April 17, 1861-1865
17, Talk of secession and war in Jackson
(Wife and small boy ill.) Went to town after some medicine, a good deal of excitement there a large crowd were at the Court house. Speaking going on. War is inevitabel [sic] . Lincoln understand has notified the governor[s] of the States to have the militia ready at the moments [sic] warning…says he has reason to expect an attack on Washington City. Fort Sumpter [sic] has been taken by the Confederate troops. The South will be united in case of war. Civil War [sic] is too horrible to even think of. It might be avoided but I fear [it] will not.
Robert H. Cartmell Diary.
17, "They are prepared to render any service in the cause of Southern independence." Feminine support for secession in Memphis
The Ladies of Memphis.
In all the great revolutions which history records, woman has initiated the movement and led the van of public opinion. Her intuitions are more correct, her sympathies more active, and her innate sense of justice more keen than that of hardier man.
To a more delicate organization and sensitive faculties, it is perhaps due, that she responds more readily to the emotional virtues. The call of patriotism is never unheeded by woman. The same lively sentiment which caused her to be the last at the cross, and the earliest at the grave, impels her with equal zeal to participate most eagerly in every good work.
The enthusiasm of man never attains to such exalted height as when stimulated by the approval of women's smiles.
True to the brilliant history of their sex, the ladies of Memphis display a noble example to their relatives and friends of the other sex.
They are prepared to render any service in the cause of Southern independence. We heard to-day of one self-sacrificing maiden who donated the rich bracelet, which girdled her fair arm, to the purpose of aiding in the purpose of arms for those whose duty and pride it will be to bear them.
The handsome matrons and beautiful maidens, who constitute the ornament of our city, are animated by the same spirit which characterized the act of this fair donor. The following note, which we have just received at the hands of a bevy of the most charming young ladies of the city, expresses the patriotic sentiment which fills the hearts of all:
Memphis, April 16, 1861.
Editors of Appeal: We, the young ladies of Memphis, cannot bear arms in our country's cause, but our hearts are with you and our hands at your service, for making clothes, flags, or anything that a patriotic woman can do, for the southern men and southern independence.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1861.
17, Volunteer firemen convert to military company in Memphis
Fire and Blood.—We learn that the No. 3 company intend to add to their duties as firemen those of soldiers. They are about to equip themselves as a military company for home service. They will thus be in a condition to guard their fellow-citizens from sword as well as flame.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1861
17, Skirmish with and capture of Union Loyalists near Woodson's Gap, East Tennessee
Report of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army, with instructions in reference to enlistment of Union refugees.
KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 23, 1862.
SIR: On the 17th instant 475 Union men of East Tennessee were captured en route for Kentucky [at Woodson's Gap], and sent, by Maj.-Gen. Smith's order, on the 20th instant, to Milledgeville, Ga. Some of them expressed a wish before leaving to enlist in the Confederate States Army. They were not permitted to do so, because of the apprehension that they might [not] be faithful here to their oath of allegiance. Elsewhere they may make good soldiers. Remembering your request, the major-general commanding directs me to say that you have whatever authority he can give you to proceed to Milledgeville, Ga., and enlist as many of them as consent for service in South Carolina, or elsewhere except in East Tennessee.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 649.
Report of Capt. H. M. Ashby, Company C, Fourth Battalion Tennessee Cavalry.
KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 26, 1862.
SIR: According to your order of the 16th I left Knoxville at 4 p. m., with about 40 men from my company and the same number of Capt. Bradley's, and proceeded to Clinton, where I was joined by 40 men of Capt. Gillespie's company, under Lieut. King. I marched all night, reaching Jacksborough about sunrise next morning. [i.e. the 17th]
Five miles above Jacksborough, at Big Creek Gap, I left Capt. Bradley, with his command, to reconnoiter the country between that point and Fincastle, 5 miles above Big Creek Gap, there to await further orders. With the remainder of my command I pressed on to Woodson's Gap, 6 miles beyond Fincastle, where I detached Lieut. Gibbs, of my company, with 10 men, to guard the road coming into Woodson's Gap from the direction of Clinch River. I then pressed forward with the remnant of my command to watch some passes a few miles above.
In a short time a courier from Lieut. Gibbs informed me that he had captured the advance guard of the tories, when I immediately changed direction and returned to Woodson's Gap. The tories had by this time come in full view, with an apparent force of from 700 to 800 men. I at once ordered Lieut.'s Owens and Gibbs, of my company, to attack them in the rear with 25 men, while I charged them in front, thereby preventing their crossing to Cumberland Mountains. After an hour's fight I succeeded in capturing 423 prisoners, killing about 30 and wounding the same number.
Five members of my company were seriously wounded during the engagement; among the number Lieut. Gibbs.
Capt. Bradley's company was not engaged in the fight, having been left, as stated above, at Big Creek Gap.
Officers and men under my command behaved with great gallantry.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. M. ASHBY, Capt. Company C, Fourth Battalion Tennessee Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt, I, pp. 649-650.
Arrival of Prisoners at Knoxville
The Knoxville Register of the 20th ult. [April], thus announces the arrival there of a number of prisoners:-"Yesterday afternoon the streets of Knoxville had quite a martial appearance. About three o'clock in the afternoon, Captain Ashby's command brought in the four hundred and twenty-three prisoners captured in Campbell county, East Tennessee renegades making their way to Kentucky to join the cut-throat invaders of their homes. We have never seen a more impressive or sorrowful cavalcade upon the streets of Knoxville than was presented by these crest-fallen and deluded men, and the brave captors and guards."
We have the particulars from officers engaged in the fight. The tory stampeders consisted of six or seven hundred men-most of them young, robust and athletic fellows. About three hundred were armed with rifles and shotguns, the rest with pistols, knives and rude weapons.[added]
The attacking force consisted of about seventy cavalry, under command of Captain Henry Ashby, including Captain Hal. Gillespie's company, under command of Lieut. King. Captain Bradley's company had been detailed to Big Creek Gap, to guard that pass.
The attack was made by Lieuts. Gibbs and Owens, of Ashby's company, in the rear of the stampeders. The engagement lasted for about an hour. Three hundred of the Lincolnites took refuge in a barn near the scene of the encounter, and here it was said that the Confederate party did the most damage.
The leader of the stampeders, Captain Capps, of Grainger county, was killed. Among the prisoners captured were many prominent men of this section, who had voluntarily come forward and taken the oath of allegiance to the Southern Confederacy.
The killed and wounded among them amounted to about one hundred.
