate, and I will simply state that the captains and crews of this fleet deserve the confidence which has been reposed in them, and my officers and men acted, as they always have, bravely and obediently.
Yours, most respectfully,
M. JEFF THOMPSON,
Brigadier-General, Missouri State Guard, Commanding Confederate Troops on Fleet.
General G. T. BEAUREGARD, C. S. Army, Corinth, Miss.
Report of Captain Montgomery, Commanding River Defense Fleet.
FLAGBOAT LITTLE REBEL, Fort Pillow, Tenn., May 12, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report an engagement with the Federal gunboats at Plum Point Bend, 4 miles above Fort Pillow, May 10.
Having previously arranged with my officers the order of attack, our boats left their moorings at 6 a.m. and proceeding up the river, passed round a sharp point, which brought us in full view of the enemy's fleet, numbering eight gunboats and twelve mortar boats.
The Federal boat Carondelet was lying nearest us, guarding a mortar boat that was shelling the fort. The General Bragg, Captain H. H. Leonard, dashed at her. The Carondelet [Cincinnati], firing her heavy guns, retreated toward a bar where the depth of water would not be sufficient for our boats to follow. The Bragg continued boldly on under fire of nearly their whole fleet, and struck her a violent blow that stopped her further flight, then rounded down the river under a broadside, fired and drifted until her tiller rope that had got out of order could be readjusted. A few moments after the Bragg struck her blow, the General Sterling Price, first officer Thomas E. Henthorne, ran into the same boat a little aft of her starboard midship, carrying away her rudder, sternpost, and a large piece of her stern. This threw the Carondelet's [Cincinnati's] stern to the Sumter, Captain W. W. Lamb, who struck her, running at the utmost speed of his boat.
The General Earl Van Dorn, Captain Isaac D. Fulkerson, running according to orders in the rear of the Price and Sumter, directed his attention to the Mound City, at the time pouring broadsides into the Price and Sumter. As the Van Dorn proceeded, by skillful shots from her 32-pounder, W. G. Kendall, gunner, silenced a mortar boat that was filling the air with its terrible missiles. The Van Dorn, still holding on the Mound City's midship, in the act of striking, the Mound City sheered, and the Van Dorn struck her a glancing blow, making a hole 4 feet deep in her starboard forward quarter, evidenced by splinters left on the iron bow of the Van Dorn. At this juncture the Van Dorn was above four of the enemy's boats. As our remaining boats, the General M. Jeff Thompson, Captain J. H. Burke, the Colonel Lovell, Captain James C. Delancy, and the General Beauregard, Captain J. H. Hurt, were entering boldly into the contest in their prescribed order, I perceived from the flagboat that the enemy's boats were taking positions where the water was too shallow for our boats to follow them, and, as our cannon was far inferior to theirs, both in number and size, I signaled our boats to fall back, which was accomplished with a coolness that deserves the highest commendation. I am happy to inform you, while exposed at close quarters to a most terrific fire for thirty minutes, our boats, although struck repeatedly, sustained no serious injury. Our casualties were 2 killed and 1 wounded (arm broken).
General M. Jeff Thompson was on the General Bragg; his officers and men were divided among the boats. They were all at their posts, ready to do good service should an occasion offer. To my officers and men I am highly indebted for their courage and promptness in executing all orders.
On the 11th instant I went on the Little Rebel in full view of the enemy's fleet. Saw the Carondelet [Cincinnati] sunk near the shore and the Mound City sunk on the bar. The position occupied by the enemy's gunboats above Fort Pillow offers more obstacles to our mode of attack than any other between Cairo and New Orleans. But of this you may rest assured, if we can get fuel, unless the enemy greatly increase their force, they will never penetrate farther down the Mississippi.
I am with great respect, your obedient servant,
J. E. MONTGOMERY, Senior Captain, Commanding River Defense Service.
General G. T. BEAUREGARD, Commanding C. S. Army of the West.
Report of Brigadier-General Thompson, Missouri State Guard, regarding the action of the rams in the river.
