Monday, April 20, 2015

4.18-20.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

April 18-20, 1861-1865




        18, Reply to Connecticut-Tennessean's offer of support for the Confederacy


THOMAS YEATMAN, Esq., New Haven, Conn.:

SIR: Your communication to the President of the Confederate States has been submitted to this Department, and I am instructed by the Secretary of War to express his warm appreciation of your loyalty and patriotism, as evinced by your proposition. Events indicate even a very short time it will become proper to receive into the forces of this Confederacy troops like those you propose to raise. Confident as we are of our ability to repel all aggression, this Government is disposed to welcome among the defenders of our institutions all such as are willing to assist in the re-establishment of sound principles on this continent. I am further instructed to say that while the Government is not at this moment prepared to accept absolutely your offer it trusts as this Department shall be able to do so, at which time notice of the point within the Confederate States at which you will be received will immediately be forwarded to you. The Secretary offers you the expression of his high esteem.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. J. HOOPER, Private Secretary.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, p. 225.

        18, Parental influence stifles potential union sentiment in Cleveland

A pleasant day. Perry Gaut and Dr. Carson here this morning to get us to assist making a Union Flag. Mother would not let us....

Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p. 91.

18, "The women of Greece took part in their wars, as also the early Saxons and Britons." Woman's role in war

Editors Appeal: While the military pride and spirit of the whole South seems to speak in one common voice for the onward march of men against the uprising and subtle spirit of treachery and anarchy, shall not woman, too, lay their best offerings upon the shrine of her country's honor?

I, for one, tender to my country that which shall not be called by the foolish name of sacrifice, but the sacramental offerings of my best services to either, as a Joan, Catherine, Helena, Nightingale, or an humble Sister of Charity, in any division of the southern army that the commander-in-chief or other officers shall appoint to me. Nay, more: if the fates of war shall choose to crush my brethren beneath the iron heel of their oppressors, in adverse proportions to their might, I will proudly stand in the footsteps of some fallen soldier, and prove to this age that the female virtue which was flanked about with chivalry, has not become extinct with the women of Boetia.[1]

Let the ladies of Memphis and every town in the South organize themselves in  associations for nurses and attendants of those regiments formed in their respective communities, and hold themselves in readiness to join those regiments which shall suffer most in the impending engagements.

For this end, they should provide the associations with such hospital stores and refreshments for the sick and wounded as may be raised by subscription or contributions, thereby giving strength and life to a large proportion of men that must be disabled by the fevers of our climate or the casualties of war.

"This custom, which was invented by the Hungarian and Polish women in their great struggle against superior forces," says a Berlin paper, "was one of the greatest incentives in their success." And be it remembered, that it was not the serf and slave who composed these associations, but the very best classes of ladies in the kingdom. They all accompanied the army in their tedious marches, and bivouacked with the soldiers in their tented cities. In each soldier they recognized a brother, and required no other protection than the emblazoned shield of which nature and religion had made of womanly virtue, for this clashing hour.

The women of Greece took part in their wars, as also the early Saxons and Britons. Such actions have come down to us in the myth of romance from a barbarous age, and are accompanied with the immortality of chivalric female pride. But it is to the women of Poland and Hungary that we are indebted for the best means of displaying such chivalric sentiments in the more advanced and refined ages, and successfully imitated by Florence Nightengale in the Crimean war. Let the women of the South remember that we, who have never seen a revolution, must learn to act from the best models that other countries have set up to us in this age, and the fame of Florence Nightengale has been made known to us only through the medium of our common language. The same is due to the legions of women who served in the Hungarian and Polish wars, and shall be to every southern woman, who shall choose to write her name in good deeds upon the shining scroll of this great epoch of American chivalric history.


V. E. W.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 18, 1861.

        18, School vandalism

Juvenile Misconduct.—There was a repetition to some extent, we learn, yesterday morning, of the misconduct lately perpetrated at the school on Second street, near Monroe, some disorderly boys again giving trouble there. The police were called, but the young rowdies made good their escape.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 18, 1861.

        18, Secessionist activity Memphis

Southern Flags.—Messrs. Whitmore & Bro., of the Appeal job office, have issued a beautiful flag of the Confederate States, about three feet long and in graceful proportions, printed on muslin, which they will furnish in any quantity at $1.50 singly, or at a reduction if taken in large numbers.

A Methodist Military Company.—The Argus says that they are informed by the Rev. Mr. Harris, that a military company is being formed among the members of his church; it is to be called "Gideon's Band."

Maynard Rifle Company.—Forty-five men joined this company on Tuesday night. Their weapon is a tremendous one, and if an opportunity ever offers, they will be found murderously efficient.

Rifled Cannon.—Major Wright received yesterday a splendid brass rifled cannon—a nine pounder. It was placed in the armory of the Steuben artillery.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 18, 1861.

        18, East Tennesseans' Resistance to Secessionists

Hard Fare of East Tennessee Secessionists.

East Tennessee is evidently no place for Secessionists, whether the following letter from Knoxville to the Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser is to be believed or not:

["]Here we have had the very devil to fight. We had to fight him in every form and in every conceivable attitude.

Many of our number have been burnt and hung, and kicked in effigy. We have been branded and treated as traitors-in some instances our orators forbidden to speak, and not unfrequently pelted with rotten eggs! In one locality in this region, women, mounted on an ox wagon, and driving the team themselves, carried the effigy of one of our most talented lawyers, and hung him up to the limb of a tree in the woods! At the same time and place they hung another clever gentleman, cut him down, then kicked him higher than a kite.["]

The Ripley Bee (Ripley, Ohio), April 18, 1861. [2]

        19, Calling upon women to take up the slack in Memphis

Editors Appeal: The South is in the greatest need of all and every help she can possibly get. The writer would respectfully suggest if it would not be well to urge it upon the ladies of Memphis and the South to do all in their power by economy and industry, and resolving not to use any but southern made clothes of every kind that they may need. For let them know of a certainty that it is only to the courage and efficiency of the men of the South, under the blessing of Providence that their lives, and what is infinitely more, their honor is safe, for the northern hordes would gloat in their ruin and murder, and would not, and could not be restrained by their own people wherever they got possession in any part of the country. The abolition government at Washington have designs on Memphis to seize and make it the base of operations in the South-west, and for them once to obtain it would result in the greatest ruin to the whole South, or the greater part. There should be every precaution taken to guard and defend it at every hazzard [sic]. Let the people here be vigilant.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 19, 1861.

        19, Some notes fleshing out secessionist Zeitgeist in Memphis

Military.—The members of the German Turner Society have organized a military corps for the protection of the city of Memphis. The company may be used in some cases better than others, as they are all active gymnasts. George Steinmeyer was elected as captain.


Schools.—The school we mentioned yesterday as having been attacked, was a private establishment, not one of the public schools.


A Call on the Patriotic Ladies.—The undersigned wish to form an association for the purpose of serving the several companies in the city by making flags, uniforms, etc. Those disposed to aid, are requested to call on Mrs. M. Cochran and Mrs. A. Street.


Memphis, April 18, 1861.

Editors Appeal: We ask a place in your columns to suggest to the merchants and business men generally, the propriety of closing our places of business at an early hour—say, seven and a half o'clock, P.M.,--so as to afford opportunity to the employes, as well as employers, to attend meetings etc., of the military and other organizations to which they severally belong, or may wish to join.


B. Dumaine & Co.

We have a large room in the upper part of our building, No. 337 Main street, which we tender gratis to any military or civil organization wishing to occupy it.

B. D. & Co.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 19, 1861.

        19, Memphis clothing merchants offer places of business for military recruiting purposes

A Card.

Memphis, April 19, 1861.

We, the undersigned clothing merchants of Memphis, do hereby agree to close our houses of business at 6 ½ P.M. every day, until the 1st of June next—excepting Saturday night—so as to afford opportunity to the employes, as well as the employers, to attend meetings, etc., the military and other organizations to which they severally belong, or may wish to join.

Stovall & Mitchell, Johnson & Just, Norris, Maull & Co., Ward & Treadwell, J. Spivey, J. Walker & Bro., Sprouls & McCown, J. S. Drake & Co., J. C. Logan, Vendig & Bro., M. Simon, Buhler & Beer, Hesse, Levy & Co., J. Pragin, Strauss, Lehman & Co., J. Walker & Co.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 20, 1861.

        19, Blue Jackets, the Committee of Public Safety and forced enlistment in the army of the Provisional Government of Tennessee in Memphis

* * *

As the St. Francis touched the wharf on the morning of the 19th of April…I stepped upon thee landing; meaning to look over the state of things in the city, and see if I could get out of it in the direction of the Nashville, where I had friends, who, I thought, would aid me homeward.

But I had not left the wharf, when a "blue jacket," the sobriquet of the military policeman that then guarded the city, stepped up and said, "I see you are a stranger." "Yes, sir." "I have some business with you. You will please walk with me, sir." To my expression of astonishment, which was real, he replied, "You answer the description very well, sir. The Committee of Public Safety wish to see you, come along." As it was useless to parley, I walked with him, and was soon ushered into the presence of that body, a much more intelligent and no less intensely Southern organization, than I had found in the grocery of Jeffersonville [Arkansas].[3]

They questioned me as to my home, political opinions, and destination, and received such answers as I thought it wise to give. Whereupon they confronted me, to my amazement, with a member of the Vigilance Committee which had tried me at Jeffersonville, one hundred and twenty miles distant, thirty hours before. I was amazed, because I did not imagine that any one of their number would have reached Memphis before me. He had ridden after me the night of my escape [from Jeffersonville], and when I stopped for breakfast, he had passed on to Helena, and taking an earlier up-river boat, had reached Memphis some hours in advance of the St. Francis; long enough before me to post the Committee of Public Safety as to my person and story when before the committee. Even with this swift witness against me, they were unable to establish any crime, and after consultation they told me I could retire. I was immediately followed by the policeman, who handed me a letter written by the chairman, suggesting that I would do well to go directly to a certain recruiting office, where young me were enlisting under the Provisional Government of Tennessee, and where I would find it to my interest to volunteer, adding, substantially, as follows: "Several members of the committee thing if you do not see fit to follow this advice, you will probably stretch hemp instead of leaving Memphis; as they can not be responsible for the acts of an infuriate mob, who may hear that you came from the North." I was allowed no time for reflection, as the policeman stood waiting, he said, "to show me the way." I now saw at a glance, that the military power in the city had resolved to compel me to volunteer, and in my friendlessness I could think of no way to escape the cruel and dread necessity.

Still the hope remained that perhaps I might make a partial promise, and ask time, and yet elude the vigilance of the authorities. As the M. P. grew impatient, and at length imperious, showing me that he well knew that he had me in his power. I walked on to avoid the crowd, which was beginning to gather, and soon reached the recruiting station. I saw, the moment I was inside, that the only door was guarded by bayonets, crossed in the hands of determined men. The Blue Jacket, in a private conversation with the recruiting officer, soon gave him my status; when turning to me, the officer said, with the air of a man who expects to carry his point, "Well young man, I learn you have come to volunteer; glad to see you-good company," &c.

To which I replied, "I was advised to call and look at the matter, and will take some time to consider, if you please."

"No need of time, sir-no time to be lost; here is the roll-enter your name, put on the uniform, and then you can passout," with a glance of his eye at the policeman and the crossed bayonets, which meant plainly enough, "You do not go out before."

To my suggestion that I had a horse on the boat [the St. Francis] which I must see about, he replied very promptly, "That could all be done when this business was through."

The meshes of their cursed net were around me, and there was no release; and with as good a grace as I could assume, I wrote my name and thus I volunteered!

* * * *

Stevenson, Thirteen Months in the Rebel Army, pp. 31-33.[4]

19, Extract from a pro-secession editorial from Knoxville, Tennessee


How they talk in Knoxville

We have the following extract from a letter written at Knoxville, East Tennessee, the 15th. "To-day the news reached us of Lincoln's proclamation calling for 75,000 militia to reposes the Forts. It electrifies every body here. The glorious news from Fort Sumter, last Friday, had silenced the months of almost all the abolitionists or tories here, but the news, to-day, raises, in this place even, a perfect storm of Southern feeling. The future of Tennessee is no longer doubtful. She will go headlong into the Southern Confederacy, and her soldiers will be among the most willing to charge the cohorts of negro equality. I do not suppose Brownlow, or several others of our leaders will fail to sustain Lincoln, but a terrible avalanche of public opinion will overwhelm them. The streets, to-day, have been crowded with people all discussing the absorbing theme, and I have not heard a single one utter anything else than the most Southern sentiment. The thorough and sudden homogeneity of feeling is amazing.

The Macon Daily Telegraph; April 19, 1861.

        19, Men, Spades and Wheelbarrows

The Memphis Avalanche contains an advertisement for 500 men, with spades and wheelbarrows, and 40 mules and carts, to proceed April 25th, to construct fortifications six miles above Memphis.

Daily Cleveland Herald, April 29, 1861. [5]

        19, Mass Exodus Reported in Memphis

A letter from Memphis, dated on the 19th inst., to a gentleman in St. Louis, who communicates it to the Missouri Democrat, says:

"Yesterday, over two thousand persons left for the North and as many will leave this evening. This drain will be much felt in the coming conflict. I have no idea of leaving, but will stick it out as long as possible.

The people-men, women, and children-of a belligerent fleeing, for safety, to the country of their enemy! Was the like even known in the history of war.

This one fact is a volume of itself, and it is an argument that damps the cause of Secession. Already is a bounty offered in the South for enlistments, already are the traitors pressing men into service, already are the peaceful inhabitants who can get away, fleeing with their treasure and their children to the North. And yet not thirty day's war has existed. What will be the condition of the South when a year's war shall have laid its paralyzing arm upon its industry, its resources and it social life.

Daily Cleveland Herald, April 27, 1861. [6]

        19, Proclamation of the Memphis Committee of Safety. "The military force of the city, as well as its municipal police, are all at their command, and the citizens of Memphis may rest assured that everything will be done that can be for their protection and safety."