So great has been the stampede from East Tennessee that General E. Kirby Smith has attempted to quiet the people by issuing an address to them in which he says:
The Major-General commanding the Department sees with regret that large bodies of citizens, misled by designing men, are leaving the State and seeking an asylum in Kentucky.
He calls upon the people of East Tennessee to remain at their homes, to cultivate their fields, and to be true in their allegiance to the existing Government.
He assures all citizens engaged in cultivating their farms that he will protect them in their rights, and that he will suspend the militia draft under the State law, that they may raise crops for consummation in the coming year.
Philadelphia Inquirer, May 3, 1862.
17, Capture of Union refugees near Woodson's Gap [See April 17, 1862, Capture of Union refugees near Woodson's Gap [See April 17, 1862, Skirmish with and capture of Union Loyalists near Woodson's Gap, East Tennessee above]
17, Skirmish near Monterey
No circumstantial reports filed.
17, Members of the Washington Artillery [Memphis] petition for release from Federal prisoner-of-war camp
CAMP DOUGLAS, Chicago, April 17, 1862.
Col. JAMES A. MULLIGAN,
DEAR SIR: We, the undersigned members of the Washington Artillery now prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, would respectfully submit to you the facts connected with the company from the organization to the present time, hoping by an honest and true statement we may prove ourselves free in a great measure from rebellion against the United States. The members of this company for the past two years have made their homes in the State of Tennessee; a portion in the city of Memphis. Their occupations vary, all however depending on his own exertions for a livelihood--our interests where we could make the best living. During the excitement in that portion of the south we found it necessary for us to form ourselves in some way as soldiers or quit our homes, which with our families as many of us have depending on us for support and our limited means we were not able to do. We therefore formed ourselves as a home-guard recognized by the Governor of Tennessee to do duty in and about the city of Memphis for the space of one year unless sooner discharged dating June 1, 1861. Articles were drawn to this effect signed by Governor Harris and Gen. Pillow, then in command at Memphis. We performed those duties as best we could for some five or six months, when an order came contrary to those drawn in good faith for the company to be transferred to the Confederacy which the men refused to do. There is not a man at present in the company that has taken an oath to support the Confederate States nor do they intend to do so. We have always been an independent company, and with the exception of a few have never received a dollar in money from the Confederacy. The company for some time was almost entirely disbanded, feeling that they were no longer retired to our former occupations, which we were permitted to do unmolested for some three or four months when without questioning we were arrested; some placed in confinement and sent to Columbus, Ky., until the evacuation of that place, when they were again transferred from infantry to heavy artillery at Island No. 10. Those who were fortunate enough to escape going to Columbus were then arrested, taken from infantry to heavy artillery at Island No. 10. Those who were fortunate enough to escape going to Columbus were then arrested, taken from the work-bench and sent to the Island, some not being there but a few days when they were surrendered.
These are facts briefly stated. We wish to be liberated from captivity by honorable means. Our families, those who have them, are depending on them [us] for their living. We are willing with honest hearts and pure motives to take the oath of allegiance to the United States, giving all we can give, our words of honor as men, to truly and faithfully maintain our oaths. We respectfully, submit ourselves to your kind consideration.
WILLIAM C. PARKE.
[And 28 others.]
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, pp. 459-460.
17, "The Women of the Revolution"
There is nothing more striking in the proceedings connected with the revolution now in progress, than the part taken in it by the women of the South. They are bearing their full share of the burden, and performing to supererogation, duties they have undertaken on the impulse of a devoted and self-sacrificing patriotism. In sharing the privations, and assuming a share of the labors essential to the final success of the cause in which the country is now engaged, the ladies of the South have not forsaken that gentleness of demeanor, nor those retires and modest habits that make them so engaging and so lovable. What they do is performed under impulses that are kept within the sway of propriety, with the calmness of well-regulated reason, and the circumspectness that flows from good sense.
The have all the warmth of patriotism, and the desire to render personal service in their country's cause, that distinguished that miracle of her sex, Joan of Arc. [sic] But they have no wild imaginings, no mystical dreams; they hear no strange voices calling them to their country's aid, as did the inspired maid of Orleans. For the women of the South of this day to know their country requires their aid is enough-they need no other call. Neither with Joan of Arc [sic] do they step from that gentle and loving domain where their mild graces, their quiet dignity, and their modest attractions make them so powerful, and so irresistible. They assume not, with the martyred Joan, [sic] habiliments unbecoming her sex; they put on no coat of mail, they wield no sword, they march not at the head of advancing armies, nor mix in the blood and carnage of the battle. The pattern they imitate is no Joan of Arc, [sic] issuing the work of command, amid the clangor of arms; no Charlotte Corday, [sic] apostophyzing [sic] liberty at the guillotine; but Florence Nightingale, [sic] the noble woman who has demonstrated that patriotism can be allied with benevolence, and active service in the cause of the country with the retiring characteristics of the female sex.
Since the war broke out, how many thousands of our gentle countrywomen, ladies raised in affluence whose fingers were more familiar with the piano keys than the needle, have spent months in laboriously sewing at the coarsest material to make clothing for our young men in the field. We have seen them from "early morn to dewy eve," seated patiently in some school-room, church or vestry, toiling as faithfully as the unhappy heroine of "The Song of the Shirt" at their laborious task. A rude, rough, harsh task it was, but "the boys" wanted clothing, and the country wanted the boys, and that was incentive enough and payment enough.
At the moment we are writing, hundreds of the gentlest ladies of the city are leaving their elegant homes where all the appliances and luxuries wealth procures surround them, to spend the day in hospitals, where sick and wounded soldiers are detained from their active duties in the field by wasting suffering. Overcoming the disgust that the least fastidious must feel at entering rooms crowded with beds, in which lie patients moaning with pain or wasting with disease, they seat themselves beside the sufferers couch; no, not crouch, but plain, prosy, hospital pallet, and look on and aid while the physician lays bare gaping wounds, while blood flows, and the lance pierces the torn flesh. They cool the brow with icy applications, smooth the pillow, administer the necessary potions, kindly coax the sufferer to partake of food offered with smiles, and reasoned with words of sympathy, and soft, womanly winningness, that is of itself the best of all medicine to the sick and suffering soldier, who can have no fond mother, no loving sister to watch, and soothe, and comfort in the pain, the lassitude, and the weary, weary hours of sleepless restlessness. Often we have watched delicately raised ladies performing kindnesses such as these, and more than it is necessary here to specify, until we have felt fully the sentiment experienced by a grateful Irishman, when he said of one who kindly nursed him in his sickness: "When I began to get better I used to lie for hours in my bed watching her, expecting every minute the wings would start from her shoulders, and she would fly back to heaven where she belonged."
