2, Obituary for Uncle Sam; a pro-secession argument in Memphis
Died, on the 4th of March, 1861., UNCLE SAM, in the 85th year of his age.
In chronicling the demise of Uncle Sam, we do so with a mixed emotion of sorrow and joy. His death was anticipated for some years, having fallen a victim to an "irrepressible conflict" disease, which combated successfully and rendered ineffectual the expert skill of the most learne d Sewardite and prominent physicians of the day, and after a long, protracted suffering, lingering in its progress with a slow, certain and unavoidable end, he departed this life on the day and year named above, leaving behind many to mourn this sad bereavement and others experiencing gratification who desired the agonizing and excruciating pains he endured to cease and be no more.
As he lived, he died, beloved and respected by all nations. We shall, perhaps, never look upon his like again. As a model for example, no copy is now extant and none ordered. His life was frought with many eventful scenes, and the multitudinous vicissitudes through which he struggled and rendered glorious, characterized his indomitable will, honesty and bravery.
Born on the 4th of July, 1776, the last century was signalized by his unprecedented advent, and as the legitimate offspring of the independence of America, his birth was hailed by freedom as a wonderful epoch in the history of the world. His terrestrial career advancing, it became evidently important that a generalisimo was required, and should be employed to superintend and guard his household affairs. George, of revolutionary fame, having established a good character, and being strongly recommended by letters of an innumerable number of brave hearts, was the chosen one. Tradition says he made an excellent and very trustworthy functionary, gained the admiration and confidence of his employer and the respect of all of his obedient servants.
Then when George's term expired, John, Tom, James, Quincy, James the second, Andrew, Martin, William, Henry, John the Second, James the third, Zachariah, Millard and Frank, were employed successively in rotation, and are said to have given partial satisfaction in ruling moderately well over the servants, and conducting the affairs of the White House with a discretion remarkable and peculiar in the times and circumstances. During the latter part of these Administrations however, Uncle Sam, laboring under the debilitating influences of the "irrepressible" contagion prevalent, was confined to his department, private, and being unable, therefore, to give an undivided attention to the things of his Government, advantages were taken, powers usurped, and all matters appertaining to nationality administered by reckless employees, with a keen, discriminating eye toward personal aggrandizement.
At this juncture James, surnamed Buchanan, was called in to preside. Powers extraordinary and plenipotentiary were extended to him, and being an old horse in the harness, he very soon wrought the same privileges enjoyed by his immediate predecessors, into advantages which led him and subordinates to adopt the grab game, and before his term transpired, managed to oust from the treasury all of its contents, and created a debt inconsistent with legal expenditure, precedent and expectation, consisting of nearly one hundred millions to be liquidated by Uncle Sam's dilapidated, disintegrated and moneyless federalism.
It is conjectured, and believed by some who have not thought much upon the subject, and have had less opportunities whereby to form a proper opinion, that this dissolute, corrupt and jealous disposition made manifest in the administration of governmental affairs was the immediate cause of Uncle Sam's demise; but, as investigating committee of thirty-three, representing all parts of the public domain concerned, having been appointed, and detailed to examine into and ferret out the true circumstances surrounding this predicted event, and report the causes which tended to produce such an unhappy result, met in judgment and pronounced as follows: Whereas Uncle Sam had discovered that, during his physical derangement and lamentable sickness, many of his powers were misused, and immunities, never granted constitutionally, were employed by his employees to abuse and subvert the ends of his Government; and, whereas, his union of States was now in a manner disrupted, it became important and absolutely necessary to elect another presiding officer, more trustworthy and faithful in the discharge of incumbent duties, enforcement and execution of his laws. Hence numerous applications were made, and through the counseling of leading and influential contemporaries, conventionally, Stephen, John, John C., and "honest old Abe," received the nominations, and went forth upon the campaign, canvassing for an election to this high, distinguished and responsible position.
Strong recommendations were voted each, but as a greater number appeared, testifying to the sobriety, capacity, and integrity of "Honest Old Abe," his claims were favorably and duly considered. Uncle Sam, however, had never seen him but once, and then casually, while the other candidates were familiar acquaintances, and knowing them well, was cognizant of their many faults. In view of these facts, especially after learning that very impressive, popular, and inviting handle to his name, through the tantalizing importunities of supposed friends, Uncle Sam concluded to select Honest Old Abe. Therefore, a dispatch was forwarded to Springfield, his place of abode, requiring him to repair immediately to the White House at Washington. According to order, "Honest Old Abe," after having delivered himself of the ignorant and insignificant phrase, indicative of his unsound calibre, "No one is hurt," at the time and place designated, arrived to assume the new duties assigned. The moment Uncle Sam beheld him, he was startled, aggravated, and horrified at this emaciated, imbecile, and aboliltionized countenance, and was heard to exclaim: "He is not the right man, in the right place, the handle to his name is a ruse, I am deceived, mortified, and ruined forever." Thus as Uncle Sam's mental and physical ability was already nearly destroyed by the "irrepressible conflict disease," he could not withstand this sudden deception, and mortal shock, so falling prostrate, died.
Let his memory be revered as a monument to self-government, and the star-spangled banner remodeled to comport with the exigencies of the times, as a shibboleth of his glory to enshrine in the hearts of all.
It may be interesting to state that there was found among the archives of Uncle Sam's office, his last will and testament, bequeathing all of his earthly effects, both personal and real or mixed, to be equally divided between his two surviving heirs—the Northern and Southern Confederation.
The will is now being probated and the executors will administer in due time. No apprehensions, therefore, need be had in regard to continued difficulties arising between the legatees, as the property involved must be distributed according to the law of the will. So be it.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 2, 1861.
2, "So I say and until it gets too hot. I am living pretty well." Excerpts from the letter of Captain Gershom M. Barber, in Murfreesboro, to his wife Hulda Lovina
Headquarters 1st Battalion O.V.S.S
Murfreesboro Tenn. April 2, 1862
My Dear Wife.
….The weather is spring like. The fields would be green if there were any fields here. But there are none for miles in every direction not our rail can be found on top of another and not a green thing within reach of a mile. Yesterday and last night our division of the Army went out toward Carthage taking with them pontoons….They expected a brush with the enemy. This afternoon heavy firing has been heard in the direction and I suppose they are doing some work. Companies have been passing and repassing to head quarters rapidly all this PM and a battery went out to reinforce them. We have heard no results yet. I have received three papers you have sent me. I sent you a Nashville Union today. The general impression is that the enemy is marching his forces at Chattanooga 119 miles South East of us and that the great battle of the war will be fought there or here. My opinion is a forward movement will soon be made but not to Chattanooga. Most of the Rebs [sic] have been ordered to turn over their extra teams and luggage and tents and drawn shelter tents. By the way the boys call the shelter tents "day tents" They are comprised of two pieces of canvas any left about the size of a rubber blanket. Each man takes a piece on his back and when they bivouac they pull the two together and stretch them over a pole or a grine [sic] and creep under it for they can not stand up in them we have not received such orders yet but probably shall. Officers will be allowed one wall tent to (3.). Our Berea boys are very well. Sergeant Watson appears quite well although he was poorly for a while Lieutenant Stearns messes with us, that is myself and my company officers and tents with Lt. Pickard. He is some unwell today but is better tonight nothing but sick headache he thinks….We are still at work on the fortifications. There is at least two month's work laid out on the fortifications and when completed all the rebels this side of Richmond could not take it by assault. And we now have six months provisions on hand. I suppose the Rebs [sic] have intended to wait until the Cumberland runs low and then cut off the Somerville Rail Road and starve us out. But old Rosy is to many for them then are is less then a month at the present rate we will have a year supply ahead.
I think my boy George will go back soon. He is not much help to me and a good deal of trouble and expense. I have taken first rate care of him and had him sleep in my bed. By the way would you like to know the content of my room office, house or tent as you may please to call it? It is about eight feet square. Wall high enough so that I can stand erect in almost any part of it. With a good fly to shed rain and sun. In the south west corner I have an old fashioned fire place with the chimney in Free Southern Style built out side all of the brick taken of course from a confiscated reb [sic] house in the north side and to the right of the fireplace is my bed which is quite aristoctive [sic] here in camp. Large enough to make two persons very comfortable. (I wish I could choose my bedfellows) For my bed which is in good style French trundle bed style. I paid $3.25 and got a tick filled with straw army blankets make up the covering…. Coat vest and pants sometimes added back of the bed on the cross beam hangs my sword, pistol and over my head supported by the two upright posts of the tent hang the battalions colors which by military custom can only be taken out by the hands of the battalion commander. On the east side of the room are eight thousand rounds of cartridges ready for use when jeff d [sic] or any of his rebs [sic] see fit to call for them. On the south side and east of the center is the door or entrance which consists in a slit up the middle of the tent. East of that is my desk at which I am writing which by the way is made of whitewood, real poplar and handsomely trimmed with mahogany. Containing pigeon holes book sides and…must have cost originally not less than forty dollars. All of which I purchased at the grass roots price of one dollar and fifty cents. It too was the property of a Reb [sic]. Besides my desk on a stick supported by crutches drove in the ground hangs my saddle and accouterments. My arrangements for sitting consist of ten good split bottomed chairs for which I paid forty cents. This constitutes the whole of household goods a pretty good setting out given will stay for a soldier. So I say and until it gets too hot. I am living pretty well. That is if I can get enough to eat. But of that I will write again…
…I am yours GM.