To the Public.

The committee of safety of the city of Memphis, being fully aware of its important and vital bearing upon the interest of its citizens, deem it necessary to make the following proclamation:

That all and every question that has or may arise, where vigilance is necessary, either at home or abroad, will receive their constant attention and prompt action. This committee have access to all telegraphic dispatches, when received, that bear upon the peace and stability of this city in any and every shape.

The military force of the city, as well as its municipal police, are all at their command, and the citizens of Memphis may rest assured that everything will be done that can be for their protection and safety. This committee will meet daily, at ten in the morning and four o'clock in the evening, at the office of Col. Titus.

The commerce of Memphis with her sister cities will be held sacred as long as she get her rights.

The following gentlemen compose said committee: First ward-Frazier Titus, Dr. L. Shanks; Second-W. A. Bickford, J. A. Woodruff; Third-D. M. Currie, E. Magevany; Fourth-C. Deloach, N. S. Bruce; Fifth-John Saffarans, W. H. Greenlaw; Sixth-C. B. Church, Jack Halstead; Seventh-R. Wormley, J. M. Patrick; Eighth-M. Magaveny, R. R. Cook; From the suburbs-J. M. Gordon, Jos. Lenow, W B. B. Miller, J. I. Saffarrans, J. L. Carnes, F. W. Royster.

The following are the members of the military board on the part of the board of aldermen: A. P. Merrill, D. Hughes, D. B. Molloy, H. Vollentine, John Martin.

The following are the members on the part of the city: J. R. Williams, M. Meriweather, Col. Preston Smith, Capt. J. Hamilton.

 Memphis Daily Appeal, April 19, 1861.[7]





        18, "The Conscript Act"

We are indebted to Governor Harris for the following synopsis of the Conscript Act of the Confederate Congress, telegraphed to him by the Secretary of War:


As act has passed both Houses of Congress, placing in the military service of the Confederate States for three years, or the war, all persons between eighteen and thirty-five years of age, who are not legally exempt from military service.

All twelve month volunteers between these ages to serve two years from the term of their enlistment, and all of them under eighteen and over thirty-five to remain ninety days, unless their places are sooner supplied by recruits. The twelve months men who have not yet received bounty or furloughs are to have them-the furloughs to be granted in such numbers and at suited times, as the Secretary of War may deem compatible with the public service.

Re-enlistments, for the purpose of changing from one regiment, battalion or company to another, unless already perfected by actual transfer, are in effect canceled; and all authorities to raise new corps are vacated, unless within thirty days from the passage of the act the organization is complete and has the requisite number of recruited from persons not now in the service. Companies of infantry are to have one hundred and twenty-five, field artillery one hundred and fifty, cavalry eighty.

All corps of twelve months volunteers shall have the right, within forty days, on a day to be fixed by the commander of the brigade, to elect all their officers which they had a right heretofore to elect -- such officers to be commissioned by the President.

All white males between eighteen and thirty five subject to military duty and not now in service, are to be enrolled and mustered in and sent to the old regiments.

All discharges from expiration of term of service and transfers of re-enlisting to new corps will be immediately stopped.

G. W. RANDOLPH, Sec'y of War.

Memphis Appeal, April 18, 1862.

        18, Instructions to attack and disperse Unionists leaving East Tennessee


Col. JOHN C. VAUGHN, Cmdg., &c., Kingston, Tenn.:

COL.: The major-general commanding directs me to inform you that large numbers of Union men are leaving this and adjoining counties, intending to go through the passes of the Cumberland into Kentucky. He directs that all the disposable cavalry of your command be sent with the utmost dispatch to operate between Clinton and the north valley of Powell's River and intercept them in their attempt. Few of them are armed.

You will give the officer commanding the cavalry instructions to attack and disperse these men wherever they may be found.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 429.

        18, "Has Memphis Done Its Duty?" [see also August 9, 1862 "Where are the Young Tennesseans?" below]

It is a common thing for strangers, on arriving in this city, to express surprise at the large numbers of men, out of uniform, they meet with in the streets. They have just arrived from a little town, or village, that has patriotically put forth its strength, and sent out its sons to the war. The place for weeks before they left was in a blaze of enthusiasm, and excitement was at a fever height. They arrive at Memphis, and see hundreds of persons daily thronging the streets, who bear about them no mark of connection with military affairs; they also hear the topics of the day discussed with dispassionate calmness, and to their eye – just dazzled with the brilliant and certainly honorable display of the patriotism of the spot they have left – the people with whom they come in contact in Memphis appeal cold and indifferent. Strangers reaching this city, under these circumstances, not uncommonly complain that Memphis is apathetic and that it is behind in the discharge of its duty. Volunteers arriving here – full of the zeal that rises when the uniform is first put on, and the musket first handled – have been heard to exclaim: "We came to fight for Memphis, but she does not fight for herself?"

This complaint is made sometimes in sorrow, sometimes in anger, but as it is often made with a conviction of its accuracy, it is desirable that the real state of the case should be known. It is true that the fiery enthusiasm which exists in a town, or village, on the departure of a large number of its citizens for the scene of war, is not to be found effervescing daily in our streets. When our first companies were raised and left the city, we were not deficient in our display of this quality. Our men shouted as loud and our lady patriots waved their handkerchiefs as eagerly, as can be done anywhere. Enthusiasm is an effervescence, that among a people bent on carrying out a grave purpose, settles down to a feeling of calm, but intense and earnest determination; Memphis has arrived at that point. Enthusiasm is like the dazzling rocket that flies sparkling through the air; the stern resolve of an intelligent people resembles the cannon ball, which presents little that is taking to the eye, but accomplishes its purpose with deadly energy. It is also to be remembered that the military display that so attracts the notice of the stranger, and so profoundly moves him, is a daily spectacle in our streets, and has ceased to be novel. So much for what has been mistaken for cold feeling. We have next to notice the charge that while people have their homes to fight for Memphis, Memphis does not fight for itself.

The stranger entering our city and promenading the streets is not naturally surprised to find so many persons walking about, lingering at the street corners, in the hotel parlors, and about public places, having apparently little or no occupation, yet being, for anything the spectator can discover, unconnected with the army. We first call the stranger's attention to the fact, that he is necessarily unable to tell, whether her crowds he meets in the streets are principally citizens of the place, or whether they are mostly strangers; he generally supposes that, with small exception, they are Memphis people. This supposition is erroneous. Our city has for some time been in the neighborhood of live operations; this has caused an influx of all sorts of persons having business with the camps or on a visit to friends in the army. It is also the report of refugees from Kentucky, Missouri, Nashville, and all that part of Tennessee now invaded by the enemy. Here ordnance stores, clothing, artillery, provisions, etc., have been obtained, forwarded, or made for the army. Here transportation, quartermasters, ordnance, and other government offices are located and ma[jor offic]es for recruiting have been opened. Here the Legislature has met, and here state and county business, and business connected with the Confederate States, has been transacted. Here also persons on travel arrive in large numbers by river and railroad and the interruption of the ordinary regularity of transit, frequently detains people here for days, who, in ordinary times, would remain but for a few hours, or simply pass on them without stopping.

Let the reader class in his mind clerks, mechanics, shipbuilders, laborers, and the many "hangers-on" that are always near an army, passing backward and forward, and he can easily imagine that we must necessarily at this time – with active operations at Fort Pillow on one side of us, and at Corinth on the other, beside our connection with what has been up the White and Arkansas rivers – we have an unusual influx of strangers not only arriving and departing, but remaining in our midst. A large portion of these, although in government service and connected with the army, wear no uniforms, and are taken for civilians. We may also remark that when members of the army, belonging in the city, are here on furlough or on business, it is usual for them, when not directly on service, to put aside the attire of the camp, and appear in public in their ordinary dress.

We think the stranger, disposed to censure the people of Memphis, who reads this, will acknowledge that the matter now appears under a different aspect. For the correctness of our statement, we would, in the first place, refer the reader to the hotel registers. He will find that, throughout the winter, the arrivals have been immense, much larger than when the city was open to travel to and from the whole United States. By inquiry of the hotel clerks, he will find that frequently the Gayoso, Worsham, and other hotels, have been compelled to send away all who arrived after nine o'clock in the evening. In the second place, we could ask the censorious, especially if they have visited Memphis before, to look in at our banks, office stores, and counting-rooms, and observe how few clerks and assistants are at work, compared with what is usual. Even the entire stranger cannot help being struck when his attention is called to this; to those who knew this city before the late changes, the difference will be startlingly perceptible. We might mention other matters, but the above will amply suffice to convince the candid mind, that the number of Memphis people now in Memphis is very much less than is usual, while the number of strangers present in Memphis is much more than usual.

We had thought of speaking of the vast proportion of our male population who have forsaken their usual occupations for the field; and of telling of the enormous contributions that have been and are now made here for the war, for the comfort of soldiers in the camp for fitting out companies, for aiding sick and wounded soldiers, for the support of the families of soldiers, and for other objects, in which the property of our citizens has been unstintedly lavished in behalf of the patriotic object which the united South is fighting. Such an enumeration of our efforts...though intended to relieve our city, from a mistaken and undeserved imputation might be mistaken for a vain parade of what we have done-not for the purposes of making a display and winning praise, but for our fair country's cause. We, therefore, rest our case on the explanation given and fear not that the candid and conscientious reader, when asked "Has Memphis done its duty?" will unhesitatingly reply in the affirmative.

Memphis Appeal, April 18, 1862.

        18, Federal order to terminate the transport of dead Confederates to Kentucky


April 18th, 1862

Head Quarters 7th Brigade


April 18th, 1862

Capt. Green-

Direct guards to stop the Transfer [sic] of deceased Rebels to Kentucky or Elsewhere [sic] north.

By Command of Brig. Gen. Negley, Comdg. Post

Records of Adjutant General's Office

        18, Federal scout in the Trezevant environs, and railroad bridge burned over the north fork of the Obion river burned by Confederates


The Federals appear to be moving beyond Humboldt and some consternation has been excited by their proceedings. Sixty-four cavalry soldiers, some infantry, and a battery are reported to be quartered ten or eleven miles beyond Trezevant, on the McLemore and Paris road. They made search on Friday [18th] in the house of a gentleman in that neighborhood for the proprietor, who has been a government agent furnishing provisions. He escaped their hands and escaped to this city. A general threat has been made that if any of the LINCOLN pickets are killed, the inhabitants will be held responsible.

On Friday a report, we are informed, was prevalent that the enemy were coming down in full forces; for this or some other reason, it is stated, Capt. CLAIBORNE, who is in command of our cavalry in that direction, gave orders to have the bridge over the north fork of the Obion destroyed. The bridge was burned and a considerable portion of trestle work with it. The bridge was one hundred and thirty feet span, and one of the best on the Memphis and Ohio railroad. It was situated between the Trezevant and McKenzie stations. There is no rolling stock beyond the burned bridge.[8]

Memphis Appeal, April 20, 1862

        18, Military Governor Andrew Johnson and a Nashville housing problem

Amusing Dialogue.

A very entertaining dialogue occurred some days ago in the Governor's office, between Governor Johnson and two rebel ladies of this city, who had come to complain of the occupation of a residence belong to the rebel husband of one of the ladies, by a Federal officer. The conversation was substantially as follows:

Lady. I think it is too dreadful for a woman in my lonesome condition to have her property exposed to injury and destruction.

Governor. Well, Madam, I will inquire into the matter, and if any injustice has been done, will try to have it corrected. But your husband, you admit, has gone off with the rebels, and you abandoned your dwelling.

Lady. My husband went off South because it was to his interest to do so. You musn't [sic] find fault with anybody for taking care of himself these times. You know, Governor, that all things are justifiable in war.

Governor. Well, Madam, it appears to me that this broad rate of yours will justify taking possession of your house. According to your maxim, I don't see any reason for helping you out of your difficulty.

Lady. Oh! but I didn't mean it that way.

Governor. No, Madam, I suppose not. I will try to be more generous to you than your own rule would make me. I do not believe in your rule that "all things are justifiable in time of war." But that it is just what you rebels insist upon. It is perfectly right and proper for you to violate the laws, to destroy this Government, but it is all wrong for us to execute the laws to maintain the Government.

The rebel ladies looked around in various directions, and seemed to think that they had opened a knotty argument on a dangerous subject, with a very hard adversary. Heaving a long sigh, they retired, to become, we earnestly hope, "wiser and better men."

Nashville Daily Union, April 18, 1862.

        18, "Why, it has turned out like the other promises of rich rebels to the victims whom they have trapped in their damnable net."

Rebel Liberality to the Poor.

Some "Old Treasures"—The Poor Used as Catspaws by Rich Rebels.

In the Nashville Union and American of April 22d, 1861, the bloody-minded Secession organ which called for confiscation, banishment, imprisonment and hanging for all who remained loyal to the Union, we find this exceedingly magnanimous and stirring offer from one of our citizens. The editor of the Union calls it— 

The Voice of a Venerable Patriot.—R. C. Foster, Sr., sends to the Patriot the following patriotic proposition, which we gladly publish:

["]Nashville, April 22, 1861.

To the Editors of the Patriot: From age and infirmity I am unable to do service on the battle-field for the rights of the South; but I am a volunteer with any number of Tennesseans under like disability, to pay annually to the Governor of Tennessee two hundred dollars for the comfort and support of the wives and children of the citizens soldiers of Tennessee, whilst serving in defence of the constitutional rights of the South.