But the Southern women do more than these things-they give their sons to their country. Stifling the pleadings of their hearts, subduing their fears, conquering the anguish that is rending their souls, deliberately encountering the days of fearful expectancy, and nights of despondent sleeplessness that must be their portion during the absence of their children, they send their loved ones forth to the battle. These are the sacrifices which "the women of the revolution" are making.
An incident that occurred in this city yesterday, which is mentioned in another part of this paper, illustrates the spirit that prevails among the ladies of the South at this moment. A soldier arrives mortally wounded from the field; the lady to whom he is engaged-one standing high on account of her attractive powers, amiable disposition, and unusual talent and acquirement-in order that she may have a wife's sacred right to lavish upon him all her cares, all her wealth of love, all the treasures her heart has hoarded up with a miser's care, to pour upon him when he should be her own-united her fate with his, and his few days will be gladdened, his sufferings lightened, his last moments soothed by the accomplishment of the great wish of his life.
When we contrast woman's' devotion, her cares, her toils, her self-immolation, her untiring labors, with what man does in the struggle of war, how striking is the difference! Man's path is strewed with carnage and deluged with blood; devastation, flame and death mark his desolating course; but woman's toils and efforts are all for good. They are glorified with the halo of charity; sympathy, gentleness and kindness immortalize her deeds. She seeks to shelter the houseless [sic], clothe the shivering, cure the sick, and assuage the sufferings of the wounded. With such attributes of affection and mercy about her, a sacred beauty, a holy purity environs her, and consecrates her works of mercy.
The history of the Southern revolution that will be read by future generations, will recount great deeds performed by brave and gallant men, heroes who died on the battle-field [sic] for their country's gain; but the story will be one of destruction and death. How bright will be the page in which "the women of the revolution" are mentioned-with what reverence will their deeds be regarded -- what a solemn sanctity will enshroud their memories! Earnestly will the women of the future commend to the imitation of their daughters the lofty virtues of "the women of the revolution."
Memphis Appeal, April 17, 1862.
17, Illegal cotton trade with the North in East Tennessee and Georgia
A letter from Chattanooga to the Atlanta Confederacy says:
Much has been said and written of late concerning the clandestine cotton speculation by traitorous East Tennesseeans [sic]. That much of it is true, we have no sort of doubt. This sort of game has been going on for months, and it is well known that there is, at this time, more cotton stored away in East Tennessee than has been during any one year for the past twenty. But it is known, also, that Tennesseans are not alone in this nefarious business. A few traitorous Georgians have a finger in the pie; also, many of them have co-operated with the East Tennessee speculators by selling them cotton when they knew it was to be shipped to certain points on the East Tennessee and Virginia and East Tennessee railroads, to await the arrival of Lincoln's army when it would be immediately transmitted to Yankeedom.
Not only this, it is even asserted, upon good authority, that Georgians have formed partnerships with Tennesseeans, [sic] and have bought up and shipped cotton to the line of the East Tennessee roads for the purpose of selling it to the Yankees, should they succeed in getting into this country. Now [sic] that the plot has been discovered, and further shipment on the State road prohibited, a spasmodic effort is being made to cast the odium wholly upon Tennesseeans [sic]. Let justice be done to all; let the truth be known, and let not the Georgia tories attempt to make a scape goat of their brother tories in East Tennessee, when both are alike culpable. A tory is a tory, be it known, whether he breathes the mountain atmosphere of East Tennessee, or sniffs the balmy breeze of the gallant Empire State.
Memphis Appeal, April 17, 1862.
17, Military Governor Andrew Johnson favors release of Tennessee prisoners of war who affirm they will take the oath of allegiance
EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1862.
Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.
SIR: Inclosed herewith I send a petition from certain members of Tennessee regiments at Camp Douglas in which they express a strong desire to renew their allegiance to the Government and become true and loyal citizens.
I will only state in presenting this petition for the consideration of the War Department that whenever circumstances shall justify the discharge of prisoners of war from this State entertaining such views and feelings as are set forth by these petitioners their reappearance among their friends and relatives will I doubt not exert a great moral influence in favor of the perpetuity of the Union.
With great respect, your obedient servant,
CAMP DOUGLAS, April 10, 1862.
To His Excellency ANDREW JOHNSON.
Governor of the State of Tennessee:
Your petitioners of the Forty-second, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth and Fiftieth Regiments of Tennessee Volunteers, [recruited in] the counties of Stewart, Montgomery, Robertson, Dixon, Cheatham, Humphreys, Hickman and Perry captured at Fort Donelson and now held as prisoners of war at Camp Douglas, being desirous of being released and wishing to return to our homes and families in our native State as true and loyal citizens of the Union, in confirmation of which we are willing to take the oath of allegiance and hold it inviolate. In view of your political and personal influence with the Federal Government together with the interest you have with hitherto and we believe still feel for the people of Tennessee, has induced us to make this petition to you hoping that you will use your influence in our behalf.
We, the orderly sergeants of the different regiments, express the sentiments of our respective companies.
[Names of petitioners omitted.]
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 3, pp. 457-458.
17, Soldiers' complaints in Murfreesboro
We have received a communication signed MANY SOLDIERS, from Murfreesboro, which makes some grave complaints about the want not only of comforts but of actual necessities for the benefit of the sick soldiers at that place. The letter states that the General Hospital is crowded to excess; that the barracks for the convalescent are also overrun and there are no sleeping accommodations, no [decent?] cots nor mattrasses; that there is a [lack of?] medicine, no accommodations for [illegible] and proper cleanliness, no fuel [illegible] no nurses. If these statements be true, immediate attention should be given by the military authorities to the condition of the suffering soldiers. No reasonable want of one who has offered himself to the service of his country should be neglected. Gratitude as well as humanity demands that all such evils [herein?] complained of by our Murfreesboro' correspondents be promptly corrected.
Nashville Daily Union, April 17, 1862
17, Confederate soldier John Offield's letter to his father
Kingston Tenn. Apr 17th '62
Mr. Joseph Offield Snr.