Civil War Letters Between Gershom M. & Huldah Lovina Barber
2, News update from the City of Rocks
Late News from Nashville.
A letter received here by a gentleman (a refugee) from his mother, now in Nashville, has been kindly placed at our disposal. From it we are permitted to make the subjoined extracts, as being interesting to our readers, and which may be given without perpetrating "an outrage," or doing that which sensitive, envious, overwhelming vanity may magnify into being "akin to treason." The letter also contains other matter, which it would be gratifying to the public to be made acquainted with, but having a higher sense of propriety than to "hold that no harm can come of publishing everything that the press can get hold of," we withhold it. The letter is dated at Nashville, March 17th, and writer says:
"We have exciting times here, the Yankees being as numerous as flies in summer time; the river is perfectly alive with boats and ferry boats, and the Yankees pushing everything with desperate energy. The troops that have passed through here could hardly be counted, and there seems to be no end to the trains of artillery and canon. Even while I am writing four cannon are passing with ten horses to each one. Army wagons are also passing continually, and there are hundreds of sick soldiers coming in every day. All other business except that in which the Yankees are engaged is at a perfect stand still. They are busily employed in repairing the Chattanooga railroad, and have an engine running on it.
"A good many deserters are coming every day, and have taken the oath of allegiance, some of them from Hawkins' company. Our old acquaintances J____and Ben_____ have both together deserted and the latter has joined the 15th Ohio regiment.
"The enemy has been encamped about three miles from the city but have advanced to Murfreesboro. Skirmish is going on to a considerable event every night, but with what results I cannot tell. On Friday morning we heard the firing quite plain from which I think the skirmishing was very heavy. Our boys are on the alert, and will keep them busy protecting the exposed points.
"Andy Johnson arrived in town last week, and will be our future Governor. I hear that he is going to call out the militia. Dr. Harris has left us. He was arrested last Sunday a week ago, and told that he must pray of the President of the United States, and no other, on peril of his life. He said he would suffer death first, so he is gone. All the churches are closed. We have heard that the southerners are pressing men into service, but I hope you may not be compelled to go. My kind love and blessing to you.
Your affectionate mother." Atlanta Commonwealth.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 2, 1862. 
2, Arrest of Prominent Confederate Civilians in Nashville; Treason and the Oath
Arrests in Nashville.-Last Saturday the Messrs. Brennan, of this city, were arrested by Colonel Matthews, Provost Marshal, and paroled until ten o'clock yesterday morning, when they were again paroled till noon to-day.
Sunday R. B. Cheatham, Esq. Mayor of this city, was arrested and paroled at 12 M. yesterday. He appeared at that hour, and his parole was extended till 12 to-day.
Yesterday Messrs. Shard & Hamilton, of the Nashville Plough Manufactory, were also arrested and put under bonds of $3,000 for their appearance. The charge against these gentlemen is treason.
The Messrs. Brennan, iron founders, are said to have manufactured cannon, shells, and balls for the Confederate States, and upon this, we believe, the charge against them is founded.
Aiding and abetting the enemy-that is, the Confederate States-is the basis for the charge against the Mayor.
Messrs. Sharp & Hamilton, it is reported, instead of turning "swords into plough-shares," converted plough-shares into swords and knives for the Confederates, and thus made themselves amenable to the charge of treason against the United States.
We presume these cases will be handed over to the civil authorities, as we learn a session of the Federal court will soon be held in Nashville.
Nashville Banner, April 1st.
The Nashville Bulletin on Tuesday says in this connect ion that Councilman Wm. Shane has taken the oath of allegiance, as required by Gov. Johnson, and it was reported on the streets that Alderman Wm. S. Cheatham had taken the oath. The following policemen have also taken the oath: John Baugh, Captain John Davis, Wm. Jackson, Wm. Mayor, Joel Philips, N. Davis, John Cavender, Wm. Yarborough, and A. C. Tuckers, of the regular police, and John Joice, Robert Scott, and Wm. Francis, of the assistant police.
Louisville Daily Journal, April 2, 1862. 
2, "Emancipation, confiscation and extermination." The issues of Emancipation and the Independence of East Tennessee
EMANCIPATION IN TENNESSEE.
A correspondent of the N. Y. Times writes from Nashville as follows:
"The results of the elections in the various Counties of Tennessee may be declared a triumphant victory of the anti-slavery sentiment of the State. As to those gentlemen who have been placed in power in or immediate midst, they are high toned, loyal Southerners-every one of them. The meeting which nominated them was made up of the loyal citizens of Nashville, from the Mayor down to the humblest. They were mostly members of the Union Club, and met in the hall devoted to the accommodation of that organization. The truly loyal people of this city are most bitter toward rebels, and less inclined to tender pardon than our officers on duty here. Therefore you will not think it strange when I inform you that the motto which was adopted by this meeting was 'Emancipation confiscation and extermination.' This is the sentiment of Union men [towards Confederate men], most all of whom are slaveholders, with relatives and friends in the rebel army. Some days previous to the meeting a number of questions were propounded to the candidates for the office, the tenor of which may be reduced to the following simple interrogatory: 'Are you, heart and soul and body, in favor of the Federal government; do you sincerely desire the suppression of the rebellion and the punishment of its leaders, and do you ardently wish to see the immediate annihilation of the system of slavery in the State of Tennessee?' All those candidates who answer in the affirmative, as far as heard from have received the unbounded support of the loyal portion of our people, and have been elected. Those who hemmed and hawed in answering the questions, received the votes of those men who dared to perjure themselves, and just enough to announce them as candidates and at [the] same time proclaim their inglorious defeat." If, however, Gov. Johnson had not required voters to take an oath more stringent than that prescribed by the President in the Amnesty proclamation, the Peace party would have carried the day.
The people of East Tennessee are moving for a new state in that region. The Times correspondent says:
"The question of separating East Tennessee from the State proper is being urged by the residents of that section, and the subject is one which must elicit lively discussion. The leading men as a majority, and the masses of that portion of the State are enthusiastic upon the subject of division, and will endeavor to bring it about in some way. The Union men of this and the Western sections will oppose it, as it will throw them entirely out into the cold. These loyal men of Middle and West Tennessee depend on East Tennessee for assistance, and should that portion of the State declare itself independent, the most serious difficulties imaginable will have to be encountered here. Those who are in favor of this separation, are also in favor of adding to their domains small slices of Georgia and North Carolina. The Chattanooga Gazette, the only daily paper in the State east of Nashville, in favor of separation, and urges the people to immediately set themselves at work, and if possible to add Northern Georgia and Western South Carolina, the people of whom favor of attaching themselves under this new programme."
Vermont Journal (Bellows Falls, VT), April 3, 1864. 
2, Conditions in East Tennessee
FROM EAST TENNESSEE.
The situation in that Section-The 9th Army Corps enroute for the East-Deplorable Situation of the People of East Tennessee-Interesting Details of Evens Transpiring in and about Knoxville.
By a gentleman from Knoxville direct, we have news of an important nature up to the 26th [March]:
The rebels are still in strong force in East Tennessee, and at least 12,000 men under Buckner are mounted. On the 25th a large number of rebel cavalry came within sight of Morristown, driving in our pickets and a number of citizens.
The bulk of the rebel force is at Greeneville, with a brigade of cavalry at Newport. There are 2,000 infantry between Bull's Gap and Blue Springs.
This gentleman says that the rebels are committing the most unheard of depredations, robbing everybody of horses and the necessaries of life.
They are also enforcing the conscript law upon all classes physically capable of enduring life in the field. He says: "Things are in a most deplorable state. Men, women and children are ragged and dirty, and half starved. The people of East Tennessee cannot possibly live through the summer, as there is nothing to eat. Money is more plenty [sic] than it was, but there is little use for it, as there is nothing to buy. I cannot select language to describe the distress and ruin which daily presents itself."
The gentleman has a letter from his wife, who is at Greeneville. She inform him that "a few families are getting along tolerably well,' and adds: "Longstreet has his headquarters here, but is at present away. It is said that he will return in a few days. Some of his staff officers are at Milligan's, and some are boarding with me. All those families who are boarding officer and officers' wives, are getting along well, at least as far as the necessaries of life are concerned-the luxuries of the land none of us know anything about."