R. C. Foster, Sr.["]

Noble, warm and generous proposition! It does credit to humanity. The promise held out is splendid. We have no doubt that many a poor mechanic, many a needy laborer as he embraced and kissed his wife and children before going into the rebel army pointed his family to this generous card, and consoled them in their bitter bereavement by exhibiting it all-comprehensive philanthropy. What about the fulfillment of the promise? Has it ever happened? Who has heard of it being done? What has become of this fostering care so kindly pledged to the poor? Why, it has turned out like the other promises of rich rebels to the victims whom they have trapped in their damnable net. We published the other day a list of cards from wealthy Nashville rebels, similar to the one which we have given above, in the magnificence of their promises and the nothingness of their fulfillment. Yes, confiding and misguided men have been seduced from their country's flag, and their dependent families, and are now wandering utterly deserted, friendless and penniless, in distant States, abandoned by the very tempters whose poisoned tongues and hollow professions corrupted, misled and ruined them. The Secretary of the Sanitary Commission at St. Louis wrote to Gov. Johnson on the 19th of March, that citizens of Tennessee formerly belonging to the rebel army were "wandering through the streets of that city without the means of living or returning to their homes." Gov. Johnson called upon the men of this place who had made so grandiloquent promises for aid, but not one dollar has been given! There is the real spirit of the Secession leaders. They are eager to use the poor as tools to do their work, and then cast them contemptuously away when they have got into power. The rebel organ itself, the Nashville Union and American, could not refrain from rebuking the extortion practiced by the wealthy upon the poor, and denounced it in its issue of September 18, 1861, in these terms:

["]We have an army of women in our midst, with an average of three children each, whose husbands are fighting our battles. These mothers earn about thirty cents a day, when they can get the work to do. Their helpless offspring are clad in the thin and worn garments of last spring, shoeless and stockingless. They are to be shod and clothed for the winter, and fed, even if it be upon cheap bread alone. Yesterday reminded us that they must have fires to protect them from "winter's chilly blasts." There is within the limits of the city a sufficiency of coal. If economically used, to last until spring. This coal cost only peace prices to mine and deliver it here, and twenty days ago, as we are informed, it could have been bought at twenty cents per bushel, and a handsome bonus would have been paid to the person who would have found a purchaser, because it would have been a good speculation on the part of holders to have sold out at that rate. Yesterday thirty five and forty cents per bushel were demanded, with an intimation that to day the price may be fifty cents.

In the name of humanity, shall this army of women and helpless children, the wives and children of the brave men who are paying their lives that we may have peace and independence—freeze, because the exorbitant prices demanded by holders had placed coal out of the reach of their limited means? A more gloomy prospect for winter certainly never has hung over the poor of this city and especially in cases where the heads of families have gone to drive the invaders from Southern soil. Almost every necessity of life has gone up to worse even than famine prices. It really seems as if sharpers had combined to monopolize the trade, and to fatten upon the necessities of those who are fighting the battles of their country. We hear one universal complaint that the prices of almost every comfort as well as necessity, are exorbitantly high. The people, who [illegible] now by their labor than they did before the war commenced, cannot [illegible] stand or appreciate this [illegible] advance and they naturally conclude that speculators are at the [illegible] We are at a loss to how the poor of Nashville are to be cared for the coming winter, under the circumstances that surround us.

The course pursued by tradesmen generally in the South has produced a great deal of discontent, and not without apparent reason.["]

Here we have a picture of wretchedness and suffering in the families of those who had gone off after these enemies of their race, Harris, Bishop, Polk, Cheatham, and others, which is enough to chill one's blood. And this is precisely the goal of suffering to which this hellish rebellion is hurrying the masses with the swiftness of Niagara's rapid. The rich rebels and those belonging to the "first families," (which usually means those who manage to live without working or paying their debts,) get good offices, or else amass fortunes by speculating off the necessities and miseries of the poor.

Nashville Daily Union, April 18, 1862.

        18, Newspaper editorial condemning cruelty to animals

Cowper wrote—

"I would not enter on my list of friends

(Though graced with polished manners and fine sense,

Yet wanting in sensibility,) the man

Who needlessly sets foot on a worm.

This sentiment was forcibly brought to mind the other day as we were passing along the street, by observing a fellow belaboring a horse most unmercifully for some fancied obstinacy in the animal, which, after all, was the result of the manner in which he had been trained, harnessed and driven. It seemed impossible for the horse to understand or comply with the wishes of the man who drove him, and flying into a towering passion, John fell upon and beat him in a most cruel manner. This, however, did not make the horse do as he desired him, and he was forced to treat him kindly before he could get him to budge in the direction he was trying to force him.

Cruelty to animals is one of the most common evils of the day, and exhibitions of it are to be seen on almost every street. It is no uncommon thing to see a horse or mule forced to pull a dray with almost double the weight upon that a prudent man would be willing his horse or mule should pull, and if he falters or exhibits weariness, the driver pounds him soundly for it. It is no wonder horses and mules driven in drays wear out so soon. The hard usage to which they are usually subjected is not only cruel, but calculated to render them worthless in a very short time. We believe that more of this evil is seen in the cities and towns than in the country. In the latter, men are more careful with their horses, and the consequence is they last longer, and are not only more valuable, but more serviceable. The opinion has been advanced, and we believe it to be a correct one, too, that he will unnecessarily give pain to the most insignificant of animals, has not the disposition to make an agreeable companion or a fast friend. It is generally the case that he who is in the habit of wantonly torturing animals, and especially those that are so serviceable as the horse, is destitute of those finer sensibilities which adorn the human character, and wants but the power and opportunity to give pain to beings like himself.

There is a law of our State which makes cruelty to domestic animals a misdemeanor. In sections 1668 to 1672 of the code of Tennessee, it is provided that "if any person cruelly beat, torture, or use any horse, ox, dog, or other animal in which individuals may have a property, whether his own or a third person's, he shall forfeit fifty dollars for each offence, to any person who will sue therefor; that "any person who in any way disfigures such an animal not his own, so as not to fall within the provisions," just cited, "shall forfeit twenty-five dollars for each offence," and "it is the duty of justices of the peace, sheriffs and constables to see that the foregoing provisions of law for the protection of animals are carried out; and in such cases, the officer bringing the offender to justice, is entitled, besides his legal costs, to one-half the penalty, the other half to go to the treasury of the county." These provisions "do not affect the right of the owner of an injured animal to suit for damages, nor do away with the penalties of the criminal code in such cases." "If either of the offences mentioned in this article is committed by a slave, he may be punished by not less than ten nor more than thirty-nine stripes, under the order of any justice of the peace before whom he is brought and convicted."

The corporation law of this city is not so severe, but sufficiently so to prevent the evil to which we refer. It provides that any person who shall be guilty of cruelty to any beast of burthen by violent and unusual treatment, by beating or otherwise, within the limits of this corporation, shall be subject to a penalty of not less than one nor more than ten dollars for each offence.

The law, both State and city, is very explicit on this point, and there are numberless cases in which it would be a righteous act to enforce it.

Nashville Dispatch, April 18, 1862.

        18, Confederate General Orders No. 23[9] for East Tennessee, prohibiting free speech, aid and comfort to the enemy, desertion from the Confederate Army and spying

Headquarters Department East Tennessee. Knoxville, April 18, 1862

General Orders No. 23

I. Col. W. M. Churchwell is appointed to Provost Marshal, and charged, under the direction of the Major General commanding, with the due execution of the foregoing proclamation in this department. By command of Major Genera E. Kirby Smith: H. L. Clay, A. A. G.

Headquarters Department East Tennessee. Office Provost Marshal, Knoxville, April 18, 1862.

Martial law having been declared in this department, the people of East Tennessee are notified that, whilst the criminal courts of the land continue in the exercise of their functions, they (the people) are amenable for offences committed under the "Articles of War," and they can be tried, under the orders of the department commander, by military courts. The following extractors from the Rules of Articles of War are published for their information and guidance:

"Art. 5. Any officer or private who shall use contemptuous or disrespectful works against the President of the Confederate States, against the Vice President thereof, against the Congress of the Confederate States in which he may be quartered, if a commissioned officer, shall be cashiered, or otherwise punished, as a court martial may decide; if a non-commissioned officer or soldier, he shall suffer such punishment as may be inflicted by the sentence of a court martial."

"Art. 28, Any officer or  soldier who shall be convicted of having advised or persuades any other officer or soldier to desert the service of the Confederate States shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be inflicted upon him by the sentence of a court martial."

"Art. 35. Whosoever belonging to the armies of the Confederate States in foreign parts shall force a safeguard shall suffer death."

"Art. 55. Whosoever shall relieve the enemy with money, victuals, or ammunition or shall knowingly harbor or protect an enemy shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial."

"Art. 57. Whosoever shall be convicted of holding correspondence with or giving intelligence to the enemy, either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial."

"Wm M. Churchwell, Colonel and Provost Marshal."

Daily National Intelligencer, May 5, 1862.

        18-19, Confederate foraging expedition from Trenton to Ripley

HEADQUARTERS [C. S.] CAVALRY, Ripley, Tenn., April 19, 1862.

Col. THOMAS JORDAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Corinth:

In compliance with orders received per telegraph from headquarters of the army, I marched my command from Trenton to this place, arriving yesterday. Have reported to the Gen. commanding at Pillow. I find a great scarcity of hay, fodder, and oats in this neighborhood; sufficient corn to subsist the animals for ten or fifteen days. I consider the Forked Deer very effectually obstructed, and I am of the opinion that the enemy will not attempt to come to Key Corner, and hence by land to Fort Pillow. The country between Trenton and Dyersburg I consider the richest portion of the State of Tennessee; abundant supply of bacon, corn, and hay. The owners are anxious to dispose of these articles to the Confederacy. The commissary of my command will be able to purchase flour, meal, and bacon for the regiment in the neighborhood, and will have to draw supply of sugar, coffee, and other rations from Pillow. From a description of the country, I am satisfied that my line could be best protected by moving back toward Dyersburg some ten miles. I have now under my command eight companies of my regiment proper and two independent companies.

I consider it best to merge the two. Capt. Haywood, whose company belongs to the regiment, has not reported to me, and says that he is independent of the command, under the orders of Gen. Beauregard. Since his joining the army he has manifested a spirit of insubordination which, if it is not checked, will ruin this regiment. He needs bringing into harness and I respectfully request of the general commanding that he be ordered to report to me. Capt. D. G. Reed, who has a squad of fifteen men operating about Union City and Dresden, Is bringing a bad name upon the cavalry of this country by taking horses from Union and Southern men and not respecting private property. I am well satisfied that these independent companies, thrown loose upon the country, are a disgrace and nuisance to the community where they may chance to serve. Being aware that the general commanding is anxious to have these irregularities corrected, I have taken the liberty of reporting them.

I am, colonel, with high respect, your obedient servant,

W. H. JACKSON, Col. of Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 304-305.

        19, Confederate bridge destruction at Purdy

Bethel, Tenn., April 23, 1862.

Maj. LAWRENCE L. BUTLER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., First Army Corps:

MAJ.: I have the honor to state, for the information of the major-general commanding this corps, that on Saturday evening last I received a telegraphic communication from Gen. Beauregard, directing me to "send forthwith a strong working party to obstruct roads in advance of Purdy."

This order I immediately complied with by a detail, all told, of about 180, with two days' cooked rations, under a field officer, accompanied by Maj. Lea, chief engineer, and had the party on the road by day Sunday morning, the order having been received too late Saturday evening to move infantry, but in the mean time I had Lieut.-Col. Brewer's cavalry at Purdy at work on Saturday [19th] night destroying bridges.

The work not being fully completed I defer a report....

* * * *

S. B. MAXEY, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 434-435.

        19, Authorities ordered to repress Union resistance to Confederate conscription in East Tennessee


Maj. W. L. EAKIN, Cmdg., &c., Morristown, Tenn.:

MAJ.: The major-general commanding directs me to inform you, in response to your communication of 18th instant, that you will arrest all Union leaders who circulate exaggerated reports of the military draft, and thereby induce ignorant men to fly their homes and go to Kentucky.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 429-430.

        19, Governor Isham G. Harris defends managers of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad from charges of incompetence and disloyalty by Confederate military officials

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Memphis, Tenn., April 19, 1862.


Having learned that the managers of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad are censured to some extent, and even suspected of disloyalty, by the military authorities, from the fact that a part of the rolling stock and machinery of that road fell into the hands of the enemy when Huntsville was captured. I do not propose to enter upon explanation as to who is responsible for this misfortune. I leave them to make their own explanations, and only desire to state, as a matter of justice to the president and superintendent of that road, that I have for years known those gentleman intimately, and know the fact that they were zealous and industrious Southern-rights men at a time when the overwhelming majority of our people were Union men, and when a man was more or less odious if regarded as a secessionist.

Though differing with me on other political questions, they earnestly supported me and my policy throughout this revolution and from the beginning of the war. I know of no two gentlemen in the State who have been more disposed to sacrifice their time, their energies, and their private fortunes for the promotion of the cause of the Confederate States. There are none whose loyalty I would be more willing to trust. As railroad men they have been heretofore eminently successful, and certainly possess very high business qualifications.

This much I have deemed it proper to say as a matter of justice to them.

Very respectfully,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt., p. 56.

        19, "An affection of distinguished consideration for wealthy scoundrels, will demoralize that class of people to whom we must look for reestablishment of law in these Southern States." Confederate Newspaper Coverage of Northern Newspaper Report from Nashville

Federal Reports from Nashville.-Rebels Still. The Nashville Correspondence (April 3) of the Cincinnati Gazette contains the following:

Our feminine rebels are plotting to taboo all the loyal of their sex. In one of their committees, admiration of good qualities of mind and heart got the better of secession lunacy, and a proposition was made to except Miss_____, a lovely young lady of shining accomplishments. She was so sweet, the declared, they could not think of leaving her out in the cold. But the object of their kind partially has a Roman spirit, with the heart of a true American maiden. When she heard of their offer, she scornfully declined it, and trusted Andrew Johnson would ask her company to divine service on Sabbath. His request should be granted with proud satisfaction.