….I was sorry to hear of James enlisting for I know he cannot stand the fatigue of a camp-life. It is hard enough for me to keep up much less a man who has the Rheumatism. I don't want you to let him go, and tell [him] that I said he cant [sic] stand it 3 months before he will be sent to the hospital….We have had several very hard trips since we left Knoxville and have stood them very well. On our last near the Cumberland river, we had a fight with some Yankee home guards as they call themselves, though we call them jay-hawkers. They killed as you are already informed, 2 of our boys….Henry Haley and Samuel Jones [and they] wounded four….C. R. Millard[?] O. S. Brisco, A P [?] Smith and David Malone. We killed 15 of them and wounded about 20. There was only four Co. in the fight, and only 17 of our boys there; while the yanks numbered about 120 men….The people here and every where we have seen since we left Va. are almost intirely [sic] Union, but I believe they are more so here than any place we have been[.] There is a great stir about reenlisting and reorganizing the Regt the first volunteers will not more than half reenlist in that Regt yet they have enough recruits to supply their places[s]. It is also rumored that a law [was] passed in the house of congress to Richmond to impress all the volunteers now in the field but I think there is nothing of it, brought the conscription Bill did pass; and the; militia are all called out….
17, The "Free Market" in Memphis
The Free Market.—We want our citizens to keep in mind that we have a free market in this city, at which, three times a week, the necessaries of life are dealt out "without money and without price" to the needy families of soldiers in the service of the Confederacy from this city. The following statement, for which we are obliged to T. A. Nelson and H. B. Chiles, Esqs., shows what the society that sustains the "free market" is doing:; We are now feeding, of soldiers' families, 4,109 which consumes each week 2,318 lbs. bacon, 265 lbs. flour, 50 bushels peas, 900 lbs. rice, 75 bushels potatoes, 2,000 lbs. sugar, 120 gallons molasses, 55 bushels corn meal; 2 sacks salt, 4 boxes soap; also vegetables when we have them; the value of which is $1,456.95. The applications for relief are increasing from week to week. The funds on hand are ample for present purposes, and we rely confidently on the liberality of our citizens in sustaining the society for the future. We are desired to say that the society would be very thankful to country friends if they would send vegetables or any other produce of the farm or the garden they can spare, to No. 10 Shelby street, between Union and Gayoso, for distribution. They can thus afford valuable assistance to a noble object.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1862.
17, Memphis military hospital report
Wanted at the Irving.—Dr. Fenner has got the Irving Hospital in excellent working trim. His assistants are industrious in the performance of their duties, and the ladies are giving invaluable aid, but serious inconvenience and difficulty is felt on account of the want of servants. There are many who cannot attend to aid in nursing the sufferers themselves, and who by submitting to a little inconvenience at home, can send a negro. Let the wanted aid be given.
The Wounded Soldiers.—There are now many wounded soldiers in the hospitals of this city. The ladies, God bless them, are attending upon them with unremitting kindness, but many little necessaries and comforts are required for them beyond what are allowed by the government. To procure these, money is wanted, and many of our citizens have contributed nobly. That the public generally, may have the opportunity of rendering their assistance, Prof. Miller has generously undertaken to get up a concert, the proceeds of which will be paid over for the benefit of the wounded soldiers. The concert will take place at the theater on Monday evening next, and we doubt not a substantial amount will be raised for our brave sufferers.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1862.
17, Thirty rented slaves sought to tend wounded and sick Confederate soldiers
The Wounded Soldiers.—We want to hire thirty negro men to serve at the various hospitals in the city. Parties having negroes will comfort and relieve the wounded soldier, by sending them to the hospitals, and will receive for their services twenty-five dollars per month.
W. O. Lofland, Sec'y and Treas. of the Committee for the Relief of Wounded Soldiers.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1862.
17, Arrest of a Confederate Conspirator Results in Tightened Security in Nashville
Nashville Arrests.- Besides E. B. Jones of the Banner, it seems that James T. Ball, of the Gazette, was also arrested on Saturday last by order of Gov. Gen. Johnson. A correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette says the fact which led to Bell's arrest, was that he approached a man whose sentiments he had misapprehended, and informed him confidentially that, at midnight Saturday [19th], the city bells would be run as a signal, and the last Union man "cleaned out." He is one of the City Council who refused to take the oath of allegiance, by the advice of W. F. Cooper, Esp. Thought the man is light material, and would hardly be entrusted with the deep secrets of a serious conspiracy, the Provost-Marshal did well in putting out an extra guard, and patrolling the streets with cavalry and infantry all night. Men were not permitted on any pretext to assemble in groups on the streets, it is not therefore impossible that there was more import to Bell's language than civilians who know him are willing to believe. Straws ma show the current of the wind. Certainly, if the secessionists of Nashville had not entered into the atrocious conspiracy he divulges, it was only for the will. Undoubtedly they would assassinate loyal people, but it is hard to believe they would ring the bells for a signal. The noise might awake their intended victims. The thieves had not even the courage to look honest men in the face on the street, but bore gimlet holes in the pavement with their hang-dog eyes.
Louisville Daily Journal, April 17, 1862. 
17, Yankees steal slaves and cause others to be disobedient, excerpt from the diary of Jesse Cox, Wilson County
Today fine [sic] commenced to plant cotton, my boy Sam, 15 years old, having been doing bad for some time refuse[d] to be corrected by me, dirked [sic] me down, I being very weak, and then took the ax and started off. I sent the other one after him, he presently returned with the ax and said the yankey cavalry had taken Sam behind one of them and said they would send him to Ohio, that there were no slaves in their country, and there should be none here, that they had nearly whiped out [illegible – Mefsis?], another nasty hog hole, and that they were coming at night to take me, for my peace, Sam returned in 3 hours to the field and went to work, two yankies presently came in [took?] to bad talked insulting, and said they had come by the field talked with the negroes, when I told them how some had done and that I did not car wheather [sic] he left or not, they said that I was old [?] and that the boys ought not to leave me, that they did not want them as they had enough to cook for them, they then went there again and talked with them, making them disobedient [illegible, page torn]….
Narrative of Jesse Cox
17, An Orderly Sergeant gives birth in Nashville; women in the Civil War
According to a memorandum Major-General Rosecrans wrote on April 17, 1863:
"The medical director reports than an orderly sergeant was today delivered of a baby, which I in violation of all military law and of the army's regulations. No such case has been known since the days of Jupiter."
Nashville Tennessean Magazine, March 24, 1957.