The gentleman also writes: "Joseph Powell, Esq., went home some weeks since. He was arrested and sent to Richmond. Also, Alexander Jones has been sent to the same place.-Old Abe Thompson is cutting up a high hand-manufacturing bad whiskey, and having all those who he knows to be Union men caught and robbed, at least, and the Lord only knows what becomes of some of them. Whether they are [three words illegible] or [three words illegible] to terminate their existence by [one word illegible] deaths, is not known. Sure it is that many disappear and do not return. We sent out a flag of truce a few days ago. Geo. Jones wife and a few others were sent through the lines."
Our informant concludes thus: "There is no telling when or army will occupy Greeneville. A great many farmers in the neighborhood of Knoxville, Morristown, Strawberry Plains, and all along the line of the railroad from Lenoirs to Cleveland, are putting in seed, and some, will no doubt make large crops. The great bridge at Loudon, which was to have been finished last week, was completely wrecked by the last rise in the river. The health of the army is excellent."
~ ~ ~
Chattanooga Daily Gazette, April 2, 1864. 
2, Expedition from Readyville to Woodbury
APRIL 2, 1863.-Expedition from Readyville to Woodbury, Tenn.
No. 1.-Col. William B. Hazen, Forty-first Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade, Second Division, Twenty-first Army Corps.
No. 2.-Lieut. Col. Isaac C. B. Suman, Ninth Indiana Infantry.
No. 3.-Lieut. Col. Aquila Wiley, Forty-first Ohio Infantry.
Report of Col. William B. Hazen, Forty-first Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade, Second Division, Twenty-first Army Corps.
HDQRS. 2d BRIGADE, 2d DIVISION, 21ST ARMY CORPS, Readyville, Tenn., April 4, 1863.
CAPT.: I have the honor to make the following report of the expedition made on the 2d instant, under my command, to Woodbury: The expedition was to have consisted of Cruft's brigade, which should would enable me to put two columns in motion at 11 p. m., for the purpose of flanking and getting in the rear of Woodbury by daylight.
The brigade of Cruft's did not report till something after midnight, enabling me to start one column, composed of the Forty-first Ohio Volunteers and Sixth Kentucky, under Lieut.-Col. Wiley, of the former regiment, at 1 a. m., which went to the right of Woodbury, and a column composed of the Ninth Indiana Volunteers and First Kentucky, under command of Lieut.-Col. Suman, of the former regiment, at 1.30 a. m., to proceed to the left of Woodbury. The One hundred and tenth Illinois, under Col. Casey, accompanied this column as far as the point on the map accompanying, marked A, where they were to turn to the right, and proceed cautiously to the Woodbury pike, in rear of the picket post of the enemy marked B, where 60 men were on picket, and remain concealed till the main column, composed of the Second Kentucky and Ninetieth Ohio, with Standart's battery and the Second Battalion of Third Ohio Cavalry, all commanded by Col. Enyart, First Kentucky which started at 3 a. m., should have driven them on to the regiment, that would capture them. The delay of two hours in this brigade to report made it nearly that length of day before the different columns arrived at the points intended. The One hundred and tenth Illinois, in consequence, did not reach the pike in time to be of service. I, however, directed the cavalry to charge this post, which they did in fine style, sabering and capturing a dozen of this picket. We pushed on through the town, and came upon the main body of the enemy at 6 (one regiment, [Baxter] Smith's cavalry, of about 600), drawn up to receive us, about 1 mile beyond.
Keeping my main column concealed, I permitted the advance to parry with him for about an hour, giving more time for the columns to get in position. I then pressed him forward, and about 4 miles from town, upon Willey's column. Upon seeing troops at this point, they at once scattered through the hills in all directions. The column all gained their positions promptly, correctly, and unknown to the enemy, marching about 16 miles to do so. Had I not been delayed two hours, the results of the day would probably have been much more satisfactory, as then my original plan, which was to capture entire their main picket and regulate the speed of all the columns so as to have gathered upon the camp at dawn, would have probably succeeded perfectly. As it is, I have to report 3 of the enemy killed (his wounded is not known), 25 prisoners, 50 horses, 4 wagons, 8 mules, with all their baggage and provisions. Col. Suman captured one picket post almost entire, as did also Col. Casey.
I have to speak in the highest terms of the battalion of the Third Ohio Cavalry, commanded by Maj. Seidel. A brigade of such cavalry, well mounted, armed with revolvers and sabers, would be invaluable. Col. Suman reports to me that the First Kentucky, in command of Maj.-, straggled in going out, so as at one time to be a mile long, and detaining him nearly an hour. We returned to our camp at 12 m. See inclosed map, with routes of the columns.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. B. HAZEN, Col., Cmdg. Brigade.
Report of Lieut. Col. Isaac C. B. Suman, Ninth Indiana Infantry,
HDQRS. NINTH INDIANA VOLUNTEERS, Readyville, Tenn., April 3, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command, consisting of the Ninth Indiana Volunteers, Maj. Lasselle, One hundred and tenth Illinois Volunteers, Col. Casey, and First Kentucky Volunteers, Maj.-, in the expedition against Woodbury on the 2d instant: The Ninth Indiana moved at 1 a. m., followed by the One hundred and tenth Illinois Volunteers. At half a mile from camp I was joined by the First Kentucky Volunteers, which I placed in the rear of the Ninth Indiana and in advance of the One hundred and tenth Illinois. I followed the Woodbury pike to the crossing of Louk's Creek; then turned to the left, and up the creek between its banks 4 or 5 miles. Finding that my guide did not know where Somers lived, that being the point where I was to leave the One hundred and tenth Illinois (where the Auburn road crossed the one we were then on), I called up a citizen about 1 mile this side of where the roads crossed, and learned from him that the enemy had a picked post of 2 men on the east side of the road. Lieut. [L. S.] Nickeson having command of the advance guard, dispatched 4 men with the guide, to go in their rear. Here found that the First Kentucky Volunteers had not come up. I waited about three-quarters of an hour, and directed Maj. Lasselle to go back and order them forward; he found them within 1 mile, coming up. I then ordered the Ninth Indiana forward, when the enemy's vedettes challenged my advance guard. Lieut. Nickeson ordered his men to fix bayonets and charge them. The moon had gone down, and it was quite dark.
The enemy's reserve finding my men coming in with their vedettes, jumped from their beds and ran, leaving 7 horses, saddles, and bridles, several guns, 3 pairs of boots with spurs on, 8 or 9 coats, and 5 pairs of pants, with their bedding.
Being then 5 miles northeast of Woodbury, I ordered my command forward. When I came up with the 4 men who had been sent in the rear of the vedettes. I found that they had only killed 1 horse, and had captured none of the rebels, who dashed by them when they found there were only a few of them. I then moved rapidly forward till I reached a hill between the Half-Acre road and the McMinnville turnpike. From that point I could see the enemy passing out in the valley beyond. Believing pursuit useless, I ordered my command to move toward Woodbury, then distant 4 miles. Having 10 of my men mounted on the captured horses, I ordered them to scour the country and drive in toward Woodbury all the stragglers of the First Kentucky Volunteers. It appeared that the officers had no command over their men. They would sit down in the presence of their officers, and, when ordered forward, would reply, "I am tired," and remain behind.
When the column arrived at Woodbury, I halted it about an hour and a half, when Gen. Hazen arrived and ordered it to camp. The Ninth Indiana Volunteers lost 1 man, who straggled from his company and has not yet returned to camp. I have no means of knowing whether the First Kentucky Volunteers brought in all their men or not. Their stragglers brought in 1 prisoner, who had lost his horse (killed in the morning). They found him somewhere in the country as they straggled through.
I. C. B. SUMAN, Lieut.-Col. Ninth Indiana Volunteers.
Report of Lieut. Col. Aquila Wiley, Forty-first Ohio Infantry.
HDQRS. FORTY-FIRST REGT. , OHIO VOLUNTEERS, April 4, 1863.
MAJ.: In compliance with orders, I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the detachment I commanded in the attack on the rebel cavalry posted 2 miles east of Woodbury, on the 2d instant: The detachment consisted of the Forty-first Ohio Volunteers (12 commanding officers and 305 enlisted men) and Sixth Kentucky Volunteers (14 commanding officers and 215 enlisted men), Lieut.-Col. Shackelford commanding. It marched from camp at Readyville at 12.30 a. m. on the morning of the 2d instant, the Sixth Kentucky on the right, with the advance guard, rear guard, and flankers necessary to prevent surprise, and proceeded, according to instructions, about 3 miles east on the Woodbury pike; then took a road leading to the right, and passing about 2 ½ miles south of Woodbury, and again striking the Woodbury and McMinnville pike 5 miles east of Woodbury. It was 6.30 o'clock in the morning when we reached the McMinnville pike, having marched 16 miles in six hours, about half the distance the road being the bed of a stream in which the water was about a foot deep. The moment our advance guard struck the McMinnville pike they met the advance guard of the rebel's retreating forces, who ran as soon as they discovered us. One entire company of the Sixth Kentucky was immediately deployed on each side of the road, two companies were held in column by platoon about 100 yards in rear, in the road, in reserve, and the rest of the regiment in line still farther to the rear, with skirmishers on the flanks, and the Forty-first Ohio Volunteers about 200 yards farther to the rear, in double column, with skirmishers on the flanks and a rear guard. In this manner we advanced about 100 yards, when we came on their train of 3 wagons, which they had abandoned, only succeeding in carrying off 1 mule.