In one or two letters I have mentioned efforts by Mr. Chase's special agent to recover the cotton used in the breastworks at Fort Zollicoffer. The other day a gentleman in humble circumstances, who was thought by his wealthy neighbors to have rendered the Government some assistance in finding the cotton, came into the city in great fright, having been told that the aforesaid wealthy gentlemen were determined to hang him. He resides only two or three miles from the city. A person not so easily frightened by the threats of cowardly rebels, reassured him, and sent him to Col. Matthews, Provost Marshal, for protection. This poor fellow's perturbation is only a sample of the complete intimidation wrought in the minds of "plain people" here by vigilantes and blustering Secesh bullies. And you may rest assured, that nothing short of summary punishment to a few noisy traitors will bring the color to their livers. An affection of distinguished consideration for wealthy scoundrels, will demoralize that class of people to whom we must look for reestablishment of law in these Southern States.

I informed your readers that the proposition by a sub-agent of the treasury, to arrest gentlemen who were known to have purloined cotton from the fort, and who stubbornly refused to give it up or denied having it possession was rejected by Gen. Buell. This extreme forbearance only emboldened the wealthy traitors who had combined to cheat the Government. After Gen. Thomas moved South, a lot of fifteen bales, left in a stable near his encampment was secretly removed. It had been seized by the Government, and the removal was simply theft. The rascal who took it should go to the penitentiary.

I learned yesterday that two gentlemen, of considerable wealth, Bird Douglas and Benjamin Cockrill, now under arrest by the provost marshal, are supposed to be guilty of the threat which so terrified the poor fellow mentioned in a preceding paragraph. If they be dealt with as they deserve, the effect will be salutary. Gen. Washington Barrow, who was a very efficient aider and abettor of Gov. Harris, has also been arrested. It is whispered that others are under arrest, or will be soon, but I am not in possession of their names.

The city fathers endeavored to meet this morning, to decide what they should do to be saved, or whether they would do nothing, and be lost-or, rather, they pretended to make the endeavor. But there was not a quorum. They don't like to meet.

Thatcher, Burt & Co., of Cleveland, Ohio, have closed a contract with the Government to rebuild the railroad bridge over Cumberland river at this point, in sixty days, with a forfeit of $100 per day for all excessive time occupied in the work, and $200 per day added to terms of contract for time saved.

Gen. Washington Barrow, who was arrested on the 1st, was suffered to go on parole till 12 M. yesterday when he was sent out to the State Prison. Bird Douglas and Ben Cockrill are on parole.

Daily Picayune, April 19, 1862. [10]

        19, U. S. Sanitary Commission report on the Murfreesboro barracks

U. S. Sanitary Commission Rooms,

Nashville, April 18, 1862.

Dear Union: I saw an article in your paper of yesterday, complaining of the suffering of our soldiers in the hospital and barracks at Murfreesboro'. I visited them immediately, and find that all has been done for the sick there that could be done. There was a time when the Hospital was filled to overflowing; and there was no doubt suffering for a few days, such as we would be glad to avoid, and which is now remedied.

The Barracks are in very good condition; the rooms clean, the men under good discipline, and had enough of good food.

As the result of my visit, I can say that I believe that Dr. Wm. N. Eames, surgeon in charge of Hospital and Barracks, and Dr. R. N. Millikin, who gives all his time to the Barracks are both deserving of praise for their successful labors. We sympathize with the sick soldier, away from home and home comforts, and fully realize that they often do and must suffer privations unused to them at their homes. We are sending them the donations prepared for them by the friends they have left behind them, which we hope will add to their comfort.

A. N. Read, Sanitary Inspector.

Nashville Daily Union, April 19, 1862. [11]

        19, Nashville's female teachers and the oath

Some of the female teachers in the city are highly enraged at the Union because it advocates administering the oath of loyalty to them. We can't help it. We are not only in favor of administering the oath to all ladies who are employed in the public schools in training up our children, but to make the business certain we would like to administer the oath ourselves to all the pretty ones. We have a way of clinching it and making it stick. It softens the tempers of the angelic creatures. When they are done taking our version of the oath, they look as placid, as contented and as blissful as if they had been saying their prayers. Come along, girls, and hold up our hands!

Nashville Daily Union, April 19, 1862. [12]

        19, Nashville High Schools close as a result of war

The High School department of the city schools has been discontinued. This step has been taken because of the want of funds to meet the expenses of that and the other departments. In the present deranged condition of affairs generally, it is found impossible to make collections to meet all the expenses of the city schools, and it has been deemed advisable by the Board of Education to discontinue for the present the exercises in the higher department, which is the most expensive. The other departments will be continued as heretofore.

Nashville Dispatch, April 19, 1862.

        19, Items of Western War News: Brigadier-General Lucius J. Polk refuses to muster militia by Governor Harris' order and sick soldiers in Nashville.

Arrest of General Lucius J. Polk.- General Negley has arrested Brigadier –General Lucius J. Polk, of Columbia, Tenn., brother of the late President of W. H. Polk, Esq. General Polk has for several years been a Brigadier of the State Militia, and commanded the Twenty-fourth Brigade of the State. He has never engaged however, in this war against the Union, but has remained in a suppressed condition, as this country seat, six miles from Columbia, Tenn. He has appointed one Abe Looney as his Aid-de-Camp, but Abe joined the Rebel army. When Isham G. Harris-a particular friend of Governor Andy Johnson, and his late predecessor-was on the run from Nashville, he stopped at Columbia to Announce to the people that he was about to take the field as commander-in-chief, and they were called upon to follow him preparatory to  "dying in the last ditch, pike in hand." But the people "didn't see it in that light," though he forged General Polk's name to the order, and neither Polk nor the people followed the chivalrous Governor. The general order to which Harris signed Polk's name reads as follows:

General Order, No. 1.

Headquarters, Columbia, Tenn., Feb. 24, 1862.

To the commanders of the Twenty-fourth Brigade Tennessee Militia:-You are hereby commanded to report the strength of your commands to the Brigadier-General with out delay. You will take immediate steps for their thorough organization, and hold them subject to the orders of the Brigadier-General.

By command of Lucius J. Polk.[13]

Brigadier-General Twenty-fourth Brigade.

A. M. Looney, Aid-de-Camp.

~ ~ ~

Sick Soldiers at Nashville.-There are seven thousand sick soldiers at Nashville. Two thousand of these are from the Rebel army, taken prisoners at Donelson, Bowling Green and Nashville.

Philadelphia Inquirer, April 19, 1862.


Notwithstanding the presence of the Lincoln soldiery in Clarksville, they have been unable to squeeze [sic] out the patriotism of the ladies of that city. A correspondent writes us as follows:

'Secesh girls in Clarksville, Tenn., are conquered but not subdued; for they have, right under the very noses of their Yankee oppressors, formed themselves into a bona fide company, well drilled, which they call, very appropriately, and doubtless in derision of the well-known feats of said oppressors, "The Rebel Masked Battery." They appear on the street frequently in complete Confederate uniform, which consists of rather a short grey dress, blue stripes down the sides, coat sleeves, blue cuffs, tight waists, with blue lapels, standing collars, secession cravats, and the whole profusely trimmed with gold lace and brass buttons, ad infinitum. Turned up black hats with a long black feather in front, with a gold star and white buckskin gauntlets. Complete the dress: deadly pistol and dagger; there are about seventy-five in the company. The Federals are on the qui vive [sic] to find out where the young ladies drill, but that they manage to conceal with woman's usual strategy. Hurrah, for the Clarksville girls.

We suggested that the Feds at Clarksville had

"Better let the girls alone."

Memphis Appeal, April 20, 1862.

        20, "The Reported Federal Mutiny at Nashville."

We have heretofore noticed reports brought to this city, of mutinies among the Federal troops at Nashville. Here is another report, which we find in the Knoxville Register, to which paper it was telegraphed from Chattanooga on the 3d [Thursday]:

A distinguished Missourian, just from Middle Tennessee, brings important intelligence.

He reports that a Kentucky regiment rebelled near Nashville a few days since on account of Lincoln's recent message. Two Indiana regiments were drawn out to suppress them. The Kentuckians ordered them to halt at a distance of sixty yards. The Indianians [sic] refused, when the Kentuckians fired upon them, killing and wounding four hundred. The remainder ran.

They buried, he says, two hundred and eighty who died in six days, last week, near, Columbia from small pox.

He reports the Federal army rapidly becoming demoralized on account of the constant killing of their pickets, and the approach of summer. This is reliable.[14]

Memphis Appeal, April 20, 1862.

        20, The Bank of Tennessee and the United States Court in Nashville

The Nashville Union, of April 20, has these items:

"We are told that the Bank of Tennessee, and perhaps, the other banks, have removed their deposits and all their specie into the Southern Confederacy. If this be so, it is a gross outrage on the rights of the depositors, and the officers should be held strictly accountable. Let it be investigated forthwith. The amount placed in the Bank by depositors amounted, according to its own report, to the enormous sum of $8,865,000. Have the people been robbed of all this by an institution favored with the peculiar privilege by the State?

The April Term of the United States Court for the District of Tennessee will commence on Monday (to-morrow) the 21st inst. His Honor Judge Catron, who is now in the city, will preside. It will doubtless be one of the most deeply interesting Courts ever convened in this country."

New York Times, April 27, 1862.

        20, Death of Wisconsin Governor Louis P. Harvey at Savannah, Tennessee

CAIRO, ILL., April 20, 1862.

President LINCOLN:

Governor Harvey, of Wisconsin, was drowned last night about 11 o'clock at Savannah, on the Tennessee River, while passing from one boat to another. All search for his body had proved fruitless up to the time dispatch left.[15]

W. K. STRONG, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. III, Vol. 2, p. 122.

        20, Observation on the Confederate flag

We saw a young lady on the streets recently with a Confederate flag pinned across her bosom. We guess it was a rebel flag floating over cotton breastworks. [sic]

Nashville Daily Union, April 20, 1862. [16]





        18, Federal occupation of Cainsville [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, below]

        18, Tobacco shortage in Nashville

There is not a single hogshead of tobacco in our city and there has been none received here this season. What a sad contrast with the former years of Nashville!....The like has not occurred in the history of our city for the last twenty-five years!

Nashville Daily Union, March 18, 1863.

        18, "By Grape-Vine and Otherwise"

Gov. Harris is at present a denizen of Tullahoma. He occupies a little white cottage on the out skirts of town, where he received his friends in the truest simplicity of style. His apartment will compare favorably with the 'poet's chamber; described by Goldsmith-albeit an occupant of a different figures. It is a well known fact that he is as generally popular in the army, as he is respected by the Generals. Only a day or two ago, I heard of a distinguished officer in command of a department, having expressed the opinion that the dispatches, letter, &c., transmitted by Gov. Harris to Richmond, evince a clearer military sagacity than those of any one connected with the army of the West. Concerning the lodgings of the Governor, let us hope to see him in his older and more appropriate ones in the Nashville State Capitol before a great while.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, March 18, 1863.

        18, Confederate cavalry hunts Scott County bushwhackers [see also February 7, 1863, Confederates confront bushwhackers in Campbell County above]

We proceeded toward Elk Fork. We came to the place where bushwhackers fired on Col. McKenzie, myself and others on Feb. 7th, and our company left the column and ascended the mountain in two detachments, thinking that we would surround the "whackers" and capture them. We saw some of them on the mountain top before we left the road, but evidently they suspected the maneuver we were on, although we tried hard to keep our movements concealed from them. We reached the top of the mountain some distance on each side of the point where they were seen, and closed in on the spot, but the game was not there. These whackers are hard to catch, as the mountain are rough, and they are well acquainted with every foot of ground.

We burnt the house, which proved to be a bushwhacker's lodge, and moved on after the regiment, but have not overtaken it to night.

Diary of William A. Sloan, March 18, 1863.

        18, Dog tents; an excerpt from the diary of Colonel John Beatty

My brigade is till at work on the fortifications [at Murfreesboro]. They are, however, nearly completed.

Shelter tents were issued to our division to-day. We are still using the larger tent; but it is evidently the intention to leave these behind when we move. Last fall the shelter tents were used for a time by the Pioneer Brigade. They are so small that a man can not stand up in them. The boys were then very bitter in condemnation of them, and called them dog tents and dog pens. Almost every one of these tents was marked in a way to indicate the unfavorable opinion which they boys entertained of them, and in riding through the company quarters of the Pioneer Brigade, the eye would fall on inscriptions of this sort:


General Rosecrans and staff, while riding by one day, were greeted with a tremendous bow-wow. The boys were on their hands and knees, stretching their heads out of the ends of the tents, barking furiously at the passing cavalcade. The general laughed heartily, and promised them better accommodations.

* * * *

Beatty, Citizen Soldier, pp. 231-232.