17, "Just before our Regt quit the Col got us in line of battle across the old field and told us he wanted us to make a charge just like we did when we charged the Yanks." Letters of William D. Rogers, 1st Florida Infantry, Army of Tennessee, to his family, describing camp life, a review and drill of Breckenridge's Division near Tullahoma
April 17th 1863
Dear Papa and Mother,
It is with great pleasure that I take my knapsack on my knee and my pen in hand to write you a few lines informing you that I am very well at present and hope they may find you all enjoying the same. I have no news at all to write everything is exactly the same as when I wrote last the only thing that has transpired since then that is worth relating is a review we had the other day. A general review of Breckenridges [sic] Div. Genls Hardee and Polk were both present and after we had passed in review they called on Genl Breckenridge for three of the best Regiments he had, they wanted to see them drill and decide which was the best. Genl. B selected our Regt, the 18th Tenn. and the 20th Lou as the best he had, and we at once commenced. Our Regt drilled first. Lieut. Col Mashbourne of the 3rd Fla drilled us. We all did our best as we wanted to get the praise but the 18th Tenn beat us and got the praise of being the best and our Regt 2nd best. Just before our Regt quit the Col got us in line of battle across the old field and told us he wanted us to make a charge just like we did when we charged the Yanks. We started in common time but didn't get far before he gave us the command "Charge Bayonets, Double Quick, March" when the front rank came to a charge and the rear rank to "right shoulder shift arms" we made the charge and yelled with as much spirit as if the Yanks had been there sure enough. The Genls waved their hats to us and said was very well done but the 18th Tenn beat us, they went through the same that we did and when they made the charge they got about half-way across the field yelling as loud as they could when all at once the Drum tapped and they all dropped like they were dead even the Col and his horse both come down. The horse lay as close the ground as he could get and the Col right behind him. They all lay for several minutes before they got up. It beat any thing I ever saw in my life and I never did hear such cheering in my life as was done when they dropped, they got the praise and well do they deserve it for they beat anything drilling that ever I say. The Col has his horse trained to lay down whenever he says to.
I received a letter from Jimmy & Sister the other day and also one from Johny [sic]. I have written to Jimmy and Johny [sic] both today.
Well, Papa and Mother, Goodbye for this time. Kiss all the children for me and write soon to your Affectionate Son
Wm D. Rogers
Camp Near Tullahoma, Tenn
April 17th 1863
I received your kind letter a few days ago and was truly glad to hear from you. I have nothing of much interest to write but will fill up with something. Everything is very quiet up here and no talk now of fighting soon. We had a grand review of Breckenridges [sic] Div the other day and after it was over there was a Test drill between the three best Regiments, the 18th Tenn, the 20th Lou and our Regt were the ones selected each being from a different Brigade. Our Regt drilled first and I was certain we would get the praise but the 18th Tenn beat us all to smash. I tell you they beat anything drilling that ever I've yet seen. I wish you could have been there to have seen it, there was a great many people there from the country. I believe every woman within twenty miles of Tullahoma was there and nearly every one of them with a basket of what the boys call Iron Clad pies so-called on account of their being tough and hard. i [sic] should have liked mighty well to have bought some from them to just have to talk to them as there were some of them mighty good looking but as I had no money I had to content myself by looking at them. Johny [sic] how do you flourish with the girls now some one told me the other day that you were about to get married but they didn't know who the Young Lady was. i [sic] suppose though it is Miss Alice. I don't want you to get in too big a hurry but wait until I can come home as I should like mighty well to be present on that important occasion so that I can stand up with you.
We are having beautiful weather now and I can't imagine what old Rosencrans [sic] is waiting for but he hasn't forgot the lesson we gave him at Murfreesboro I don't reckon.
We drill four hours a day now, two hours Company drill and two in the evening Battalion drill. Our Co are Sharpshooters [sic] and are armed with Minnie [sic] & Enfield Rifles [sic]. We drill every morning in skirmish drill. I like the drilling very well but I don't know how I will like it when it comes to fighting as the Skirmishers [sic] always have to open the fight. Johny [sic] you don't know how bad I want to see you, I would give any thing in the world if I was in the same Co with you. I wish you to see if any of your Boys would swap with me. I would try for a transfer but I know it would be no use as we are not in the same Command. If your Battalion was up here I think I could get one. If I can't get in before I intend to join your Co when my time is out, which is only ten months now if I am allowed the privilege of reenlisting but I hope and pray we will have peace before that time as i [sic] am sick and tired of the war and want to be a free man once more. What kind of ration do you get? We get 1¼ lbs of corn meal and ½ lb of bacon pr day, sometimes we get a little rice and some peas but very seldom. Well Johny [sic] I will close as i [sic] can't think of any thing more to write now. Give my respects to John Frater and tell him his Brother Lewis is well remember me also to my other friends and write soon to your
Wm D Rogers
17, "Lisa, there was one of the best jokes in Camp the other day you ever heard of." T. H. Boles', 44th Tennessee, in Wartrace to wife
April the 17, 1863
The State of Tenn, Bedford Co
Camp near War trase [sic]
I received your kind letter the 13th and was glad to hear that you all was tolerable well. These few lines leave me well with exception of my back and breast.
I have no news that is good to rite to you at this time. We heard that the Yanks has taken Jackson Mississippi and was mooving [sic] on towards Vicksburg. You rote that you was a going to fillipses (Phillips). I want you as soon as you get back to cum down hear. If you cum rite a day or two before you start so I can meet you at the depo [sic]. I want you to get a pair of half soles from Pap and bring them very bad. I want you to cum ammediately [sic]. We may moov [sic] from hear. Bring my baby with you. I want to see him worse than anything in the world.
Lisa, there was one of the best jokes in Camp the other day [emphasis added] you ever heard of. Their was a man that wanted to go home and started to run a way and was brot [sic] back. He said he thought he wood try another plan. There was a man in the 25th regiment with a wagon. He asked the old sitizen [sic] if he wood take him in his wagon. He told him he wood not. The old man told the Colonel of it. He told him to do it. The old man then agreed to do it. He then got a box and got his mess to nail him up in the box. They put the box in the wagon. The colonel sent to fulton [sic] to arrest the wagon and examin [sic] the load. They found the box, asked the sitizen [sic] what he had in the box. He said pies you sell two soldiers so out they brought the box in the creek. You ought to have heard the boys laffing [sic]. The 44th and 25th was ther [sic] when the man cum out. He was the meanist [sic] lookin [sic] man you ever saw.
Lisa, I sent you a present. I want you to wair [sic] it and think of me when you see it. It is a silver ring. I had it maid for you in token of true and unchanging love.
Susu, I have drawn off that song. I want you to keep it and think of me when I am far a way. So I ad [sic] no more at this time.
To Eliza Boles
Direct your letters to T.H. Boles. There is moor [sic] of the same name out hear [sic]
17, News from McMinnville
FROM GEN. MORGAN'S COMMAND
McMinnville, Tenn., April 17th, 1863
Editor of the Observer: The smoke having blown over, and "skedaddling" having been stopped, I again resume my series of correspondence to your excellent paper which is, and must be acknowledged to the truest [sic] friend to the soldier in Tennessee; and which should stand paramount to all others in circulation and interest to the soldier. Published as it is, pro bono publico [sic], it advocates the rights of the private soldier, with as much tenacity as it does the highest official of the army, and should be patronized by every soldier in the army of Tennessee.