The escort, consisting of about 30 cavalry, had fled across the fields. As we advanced we could see the rebels, in squads numbering from 5 to 10, retreating on the ridges and in the ravines, from one-fourth to one-half mile from the road. After proceeding in this manner about 2 miles, as the skirmishers were ascending a hill, two squads of rebel cavalry, one about 10 and another about 20 in number, appeared in quick succession on the brow of the hill, and were fired on by the skirmishers, killing 1 man and wounding 2 others, and killing and wounding 4 horses. The men who were uninjured fled down a ravine on the south side of the road, and were soon out of our reach. Our cavalry, who had attacked in front, now coming up, ended the affair. Two of the captured wagons we brought with us, having first transferred to them part of the load of the third, which we had to abandon. Two men of the Forty-first Ohio Volunteers and 2 men of the Sixth Kentucky fell out of the ranks from exhaustion during the night, and have not returned. Officers and men deserve great credit for the cheerfulness and good order with which they marched six hours at the top of their speed, without rest, over a rough and difficult road. The duties of the advance, rear guards, and flankers were especially fatiguing.
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
AQUILA WILLEY, Lieut.-Col. Forty-first Ohio Volunteers.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 203-206.
2, Skirmish on the Carter Creek Pike
APRIL 2, 1863.-Skirmish on the Carter Creek Pike, Tenn.
Report of Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army.
FRANKLIN, April 2, 1863.
GEN.: Our cavalry made a small haul to-day; two lieutenants, 8 prisoners, and killed 1 captain and private.
G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 206.
2, Guerrilla attack on U. S. ships at Palmyra
NASHVILLE, April 3, 1863.
Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:
Col. Boone telegraphs from Clarksville as follows:
The fleet gunboat St. Clair, and transports Eclipse, Luminary, and Lizzie Martin were fired into at Palmyra. Gunboat and Luminary perhaps taken. The Eclipse arrived here disabled; reports the advance of rebels on this place. We will hold until re-enforced.
WM. P. BOONE.
NASHVILLE, April 3, 1863.
Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:
I have just received the following dispatch from Clarksville:
Scouts report the gunboat and Luminary escaped capture. The rebels are at Palmyra in force; have there a rifled 6 and smooth 12 pounder, and other caliber not ascertained. We must have the siege guns ordered for this post. Send them at once.
WM. P. BOONE.
I have ordered the siege guns down.
ROBT. B. MITCHELL, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
APRIL 3, 1863.
Maj.-Gen. GRANGER, Franklin:
The fleet was attacked at Palmyra last night by the rebels, who had six pieces of artillery.
* * * *
There seems to be a considerable force at Palmyra.
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 205.
Report of J.S. Hurd, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, commanding gunboat St. Clair, relating to the attack on ships under his convoy at Palmyra, April 2, 1863
U. S. S. St. Clair, Off Smithland, KY., April 4, 1863
I have the honor to report in compliance with Captain Pennock's order...I...arrived at Fort Donelson at 1 o'clock p. m. 1st instant (April) found transports awaiting convoy; proceeded up the river....9 o'clock a. m. 2d instant, arrived at Gower's Island, above which I did not apprehend any danger. I headed downstream to convoy (to Nashville) other transports and towboats due from below.
My reason for doing this was there were two barges loaded with coal being towed up the river which were drawing 7½ feet water. There was water enough on the shoals, but the river was falling and it was very important to get them up before the water became too low. Arrived at Fort Donelson at 4 o'clock p. m., found transports and towboats awaiting convoy. I headed upstream; proceeded up the river. At 10:30 o'clock p. m. arrived at Palmyra, and when off the bluff immediately above the town the enemy opened fire from the top of the bluff upon two transports (lashed together) in the advance. They were then above the enemy's battery, and so far as I know proceeded up the river uninjured. This vessel was next in line, next the Luminary (transport), next the towboats C. Miller and J.W. Kellogg with two barges, then the Fairplay. As soon as the enemy saw their shots aimed at the advance transports were ineffectual, they turned their attention to this vessel with artillery and small arms. The Luminary (next astern), and then off the town, was fired into considerably with small arms. My guns had been run out and prepared for action. I at once returned fire, and the contest was spirited for a short time, when my supply pipe was struck by a 12-pounder shell, which at once let the water out of my back with the current. I hailed the Luminary (Captain Williamson), who came alongside, took my vessel in tow, and towed me down to Fort Donelson.
I am unable to estimate the forces of the enemy, but think them in strong force (a deserter says 12,000). They had from 10 to 12 pieces of artillery, 6 to 12 pounders. This vessel was struck six times with artillery, doing some damage, but not serious, other than cutting my supply pipe. I also received many shots from small arms and some of canister.
When the firing commenced I was not more than 400 feet from the enemy's guns, and they were on the bluff at so great an elevation I could not use my guns to an advantage until I dropped down the river, and the water was then all out of my boilers. The only casualties to my officers or men were Acting Master Foutty, who was struck on the right knee by a 6-pounder rifle elongated shot, and one boy slightly scalded. Acting Master George W. Foutty will lose his right leg, and I fear it will prove fatal. He was sick; had not been out of his bed but once during the day. When the firing commenced he at once got out of bed, went below, and was doing his duty well at the time he received the wound. My officer and men manifested great courage and coolness quite commendable. [sic]
At the request of Mr. Foutty, I called the post surgeon at Fort Donelson on board, an after consultation it was thought best to place him in the hospital at the fort.
I found it unsafe to attempt to run down to Smithland with my supply pipe so imperfectly repaired. Applied to Colonel Lowe, commanding at Fort Donelson, for a towboat to assist me. He readily ordered the J.W. Kellogg to my assistance. At 2:30 p. m. I got underway, stood down the river, and arrived at Smithland at 9:30 o'clock p. m.
The Fairplay, Acting Master Groves, commanding, was not near enough to take part in the engagement, having in charge the towboats and barges, but it affords me pleasure to represent the promptness and efficiency of Mr. Groves while convoying during the entire trip....
* * * *
J.S. Hurd, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pp. 65-68.
Excerpt from a Federal soldier's diary relative to the attack at Palmyra
April 3, 1863-We also had a small fracas on the Cumberland River yesterday. One gunboat was considerably disabled and one transport was shot through several times but did not damage her a great deal. They have all fell back on [Fort] Donelson again and they are waiting for more gunboats to guard them through to Nashville. Our cavalry has started out this morning to learn the strength of the enemy at that place. At 3 o'clock p. m. we were ordered in line for battle and threw our tents down. We were then ordered to march up to the fort. We then stacked our guns. The cannons commenced practice to shoot and elevated their pieces on the hills and they all shot excellent. We are not in the old camp again and we have everything fixed up.
Diary of Charles Schreel, Company E, 71st Ohio Infantry
2, Occupation of Lebanon and Liberty by Federal forces
No circumstantial reports filed.
SMITHVILLE, Saturday Morning, April 3, 1863.
Maj. D. C. REED, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., McMinnville, Tenn.:
SIR: I am ordered by the general to report that the enemy occupied Lebanon yesterday, their force consisting of seven regiments of infantry, three of cavalry, and two batteries. The force which drove our command from Liberty yesterday has retired to that place, and is variously estimated at from 5,000 to 10,000-infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The enemy now occupy Liberty.
Very respectfully, major, your obedient servant,
E. D. WARDER, Capt.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 738.
2, Skirmish at Liberty [see April 2, 1863, Occupation of Lebanon and Liberty by Federal forces above]
2, Reports of Confederate foraging in Mount Pleasant, Lawrenceburg, Lowryville and Waynesborough environs, and heavy skirmishing in front of Shelbyville
No circumstantial reports filed.
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF COLUMBUS, April 2, 1863.
I am directed by Gen. Hurlbut to forward by telegraph the following communication:
Scouts in from Mount Pleasant and Lawrenceburg, Tenn., report about 1,500 cavalry at Lawrenceburg, and large force at Mount Pleasant, which has fallen back to Lowryville; one brigade at Waynesborough. Most of these forces belong to Van Dorn's command, and are scattered out to obtain forage and subsistence. Everything not needed for supply of his troops, Johnston has sent to the rear. It is the common rumor that Johnston will fall back. They report heavy skirmishing in front of Shelbyville, in which rebels lost 500, in killed wounded, and missing. The scouts also say it is talked among Van Dorn's men that they are to return to Mississippi. He was with them two weeks.