        18, "…we give them shot and shell on every sid [sic] untell [sic] the hole [sic] of them surrendered." Letter of W. J. Thompson, a private in H Company of the 4th Tennessee (McClemore's) Cavalry, near Columbia, to his family in Marion County

Camped Near Columbia Tenn March the 18th 1863

Dear father & mother brothers & sisters it is throgh [sic] the kind provi dence of god that I have once more the opportunity of addresing [sic] you a few lines to let you know that I am well at present and I do hope these few lines may find you all enjoying the same like blessing I have nothing very strange to rite I received a letter when Johnithen [sic] Harness came to the CO [sic] that is the only correct nuse [sic] I have had from home since I left I rote [sic] an answer and sent it by male [sic] I cant [sic] tell whether you received it or not I suppose that you hear of all the hard fights we have without me riteing [sic] about them I will just remark that on the 5th day of this inst we faught [sic] one of the hardest Battles that I have ever experinced [sic] the Battle [sic] was faught [sic] at thomson[sic] Station that is betwiet [sic] Columbia and nashville [sic] on the rail rode [sic] believe we faught [sic] from ten o'clock in the morning till three o'clock in the eavening [sic] we whiped [sic] them completely there [sic] cavalry all run off and left there infantry our cavalry then run round in the rear of there infantry then we give them shot and shell on every sid [sic] untell [sic] the hole [sic] of them surrendered I have never heard the report of the kiled [sic] on either side but I no one thing the nomber [sic] that surrendered was five redgments [sic] suposed [sic] to be 33 hundred men beside the kiled [sic] and wounded I was over a portion of the battle ground my self and there was at least too [sic] ded [sic] yankeys [sic] to one of our men these ar [sic] facks [sic] that I seen with my own eyes our brigade under general farrist [sic] and general vandorn [sic] command was the men engaged in the fight on our side the evning force was supposed to be grants army from mississippi [sic] come to reinforse [sic] rosencrance [sic] at murfeysburough [sic] we lost nary man kiled [sic] out of our co [sic] one wounded tilmon boyd [sic] was wounded in the leg but not dangeoursly the rest of the co [sic] or all in tolerble good helth [sic] with the exceptions of some four of five that as wounded they ar [sic] geting [sic] along as well as could be expected I received a letter from James Smith in Capt Deakins co [sic] he rote [sic] that he heard from home a few days before he rote [sic] to me he stated in his letter that you was all well except father and that he was sick I want you to rit [sic] as soon as you get this and let me no [sic] how you ar [sic] all geting [sic] along throug [sic] this lonesom [sic] and trubblesom [sic] world I heard that the soldiers had taken all the corn in the valley there without respect of persons if you hav [sic] anything to live upon rite [sic] that if you have not rite [sic] that rite [sic] the truth let it be good or bad if you have nothing to eat rite [sic] and I feel like I would do you justice my contry [sic] justice and my god [sic] justice to come home and make bred [sic] for you altho I feel like it was my duty to fite [sic] for my home and every other man[.] I have made one draw of money James Richard is geting a discharge and is coming home I will send one hundred dollars by him if you need the money in the way of something to live on use it if not pay it to Jesse Tickett towards my horse tell him to credit the note you will no [sic] how to fix that tell aunt [sic] Bobby Hendix that Samuel come to our co some four or 5 weeks ago and was taken sick in a day or to after he come to the co [sic] he is in the horsepittle [sic] at Columbia he had bin [sic] very bad but is geting well col [sic] Starns [sic] is prmoted [sic] to brigadier general [sic] general forrest [sic] is promoted from brigadier to mager [sic] general I would like very much to see home one time moor [sic] but no chance to get a furlow [sic] now I will just have to grin and barit [sic] thare [sic] is but one general that ever can whip the south and that is general starveation [sic] and I dont think we need fear him for I think he will allways [sic] be on our side so no moor [sic] I Still [sic] remain your Son [sic] until death William Hackworth

The Hackworth Collection[17]

        18, An Encounter with Guerrillas South of Memphis


A couple of orderlies sent out yesterday on business down the Pigeon Road to Nonconnah creek were pounced upon by a band of guerrillas, who took from them their arms and equipment and exchanged their good horses for old hacks, paroled them, and allowed them to return.[18]

Memphis Bulletin, March 19, 1863.

        18, "This place is quite dull now." News from McMinnville


McMinnville, Tennessee, March 18, 1863.

Editor of the Observer:

This place is quite dull now. You can see no prospect of a lively time among the husbandry of this part of the country. There seems to be a great dejection among them. This was seems to have relaxed their energies, but I am in hopes that the bright smiles of peace will soon cheer their dispirited souls.

These bright days seem to make Gen. Morgan restless. You need not be surprised to hear of him going to pay his friends a visit in Kentucky. His presence is doubtless desired at the home of Henry Clay, to straighten up things there. The last account from Colonel Cluke, in Kentucky, was that the Feds were after in hot haste. They were after him with 1800 cavalry and infantry. From accounts, his raid has been a brilliant affair….

I am happy to state that there is much greater satisfaction with General Wheeler than I anticipated. He appears to be a high-toned gentleman, and is not at all disposed to retard the glory of Gen Morgan; but on the other hand, he would add, and would not do anything that would be detrimental to Gen. Morgan's interest.

Dr. T. A. Stanford of Gen Wheeler's staff is also worthy of the encomiums of all true soldiers. He is every way affable and polite. He does not presume that every man is posted with the Army Regulations, and patiently explains all mystified points to those who do not understand them. I trust that the two command will cooperate, and by so doing we can do effective service.

The [Chattanooga] Rebel's correspondent, "High Private," in describing the brilliant scout of "old company E,"[19] omitted to mention the most interesting event of the scout, and is that "old Company E" was captured by Capt. Jones's company of Col. Duke's regiment who were sent to Kentucky on a similar expedition who dismounted and disarmed them before the mistake was discovered. Will "High Private" give a full account of this affair in his next?

Great joy prevailed here on last Saturday on account of the arrival of Col. B. W. Duke, who has recovered from his wound, and has resumed his command, and is ready to avenge the wounds received at Shiloh and in Kentucky….

The famous correspondent of the Louisville Courier, and subsequently editor of the Banner at Murfreesboro, has been with me several days. He expects to resume his paper again soon. As a writer Se de Kay [sic] has a wide-spread reputation, and will present to the public an ably edited journal.[20]

Conscripting is going on bravely here. The scouts bring in twenty or thirty every day. They [conscripts] seem to dislike warring very much, but the harder the fight, the sooner the war will come to a close. Don't fail to send the Observer regular, for I like to hear from your patriotic little village often. Look out for good news from the guerilla [sic] Jack Morgan.


Fayetteville Observer, March 26, 1863.

        18, Report of rape in Williamson county

Yankee Demons.-The Shelbyville, Tenn., Banner says that very recently a foraging party of the enemy, escorted by a command of cavalry, visited the premises of Mr. Anthony in Williamson county. The Colonel, Major and other officer entered the house and indulged in the usual freedom and license. At the same time they permitted a number of negro teamsters to seize the daughters of Mr. Anthony, and ravish these unprotected females. Their mother besought the protection of the officers, but these brutal men only cursed her as a d_____d rebel saying that they understood that the husbands of her daughters were in the Confederate service, and they were being served properly thus to be outraged by a race they had enslaved.

Macon Daily Telegraph, March 18, 1863.

        18-22, Reconnaissance, Murfreesborough environs [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, below]

        19, Confederate reconnaissance and skirmish near Readyville

HDQRS., Murfreesborough Pike, March 20 [Friday], 1863.

Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. Corps:

GEN.: On Wednesday [18th] I received numerous reports from reliable persons who came from the enemy's lines, to the effect that the enemy were moving troops from Murfreesborough to Nashville; also that they were sending trains loaded with troops from Nashville to Gallatin; also that they had for some time been sending stores of all kinds north from Nashville, and also that the general impression prevailed that the enemy were falling back, at least as far as the Cumberland, and were to garrison more strongly various points in Kentucky. At the same time I received official reports from Gen. Martin that the same opinion prevailed in his front.

On first hearing these reports, I directed Gen. Morgan to prepare to move his command, and gave him orders to cross Stone's River and attack their flank. I also ordered Gen.'s Wharton and Martin to attack their pickets, and develop any change they might be making. These arrangements occupied nearly all Wednesday [18th] night.

At daylight Thursday [19th] morning I started to reconnoiter the front in person. A portion of Col. [Baxter] Smith's regiment drove in the enemy's pickets at Readyville. I got a fine view of their camps, and could count distinctly some two hundred tents. No doubt many more were there, as they seemed to extend in a wood near Stone's River. I could not see any fires, men, wagons, or horses. I therefore notified Lieut.-Col. [P. F.] Anderson, commanding Smith's regiment, and directed him to press in the pickets again, and report the result. When I hear from him, I will report again. I then rode along our line to Bradyville, and from thence, between our line and that of the enemy, to Fosterville, at which place I arrived at 4 o'clock this morning. After resting about three hours, I went to the front with Gen. Martin, whose brigade had driven in the pickets yesterday, and found the enemy strongly posted.

We have out scouts this morning, and if I find any change, I will press out with the entire force at my disposal.

Some prisoners taken near Bradyville state that they were at the depot at Murfreesborough day before yesterday, and they thought but few troops were moving toward Nashville, but they thought some troops were moving toward Triune or Franklin.

Very respectfully, general, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 717-718.


FOSTERVILLE, March 20, 1863.

Maj. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

We drove in pickets and made a reconnaissance of the enemy's camps at Readyville yesterday at 12 m. I could count about two hundred tents standing. No positive indications in this immediate front of a retrograde movement on the part of the enemy.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 716.

        19, Skirmish at Statesville [see March 20, Action at Vaught's Hill, below]

        19, Running skirmish from Prosperity Church to Auburn [today Auburntown] on Auburn Pike [see March 20, Action `at Vaught's Hill, below]

        19, Skirmish at Richland Station [today Portland, Tennessee][21]

MARCH 19, 1863.--Skirmish at Richland Station, Tenn.


No. 1.--Brig. Gen. Eleazer A. Paine, U. S. Army, commanding at Gallatin, Tenn.

No. 2.--Col. George P. Smith, One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry.

No. 3.--Brig. Gen. Henry M. Judah, U. S. Army, commanding at Bowling Green, Ky.

No. 4.--Maj. Isaac R. Sherwood, One hundred and eleventh Ohio Infantry.

No. 1.

Reports of Brig. Gen. Eleazer A. Paine, U. S. Army, commanding at Gallatin, Tenn.

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Gallatin, Tenn., March 25, 1863.

GEN.: Herewith I send you the official report of Col. Smith upon the railroad attack, on the afternoon of the 19th instant.

I wish to add that Col. Smith and his regiment have been of invaluable service to me in hunting down the outlaws who infest the northern part of this county.

I have just received a dispatch asking why I did not report the occurrence to headquarters. Within ten minutes from my receipt of Col. Smith's dispatch, I sent one to headquarters.

Respectfully submitted.

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.


GALLATIN, March 25, 1863.

GEN.: Your dispatch of to-day is received. Within ten minutes from the time that I received the dispatch from Col. Smith informing me of the attack, I sent the following:

Brig.-Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff, Murfreesborough:

GEN.: A guerrilla band ran the passenger down train from Louisville off the track in Richland woods, about 16 miles from there, this evening. Col. Smith sent some infantry; killed 1, wounded 3, and took 4 prisoners. I think they will get the train through to-night.

Our loss, none. I shall go up as soon as we can get a locomotive.

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen.

Gen., the above dispatch was sent to Gen. Garfield that night and the next day I made a written report to Gen. Garfield upon the matter, referring to my dispatch the evening before.

Gen., I never sent a dispatch or communication to a newspaper, except a few lines to a Chicago paper on the capture of Fort Donelson.

I do not know what was in the Louisville Journal.

E. A. PAINE, Gen.


No. 2.

Report of Col. George P. Smith, One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry.

HDQRS. 129TH ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, South Tunnel, Tenn., March 24, 1863.

DEAR GEN.: As the finale of the rebel raid upon the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, of the 19th instant, near Richland Station (of which I apprised you by telegram of that date), I beg leave to report that the rebels were completely routed and driven from the ground in great disorder. We recaptured moth of the mail, express goods, of which there was a large quantity, and $9,000 in money, which was taken from the train. We also captured 16 guns (Springfield rifle), and should have got a good many more, but whilst my men were pursuing the enemy, a force arrived at the scene of action on a train of cars from Bowling Green, Ky., who picked up the guns which the rebels had thrown away in their flight. Twenty-eight horses and 4 prisoners were captured. One rebel killed. In the retreat, as admitted by the rebels, 18 were wounded, some slightly, others more seriously. One of the prisoners, who was shot through the knee, was peremptorily taken from the corporal who had him in charge, by a medical officer, who claimed to be height in authority, and who, as he said, was going to Louisville.

Gen., it is but just to say of Companies A and K of my command, who are stationed at the stockade, 1 ½ miles from where the train was thrown from the track that they made the distance and were firing against the marauders within twelve minutes from the time they heard the crash and firing upon the cars.

Company A was commanded by Lieut. J. F. Culver, a brave and efficient officer; Company K, by their first sergeant, Charles Margraff.

Most respectfully submitted.

Yours, obediently,

G. P. SMITH, Col., Cmdg.

Brig. Gen. E. A. PAINE.

No. 3.

Report of Brig. Gen. Henry M. Judah, U. S. Army, commanding at Bowling Green, Ky.

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Bowling Green, Ky., March 21, 1863.

CAPT.: I forward herewith the report of Maj. Sherwood, One hundred and eleventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, in command of the detachment sent by me to the scene of the recent attack upon the railroad, near Richland, Tenn.

Although the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois is serving in another department, I feel justified in directing the attention of the district commander to several facts developed in Maj. Sherwood's report. Among them, the rank of the officer in charge of so large a party; its abrupt departure, leaving to my detachment the duty of guarding the train, and the reported possession, on the part of two of the wounded rebels, of passes from Col. Smith, One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois.

My detachment left without supper or blankets, and, excepting a few crackers, were without food for nearly twenty-four hours, during which interval they faithfully guarded provisions of all kinds, including delicacies, a fact which speaks favorably for their discipline.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. M. JUDAH, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

Capt. A. C. SEMPLE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., District of Western Kentucky.

No. 4

Report of Maj. Isaac R. Sherwood, One hundred and eleventh Ohio Infantry.

HDQRS. 111TH Regt. [sic] OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Bowling Green, Ky., March 21, 1863.

SIR: On the evening of the 19th instant, I was placed in command of a detachment of 200 men from this regiment (One hundred and eleventh Ohio), with orders from Brig.-Gen. Judah to proceed immediately by railroad to a point on the Louisville and Nashville road, about 9 miles south of Franklin, between Mitchellville and Richland, where, it was said, the rebels had possession of a passenger train of cars. We reached the spot about 8 p. m.; found the rebels gone, and the train guarded by about 100 men of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois, under command of a lieutenant. The spot where the train was thrown from the track is about 1 1/4 miles distant from the camp and stockade of a portion of Col. Smith's (One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois Regt. [sic]) command. The soldiers in camp were only notified of the outrage by hearing the crash of the falling engine, as it was precipitated over the embankment, and the discharge of musketry, as the rebels fired into the train.