You have doubtless ere this been advised of Gen. Morgan's engagement with the enemy at Snow's Hill on the 4th and 5th inst., which resulted in our falling back, but have subsequently recovered or original position, and have extended our line to Lebanon. Of the 4th our pickets were driven in, and were immediately followed by about 13,000 [sic] Federal infantry and cavalry and three batteries of artillery, which could not be successfully resisted by the 1,500 gallant spirits of General Morgan. Gen. Morgan was not in the incipiency of the fight, but they were nobly led by the gallant Col. Gano, who held them back in check for twelve hours.
The fall back created great excitement in the little city of McMinnville, business houses were closed, and families were seen on every road on the "skedaddle." We received order to remove the Medical Department instanter [sic], which we did, with little delay. We went three miles, crossed Collins River and camped, and in the morning it is mirabile dictu [sic] that we occupied McMinnville, and "nobody was hurt." [sic]
Our total loss in the fight was five killed and fourteen wounded. The enemy's loss was at least [sic] five times that number.
Gen'l. Wheeler commands a corps of cavalry, composed of two divisions, the first command by Gen. Wharton, and the second commanded by Gen. Morgan. Great efforts are being made to bring about more efficient discipline in the cavalry service, which is a desideratum that should have been done long since. I regret to inform you of the resignation of Surgeon T. W. Allen, Chief Surgeon of Gen. Morgan's division, who resigned because of anychylosis of the right shoulder. Dr. Allen was Captain Co. B, of Morgan's old squadron, in which he distinguished himself in several noted scouts. As a commander he was beloved by all who knew him. As a Surgeon he gave perfect satisfaction, and the loss of his invaluable services will be felt by the whole command. Sociably, there was never a kinder man, or a more perfect gentleman than Dr. Tom Allen.
We have not had any Northern papers for some time, but are constantly looking for some through, when you shall have the latest dates.
Fayetteville Observer, April 23, 1863.
17, Report on the Cherokee Legion
Colonel Thomas of the Cherokee Legion.
In the Richmond Enquirer of the 8th we find the following allusion to our friend Colonel Thomas, and his aboriginal warriors:
In the mountains bordering on the line of Tennessee and North Carolina, dwells a remnant of the once warlike and formidable Cherokee nation. After the removal of the Cherokees to the far West, many families still remained in their old hunting grounds, among the Smoky mountains, and on the upper waters of the Little Tennessee. Many others, after accompanying their nation to the banks of the Arkansas, wandered back to their mountains and clear streams. But in those mountains and forests the Cherokee had no home; his hunting grounds were the property of the pale face, and he could only exist as a vagabond, and on sufferance. Colonel Thomas, a gentleman of North Carolina who owned a great tract of mountain country, looked with interest and kindness on their desolate condition and had heart enough to sympathise with their yearning and craving desire to dwell in the hunting grounds of their fathers. He set apart a large district for their residence, containing not only forests stocked with bear and deer, but also some fertile valley capable of producing corn and fruits. Here the "lost tribes" of the Cherokees have lived in peace for thirty years, fishing in the bright waters of the Hiwassie and Tennessee, hunting and cultivating the soil. A gratifying return is now made for the braves of this small colony to the kind pale face who gave them back a home.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 17, 1863. 
17-20, Confederate scout, Centreville to Tullahoma
Tullahoma, April 20, 1863
A scout of Gen. Van Dorn reports from Centreville, Tenn., that he saw on the 17th, going up the Tennessee River, seventeen transports and one gunboat, and the next day he heard that seven more went up, the whole with 112,000 men at least, much of it cavalry. Also that a part of Grant's army had gone up Mobile and Central Railroads and part to Louisville.
By command of Gen. Johnston:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 769.
17-22, Federal initiative to drive Confederates from region between the Stones River, Caney Fork, and Cumberland Rivers
No circumstantial reports filed.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, April 16, 1863.
Maj. Gen. D. S. STANLEY, Chief of Cavalry:
The general commanding has determined to drive the rebels from the country between Stone's River, Caney Fork, and the Cumberland. To effect this purpose he places under your command the following forces: Two brigades of infantry and Col. Wilder's force of mounted infantry now at the crossing of Stone's River, on the Lebanon pike, and two brigades of infantry now 5 miles from this place, on the Las Casas [sic] pike. These forces have been supplied with five days' rations, and ordered to hold themselves in readiness to march to-morrow morning. In addition to these, you will take your available cavalry force. The general commanding suggests that a column should be sent by way of Baird's Mills, and from there by Statesville to Liberty, or by way of Lebanon and Alexandria to Liberty, as may seem best. From Liberty you will push on rapidly to McMinnville, and, if possible, destroy the rebel force or drive them from that place and its vicinity. Destroy the cotton mills there, and all depots of supplies for the rebel army. The general desires you to make thorough work this time, so there may be no need of another expedition. Gen. Morton has been ordered to be ready with his pontoon train at daylight to-morrow morning, to throw two bridges across Stone's River, one on the Lebanon and the other on the Las Casas [sic] pike. You will send a staff officer to communicate any orders to the forces on these pikes that you may desire.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 242.
17-2 May, 1863, Grierson's Raid from LaGrange, Tennessee, to Baton Rouge, LA
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, p. 519.
17, Report on the Knoxville Fugitive Slave Case
"The Fugitive Slave Case at Knoxville -- Schofield Frees the Boys."
Correspondence of the New York Tribune.
Knoxville, Tenn., April 2, 1864. The Fugitive Slave case, to which I briefly referred in a previous letter, has had a happy termination-at least, for some of the parties concerned. The whole affair may be summed up this: They boy "Jim," 13 years old, seized, ironed, stripped of clothing and flagellated on the naked flesh half an hour by two strong men (loyal) total weight avoirdupois 360 pounds; ordered by Gen. Schofield to be freed from is late masters' control and placed under the protection of the United States Government.
His brother "Bob," who rescued "Jim" from his confinement and ill-treatment aforesaid, at the risk of his life and under the nose of the guards, being twice fired at by the overseer, and afterward captured and locked up, also to be freed and placed under Government protection.
"Quincy," a black boy, about the same age and size of the first-named, kidnapped out of Hospital No. 4, Dr. Griswold's, under cover of a dark night, and afterward placed under guard at the house of his late master, also made free and protected.