G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. District.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 203.
2, Inspection of Roddey's and Patterson's cavalry CSA
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 69. HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE,
Tullahoma, April 2, 1863.
The general commanding is gratified at the inspection report of Col.'s Roddey and Patterson's regiments of cavalry, made by Lieut. Col. Grenfell, inspector of cavalry. The officers and men of these regiments were found to be zealous in the performance of their respective duties; the discipline was excellent, and the conduct of the men toward the citizens in the neighborhood of their camp was most praiseworthy. The arms were in good condition, and the clothing of the men neat and uniform. In the entire two regiments, after a close and careful inspection, only four horses were condemned as unserviceable. The discipline on parade was excellent. The men formed quietly at the command of their officers in a quick and soldierlike manner. The outposts of both regiments were visited by Col. Grenfell, who found the pickets well placed and the vedettes watchful. The report of the inspection speaks volumes for the efficiency, energy, and fitness of the officers of these regiments, and is worthy the emulation of the different cavalry commands of this army.
The general commanding tenders his thanks to Col.'s Roddey and Patterson, and the gallant officers and men of their commands, for the interest manifested by them in perfecting their discipline and increasing their efficiency.
By command of Gen. Bragg:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 737.
2, Political re-education in Lexington, Henderson County
"UNION MEETING IN TENNESSEE."
Jackson, Tennessee, April 5, 1863
A large and enthusiastic Union meeting was had at Lexington, Henderson County, last Thursday [2nd]. The meeting was called by the citizens of the county, and Major Wilcox, Third Michigan Cavalry, was invited to address them. He spoke for two hours and a half, and was throughout listened to with great attention and enthusiasm. Henderson county is moving in the right direction. More meetings of the kind would do good, they would lead the people North and South to a better understanding. Major Wilcox has set the hall in motion. Who will push it along?
Memphis Bulletin, April 11, 1863.
2, Children, songs and a war souvenir
A bright sunshiny morning – not cold except for the wind which is blowing considerably – too high to be pleasant. This is "my Dushie's" birthday – she is eight years old. Dear little thing – she started off the school this morning with such a merry heart. Oh! these sweet children! how they twine and nestle around our hearts! They are a great source of pride to me and a great comfort – in spite of all the deep anxiety I feel on their account in these troublous [sic] times. They all seem so pleased with their school – so anxious to be off every morning, and so much in earnest over their tiny tests and little lessons. Ting is such an oddity. Last night Jessie was repeating in a rather careless way one of her lessons commencing "Praise God,-I called her attention to the fact that such was not the proper way to respect such words. Ting[,] looking up gravely from the floor where she was seated with the cat in her lap said "She better not say that, hattern [sic] she Ma? That's God's thing." She was evidently convinced of that all morning – when the children came home we went to the river fishing – caught no fish as the wind was high and cold….In the evening we had the children all in my room conning [sic] over lessons, when Maj. Buford and Col. Hawkins were announced. We spent a pleasant evening – had music – and among things Col. H. sung for us two of his own songs, (it seems he is a poet,) one to the air of the "Star Spangled Banner" and one a new version of Bonnie Blue Flag which is beautiful – sentiment and refrain is "Hurrah for the bonnie flag that ends this cruel war." Maj. B. gave me some trophies from the Murfreesboro battle – German letters and poetry – and Mollie [got] a Yankee copper cent which was from the gun-boat taken by Wheeler's cavalry. I had cake and cordial which were cussed [sic] and warmly complimented. This morning I took Memo, of an official report of Gen. Morgan's of the battle of Hartsville – 3 reports – one of the late battle of Milton – together with a bundle of Northern paper were sent me day before yesterday by Mrs. Morgan – I returned them this morning.
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.
2, Letter describing changes in West Tennessee resulting from the war
The lower part of the Mississippi valley, lately covered with fruitful plantations, is said to be completely ravaged. Wherever trod by the hostile armies, and almost without an inhabitant. A Memphis (Tenn.) letter to the Newark Advertiser, dated 16th ult., has the following:-
This is one of the most important towns in Tennessee; in former times the entire country back in Middle Tennessee made this the shipping point. On the outskirts of the town are many costly residences, the grounds beautifully laid out with gravel walks, shrubbery, &c. &c. But military encampments have destroyed the beauty of many, and very many now have no fences, houses are windowless and odorless, and many have the porches torn from them. Our camp is near the house of the secesh Governor Harris, the rabid rebel. The cavalry tore the railing from the stair cases, and my wagoners [sic] occupy the front room, cook in the dining room, sleep in the pantry, and the horse of the quartermaster sleeps in what was the kitchen, though some distance from the dwelling. Truly in this country war has its ravages.
At Lagrange, was one of the finest mansions I ever saw., as to the location and doorways, I was struck with its peculiar beauty when I first saw it. The owner wealthy, had taken great pride with the yard. Osage orange had been cultivated; one garden was appropriated to flowers; one to vegetables; one to grape-vines, arbors were abundant; a fish-pond and bath-house in the rear, everything indicating ease and opulence. It was first taken as the head quarters of General Hurlbut, who ordered "the owner to leave, as he had no desire to associate with rebels, and the owner had no claim from the government he was trying to overthrow," and took possession before the owner removed his goods, treading with his soldiers on fine carpets, and sleeping upon rosewood bedsteads. Next came Gen. Grant, and then some others, until the last time I saw it the fences had disappeared, and two large gate posts out by the road told where the outside fence had been. Army wagons had made roads close by the house, the garden had been laid waste, the out-buildings torn down; negro quarters had been taken for horse shed, and the beautiful green grass lawn in front, where horses had been tide and fed, was stamped full of holes; litters of hay and straw, cast-off uniforms, old boots, straps of harness, and a few abandoned tents were scattered about, presenting a strong contrast in its appearance between the first and last time of my viewing it.
Pittsfield [Massachusetts] Sun, April 2, 1863.
2-6, Reconnaissance, Murfreesborough to Auburn, Lebanon, Carthage, Cherry; Valley, Statesville, Snow Hill & Liberty
Report of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, C. S. Army, of affair at Liberty, April 3, 1863.
McMinnville, Tenn., April 3, 1863.
COL.: The enemy attacked Col. [R. M.] Gano, commanding [J. H.] Morgan's division, at Liberty this morning, and compelled him to fall back to Snow Hill, a distance of 5 miles. Col. Gano reports the enemy to be 8,000 strong. Our loss light.
JOS. WHEELER, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 214.
APRIL 2-6, 1863.-Reconnaissance from near Murfreesborough to Auburn, Liberty, Snow Hill, Cherry Valley, Statesville, Cainsville, and Lebanon, and skirmishes (April 3) at Snow Hill, or Smith's Ford, and Liberty, Tenn.
Report of Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Cumberland.
MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., April 6, 1863--4.45 p. m.
Gen. Stanley has returned from his scout, bringing in some 40 or 50 prisoners and 300 serviceable horses and mules. He drove Morgan's cavalry from the Peninsula, whipped them from their stronghold, Snow Hill, north of Smithville, and, but for their precipitate retreat and the difficult nature of the country, would have had a force in their rear and captured their artillery and animals. The enemy left quite a number of dead, and fled toward McMinnville, losing many horses, saddles, and guns.
Report will be forwarded by mail. I trust our cavalry will soon begin to show its virtue in a way the rebels will not relish.
W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 207.
Report of Col. James W. Paramore, Third Ohio Cavalry, commanding Second Cavalry Brigade.
HDQRS. SECOND CAVALRY BRIGADE, Camp Stanley, April 7, 1863.
* * * *
We marched on the Liberty pike, in rear of the First Brigade, till we came to Prosperity Church, 3½ miles beyond Auburn. There a body of Confederate cavalry was encountered by the First Brigade, and, after a short skirmish, the rebel cavalry moved over to the left of the position occupied by the First Brigade, and crossed the river toward their flank. I was then ordered by Col. Minty to take my brigade across the river and dislodge them from that position, which I did after a short skirmish, in which we killed 1 and wounded 2 or 3 others. We drove them about 1 ½ miles, when darkness closed the pursuit, and we foraged for the night; furnished three companies for picket.