C. S. RIVER DEFENSE SERVICE, Gunboat General Bragg, off Fort Pillow, May 13, 1862--8 p.m.
GENERAL: Your telegram suggesting our trying the slow boats downstream is received. Upon reflection you will find that none of the rams will answer downstream, except when manned by a "forlorn hope" to accomplish some specific object. After the first "butt" downstream, whether it be fair or foul, your boat is lost, for you can not back upstream to strike again, and in drifting down you will be at the mercy of the enemy. This matter was fully demonstrated on the 10th, for the Bragg, which is the best and fastest boat, went in the lead, and after striking her first blow simply fouled a tiller rope and had to drift out of the action. Our only hope is to make ourselves useful "upstream," and we will keep the enemy ,at this point in check until they are largely reinforced. The enemy s boats above Fort Pillow are now moored in narrow channels behind sand bars, where we can not attack them again, but we will wait and watch for another opportunity. Should gunboats pass Vicksburg and the fort at that place remain in our hands, then we can run downstream and sink everything we hit between here and there, and then return to this post.
Yours, most respectfully,
M. JEFF THOMPSON,
Brigadier-General, Missouri State Guards,
Commanding Confederate Gunners.
General G. T. BEAUREGARD,
Commanding C. S. Army, Corinth, Miss.
[ Telegram. ]
MEMPHIS, TENN., June 3, 1862.
If not already done, for God's sake order the River Defense Fleet to defend every bend and dispute every mile of river from [Fort] Pillow here.
I am willing, and believe I am able, to hold the river if Commodore Montgomery will cooperate, which I believe he will.
M. JEFF THOMPSON.
GENERAL DANIEL RUGGLES, Grenada.
[ Telegram. ]
MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.
Without it was a strategic movement, it was useless to evacuate Fort Pillow.
If we are allowed to place the mortars on rafts and permitted to use the transports and play strategy back on the enemy, I will contract to hold this river above Memphis for a month.
M. JEFF THOMPSON.
[ Telegram. ]
HEADQUARTERS, Grenada, June 3, 1862.
I wish you to take command at Memphis and hold your forces in such position as to cover it and contribute to its defense. This is on the presumption that your previous orders do not conflict and that you have evacuated Fort Pillow.
The new gunboat Arkansas will reach Memphis in a few days to join the cotton gunboat fleet.
I hope to be in Memphis to-morrow morning. Can you furnish some heavy guns for Memphis? Answer.
DANIEL RUGGLES, Brigadier-General, Commanding.
Brigadier-General VILLEPIGUE, Memphis.
[ Telegram. ]
MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.
I will promptly obey your instructions. I will do the best I can to hold the enemy in check at all points. I think that the fleet ought to be kept above. Shall I detain remainder of troops as they arrive? The troops have only five days' rations.
Rations had better be forwarded to Hernando, if I detain them here, so that if they run short they can be procured easily. No batteries of any kind here, except those that will arrive to-night.
THOS. H. ROSSER, Colonel, Commanding Post.
[ Telegram. ]
MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.
The Golden Age passed down this morning from Fort Pillow with troops for Vicksburg. We may have about 200 troops here on whom to depend, and can make no defense except against a very meager force.
We shall remain till everything is shipped and as much longer as possible.
Nearly everything has been forwarded. Will finish to-day probably.
THOS. H. ROSSER, Colonel, Commanding Post.
General RUGGLES, Grenada.
[ Telegram. ]
MEMPHIS, June 3, 1862.
Fort Pillow is evacuated. I left the fort this morning myself. The remainder of the ammunition and 600 troops were taken by steamer Golden Age this morning to Vicksburg. The remainder of the troops, with General Villepigue, are coming by land. There is neither arms nor powder here.
In view of the importance of holding Memphis, public meetings have been held and addressed by General Thompson, Colonel Rosser, and Captain Baird, with the most discouraging results. Colonel Foote will leave on the evening train for Grenada and will explain to you the true condition of things here. Captain Baird will accompany him.
General RUGGLES, Grenada.
NOR, Ser. I, Vol.23, pp. 54-59.