Having carefully weighed and examined all the facts in the case, and satisfied himself of the illegal and violent course pursued by the claimant and his overseer in the capture of treatment of his alleged property, Gen Schofield made an order, of which the following in a copy:
Headquarters Department of the Ohio. Knoxville, Tenn, March 28, 1864.-Brig. Gen. S. P. Carter, Provost Marshal General, East Tennessee:-The Major-General Commanding directs that you release Mr. Elias Smith's servant Bob from confinement, upon Mr. Smith's giving security that Bob will keep the peace.
The General also directs that you give protection papers to the colored persons Bob and Jim, declaring them free from the control of their late master, Mr. William Heiskell, of Knoxville, and under the protection of the United States Government.
I have the honor to be, General, very respectfully you obedient servant
J. A. Campbell, Maj. and A.A.G.
In obedience to the foregoing, Gen. Carter yesterday dispatched the same guard who had been ordered to, and who did arrest Bob, to bring all three of the boys to his office. Here papers were made out and duly signed, a copy being handed to each person; the following is a copy of Bob's paper, the other two only differing in the name inserted:
Provost Marshal's Office, East Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn., April 1, 1864.-By direction of the Major General commanding the Department of the Ohio, the mulatto boy, "Bob Heiskell," is hereby declared free from the corneal of his late master, William Heiskell, of Knoxville, Tenn., and is placed under the protection of the United State Government.
S. P. Carter, Brig. Gen and P. M. G. East Tenn.
Nashville Dispatch, April 17, 1864.
17, Fortifications, Fires and Foiled Prisoner of War Escape in Chattanooga
Head Quarters O.V.S.S
Chattanooga Tennessee. April 17 1864
My Dear H.L.
….All is quiet here. Work is going on rapidly on the fortifications. Chattanooga will be impregnable It could not now be taken with the whole southern confederacy we think. There have been several large fires in town lately, which I think indicates the presence of spies and incendiaries. Yesterday apart of the largest block in the town was burned. It was the intention no doubt to burn the military prison which was in the block and the only one saved on that side of the fire. The plan was for the prisoners to escape in the melee but it did not work and the building was saved….
* * * *
17, Report on the Knoxville-Greeneville Convention, April 12-April 17, 1864.
OUR KNOXVILLE LETTER.
Special Correspondence of the Inquirer.
Knoxville, Tenn., April 17, 1864.
The Knoxville-Greenville [sic] Convention, of which so much has been said and written, has met and adjourned. Why it was known as the Knoxville-Greenville [sic] Convention was because, in the fall of 1861, a large number of prominent men of East Tennessee met at Greenville [sic], and drew up papers memorializing the Legislature to permit the separation of East Tennessee. This thin that body would not do. The loyal people, a few months ago, determined upon a resuscitation of the Greenville [sic] convention, and appointed as a time of meeting the 12th inst. [of April].
Until with a month past the masses of the people of this section, and the prominent men beside, have been strongly in favor of separation from the disloyal portions of the State, known as Middle and West Tennessee. As time rolled on, however, separation became a critical [issue], and a certain clique known to be in opposition to the popular measures of the day, including a Brigadier-General, turned from a position in opposition to separation and became the authors of expressions favorable thereto.
During this time, however, through the solicitations of the Union men of Middle and East Tennessee, Parson Brownlow, of the Whig, and James Hood, of the Chattanooga Gazette, took down their banners for separation, and made the fact known to their readers that, much as separation was desired, the present was an inauspicious time to urge such a proceeding. Many of the prominent men of this county, who had all along been in favor of separation, advised their friends to favor a postponement of the matter to an indefinite time.
The suffering people of this country are too loyal to wander from the circumspect path in which they have hitherto walked. It became well-known all over East Tennessee, or that portion of it rid of Rebel troops, that Governor Johnson had declared that the separation of East Tennessee at the present time would be an unfortunate event, and it became evident on Monday night that the Convention would meet and adjourn without taking any steps on the matter at all.
The Convention met on Tuesday, one hundred and sixty-one delegates present. Very little business was transacted, however, the first day. Judge Nelson occupied the chair at the opening, being the old Chairman of the Greenville [sic] Convention. He resigned in the morning, though, after making an explanatory speech, explanatory form the fact that, during the existence of the Rebellion, he had filed off once in favor of Jeff. Davis, arguing that the President's Emancipation Proclamation was forever a barrier to the reunion of the States. He patched it up as well as he could, but it was plain to all upon which side were his preferences.
Before the close of the day two parties had become created, and the report of the Business Committee settled it that there was some fighting to take place, as they reported two sets of resolutions-the majority report being extremely queer, as if forgave all traitors; forge all those murderers and thugs of East Tennessee who had caused the deaths of hundreds of loyal men of this section. The minority report, however, recommended the immediate calling of a State Convention, and declared themselves in favor of the renomination of Mr. Lincoln and of emancipation, the system of which should be decided by a State Convention.
Governor Johnson, Parson Brownlow, L. C. Houck, Daniel Treuhitt and James Hood have used up the week and the Convention in speeches, favoring immediate emancipation, calling for a State Convention, and endorsing the Administration. Governor Johnson has made seven great speeches since he left Nashville. Two Brigadier-Generals of Tennessee expressed themselves in favor of the resolutions forgiving all traitors. They were bitterly denounced by Parson Brownlow.
Governor Johnson's speeches were all great efforts. In one speech he said that slavery was dead, and it was judicious to clean out slavery and treason at the same time, the latter could not exist without the former.
He will make a grand speech at a mass meeting to be held tomorrow night.
The Philadelphia Inquirer, April 23, 1864.
17, General Orders, No. 44, pertaining to public mourning for Abraham Lincoln in Memphis
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 44. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 17, 1865.
The nation mourns the untimely and violent death of the late President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, and the late Secretary of State, William H. Seward. All officers of this command will wear the usual badge of mourning upon the left arm for thirty days from the date of this order. As a mark of respect to the illustrious dead the public buildings of the city and all places of military business will be closed this day from sunrise to sunset. The funeral gun will be fired at every half hour, beginning at sunrise to sunset. The funeral gun will be fired at every half hour, beginning at sunrise and ending at sunset of this day.
By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 389.
17, Commencement of mopping up against Confederate guerrillas in East Tennessee
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, April 17, 1865.
Brig. Gen. DAVIS TILLSON, Greeneville, East Tenn.:
(To be forwarded.)