On the morning of the 3d instant, in accordance with instructions received, I moved on a by-road about 1 ½ miles to the left of the Murfreesborough and Liberty pike, and parallel with it (with a line of skirmishers covering the front of my column and connecting with those of the First Brigade), until I reached the Lebanon and McMinnville pike. I then moved down that pike, toward Liberty, coming in the rear of the First Brigade. When we arrived at Liberty, I received orders to cross the river to the right and dislodge the enemy's sharpshooters, that were occupying a high hill to the east of the town, and opposing the advance of the First Brigade. I did so, by dismounting a squadron of my command and sending them up the hills as skirmishers, who soon gained its summit and dispersed the rebels. It was accomplished with difficulty, however, as it was a rough, rugged hill, and almost impassable even for footmen. I moved the column over through a kind of a gap through the mountain till I struck a cove leading down to the pike. I followed that down to the pike, where I met the First Brigade moving up, and there I received orders to again move to the right across another mountain and occupy a ravine to the right of Snow Hill, where we expected the rebels would make a stand. I accomplished that also in safety by clumping the mountain in single file (there being no road), and leading our horses. After we had gained that position and closed up in line of battle, the First Brigade moved up along the pike and formed in the ravine to our left. During this time skirmishing was going on between the rebels and our infantry and artillery moving up the pike, but with what success I could not learn, as they were then concealed from my view. About this time I learned from Lieut. [W. L.] Hathaway, of the First Middle Tennessee, that there was a path accessible for horsemen, by which we could gain the summit of the hill and get around to the rear of the rebels and cut off their retreat. Thinking that another dose of flank movements might do them good, I determined to make the trial, and started, which, I am happy to state, proved an entire success. "Bonaparte crossing the Alps" was an insignificant affair to our passage over that mountain. But we gained the submit in safety, and shortly met the advance of the enemy coming to drive us back, as it appears they had observed us ascending the mountain. We drove them steadily before us till we came within about 1 mile of the pike, where they had concentrated their whole force, consisting of seven regiments, numbering between 2,500 and 3,000 men, commanded by Col. Duke, who had just arrived from McMinnville, Col.'s Gano and Breckinridge were also present.
Here was a place that required nerve, as well as plenty of ammunition. To have retreated down that mountain would have been exceedingly disastrous, and almost an impossibility. After canvassing the ground, and observing that it was a narrow passage or backbone, with a deep ravine on each side, thus preventing them from getting around to our rear, I determined to attack them vigorously, making as much show of force as I could; also feeling confident that we could whip any force that could get in our front. Accordingly, after consultation with Col. Long and other officers, we opened the attack by dismounting the Fourth Ohio, and sending them on under shelter of logs, trees, &c., to within easy carbine range, when they opened the most terrible fire upon the enemy for so small a number of men that I ever heard. I then placed the led horses in rear, and brought up the Third Ohio, and kept them mounted in rear of the dismounted men, ready for pursuit in case they should retreat.
Inch by inch the foe gave ground, stubbornly striving to resist our progress, but our men fought with determined spirit, and I never once faltered. So rapid was their firing that in twenty minutes I found many of the Fourth were out of ammunition, having fired some sixty shots [each] in that time. But the rebels had now begun to retreat more rapidly, and many of them dropping their guns and cartridge-boxes, I gave orders to fill the exhausted boxes from these. A concentration of force soon became apparent on the enemy's right, and I extended my left and strengthened it from the center and right. The firing again became fierce on both sides, but the advantage was with us, and after slowly pressing them some 600 yards farther through dense timber and thick chaparral, an exultant shout of victory was carried along our lines, and the enemy wheeled and fled precipitately. I immediately ordered the Third to charge, and they rapidly followed the retreating column, pressing close upon its rear and pouring in rapid volleys from their carbines. The Fourth Ohio were well-nigh exhausted from the severe work they had had, dismounted, but mounted their horses as soon as they were brought up, and followed. The enemy's cavalry had meantime reached the Liberty and McMinnville pike, which runs over Snow Hill, and struck to the right toward Smithville. A few hundred yards from where we gained the pike, the latter inclines to the left, and here the rear guard of the pursued party attempted to hold the Third in check, firing one volley, and wounding 2 men, a sergeant and private of the Third Ohio, but they were quickly driven from their position and were then pursued for about 1 mile. Our horses were much worn or the chase would have been continued farther. As it was, we overtook and captured some 12 of the enemy, belonging to the Second and Third Kentucky Regt. [sic]'s. During the fight and the chase we lost none killed and had but 3 wounded, the two above referred to and 1 man of the Fourth, while the rebels lost, in killed and wounded, at least 20, an my opinion is that the number was greater, though it was almost impossible to obtain accurate information. Several of their wounded were picked up in the road and in the thicket, and carried to neighboring houses by the Tenth Ohio, which had now come up and reported to me through the commanding officer. The consternation of the enemy must have been as great as his flight was rapid, for the route was strewn with arms, and accouterments, and clothing, and I am the more convinced that a large number was wounded from the quantity of saddles who found scattered in every direction.
After halting on the hill for an hour, to rest my horses, and also in expedition of further orders from the general commanding, I returned toward Liberty to join the main command, and went into camp this side the intersection of the Auburn road. Picketed my front and left flank with two companies.
On the 4th, I moved forward with the column, passing through Alexandria, where I found and seized a Government wagon, which had been captured from the Union forces some time since. From Alexandria, having the right of the column, I moved out the Carthage road, according to orders received, a distance of about 3 or 4 miles, when a portion of Col. Wilder's command was met, coming from Carthage, and orders then reached me to countermarch and return to Alexandria. From the latter place I moved in rear of the First Cavalry Brigade, on the Lebanon pike, and camped, about 5 p. m., 1½ miles from the village of Cherry Valley, where was found an abundance of forage, belonging to a rebel family. Threw out two companies to my front at the village, and one company on the bluff to my left, as picket.
On the morning of the 5th, I moved my command shortly after daylight, and prepared to scout the country between this pike and the Lebanon and Murfreesborough pike, with the consent and approval of the general commanding, who added to my command for this purpose the Fourth Michigan and Seventh Pennsylvania Regt. [sic]'s. The Seventh Pennsylvania was then sent across the country to the left, to move through Statesville and Painesville [Cainsville?]. [sic] They were ordered to throw out a line of skirmishers to their front, to arrest all guerrillas and suspicious parties, and to take serviceable horses and mules wherever found. The Fourth Michigan was ordered to move to the right of the Seventh Pennsylvania, with similar instructions, their line of skirmishers to connect on the left with those on the right of the Seventh Pennsylvania. After moving down the pike about 1 mile farther, I sent out the Third Ohio, their right to move on a line with the left of the Fourth Ohio, whose column was to move in parallel line about 2 miles nearer Lebanon. By this disposition of forces my line of skirmishers took in some 12 miles of country, and each column was in supporting distance of the others, in case of trouble. I myself, with staff, accompanied the Third Ohio Regt. [sic], Lieut.-Col. Murray commanding. All were instructed to regulate their movements so as to be able to report in the evening at Baird's Mills, 9 miles from Lebanon. Not having the official reports of commanding officers of the two regiments of the First Brigade, I am unable to give the result of their expedition. The Third and Fourth Ohio Regt. [sic]'s, of my brigade, succeeded in capturing and seizing 110 horses, most of them known to have belonged to guerrillas or other parties in the Confederate service, 33 mules, and 22 prisoners. Some of the latter were afterward released, nothing appearing against them, and the remainder were, by the brigade provost-marshall [sic], turned over to the infantry. Encamped near Baird's Mills.
On the 6th instant, we moved with the entire command toward Murfreesborough, crossing Stone's River by easy ford. Arrived at camp at 2 o'clock p. m.
Respectfully submitting the above, I am, captain, your obedient servant,
J. W. PARAMORE, Col., Cmdg. Second Cavalry Brigade,
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 209-212.
2-6, Scout in Beaver Creek Swamp, West Tennessee
APRIL 2-6, 1863.-Scout in Beaver Creek Swamp, Tenn.
Report of Lieut. Col. Thomas P. Herrick, Seventh Kansas Cavalry. GERMANTOWN, TENN., April 6, 1863.
LIEUT.: I have the honor to report that, in accordance with the order of Gen. Hurlbut, I left camp at daylight on the morning of the 2d instant, with the effective force of the Seventh Kansas Cavalry, to move against Richardson's force, then supposed to be in the swamps of Beaver Creek. On arriving at Hickory Wythe, I learned that the Second Iowa Cavalry had passed through that place an hour before, on their way down from a scout through the country I was ordered to visit. After crossing Loosahatchee [sic], I learned that immediately after the surprise and slaughter of our men near Belmont, on Sunday night, March 29, Richardson had disbanded his men, fearing so large a Federal force would be sent into the country that his command would be destroyed if he attempted to keep it together. I therefore saw that it would be impossible for me to accomplish what was evidently expected from the expedition, for where men are scattered through the swamps it is only by chance that they can be caught. However, I spent two days in the swamps on Beaver, thoroughly scouring the whole country, from the head of East Beaver, 5 miles above Mason's Station, around to Portersville, on the west. Probably one-third of Richardson's active force was scattered through this stretch of country, but our movements were so vigilantly watched and so faithfully reported by the "peaceable citizens", that the entire population anticipated our approach.