10, Skirmish near Waverly
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
10, Confederate attack on a train near Hermitage, on Cumberland River [see April 7-11, 1863, "Wheeler's raid on Louisville and Nashville and Nashville and Chattanooga Railroads, including affair (April 10) at Antioch Station, Tenn.," above]
10, Engagement at Franklin
APRIL 10, 1863.-Engagement at Franklin, Tenn.
Report of Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Cumberland to Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief.
MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., April 11, 1863--5 p. m. The following dispatch was received about midnight:
FRANKLIN, April 10, 1863.
Gen. ROSECRANS: Van Dorn made his promised attack to-day at 1 o'clock directly in front and on the town. An infantry regiment on guard and in town, with the cavalry pickets, held him at bay until their ammunition was exhausted. The dense smoke and atmosphere favored their operations, enabling them to approach very near without our being able to observe them. Our siege guns and light batteries opened upon them with murderous effect, literally strewing the ground with men and horses. I had halted Stanley 4 miles out, on the Murfreesborough road. He at once crossed his forces over at Hughes' Mill, vigorously attacking Forrest's division, moving down on the Lewisburg pike, capturing six pieces of artillery and some 200 prisoners, but, owing to the unfavorable nature of the country, was unable to hold them, being attacked by greatly superior numbers, outflanked, and nearly surrounded. At the moment I was about to support him with all of my available cavalry and infantry, I received a dispatch from Gen. Morgan saying that his pickets were being driven in on the Wilson pike. This led me to suppose that either Brentwood or our rear would be attacked in force; hence I was unable to carry out my project of cutting off and destroying most of Van Dorn's force. Our loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners is less than 100, while the enemy's cannot be less than three times that number. They were repulsed on all sides, and driven until darkness prevented the pursuit. Capt. McIntyre, of the Fourth Regulars, took the battery and prisoners, bringing off twenty-odd of the latter.
G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.
Reports place Van Dorn's force from 10,000 to 18,000. The attack was repulsed so easily that I am waiting the return of Gen. Stanley, who has gone with his force to the front, to know whether it was more than a reconnaissance.
W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 221-222.
Report of Col. Daniel M. Ray, Second Tennessee Cavalry, commanding Third Cavalry Brigade.
CAMP NEAR MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., April 16, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the late scout to Franklin, Tenn.:
Left camp with my command, consisting of the Second East Tennessee Cavalry and a detachment of the Fourth Indiana Cavalry, on the morning of Thursday, April 9, 1863; halted at night about 4 miles south of Triune.
Resumed the march on the following morning at 3.30 o'clock; marched until 8 a. m.; halted within 4 miles of Franklin. Resumed march at 2 p. m. of same day; marched a distance of 4 or 5 miles, crossing Big Harpeth River below an old mill. Was attacked by the enemy in force near ford of Big Harpeth; engagement lasted about one hour, mostly at long range; the enemy fell back; I occupied his ground. My loss was 1 killed and 6 wounded, all belonging to the Second East Tennessee Cavalry.
Late in the evening I recrossed the river with my command, at the ford where I crossed at 2 o'clock. Remained over night; distance about 1 mile from the scene of the engagement. On the 11th instant, advanced as far as where the Fourth U. S. Cavalry were engaged on the 10th. Returned from that place to where we halted on the morning of the 10th a. m.; arrived at camp at 9 p. m.; arrived at camp at 9 p. m., burning on our way ten dwellings and outhouses belonging to persons who had sons in the Confederate Army, as per order of Maj.-Gen. Stanley.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
D. M. RAY, Col., Cmdg. Third Cavalry Brigade.
Report of Lieut. Col. Robert Klein, Third Indiana Cavalry.