On receipt of this make disposition of your force so as to hold East Tennessee against roving bands of guerrillas. Gen. Stanley has been ordered to this place with his corps. Communicate with Gen. Stoneman as soon as you can, and inform him that I wish him to dispose his entire force to the best advantage to preserve order in East Tennessee and Western North Carolina and to put down guerrillas, as in a short time there will be no formidable force east of the Savannah River. We have Selma and Mobile.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 381.
17, General Orders No. 45, commencement of mopping up operations in West Tennessee
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 45. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 17, 1865.
The fall of Richmond and the capture of the principal rebel army and all the fortified places in the so-called Confederacy east of the Mississippi River, the utter and hopeless prostration of the rebel power, make it apparent that all further fighting on the part of Confederate soldiers within this military district must be from a spirit of pure malice and revenge of for purposes of robbery and plunder, and not in any hope of accomplishing any public good to any State or government. Those who now continue to fight after the liberal terms that have been offered can only be regarded as guerrillas and murderers. There are some small parties of such men roving about West Tennessee, keeping the citizens in a state of excitement and alarm, and who claim when captured to be treated as prisoners of war. All such are notified that if captured within the limits of this military district after the 25th instant they will not be treated as prisoners of war, but will be held for trail as felons and common enemies of mankind. Persons found bearing arms without competent Federal authority will be subject to the provisions of this order. This order is not intended to discourage any from laying down their arms and receiving the amnesty of the President, but to declare that such as are in West Tennessee and do not do it, but continue in open hostility, shall not be exchanged or allowed to take the oath of amnesty after their capture, but shall be tried and punished in accordance with their deserts. [emphasis added]
By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn:
WM. H. MORGAN, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 389.
17, Return of loyalty to the Union in Memphis and request to rescind resignation of Major-General C. C. Washburn
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 17, 1865.
Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Cmdg. Department of the Cumberland:
GEN.: On the 12th instant, I sent forward to you my resignation as major-general, to take effect on the 1st day of May. The citizens here, without distinction, have signed a request to me to withdrawn my resignation and the desire seems very general that I should not leave them at this time. In obedience to that wish and in view of recent events, I beg to request that my resignation may be withheld for a short time, say until the 1st day of June, unless developments in the meantime enable me sooner to retire. The news of the assassination of the President was received here yesterday morning and cast the deepest gloom over the entire community. A meeting of the old citizens, many of them Southern sympathizers, was at once called and was very largely attended and appropriate resolutions passed. The entire city is draped in mourning and the most loyal citizens in the Union could not give greater evidence of regret. All business is suspended here to-day, pursuant to the action taken by the meeting yesterday.
I am, general, your obedient servant,
C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 382.
17, Growing realization of the Confederacy's downfall in Bolivar
Yes the last two or three days all the bad news has been confirmed and contradicted so often that if it does not turn out as we heard through Yankee papers, I will never believe another thing they publish in regard to the rebellion being crushed....
Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.
17, "For truly secession has been the greatest tyrant that ever reigned over this country." News of the fall of the Confederacy reaches the Cherry Creek community in White County, an entry in the journal of Amanda McDowell
The girls keep my ink and things carried off so that I cannot get to write when I want to. There is some great news. I have been looking for a grand smash up for sometime, things have been so still. And [I] guess from all accounts that the great Southern Confederacy is about "gone up for ninety days" as the boys say. The news is (and it is corroborated and told over by every new arrival from Nashville) that Lee, his whole army, Petersburg, Richmond, and some say Davis himself is taken. The latter item is hardly true, but the rest is true, I expect. Some are already rejoicing over the downfall of their oppressors. For truly secession has been the greatest tyrant that ever reigned over this country. For my own part, I try not to rejoice at any one's downfall, but so far as I think will be for the good of their own souls. But I do rejoice in the prospect for peace. Some thing it will certainly be made. I fear we are going to be disappointed by will live in hope. Newton Camron got home yesterday. He has been in prison, but was exchanged and made tracks for home. A year or two ago he felt awfully disgraced because P. came home from the Southern army. I wonder how his pulse beats on the subject now. He says Stephen Williams will be at home in a few days.
Diary of Amanda McDowell.
17, Revocation of Amnesty Oaths
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 22. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1865.
Whereas, certain rebels, former residents of the State of Tennessee and other portions of the Department of the Cumberland, having cast their lot with the Southern Confederacy in rebellion against the Government of the United States, and countenanced that rebellion by their presence within its limits, and frequently by their active assistance during the present war, and having recently become convinced that all attempts to establish such Confederacy must and have proved vain and futile, and now wishing to secure themselves in the full possession of their property and all the rights of good and loyal citizens of the United States, have returned within the Federal lines and taken the amnesty oath, at places sometimes remote from their former places of residence, and where they are known, without the knowledge and consent of the
major-general commanding the department, not, as is believed, from love of their country or repentance for their past recreancy; it is hereby--
Ordered, That all amnesty oaths administered to any person or persons not bona fide deserters from the rank and file of the rebel army, and with the consent of the major-general commanding, no matter where or by whom administered, since the 15th of December last, are hereby revoked and pronounced null and void, and hereafter no amnesty oath administered to persons coming to or living within this department will be regarded or considered valid, unless taken with the knowledge and consent of the commanding general of the same.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Thomas:
WM. D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 377-378.
 See also: Daily National Intelligencer, May 5, 1862.
 Leona Taylor Aiken, ed., "Letters from the Offiield Brothers, Confederate Soldiers from Upper East Tennessee," East Tennessee Historical Society Publications, 46, (1974), pp. 116-125. [Hereinafter cited as: Offield Correspondencde.]
 As cited in PQCW.
 Jesse C. Burt, "The Captive City: Part I. Terror Wore a Blue Coat," Nashville Tennessean Magazine, March 24, 1957, p. 30. This citation has been included despite the lack of a primary source attribution.
 These letters provided by Mr. John Segrest of Huntsville, AL.
 T.H. Boles was a native of Lincoln County, Tennessee. He joined the 44th Tennessee Infantry in 1862 and was wounded at Chickamauga. By the time he had recovered, Lincoln County was far behind Union lines and he never returned to his unit. In October, 1864, he took the Oath of Allegiance to the United States.
 It may have been more practical a matter for Thomas. The land he "gave" to the Cherokee was now defended by his own game wardens who managed the land in a fashion that led to sound conservation-management practices, thus protecting Thomas' investment. Moreover, he would not have to expend money and time in constantly tracking them down and expelling them from his land holdings.
 As cited in PQCW.
 Grierson's raid is included here because it originated in Tennessee.
 See also: The Baltimore Sun, April 14, 1864.
 See also: New York Times, April 18, 1865.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456