Knowing that I would meet no hostile force, I deployed the men by squadrons, and made a hunt instead of a march, sending them in lines of skirmishers through swamps and fields over the whole country. I had some hope that by this means I might find Richardson himself, who has been wounded, and is said to be concealed somewhere in that country.
I then moved down Beaver to its junction with the Loosahatchee [sic], which I recrossed early yesterday morning. On Cypress I captured a few prisoners, and found that many more of Richardson's men were in that neighborhood than north of the Loosahatchee [sic]. I was anxious to spend a couple of days on Cypress, believing I could capture a considerable number of prisoners, but our subsistence was exhausted, and I had no permission to subsist on the country. I therefore returned to camp, where I arrived last night.
I met with no loss except that about 20 of our poorest horses died or had to be abandoned on the march. I captured enough animals belonging to Richardson's men to make up the deficiency.
I made every effort to communicate with Col. Lawler, but could neither find nor hear of him. About 2 miles southeast of Portersville, in Beaver Swamp, I found 500 bushels of corn in gunny-sacks, which had been captured by Richardson near Randolph. He had pressed teams in the vicinity of Portersville about a month since, and hauled the corn to this hiding-place for further use. I burned it.
On Thursday night, after we had crossed Loosahatchee [sic], going northeard the bridge below Quinn's Mills was burned, either by citizens or guerrillas. On my return, I found a report circulating among the people that the bridge had been burned by my men. The story will doubtless find its way to headquarters, but it is so palpably absurd that I trust it will not need contradiction. Gen. Hurlbut's orders were strictly observed in every respect.
The conduct of officers and men was praiseworthy, and I am confident that there was no single instance of improper conduct on the part of any man in the expedition. I send herewith triplicate descriptive rolls of 9 prisoners, who will be turned over to you. A lieutenant named R. F. Graham was killed.
Your obedient servant,
T. P. HERRICK, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Seventh Kansas Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, pp. 500-501.
2-10, Federal Expeditionary forces on line from Bolivar to Covington, Tipton County, all territory west of Covington and Beaver Creek to the Mississippi River and back to Bolivar [see April 1-16, 1863, Expedition from Jackson to the Hatchie River & skirmishes above]
2, Major-General William T. Sherman's criticism of "Parson" William G. Brownlow's Knoxville Independent Whig and Rebel Ventilator and other papers
HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Nashville, April 2, 1864.
Gen. SCHOFIELD, Knoxville:
Your dispatch is received, and is very satisfactory. I will telegraph its substance to Washington.
The Cincinnati papers of the 1st contain dispatches announcing that Buell is to supersede you. There is no truth in this. The report seems to have originated at Chattanooga, and I have telegraphed to Thomas to punish the operator.
The papers also contain a message from Knoxville giving my movements, and gives a message from Parson Brownlow to the effect that the rebels will certainly invade Kentucky by Pound Gap. Tell Parson Brownlow that he must leave military matters to us, and that he must not chronicle my movements or those of any military body. If he confines his efforts to his own sphere of action he will do himself more credit and his country more good.
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 226.
2, Confederate cavalry reconnaissance and demonstration near Ducktown, Spring Place, Charleston and Cleveland
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Office Chief Com. Sub., Chattanooga, Tenn., April 12, 1864.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, Tenn., May 2, 1864.
COL.: I have the honor to report the operations of my command for the month of April as follows, viz.,:
On the 2d instant a force of rebels, said to be 1,500 strong, made a demonstration in the direction of Cleveland and Charleston, E. Tenn., approaching to within 8 miles of Cleveland, when they divided into parties; one going out in the direction of Ducktown, through the mountains, the other remaining and falling back toward Dalton on the appearance of a force of our cavalry sent out from Cleveland in command of Col. LaGrange, of the First Wisconsin. A scout, who arrived at Cleveland on the 3d, reported that the above movement on the part of the enemy was for the purpose of covering the approach of a force from Longstreet's army which was on its way to re-enforce Johnston by way of Murphy, N. C. This was afterward ascertained to be Martin's division of cavalry.
* * * *
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 18.
LOUDON, April 2, 1864.
Gen. Stanley reports that a large force rebel cavalry was seen 8 miles east of Cleveland this morning at sunrise moving in the direction of Charleston. The commanding officer at that post is on the alert.
G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 226.
CHATTANOOGA, April 3, 1864--9 p. m.
Maj.-Gen. SHERMAN, Nashville:
Your dispatch of yesterday received. Will watch Johnston as close as possible, but shall only feel perfectly safe when I can get my troops back from East Tennessee. My outposts report no movements of the enemy, except a reconnaissance on the Spring Place and Cleveland road yesterday, which resulted in nothing.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 239.
2, East Tennessee
by Clara von Moschzisker.
Air-"Maryland, my Maryland!"
Still faithful, 'mid the faithless found,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
From mountain side to river bound,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
Thy noblest slaughtered in their youth,
Thine old men dying for the truth,
Thy daughters brave, spite woe and ruth,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
Shall BURNSIDE'S [sic] valor prove in vain,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee?
To break for aye thy tyrant's chain,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee?
Though Richmond's prisons hold our sons,
Columbia's jails our tortured ones
With grief for thee our breast o'erruns
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
Shall we in plenteous ease repose,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee?
While thou art fainting 'neath thy woes,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee?
Thy happy homes now desolate,
Thy sons pursued with savage hate,
E'er in thine arms, thrice glorious State,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
Our hands, our hearts, our swords are thine
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
We give not water for thy wine,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
Forbid it God, that we whom Heaven
Has blessings with our sorrows given,
Should let thee from our side be riven,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
Bear on, brave heart, the dawn is near,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
When clouds and darkness disappear,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
E'en now, from mountain top and tree,
Floats forth the banner of the free,
Bright signal of thy loyalty,
East Tennessee, East Tennessee!
Philadelphia, Feb. 20, 1864
Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, April 2, 1864
2, The Soldier's Dream
By Crammond Kennedy, Chaplain 79th Highlanders (New York Volunteers)
Though the thunder of battle had pealed to the skies,
Yet the stars from the azure were peeping,
And the moon was besilw'ring [sic] the white-tented plain,
Where the hosts of the Union were sleeping.
To a war-weary soldier a vision appears --
A battalion of Angels that rally,
With the glory of sunset at rest on their wings,
To keep guard o'er his own native valley.
And he thinks of his home, and he feels it is safe,
For he knows that the Angels are wary,
And that God sent them down in their armor to watch
O'er his mother, and children, and Mary.
Ah, soldier, thy dream was the shadow of truth:
The Redeemer by whom thou'rt forgiven,
Came down I thy slumbers to show how well
The belov'd are guarded by heaven.
Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, April 2, 1864.
2, Scout on the Pigeon Roost, Holly Ford and Hernando roads near Memphis
HDQRS. CAVALRY DIVISION, SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tenn., April 2, 1864.
Col. FIELDING HURST, Commanding Sixth Tennessee Cavalry:
COLONEL: Leave 100 mounted men to patrol the Pigeon Roost, Holly Ford, and Hernando roads. Have the patrols start at different hours by day or night, so as to give information of the movements of any force which may come near the place. The First Mississippi will also be left here for the purpose of scouting south and southeast.
You will move with the balance of your effective force at 1 o'clock to Raleigh, taking with you one day's forage and all the rations and ammunition the men can carry. The teams which take out the forage can be sent back to camp to-night. One regiment of infantry will be at the crossing of the Wolf, near Raleigh.
Instruct the officer left in command of the 100 men to be vigilant and active.
By order of Brig. Gen. B. H. Grierson:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 236.
2, A version of the Oath of Allegiance for Confederate deserters
I do solemnly swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Union of States thereunder [sic] and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the existing rebellion, with reference to slaves, so long and so far as not yet released, modified, or held void by Congress or by decision of the Supreme Court, and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all proclamations of the President made during the existing rebellion, having reference to slaves so long and so far as not modified or declared void by the decision of the Supreme Court. So help me God.
Memphis Bulletin, April 2, 1864.