HDQRS. THIRD BATTALION, THIRD INDIANA CAVALRY, Camp Drake, Tenn., April 16, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to report the following as the part taken by detachment of the Third Indiana Cavalry, 170 strong, under my command, during the late scout to Franklin, Tenn.:
Nothing worthy of note occurred until on the 10th instant, when, halted 4 miles from Franklin, I was placed under command of Lieut.-Col. Robie, commanding Second Brigade, with which brigade we acted during the entire engagement and remainder of the scout. Early in the afternoon we were ordered to proceed to the Harpeth River, at [Hughes'] Mill, where our brigade crossed at lower ford, opposite the bluff. We moved across the open field and woods to the Lewisburg pike, driving the enemy's sentinels toward Franklin, in which direction we observed them in considerable mounted force. The brigade was formed across the pike, facing toward Franklin, my battalion being in the center, where we were to await their approach. The Fourth Regulars becoming engaged in our rear, toward Lewisburg, we were ordered to about face, and move down the Lewisburg end of the pike, which we did in fine order, and had laid down the last fence between us and the reserve of the force engaging the Fourth Regulars, and would soon have captured them and the horses of their dismounted men, the guard being inconsiderable, but orders were given to fall back, as they were advancing from Franklin in our rear. We fell back with the promptness characteristic of cavalry movements, and formed in the field and woods near the bluff, at the crossing, our line being at an acute angle with the pike and bluff, our left nearest the pike and our right nearest the bluff, with my battalion again in the center of the Second Brigade.
The enemy made two attacks on this position, and were both times repulsed; but coming through the woods in force and attacking our left vigorously, doubled it on the center, obliging us to fall back.
We again formed parallel to the bluff, which position we held until the enemy retired.
We were in advance of the reconnoitering force which went out in the evening, but nothing worthy of note occurred.
Our loss in the whole scout was very small, being 2 mortally wounded and 2 slightly so. Also 12 horses killed, disabled, and abandoned.
I take pleasure in testifying to the general good conduct of my officers and men, their actions meeting my full approbation.
I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. KLEIN, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Third Indiana Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 237-238.
Some fighting in Franklin. Our soldiers were induced to think that Franklin was evacuated by the Feds they made a charge into Town & was badly cut up[.] [T]he Feds had secreted themselves in the house[s], [and] fired out of the windows…loss very heavy….
Diary of Nimrod Porter, April 10, 1863.
10, A trip from Fairmont to Lebanon; excerpt from a Confederate woman's diary
* * * *
After trying for three weeks to get a conveyance and escort to Lebanon, Mr. Dick Malone at last said he'd risk the consequence and take me. I went over April 10  with Margart [sic], Leila and 7 trunks-taking most of the wearing apparel of the family that had been saved from the fire, to try to save it. Imagine my consternation to come right on the rear guard of a column of Yankees, numbering 3,000. Mr. Malone's. coolness and address saved our trunks and pockets from being rifled. He offered the keys and insisted that an officer should examine the trunks; but, they told us to drive out to the side of the road and they would pass. They wheeled the columns and went back to Murfreesboro. This was ten miles from L.[ebanon]. We rode on and in 4 miles met the Southern Pickets. [sic] This then was the cause of the [Yankees'] sudden return [to Murfreesboro].-Wheeler was certainly in Lebanon with 6000 men and had torn up the Railway at 2 points the night before, taking a number of prisoners, capturing the mail and doing them great damage otherwise. Words fail me in speaking of the unexpected pleasure of meeting my dear Husband in L.[ebanon] after an absence of 3 months, during which we had met such painful vicissitudes of fortune. When I had last seen him, I was almost dead and he was in eminent danger of being captured that he had to leave me.
Journal of Bettie Ridley Blackmore.
10, Affair at Antioch [see 7-11, Wheeler's raid on Louisville and Nashville and Nashville and Chattanooga Railroads, including affair (April 10) at Antioch Station, Tenn. above]
10, Lieutenant-General Leonidas Polk suggests stiffening security at military hospitals to decrease the desertion rate of the Army of Tennessee
HDQRS. POLK'S CORPS, ARMY OF TENNESSEE, April 10, 1863.
Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond, Va.:
It has been said that "hospitals are the leaks of armies," and our experience justifies the truth of the remark. In this army, ever since its organization, efforts have been made to devise a remedy for this evil, and we believe we have accomplished it as far as in the nature of things it is practicable. Our system has been in operation for several months, and works admirably. Before its introduction the wastage was enormous. It is not as perfect as we think it could be made, but it is a very great improvement on the old condition of things. It is as follows:
Each corps has its own hospitals, which are devoted exclusively to the use of its own sick. Take the hospitals assigned to my own corps, for example. These are established at Rome and Atlanta, Ga. Every day the sick of my corps, now at Shelbyville, who require hospital treatment are sent down to one or the other of these hospitals. Rations are provided for them on the cars, and a surgeon detailed to accompany them. For better security, they are placed under the charge of an officer, with a detail as a guard, whose duty it is to accompany them to the hospital, to see that they neither escape nor are left by the way, and who turns them over to the commanding officer of the post where the hospital is established. This commanding officer has been detailed from the corps, with an adequate detachment, to take charge of the hospital post. It is his duty to receive the men sent down for treatment, to enroll them as apart of his command, and to be responsible for their safe-keeping and proper care while under his orders. So soon as they are sufficiently convalescent for light duty, they are put to squad or company drill, for the sake of the exercise, and, when competent for field service, they are sent back to their commands in the corps under an officer and a guard, as they came down. It will be perceived that, by this mode of proceeding, these men are always in hand, and in the hands of officers belonging to their own proper corps. These officers make returns of their commands to corps headquarters tri-monthly, and their number and condition are thus known to corps headquarters. It will be seen also that the loss of men through the hospitals under this system is next to impossible, and that the parties most interested in their speedy recovery are those who are charged with looking after them. It will be seen also that they are much more likely to receive sympathy and special attention, because they are in the hands of their own corps and among their friends. Abuses, too, are much more likely to be corrected, for the reason that they are more likely to be known, and the power to correct them is at hand.
Such is the system we have inaugurated, and which has been for the last two months in operation in its substantial details. We have found it, as I have remarked, to work admirably and to cure the evils of the old system. If it were to be continued, I would suggest one change, which I regard as important to a high degree; it is, that the surgeons taking care of the sick in the hospitals report to the medical director of the corps directly, just as the surgeons taking care of the sick in the field do. I see no good reason why this should not be done, and there are several why it should be. The authority of the officers of the corps over its men is never removed, and the responsibility of taking care of these men is where it ought to be, and those whose they are and who are most interested in their recovery. This arrangement would not abridge the authority of the army surgeon-general in the least, as the reports of the corps medical director would be made directly to him, just as the reports of the commanders of the corps are made to the general commanding the army in reference to matters purely military. If the medical director of the army is not satisfied with the management of the medical director of the corps, he can, through his medical inspector, have the evils corrected. But I regret to see that an order has been issued from the Adjutant and Inspector General's Office at Richmond declaring that corps, army, and department commanders are excluded from having anything to do with the general hospitals, and, therefore, all our plans for the benefit of the sick are overthrown at a blow. This order is No. 28, March 12  Paragraph V. I have respectfully to submit that, in my judgment, this is not expedient or wise. It goes back to the old system, which has worked badly, and lost us, by desertion or otherwise, a large number of all who have been sent to our hospitals. I desire respectfully to place these views before the Secretary of War, and to ask that we be permitted to manage our hospitals in the manner I have above indicated.
* * * *
L. Polk, Lieut.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 747-749.
10, "I have never been able to see sufficient grounds for secession and war." Williamson Younger, Carroll County tailor, on the course of the war
I believe this wicked war an uncalled for calamity. It might have been avoided had it not been for mean men North and South. I thought we of the South should have waited, and if we were not interrupted in our sovereign rights as States by Mr. Lincoln and the party in power, then of course [there would be] no cause for rebelling. If we had been, I think there would have been a sufficient party in the United States to have put down any such encroachment on states rights. I believe the North has aggravated the South by her liberty bills and insults in the Federal congress to do what she has done. I have never been able to see sufficient grounds for secession and war. Both were brought on without my aid or voice at the ballot box. Now that both are upon us, my sympathies are entirely with my country and my people. I was opposed to secession and voted against secession. By the June vote it seemed the mass of the people had become drunk with rage and prejudice against the proceeding of the old government. I then thought I was clearly where we were drifting. I was silent and did not vote at all. The fire was started and is burning to the consummation of our liberties, for the subjugation of the South is an end of our liberties. The treatment we have received from the old government has been calculated to drive us out of the Union. The officers of the Federal army have acted on the testimony of bad men and Negroes to seize the property of conservative men of the South. What was of no use to them, they have destroyed. This has strengthened the rebellion.