About 10 p. m. the lieutenant in command of the men of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois drew in his men and left for camp. I immediately threw out guards, and, upon learning that the express goods and baggage were left unguarded, sent men to protect it. We finished relaying the track at 11 a. m. the next day, and loaded the express goods and baggage on the freight train which went forward to Nashville, when I returned to Bowling Green with my command, arriving at 4.20 p. m. The major and adjutant of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois visited the wreck about 9 a. m., the day after they outrage.

From the best information I could gather, the outrage was committed by from 60 to 75 men, under command of a Capt. Jones, from Shelbyville, Ky. (formerly of John Morgan's cavalry). An obstruction was placed on the track at a short curve in the road, which threw the engine and two cars from the track. As soon as the train was stopped, the guerrillas fired into it. The passengers (women, civilians, and officers), numbering in all some 200, commenced scattering in all directions, leaving the rebels in quiet possession of the train. Plundering was immediately commenced. They cut open the mail bag and robbed the mail; broke open the express safe and took out the money, and were just on the point of paroling the officers captured, when the men from the camp of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois made their appearance and drove them from the train. In their flight they dropped the largest portion of the money captured and a part of the mail. The men of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois succeeded in capturing 6 men and 4 horses, and severely wounding 1 man. Not a soldier on our side, or a passenger, was injured. The money dropped by the rebels was found; also a part of the mail. Capt. [T. C.] Norris, who commanded a scouting party from my command, found six guns and a small a portion of the lost mail. The guns (two Enfield and two Springfield rifles) I hold subject to your orders; the mail I have forwarded. I was unable to learn from the express messenger the amount of money carried away. But little of the express goods were damaged, and only a small portion missing.

I also learned that the rebels were piloted to the spot by a man living 1½ miles distant (name not known), and that two of the men captured had passes from Col. Smith, of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois.

I am, sir, your most obedient servant,

I. R. SHERWOOD, Maj. One hundred and eleventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 147-151.


Franklin, Tenn., March 20.-The Nashville train was yesterday thrown off track, by the guerillas placing obstructions on the track, by the guerillas placing obstructions on the track four miles above Richland Station, not at Woodburn, as previously stated. The locomotive, tender and two express cars were crushed.

The guerillas fired into rear car, containing women and children. They called themselves Morgan's men. The passengers returned the fire, killing one and wounding three. One passenger was slightly wounded. The guerrillas commenced paroling at the head of the train, and took away the officers' side arms, rifled their carpet sacks, &c. Adams' Express car was robbed of its contents, but part was subsequently recovered. The mail on the train was seized but recovered.

The Conductor ran back one mile, to the station, and the soldiers coming up at the double-quick, recaptured the train and drove off the guerrillas, wounding several and taking four prisoners.

General Brannon and Lieutennant-Colonel McKer were in the rear car, but were neither captured nor paroled, but are safe at Nashville.

Philadelphia Inquirer, March 21, 1862

        19, Skirmish at Spring Hill

Report of Col. Thomas J. Jordan, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

HDQRS. NINTH PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY, Franklin, Tenn., March 20, 1863.

SIR: I beg leave to report that, agreeably to orders, I moved on the morning of the 19th with 330 men, detachments from the Ninth Pennsylvania, Second Michigan, and Fourth and Seventh Kentucky Cavalry, toward Spring Hill, on the Columbia turnpike, at which place I was to meet the command of Col. [L. D.] Watkins that had been sent out on the Carter Creek road. About 4 miles from Franklin I captured 2 prisoners, who informed me that there was division of cavalry (rebel) at Spring Hill.

After sending the prisoners under a guard, with a dispatch to yourself, to headquarters, I moved on carefully to Thompson's Station, and, finding no enemy, I proceeded forward to Spring Hill. My whole command, with the exception of 70 men of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, was deployed as skirmishers and flankers.

Immediately on passing the town, I came in contact with the enemy, about 800 or 900 strong, drawn up on the wooded hill to the right of the road, and a most galling fire was opened by them upon Company A, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry, killing 1 man and very seriously wounding another. I ordered my men to dismount and advance carefully, taking advantage of the fences and irregularities of the ground to shelter them, and, if possible, drive the enemy from their position.

After a sharp conflict the enemy withdrew, and I followed them about 1 mile, when I halted my command till Col. Watkins came up, as I had information that he was near. We then joined our forces and drove the enemy over Rutherford Creek. By this time, as night was approaching, I ordered the horses to be fed, and as a great part of the command had run out of rations, marched back to camp at Franklin, at which place I arrived at 12 m.

The moment the enemy began to retire, I at once sent a dispatch to Gen. Smith, notifying him of the fact.

Respectfully submitted.

THOS. J. JORDAN, Col. Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 150-151.

        19, Skirmish at Liberty

Report of Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan, C. S. Army.

HDQRS. MORGAN'S BRIGADE, McMinnville, March 21, 1863--1 p. m.

GEN.: A dispatch just received from Gen. Morgan, dated Liberty, March 19, says:

Upon reaching Liberty, I found that Col. [W. C. P.] Breckinridge was draw[n] up in line of battle near Liberty. The enemy advanced in force in our front, and also upon our left flank, and attacked our forage train, which is nearly in our rear. Those in our rear are cavalry; those in front, infantry and cavalry. Those in front I shall attack, and hope to capture to-morrow. Send a dispatch to Gen. Wheeler or Gen. Bragg that, from all the information I can get, the Federals are not falling back. The last news from Gallatin is that the trains to Louisville had soldiers to meet Morgan's command, who were reported to have crossed the Cumberland at Gainsborough, but, finding the real condition of things, returned by rail to Nashville. I am pretty certain that there is no probability, or I may say possibility, of their retreat.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Col., Cmdg.


P. S.-As I am not advised of Gen. Wheeler's whereabouts, I have not been able to send this information to him.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 152.

        19, Skirmish near College Grove, and destruction of Federal bridge over Harpeth River

MARCH 19, 1863.-Skirmish near College Grove, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. John A. Wharton, C. S. Army.

HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 19, 1863--9 p. m.

GEN.: Your letter of yesterday has just been received. I have been pressing them for several days, but can discover nothing to induce me to believe they are evacuating Murfreesborough. They are still encamped at the junction of this and College Grove pike, and yesterday my men engaged them 1 ½ miles this side of Salem. To-day a body of 250 picked men from this command, supported by Roddey, drove the enemy away from the new bridge they had constructed over Harpeth, near College Grove, and burned the bridge. The fight lasted several hours. Your orders relative to pressing the enemy's pickets shall be carried out.

Most respectfully, general,

JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 153.


HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 19, 1863--8.30 p. m.

Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. at Shelbyville:

GEN.: Yours of 1.30 p. m. of this date has just been received. My scout has just returned. They went within 1 mile of Salem. They learned that the enemy moved out infantry (the number not known) to Salem last night. The officer could learn nothing of the evacuation, save that he was told that they were moving their wounded from Murfreesborough, and that the negroes [sic] are running to the Yankees, both of which might indicate a retrograde movement. The enemy are at the same position on this pike. I sent 250 picked men yesterday to attack the enemy near College Grove, and ordered Roddey to support them. They engaged the enemy 1½ miles south of College Grove, drove them before them, and burned the bridge which they have just built over the Harpeth, near College Grove. Please advise Gen. Bragg that I have destroyed this bridge. I learn that the enemy sent thirteen transports, laden with troops, to Carthage last Thursday. It may be Gen. Rosecrans is about to adopt my campaign, via Carthage to Kingston, E. Tenn.

I have sent a lieutenant, with three good men, with Mr. House as a guide, to the enemy's rear, passing around to the Wilkinson pike. I will hear from them by 12 m. to-morrow. I have four men now near Triune; will report when they return. The fight at College Grove and its results are very creditable. I have a scout now at Lebanon. I will use every exertion to advise you of the movements of the enemy, and will attack them upon every opportunity. Please give me your suggestions from time to time.

I send you Cincinnati Enquirer of the 9th and 14th instant. One contains the recent elections in New York; the other a speech from Hon. Mr. [George H.] Pendleton, of Ohio.

Most respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.

[P. S.]-Please return the Cincinnati Enquirer of the 14th, as it does not belong to me.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 710.

        19, Confederate scout, Unionville to Lebanon [see March 19, 1863, Skirmish near College Grove, and destruction of Federal bridge over Harpeth River above]

        19, Confederates capture passenger train near Mitchellville

No circumstantial reports filed.

LOUISVILLE, March 19, 1863.

Maj. Gen. HORATIO G. WRIGHT, Cincinnati, Ohio:

Rebels captured passenger train this afternoon near Mitchellsville [sic], Tenn. Col. Streight had men on the train and gave fight. Were fighting at last accounts. Gen. Judah telegraphs he had sent 200 re-enforcements. Train thrown off the track. I am more than anxious to have an additional regiment here. It is important. Can Col. [John S.] Casement come?

J. T. BOYLE, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 153.

        19, Confederate scouts in Middle Tennessee

SHELBYVILLE, March 19, 1863.

Col. [G. W.] BRENT, Tullahoma:

The enemy's lines are being searched at all points closely by the cavalry in my front and other scouts. Nothing decisive has yet been developed, but all that is received indicates a movement of some sort. He has taken in all his troops and pickets on this side Stone's River. I hope to have something definite to-day. My command is kept well posted as to the state of things in my front.


HDQRS. MARTIN'S CAVALRY BRIGADE, March 19, 1863--11.30 a. m.

Maj. THOMAS M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

MAJ.: The parties I sent out to feel the enemy's lines have found that Salem is reoccupied, and the enemy is disposed to push his pickets to the points occupied by them four days since. I had these pickets driven in from 1 mile this side of Salem, on that turnpike, but they were re-enforced to such an extent as to stop the advance of my party. I expect to hear soon from two other parties. The camp-fires last night do not indicate a very heavy force to the left of Murfreesborough.

Very respectfully,

WILL. T. MARTIN, Brig.-Gen.

FOSTERVILLE, March 19, 1863. (Received Shelbyville, March 19.)

Maj. JACK:

My scouts report a strong body of the enemy moving toward Eagleville.

WILL. T. MARTIN, Brig.-Gen.

(Copy of above sent to Gen. Wharton, March 19, 1863--8 p. m.)

CHAPEL HILL, March 19, 1863--1.30 p. m.

Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Shelbyville, Tenn.:

Maj. Johnson has just returned from his scout. He reports finding the Federal pickets, 1 mile this side of College Grove, at daylight. At about sun-up he advanced upon and drove the party from the bridge (the bridge only a skeleton, not complete), and skirmished with him until he burned it. Some time afterward the enemy re-enforced with two regiments of infantry. He fell back, and continued the fight until about 10 or 11 o'clock; then fell back, no one of the enemy pursuing. A Yankee colonel stated to Dr. Webb, yesterday, that their falling back was made to meet a change Gen. Bragg had made, by which move he was likely to get in their rear and cut off their communication with Gen. Grant's army.

Very respectfully,

P. D. RODDEY, Col.

[P. S.]-Rumor says the enemy are fortifying at or near Triune and at or near Dr. Webb's.

HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 19, 1863--10.30 a. m.

Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. at Shelbyville:

GEN.: I have several small and strong parties out, from whom I will gain information. All quiet. Mr. House has arrived and gone. I am much obliged to you for him.

Please have the letters to Col. [H.] Oladowski forwarded. You were advised, at 7 p. m. of yesterday, of the positions of the enemy on yesterday.

Most respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 709-710.

        19, "The Adams Hospital."

We were yesterday taken to the Adams Hospital, on Second street below Adams, by the skillful and energetic surgeon in charge of that immense establishment, Dr. S. L. Lord. The neatness, good order, and attention to the comfort of the invalids manifested in all the arrangements speaks highly for planning thoughtfulness as well as for the unwearying industry of the surgeon in charge, under whose skillful care the hospital was commenced and got into working order. The details of so vast an institution would surprise anyone who looked over it for the first time; for example, there is one of the largest rooms in the block, extending from the street to the alley; the rear fitted up with shelving and used as a baggage room. Here the knapsack and effects of each patient, neatly tied up in a uniform manner is deposited. Each package is ticketed and registered, and it is but the work of a minute to restore to each man as he is discharged from the institution, his individual package. The laundry is an expansive affair, and every corner of it exhibits neatness and [illegible]. The cooking department of this hospital is much better arranged than any other hospital we have examined. Besides the general kitchen for those who can partake of their ordinary food, there is in each story a smaller kitchen for the purpose of such articles of diet as may be necessary for particular cases. Dr. Lord is one of those physicians – would there were more of them – who do not regard the medicine chest as the sole remedial agent in their hands. He is careful that his patients shall have what will assist their speedy recovery. Soups, chicken, boiled fresh eggs and other [illegible] and comforts are prepared in the [illegible] kitchens as ordered by the attending physician. To this strict attention to diet it is probably owing that the deaths have been a minimal percentage of the whole; they have as far averaged only two and a half a day out of a thousand patients. The various wards are at that state which ladies describe as "the very peak of neatness." Carpeting between the beds or rooms prevents noises calculated to irritate the sick; every floor is perfectly clean and no smell was perceptible in any room. Dr. Lord informs us that he is about to establish a library for the benefit of patients who are able to leave, where they have papers, magazines and some books to read. The Adams Hospital is admirably conducted, and Dr. Lord we regard as eminently "the right man in the right place."

Memphis Bulletin, March 20, 1863.