2, "The Railroad Bridge;" a Civil War traffic jam in Nashville
We have heard frequent complaints from all sorts of people concerning the delays to which they are subjected by keeping the bridge open unnecessarily. Yesterday we determined to watch the bridge for a short time. At ten minutes before one o'clock P. M., a solitary steamer might have been seen coming down the river [G.P.R. James].The weary bridge keeper did undoubtedly see her, for immediately the draw began to move, and the flags to wave, and the passengers to halt and look frightfully hungry, wearing a diabolical smile, and the wagons and other we-hickles [sic] began to collect on either side. The streamer aforesaid steamed herself down to the workhouse dock, came to the left about face, hailed some one on a coal barge, and hove to for 30 ½ seconds, when the Captain and Pilot applied their thumbs to the tips of their noses, "smile" to the health of the bridge keeper, rang the bell, and steamed back again. Up and up she goes, one hundred anxious eyes following after her, until she reaches the water-works, and there she rests from her labors. The crowd of people increase, and the line of wagons grows longer and longer, and the locomotive becomes tired, and whistles, and blows, and puffs and sweats, but still the unfeeling Captain refuses to allow his boat to go through the bridge. Anxious inquiries are made as to when [sic] the boat is going to come down, but none are there to answer. On this side of the river, Front and Locust streets are crowded with all sorts of vehicles, on the other side are a train of cars waiting to cross, a train of government wagons stretching from the bridge back as far as the eye can reach, and numerous mules, horses, and things. At length, at eight minutes before two, the bridge man smells a huge mice [sic], and the draws begins to move, slowly but steadily until she is in the proper place, when the multitude rush over, and the locomotive follows. When the wagons got over we cannot say, probably in an hour or so.
Now for a few questions" Would it not be well for the bridge keeper, for opening the bridge, to ascertain whether or not a boat wishes to pass through?
Might not the bridge be closed as soon as a boat passes, without waiting half a day to ascertain if some other boat desires to pass?
If a hack is worth a dollar and a quarter an hour, how much is a half mile train of Uncle Sam's wagons worth during the same period of time?
If fifty or one hundred wagons, with their attendants, are kept waiting one hour every day, how many dollars does Uncle Sam lose every month by these unnecessary delays?
We paws [sic] for a reply.
Nashville Dispatch, April 2, 1864.
2, Beulah banished to Memphis; Bell Edmondson's dog
April, Saturday 2, 1864
Ever memorable and (to me ) sad day. I was awakened this morning by the pitious [sic] howl of poor Fosco-as I feared when Beulah left the room, they all killed seven sheep last night. Uncle Elum knocked Fosco in the head, Beulah ran to my room, thereby saving her life-Father sent for her, and then came for her-but oh! he knew not what he asked-to give my dog-my best friend-my Beulah, who had so often defended me in danger, my only protector in the dead hour of night-to drive her from my side, to be murdered. I would as soon thought of kneeling myself on the block, as to see my best friend. Father positively forbid my takeing [sic] her off-I hope God will forgive me for the disobedience, but I was obliged to do it. Mary Robinson and Joe Smith took her to Memphis in the buggy to Ed and Rhoda. I know they will love her-none of them sympathise [sic] or appreciate the sorrow it gave me to part with poor Beulah. Old Wright's drunken son has been prowling all over the place tonight, shot Ben's dog, Edmondson's battery both white and black started after him, met him in the lane, he cocked his gun and flourished it-cowardly dog, sneaked off after that. Laura, Tip and I all alone, oh! my poor, poor Beulah, how can I do without you-
Diary of Belle Edmondson
2, African-American Exodus in Northern Middle Tennessee
A lady recently from her home in Middle Tennessee, north of Nashville and near the Kentucky line, informs the [Chattanooga] Rebel that the whole country has been almost entirely denuded of servants. The male negroes [sic] have been taken into the army, and the females have been permitted to go where they please. In the great majority of white families the ladies are compelled, by the scarcity of laborers, to do their own house work. The country is under the strictest military rule surveillance, and so far as outward appearances go, the people are completely subjugated. But in their hearts and feelings, they are as true as steel to the cause of Southern independence, and hope and pray for the coming of the Confederate armies to relieve them from their insolent oppressors.
Memphis Appeal [Atlanta, Georgia], April 2, 1864.
2, The Nashville Catholic Orphan Asylum's Ball
The Orphan's [sic] Ball
The lady managers of the fair now being held for the benefit of the Orphans, respectfully inform their friends and the public that they will give a
In the Hall of Representatives,
at the Capitol, on Monday Night,
April 4th, for the same benevolent object.
Refreshments served at all hours.
Tickets, admitting a Gentleman and Ladies, Two Dollars each, will be sold at the Fair.
Ladies' Fair for the Benefit of the Catholic Orphan Asylum.
The ladies of Nashville respectfully inform their friends and the public that the Fair for the benefit of the Catholic Orphan Asylum will open at the McKendree Church (kindly tendered for this purpose by the Rev. Dr. Baldwin, the Trustees, and the military authorities) on Monday evening, the 28th of March, and continue open every night during the week. The ladies solicit public patronage in this truly charitable work.
Refreshments will be served on each evening.
A full Brass Band will be in attendance, and every means used to make visitors happy.
Tickets, 25 cents each.
Nashville Daily Union, April 2, 1864.
2-4, Reconnaissance, Powder Springs' Gap to Rogersville & Bull's Gap
APRIL 2-4, 1864.-Reconnaissances from Powder Springs Gap toward Rogersville and Bull's Gap, Tenn.
Report of Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood, U. S. Army, commanding Third Division, Fourth Army Corps.
HDQRS. THIRD DIVISION, FOURTH ARMY CORPS, Powder Springs Gap, April 3, 1864--3 p. m.
GEN.: Both of my reconnaissances have returned. Col. Anderson, with six regiments of infantry and a detachment of cavalry, was sent up this valley with instructions when he reached the forks of the road above Rutledge (one road leads up the valley, the other across the Holston toward Bull's Gap, &c.) to leave a regiment there; to send three regiments of infantry and a part of the cavalry up the valley to Bean's Station, and two regiments and the remainder of the cavalry to the Holston. These instructions were carried out. The citizens informed him that the cavalry had left Rogersville early last week, and they all concurred in the opinion that Longstreet's forces had been withdrawn toward Virginia. Col. Anderson talked with a Mr. Smith, a well-known Union man above Rutledge, who told him he believed Longstreet's forces had or were leaving the State, because all the rebel citizens believed it and were much depressed about it. Col. Kneeler was sent with three regiments of infantry up Clinch Valley. He went up the valley to a point opposite and north of Bean's Station. He saw no enemy. He was informed that the companies of Home Guards which he encountered there on his former reconnaissance had joined the cavalry at Rogersville, and left with it. The citizens told him the cavalry left Rogersville last Tuesday, and the reported destination was Georgia. He could obtain no definite information in regard to Longstreet's movements. The party which I started to Cumberland Gap on Thursday last [March 31st] has just returned....The party passed through Tazewell going and returning, but saw no enemy. Col.'s Anderson and Kneeler report the roads they marched over as execrable.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
TH. J. WOOD, Brig.-Gen. of Volunteers, Cmdg.
POWDER SPRINGS GAP, April 4, 1864--9 p. m.
GEN.: Your note of this day evidently, though dated April 5, is just received. My reconnaissance returned this afternoon, having been absent three days Col. Anderson was sent up this valley with order to divide his command beyond Rutledge, sending a portion of it toward Rogersville and the remainder to the Holston, on the road leading to Bull's Gap, Greeneville, &c. All the citizens informed him the rebel cavalry had left Rogersville, and all concurred in the opinion that Longstreet's forces had fallen back, and, as they supposed, with the intention of leaving the State. A Mr. Smith, a well-known Union man above Rutledge, told Col. Anderson he believed this was the case, because all the rebel citizens believe it to be over the Watauga. He further said it was generally understood Longstreet's forces had been withdrawn to Bristol.
* * * *
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
TH. J. WOOD, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 656-657.
 Eats meals with them.
 A contraband slave.
 As cited in: http://monumentsoftware.com/GMBarber. [Hereinafter cited as: Barber Correspondence. Used with permission.]
 Dr. Harris was the Episcopal minister Ed. Com.
 As cited in PQCW.
 As cited in PQCW.
 TSL&A, 19th CN
 TSL&A, 19th CN
 Omitted by the editors in 1889.
 Omitted by the editors in 1889.
 Dyer's Battlefield Index for Tennessee does not reference this event.
 Edward F. Keuchel and James P. Jones, "Charley Schreel's Book: Diary of a Union Soldier on Garrison Duty in Tennessee," THQ, Vol. XXXVI, No. 2 (Summer, 1977), p. 204. [Hereinafter cited as: Diary of Charles Schreel.]
 January 8-14, 1863, Wheeler's Raid, including affairs at Mill Creek, Harpeth Shoals, and Ashland. It was during this operation, at Harpeth Shoals, that wounded Union soldiers were taken off a hospital boat by Wheeler's command, and the boat destroyed.
 December 7, 1862.
 Fought in northeastern Rutherford County on .March 20, 1863.
 This oath was apparently part of GENERAL ORDERS NO. 10 of December 12, 1863, made in Chattanooga by Major-General U. S. Grant. It was not reprinted in the OR, but is found in GENERAL ORDERS, NO. 11 as published in the Memphis Bulletin April 2, 1864.
 As cited in: http://docsouth.unc.edu.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 115