10, Public notice identifying runaway slaves and calling for their return to masters
Headquarters Camp of Instruction
Near Knoxville, April 10th, 1863
In compliance with General Order No. 25, A. & I. G. O., Richmond, Va., the following named slaves are held subject to the order of, and will be delivered to, their owners when satisfactory proof of ownership shall have been made:
HARRISON-belonging to Mrs. Betsy Allen, Henry county, Tenn., 20 years of age, black complexion, 5 feet 6 inches high, captured between Murfreesboro' and Nashville, Tenn., by Gen. Wheeler, in December last.
JACK-belonging to W. Foster, Nashville aged 18, copper complexion, 5 feet 7 inches high, taken on the 1st of March, 1863, by the Provost guard at Chattanooga, says he was with Maj. Mason, Quartermaster on General Polk's staff.
GEORGE-belonging to Henry Brown, Bedford county, Tenn. 30 years of age, copper complexion 5 feet 8 inches high, captured by cavalry at his home about the 1st of February, and taken to Shelbyville, Tenn.
TOM-belonging to Col. Johnson, 10th Georgia regiment, Nashville, Tenn., 20 years of age, copper complexion, 5 feet 6 inches high captured by the bridge guard below Bridgeport on his way to Tullahoma, about five months ago.
SMITH-belonging to Wm. Jarnagin, Robinson county, Tenn., 29 years of age, 6 feet high, captured by the Federals last fall and recaptured by Gen. Wheeler's command on the Cumberland river on January last.
BOB-belonging to Mrs. R. Bell, Davidson county, Tenn., 20 years of age, 5 feet 6 inches, high copper complexion, was impressed by Major Hatlock, 1st Kentucky regiment, as cook and was captured by our forces at Murfreesboro, Dec. 31st, 1862.
JOSEPH-belonging to Alfred Miller, Rutherford county, Tenn., years of age, complexion black, 5 feet 8 inches high, captured by Gen Wheeler's cavalry near home about two months ago.
ED-belonging to John B. Cunningham, 51st Alabama regiment, 16 or 17 years of age, copper complexion, was lost from his master and was brought to this place by Jarnagin, conductor on the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, Nov. 30, 1862.
JOHN EDMONS-free, Marion county, Indiana, 55 years of age, 5 feet 8 inches high, black complexion, cook in 33d Indiana regiment, left sick in hospital in Kentucky and was captured by Col. Palmer's command about the 1st of April, 1863.
RUSSELL-Rutherford county, Tenn., 59 years of age, 5 feet 7 inches high, captured by Gen Wheeler's cavalry at home about one month ago-claims to be free.
WARRREN-Belonging to Jack White, a private in Capt. Hart's Company, 43d regiment Ala. Volunteers, 35 years of age, 5 feet 8 inches high, black complexion, captured by the Federals near Williamsburg, Ky., in August last, and recaptured at the same place by Col. McKenzie's Cavalry, about the 1st inst.
By order of
L. PECK, Major P. A. C. S,
Knoxville Daily Register, April 19, 1863.
10, Report of capture and sinking of Lovell and Saxonia on Cumberland River near Clarksville
The attack upon the steamers near Clarksville, last week, has been succeeded by a more daring raid, which took place near the same pint, on Wednesday, a large body of Rebels having captured the steamers Lovell and Saxonia, and subsequently destroyed them. The Captain of the former vessel was killed. 
Philadelphia Inquirer, April 10, 1863.
The steamers Lovell and Saxoia were captured and burned near Clarksville, Tenn., on April 9th, by twelve hundred Confederates under Gen Woodward. The captain of the Lovell was killed and the captain of the Saxonia was severely wounded.
The [Salt Lake City, Utah] Desert News, April 22, 1863.
Woodward's Rebell Force Defeated-Stores Recaptured
Clarksville, April 9.-An expedition, sent by Colonel Bruce last night, under Colonel Boone, surprised the Rebel force under Woodward, recaptured the stores stolen from the steamers Lovell and Saxonia, and took several prisoners after severe skirmishing this morning. Colonel Boone pursued the retreating Rebels fifteen miles.