        19, Street Lighting Problems in Memphis; Profit vs. the Public Good

THE GAS LAMPS. – The Council a short time ago appointed a committee to ascertain the reason why the street lamps have lately given so little light. The decrease of light is a matter of common observation. On looking down a lighted street the lamps are seen shimmering here and there, but the streets notwithstanding are in darkness. Even when there is a lamp on each of two corners, crossing it is dark at the center of the two. The difference is very striking to anyone who will contrast the light around a street lamp with that in front of a window whose burner is lighted. The Council committee have reported that the causes of the diminished light is the want of a due pressure on the gas meter at the gas works. Of course, if that pressure is inadequate the amount of gas flowing up the street mains is diminished, and not only street lamps but private burners have a decreased supply. As the company is paid so much a lamp, whatever quantity of gas may be burned, the less the consumption the greater the profit. [emphasis added]The gas burned by private consumers, however, is charged by measure, and to lessen the supply to them is to increase the income of the company. When a light burning in a store is compared with one burning in a gas lamp, the difference between the two is manifest where the pay is increased in proportion to the amount of gas consumed the supply is plentiful; where the profits decrease with the amount consumed the supply is small. The facts point to different explanations of the matter in question from the one given by the committee. A year or two ago a new contract was made with the gas company at their own desire, which took the lighting and cleaning of the lamps out of the hands of the city and put it in the hands of the company, and the city, instead of paying for gas by measurement, paid for it at a fixed rate per lamp. This contract the Council have resolved not renew after termination of the current contract year. It is observable that not only has the amount of light from the lamps been diminished, but they have often been unlighted at hours when their light was most necessary. The present contract makes it to the interest of the company to have the lamps consume as little gas as possible, and we may naturally expect the company to look to its own interests.

Memphis Bulletin, March 19, 1863.

        19, Skirmish with and Capture of Guerrillas near Memphis

Bethel, Tenn., March 19, 1863

A detachment of the 11th Illinois cavalry has just returned to this post from a "scout" and brought with them six guerrillas, said to belong to Captain White's company, who have been committing all kinds of depredations in the vicinity of Riply [sic], and Tippah county, Mississippi, of late.

Among those is a notorious horse thief and robber by the name of S.B. Rodgers, who calls himself a Third Lieutenant of the "gang," and boasts [sic] that he has taken the oath of allegiance a half dozen times, at as many different places.

Our cavalry came upon a camp of about thirty of these guerrillas on Hatchie river, surprised and captured their sentinel, charged into their camp. And after a short, but spirited fight, in which one of the guerrillas was killed and a number wounded, succeeded in capturing six of them together with twenty horses, a number of guns, saddles, &c.

The loss on our side was two wounded, one of them severely,

Your, &c.


Memphis Bulletin, March 25, 1863.

        19, Assurances from Winchester Urging Crop Preparation

We can safely assure our readers, and the citizens of Middle Tennessee, that whatever doubt there may have been heretofore as to our remaining permanently in this section of the country, it is now reduced down to a certainty, that here we intend to stick and fight it out. So let all those who have failed to prepare for a crop, take hold of the plough line; and commence their operations in the earthworks, and plant their corn batteries, which will prove to be as formidable to the enemy, and of as much service to our cause, as though they were real gun batteries. – Winchester Bulletin.

Fayetteville Observer, March 19, 1863.

        19, Marital difficulty in Lincoln county


Whereas my wife Virginia Ann Key has left my bed and board without any just cause or provocation, this is, therefore, to notify all persons not to credit her on my account, as I will not be responsible for any debts of her contracting.

Wm. Key

March 19, 1863

Fayetteville Observer, March 19, 1863.

        19, Barter economics in Lincoln County

SALT! SALT! [sic]


I am authorized to exchange Salt for 600 bushels [of] Corn, for the use of the citizens of Lincoln county. Those wishing to make the exchange will deliver the Corn at the Depot in Fayetteville. Sacks furnished by calling at Shackleford's store. Those having Salt Sacks not yet returned will please bring them in filled with corn, or return the Sacks immediately to Shackleford's store.

W. B. Robinson, County Agent

Fayetteville Observer, March 19, 1863.

        19, A day in Recorder's Court, Nashville

Recorder's Court.

Smoky Row was well represented yesterday morning, there being three defendants and four witnesses in Court. The first case was a charge of drunkenness and disorderly conduct against Molly Brown, who "got drunk first thing, and then commenced rarin' and cussin' an' a cuttin' up, an' kept it up all day. In the evening she brought some soldiers to help her, and then she pitched in." Fined $5 and costs.

Elizabeth Moore and Jane Owens had a slight misunderstanding, which induced Liz. to say suthin' she hadn't oughter, and that tempted Jane to try the strength of her fingers in Liz's hair. A short tussle ensued, when the guardians of the peace appeared, and the twain were cited before His Honor, the Recorder.

Nashville Dispatch, March 20, 1863.

        19, "Since he has been in Tullahoma Bragg has been in the habit of shooting from one to three every Friday evening." Life in Confederate winter camp at Tullahoma

Tullahoma, Tennessee

March 19, 1863

Mrs. T.A. Richards,

Dear and respected Wife, with pleasure I embrace the present opportunity of dropping you a few lines to let you know I am well at present and also to let you know I received your most welcome and interesting letter yesterday evening late which afforded me great satisfaction to hear from you as that is the first letter I have received from you. Since I left home I have written you a letter and sent it by Mr. Spicer and I sent you a nice book. The book was the work of Stonewall Jackson and John H. Morgan and I thought they had time to get home. Before you had written your letter you stated that Grandfather Richards was staying with you. I was very glad to hear that. Tell Grand Pa I want him to stay with you and babe until I come home. That is, if I should be so lucky as to live until this war closes. Sharp, I will tell you what we have got to eat. We have plenty of cornmeal, bacon, pickle beef and fresh beef. Sharp, I am very sorry that I can't send you my Degarotype. [sic]  There is not an artist in town, if I was there I would be sure and have my likeness taken and send it to you. Sharp, tell Jackson Reed's wife that he said for her to do the best she can. Tell Caroline Jackson Reed says for her to rent out the land if she can make anything. He says to tell Caroline that he don't know when he can come, for when a man leaves camp without leave he is put upon a block and shot and he says he would rather risk his chances in camp, for General Bragg has had several men shot. Since he has been in Tullahoma Bragg has been in the habit of shooting from one to three every Friday evening. Sharp, tell mother I am standing a camp life very well. Tell her I would soon rather be at home and to tell you the truth I would a great deal rather be there as to be any where else in this world. Tell Daniel Vince's wife that Daniel was detailed to make shoes for the government and he is in Columbus, Georgia. Tell her that I.W. Vance received her letter and put it in an envelope and sent it on to him. Isham received a letter from Daniel and sent it to her by the Widow Case. Sharp, you said that little Routh would like to see me and play with the buttons on my coat. God send that this horrable [sic] war would end so I could come home and play with her. Sharp, I want you to take mighty good care of little Routh until I come home as I said before if I am so lucky as to live until this war closes. Well I believe that is all that would interest you at present Therefore I will close by saying write to me every chance and I will do the same. As you said if it is not all there you must put the rest there when you go to read it. So no more at present. Remain your cincear [sic] and devoted husban untill [sic] death. Farewell for the present but I hope not forever.

Mr. R.H. Richards

To Mrs. T.A. Richards


        19, Confederate editorial appraisal of the Army of Tennessee

The Army in Middle Tennessee.

We are satisfied that the spring campaign will be opened by a battle in Middle Tennessee. It may come to pass prior to any serious operations on the coast, in front of Vicksburg, or along the Virginia line. It is certainly impending, and has been delayed thus far by the condition of the roads. How well we are prepared for it, the enemy will best able to answer after they have tried us.

Upon the issue of this approaching conflict hang, for a considerable time at least, the destinies of the people of Tennessee. There is no good citizen whose eyes are not turned to it with heart-burning. All of us know full well how seriously it is to affect our political status, how directly it must influence our personal concerns, and how materially its results will touch the most delicate question for the country at large, which rises in the future – that of food. None of us are there who have not kindred, the nearest and and [sic] dearest, and friends the oldest and truest, in that army. It would be strange, therefore, if we were not enlisted into a feeling of the most profound seriousness.

We cannot say that we have heard any expressions of alarm. Not a single apprehension had crossed our own mind, for we have every confidence in the army of Tennessee, and the sincerest affection and respect for Gen. Johnston. We regard also the geography of or probable "situation" as advantageous.

During a recent visit to the camps of our troops, we were struck by the energy which was everywhere manifest. Notwithstanding the gloomy weather, the inactivity, the churlishness of unpleasant quarters, and the various ills generated therein to mind, mood and good feeling, the forces were in the best of spirits. Gen. Bragg, with that rare tact of his, which (notwithstanding we hold ourselves to no especial admirer of his) must be owned a most successful implement of organization, had contrived to amuse the idle hours with various sports and duties, from a dress parade to the execution of a spy. Gen. Johnston was in the very midst of rank and file, making the acquaintance of the regimental officers, showing himself personally attentive to the army, and cheering and encouraging all by his animated, life giving presence. There was that warrior churchman, half a saint and half a soldier, from the far off Louisiana, rising above the multitude of men. Like some temple of devotion, a tower of confidence and strength. – There was the brisk and vigilant, fearless and forcible, senior Major General of Tennessee, with the quiet, but dauntless junior close by him. The boys are always ready to give three cheers for Cheatham, to lift their caps in genuine respect for McCown.

On a review day we saw Breckinridge, who used to be our beau ideal of a Vice-President and who presides as gracefully over a division of soldiers as he did over a chamber of Senators. He and Hardee, by the way, were riding together, and a superb pair they make. Besides these were a host of Brigadiers; but they were not as noticeable; in fact, we do not think so much of the Brigadiers. The glory of the army Generals, are its Colonels - those noble chiefs of clans, whose knightly valor and strong capacity mould the mettle of troops into pure princes, who have received the mission of ancient times transmitted, and hold up the pillars of the Republic as their prototypes of old help up those of the crown; whose barons of a thousand men, chosen by free will for courage, skill and military integrity! Many of them are fit to lead armies, to control States. They are the bone and sinew of the official line in the army of Middle Tennessee.

Of the army itself, let Richmond, Perryville and Murfreesboro', the patient courage, the loyal zeal, the winter march and the summer tramp speak their energies, more eloquent than the words of mouth or scrolls of pen!

Chattanooga Rebel.

Daily Morning News (Savannah, GA) March 19, 1863.[22]

        19-20, Confederate scout, Unionville to Murfreesborough

No circumstantial reports filed.

HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY, Unionville, March 20, 1863--12.30 p. m.

Lieut.-Gen. POLK, Cmdg. at Shelbyville:

GEN.: Lieut. [William L.] Smith, of Company G, and three men from same company, Texas Rangers, with Mr. Lycurgus House, of [W.] Ledbetter's company, First Tennessee Infantry, as a guide, started yesterday at 11 a. m. to the rear of the enemy, to ascertain whether the enemy were leaving or preparing to leave Murfreesborough. They have just returned. They went to Gen. William H. Smith's, who lives 3 ½ miles from Murfreesborough, on the Wilkinson pike.

The enemy are still at Murfreesborough, encamped on the same ground occupied by our troops while there, although the encampments are larger. The sick were moved yesterday, and for several days previous, to Murfreesborough. No evidence that they were taken farther. There was a Federal surgeon at Gen. Smith's whilst the lieutenant was there, and could have been captured if he had been a legal prize, or if his capture would not have invited aggression on Gen. Smith.

Lieut. Smith saw or heard nothing to induce him to believe the evacuation of Murfreesborough was contemplated by the enemy. Yesterday a small brigade arrived at Murfreesborough, from direction of Nashville. Saturday last three brigades and fourteen pieces artillery went on the dirt road in direction of Triune, and have not yet returned.

Night before last a small body of infantry was sent to Salem (no farther), to prevent my cavalry from raids in that vicinity. No troops passed south of Salem yesterday, as you were improperly advised.

A cotton buyer tells the citizens around Murfreesborough that Rosecrans cannot advance, owing to the preponderance of Southern cavalry and the consequent drain upon him to protect his rear.

I have out now four scouts; they will return to-morrow and this evening, and you shall be advised promptly of the result, and I wish you would compliment Lieut. Smith, Mr. House, and party, as they have passed to the enemy's rear at great risk and gained reliable and accurate information.

Fifty men could have ridden as they did to Gen. Smith's, and from there, directly on the pike, as Federal cavalry, into Murfreesborough, and I will have it done yet.

I shall have the enemy's picket at Widow Zane's (your headquarters during the battle), on the Wilkinson pike, captured.

This evening I will send you late papers.

Most respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.

P. S.-Gen. Smith was in Murfreesborough all day yesterday.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 715-716.

        20, Confederate scouts in Murfreesborough, Eagleville and College Grove environs

[MARCH 20, 1863.]

Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Hdqrs. Shelbyville, Tenn.:

GEN.: The scouts sent in the direction of Murfreesborough have returned. They got near Murfreesborough, and still got no information, except from citizens, all of whom seem to think the enemy meditate a backward movement. But so far no actual movement has been made, except that spoken of toward Triune or Franklin. The soldiers are kept strictly within their guard lines. None have been out, except scouting parties on duty since last Friday. My scouts were compelled to return, after getting in sight of Murfreesborough from hills adjacent, for want of guides. The man guiding them took sick and was compelled to return, and they could procure none other in the country; otherwise they would have gone on the roads from Murfreesborough to Nashville, as directed. I wish you would interest yourself in procuring some good company made up in this country to assist us in this vicinity. I am sure I could make it pay well.

Very respectfully and truly,

P. D. RODDEY, Col.

SHELBYVILLE, March 20, [1863]-6 p. m.

Gen. BRAGG, Tullahoma:

I send you the following, received from Col. Roddey:

Nothing further from my scouts. The only excitement to-day is occasioned by the news that the enemy are out with several scouting parties. One party said to be on the Eagleville road, one on the Nashville road, and another our northeast of this place, and we are trying to find out what they are after.


HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, Columbia, Tenn., March 20, 1863.