Our fleet of transports, convoyed by three gunboats, arrived here tonight.
Philadelphia Inquirer, April 10, 1863.
10-11, Scout, LaGrange, Hudsonville, Lockhart's Mills, Mt. Pleasant, Early Grove, Mississippi
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, p. 515.
10, Negroes escorted by Federal cavalry from Virginia to East Tennessee
Excerpt from the Report of Brig. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, U. S. Army, commanding Cavalry Division, District of East Tennessee, of operations in the Expedition from East Tennessee into Southeestern Virginia and Western North Carolina, March 21-April 25, relative to escort of Negroes from Virginia to East Tennessee, April 10, 1865:
On the 10th [of April] we moved south, arriving at Germantown at 12 m. The number of negroes [sic] who were following the column had increased to such an extent as to endanger the safety of the command in case it should become closely engaged with the enemy. Several hundred were sent from this point to East Tennessee under a sufficient guard for their protection. They all reached their destination in safety, and most of those fit for military service, I have since learned, are now in Col. Bartlett's One hundred and nineteenth, U. S. Colored Troops.
* * * *
ALVAN C. GILLEM, Brig.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg. Division.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, p. 332.
10, Thirty-six gun salutes ordered in Knoxville to observe Lee's surrender
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 22. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April 10, 1865.
Semi-official information having been received at these headquarters of the surrender of Lee and his army to Lieut.-Gen. Grant, it is hereby ordered that a salute of thirty-six guns be fired from each fort and battery in this district.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman:
H. G. GIBSON, Col. Second Ohio Heavy Artillery and Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 368.
10-15, Guerrillas attack St. Paul, Anna Everton, Sylph along Hatchie River [see April 16 1865, "Burning of Federal steamer St. Paul in the Hatchie River, Tenn." below]
Excerpt from the report of the Captain of the St. Paul relative to guerrilla attacks, April 10-15, 1865, on the St. Paul, Anna Everton, and the Sylph on Hatchie River:
* * * *
On Monday, the 10th instant, Lieutenant...Luxton, who claimed to belong to Bill Forrest's command, and a half-brother of General Forrest, with 6 men, came on the steamer St. Paul at Brownsville Landing' said they had gone down on the Elwood and protected her out. Left Brownsville on Tuesday, the 11th, stopped at Lowry's Landing, waiting for cotton. They shot one of the deck hands at Lowry's and he either got overboard himself and swam ashore or they threw him overboard. On Wednesday, the 12th, 6 more men came on board with horses at Lowry's and got off at Bond's Landing; claimed to belong to...[W. C.] Quantrill's [sic] guerrillas. On the 15th met steamer Sylph...below Bragg's Landing in possession of party of about 20 of Quantrill's men...took possession of the Anna Everton....They put the freight ashore and tore up the cabin, bar, etc.; said they intended burning her. Started up the river with her to go to the Sylph. Said they intended burning both boats. The St. Paul came down to Morgan's Landing...they burned the St. Paul Sunday morning at that point.
* * * *
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 27, p. 148.
 Wooden steamships using bales of cotton as protection against cannon.
 There are a total of twelve reports incident to this engagement.
 Sarah Ridley Trimble, ed., "Behind the Lines in Middle Tennessee, 1863-1865: The Journal of Bettie Ridley Blackmore," THQ, Vol. XII No. 1 (March, 1953), p. 56. [Hereinafter: Journal of Bettie Ridley Blackmore.]
See also: The Farmer's Cabinet, April 16, 1863. The only apparent independent verification for the sinking of the Saxonia is found on April 8, 1863 Merchant Steam Vessels of the United States, 1790-1868, "The Lytle-Holdercamper List," Initially compiled by William M. Lytle and Forrest R. Holdercamper from Official Merchant Marine Documents, rev. ed. By C. Bradford Mitchell, with the assistance of Kenneth R. Hall. (New York: The steamship Historical Society of America, Inc, 1975), p. 296. There is no mention of the river boats Lovell or Saxonia in the OR..
 All action associated with this scout took place in Mississippi. The mission originated and terminated in Tennessee.
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