Maj. K. FALCONER, Adjutant and Inspector-Gen., Tullahoma:

SIR: The dispatches of Gen. Bragg, in regard to the information that the enemy were probably falling back from Murfreesborough, and ordering that I should follow them if true, have been received. I have constantly had scouts in every direction, in front and on both flanks, and although rumors have reached me that such a movement was contemplated, no report of any actual movement of the kind has been made. I have been shoeing my horses and resting them after the very trying forced marches I have recently made. I had informed moving back across Duck River as soon as possible. I had ordered the corps over this morning, but owing to reports that the enemy were advancing this way again, I crossed part of the command last night; the balance are going over this morning. I will get in their rear, if possible, and strike at Franklin, Brentwood, and other points in that vicinity. I can only take, however, about 5,000 men. If no movement is made from Franklin, and none against Gen. Bragg's main position, I would respectfully suggest the propriety of allowing my horses rest for a short time, to gain sufficient flesh and strength for the final contest. I am sorry that I must report that they are not in very good condition now; that is, there are many that are not.

Very respectfully, major, I am, your obedient servant,


P. S.-Scout just in from College Grove and Eagleville reports Steedman's brigade and two regiments of cavalry at Triune, fortifying hill in vicinity. Some troops came from Nolensville to Triune last Tuesday. The impression among citizens near Murfreesborough is that the enemy intend moving back; part of their army has gone across Stone's River.

A deserter from Franklin yesterday states that he heard officers discussing plans for taking Columbia; they had maps, &c., and that preparations were being made for the movement. The enemy had, he says, 9,000 men.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 714-715.

        20, Scout and skirmish on Middleton-Salem Road

NEAR SALEM, TENN., March 20, 1863.

[Brig.-Gen. WHARTON:]

GEN.: In obedience to instructions, I have scouted the Middleton and Salem road, and found the enemy's pickets at Mr. Butler's, about 1 mile from Salem. My advance guard, under Lieut. [C. M.] Pearre, drove in their cavalry pickets back upon their infantry line. Their pickets are only half mile from their encampment. There is a brigade of infantry here, with some cavalry. After driving in their pickets on this road, I made an attack on their pickets on the Murfreesborough and Columbia dirt road, at Stone's [sic] River, about 4 miles from Murfreesborough. I was charged by 200 or 300 cavalry, and forced to fall or retire back, but not until after charging the head of their column and driving them back upon the main body. Their lines are very well guarded. It was impossible to ascertain whether they are evacuating Murfreesborough or not. Citizens report that they are. The Union people are leaving. I will probably not return to camp to-night.


M. L. GORDON, Capt. Wharton Scouts [C. S.A.].

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 717.

        20, Skirmish three miles west of Murfreesboro, on the Salem Pike near the Stones River

On the night of March, 20 they [two new recruits] were on picket, with a squad of others from the regiment, and were placed together on the outposts. This was the last ever seen or heard of them, but about daybreak an attack in force was made on our pickets. The command was ordered out, and the Second and Third [Tennessee Cavalry] placed in a field facing in direction of the attack, then in line of battle marched out very near the place where the pickets were firing, then the Third was ordered to the right, across a field and into a woodland, on a high point. About this time a wild yell was raised by the rebels near the direction in which the regiment was going. It came nearer and grew louder and louder. As yet they could not be seen, being across a ridge. The Third was ordered into a trot, then front into line, which orders were obeyed just in time to meet their charge, forming our line on the top of a little ridge. A volley was fired into them, whereupon they stopped their charge and fell back along on an opposite ridge in a woodland, and within easy range. Here the two commands stood, neither yielding an inch, and neither advancing, for over [an] hour, all the while pouring the shot into one another's ranks with all the fury to be commanded. Their fire was too high, the balls striking into the trees a little above us, and knocking the bark and rotten wood down upon us. Being called upon rather unexpectedly, we were not very well supplied with ammunition, but had enough to stand the ground for some time. While thus engaged, another body of rebels passed in [the] rear of this command opposing us, endeavoring to get into our camps, but they were met by the Fourth Indiana Cavalry and driven back. I remember that while the firing was hot and rapid, the balls making almost a clattering a dead oak near me, knocking the rotten sap wood over us. I heard apparently a larger ball than the others come lower and make a loud and distinct "sap" into something. Turning my head, I saw old James Carver of Company "B," trembling and pale, pulling back on his reins. I felt sure that he was badly wounded, as did others, but in a few minutes he got back a few feet in rear of the line, when his horse fell dead.

At length Col. Ray came up and finding the ammunition scarce, ordered us to fall back; but the orders was not readily obeyed, the men standing firm to their places. A cloud arose some distance in [the] rear coming toward us. It was easy to understand that reinforcements were coming, so Col. [D. M.] Ray countermanded his order. A battery and two Illinois Infantry regiments came and we were soon masters of the situation. In this engagement, as hot as it was and as long as it lasted, our regiment did not lose a single man killed. Some colored people told us afterwards that they saw the rebels carrying four of their dead off the field. Whether this was all and how many were wounded, of course, we could not learn. The Second Tennessee lost one young man killed on picket.

….I stood by the side of Sergeant George Wade. An elderly man [a civilian] continued to load his carbine, get behind us and fire across at the rebels. We didn't like this and at length threatened to shoot him if he repeated it, ordering him up into the line. Then he told us of killing a rebel, that he saw him fall. When the affair was ended we went over and there was no appearance of any of them ever having been at the place he pointed out to us.

The fight ceasing and the rebels withdrawing, we went back to camps, each man relating the wonderful thing he had seen and laughing over the ridiculous occurrences. And, after a fight everything that happened seems to present itself in some ridiculous way, so that incidents occurring in cold earnest and very serious at the time are laughable when the affair is over.[23]

Knoxville Daily Chronicle, May 24, 1879.[24]

        20, Attack on Union positions on Stones River, near Murfreesborough [see March 20, 1863, Scout and skirmish on Middleton-Salem Road above]

        20, Action at Vaught's Hill, near Milton

MARCH 20, 1863.-Action at Vaught's Hill [a.k.a., "Battle of Milton], near Milton, Tenn.


No. 1.-Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Maj. Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds, U. S. Army, commanding Fifth Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.

No. 3.-Capt. Alexander A. Rice, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., U. S. Army.

No. 4.-Col. Albert S. Hall, One hundred and fifth Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade.

No. 5.-Col. Henry A. Hambright, Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, commanding Third Brigade, First Division.

No. 6.-Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Brigade.

No. 7.-Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan, C. S. Army.

No. 8.-Capt. J. D. Kirkpatrick, Ward's Ninth Tennessee Cavalry (Confederate).

No. 1.

Report of Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, U. S. Army.

MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., March 21, 1863--1 a. m.

Gen. Reynolds reports from Col. Hall's brigade, on a scout near Milton, on the road to Liberty, that he was attacked this morning by Morgan's and Breckinridge's cavalry, about eight or ten regiments. After a four hours' fight he whipped and drove them, with a loss to us of 7 killed and 31 wounded, including 1 captain. The rebel loss was 30 or 40 killed, including 3 commissioned officers, 150 wounded, and 12 prisoners, including 3 commissioned officers.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

No. 2.

Reports of Maj. Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds, U. S. Army, commanding Fifth Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.


COL.: A brigade from Gen. Granger's command is about starting to re-enforce Col. Hall. Gen. Thomas is not in. Will you authorize the movement? Have just heard from Hall. He was in a good position, and holding the rebels off, but I fear they will greatly outnumber him.

J. J. REYNOLDS, Maj.-Gen.


COL.: About 12.30 p. m. a messenger arrived from Col. Hall, saying that he was attacked at Milton, and threatened with being surrounded by a large force of cavalry, and requesting our mounted men. The mounted men are all out foraging. I sent a request to Gen. Stanley for 1,000 cavalry, which were ordered from department headquarters (Gen. Stanley being out). Gen. Granger offered to send Hambright's brigade, and I called to see Gen. Thomas to authorize it, but found him out. It was authorized by department headquarters. I have only about 500 men in camp, and have sent them with four pieces of artillery to Hall's aid. Messenger arrived half an hour since. Hall had moved to a good position, and was holding his own, but evidently outnumbered. Hall is said to be about 12 miles from here.

J. J. REYNOLDS, Maj.-Gen.


COL.: Dr. [O. Q.] Herrick and Capt. Blair have just returned from Milton. Hall is all right. He was surrounded by a superior force of cavalry and five pieces of artillery. He took a good position, fought them four hours, and drove them off handsomely. Our loss 7 killed and 31 wounded. Among the killed is Capt. [A. C.] Van Buskirk, One hundred and twenty-third Illinois. Rebel loss 30 to 40 killed and 150 wounded; among the killed 3 commissioned officers. We have taken about a dozen prisoners, including 3 lieutenants. Our re-enforcements are all up, and Hall may give the rebels a punch to-morrow morning. Morgan, Wheeler, and Breckinridge were present.

Very respectfully,

J. J. REYNOLDS, Maj.-Gen.

No. 3.

Report of Capt. Alexander A. Rice, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., U. S. Army.


COL.: Col. Hall has with him about 1,500 infantry and two pieces of artillery. Is 3 miles this side of Milton. Was attacked this morning in the rear. Says he has seen the enemy in large force both on his right and left, and thinks he is being surrounded. Says the enemy are all mounted, and asks for re-enforcements of cavalry. Gen. Reynolds called on Gen. Stanley for 1,000 cavalry, and is now gone to find Gen. Thomas, to get a brigade of infantry from Gen. Granger's division, as Col. Wilder's brigade are all out. Strength of enemy not definitely known.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ALEX. A. RICE, Capt. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

No. 4.

Report of Col. Albert S. Hall, One hundred and fifth Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade.

HDQRS. 2d BRIGADE, 5TH DIVISION, 14TH ARMY CORPS, Murfreesborough, Tenn., March 22, 1863.

SIR: Having completed the reconnaissance begun on the 18th instant, I hereby report the operations of my command.

I left camp, with two days' rations in the haversack and two on pack mules, with the following force: One hundred and twenty-third Illinois Infantry, Col. James Monroe commanding, 18 officers and 313 enlisted men; Eightieth Illinois Infantry, Col. Thomas G. Allen commanding, 18 officers and 365 enlisted men; One hundred and first Indiana Infantry, Lieut. Col. Thomas Doan commanding, 19 officers and 353 enlisted men; One hundred and fifth Ohio, Lieut. Col. William R. Tolles commanding, 18 officers and 245 enlisted men; one section of the Nineteenth Indiana Battery, Capt. S. J. Harris commanding, and Company A, of Stokes' cavalry, Capt. [Joseph H.] Blackburn commanding, giving me a total strength of infantry of a little over 1,300. My orders were to "reconnoiter the enemy and strike him, if the opportunity offers."

On the night of the 18th, I occupied Cainsville, taking 2 prisoners; making that night an unsuccessful effort to surprise a small rebel camp and failing by the mistake of a guide.

Early the next morning [19th] I took the Statesville road, finding the enemy's pickets; captured 2 of them. At Statesville my advance was met by a force of 150 or 200 rebel cavalry; a slight skirmish took place here, in which a sharpshooter from the One hundred and fifth Ohio mortally wounded one of [J. M.] Phillips' rebel cavalry. The enemy retired slowly down Smith's Fork toward Prosperity Church, on the pike. I followed very cautiously, skirmishing the ravines, and upon reaching the pike wounded 2 of Smith's ([Eighth] Tennessee) cavalry and captured 1. Half a mile from this spot, down the valley toward Liberty, a regiment of rebel cavalry, re-enforced by those whom I had driven from Statesville, was in line of battle across the valley. A small cavalry picket was also seen on the pike toward Auburn. I rested my command at Prosperity Church about two hours.

Becoming entirely satisfied that a large rebel force, under Morgan's command, was massed in the vicinity, and that I should be attacked by the next day [20th] at the farthest, I determined to choose my own ground for the engagement, and accordingly at dusk I moved my command to the high ground to the rear of Auburn, bringing me 3 miles nearer Murfreesborough, leaving the rebel regiment wholly unmolested, by skirmishing my way to Auburn with 40 or 50 rebels, whom I found had occupied the place during the afternoon. Of this force I wounded 1 or 2, and they retired on the Woodbury road. That night the enemy's pickets confronted mine on every road leading from my position, and a large force advanced in the night [19th] from toward Liberty and encamped in the vicinity of Prosperity Church. Knowing that the enemy largely outnumbered me, I determined to draw him as near Murfreesborough as possible, and to reach a fine position near Milton, 7 miles from my Auburn camp.

I moved at light [20th], and upon reaching the high ridge, 3 miles from Auburn, halted twenty minutes to fill canteens and view the enemy's advance. He was 2 miles behind me, but showed himself in no great force. Making on this ridge some demonstrations which would indicate a purpose to stay there, I dropped suddenly down the slope toward Milton, and passed 3 ½ miles of open, level country at a quick but steady step, occupying one hour, bringing me through Milton with the head of my column within 500 yards of the spot I desired to reach. Throwing two companies of the One hundred and twenty-third Illinois and half of Blackburn's company of cavalry into the edge of the town as skirmishers, and posting lookouts on my flanks and rear, I put a Napoleon into position, stacked arms, and awaited the enemy's pleasure. In twenty minutes his advance was visible in the eagle of the pike, beyond Milton, about 1,500 yards away, and was promptly scattered by a shell from Harris. A few minutes later the enemy advanced, dismounted, and attacked my skirmishers in the village. By this time a large force was visible, and two heavy columns began passing, one to my right and one to my left, on the gallop. At this moment I started three messengers for the general, to apprise him of my whereabouts and to ask him for a re-enforcement of cavalry. Placing the Eightieth Illinois into position to take care of my right, and the One hundred and first Indiana my left, I drew my skirmishers gently back, re-enforcing them with three more companies of the One hundred and twenty-third Illinois, so as to cover the center, and set Harris to shelling each column as it passed, supporting his guns by the One hundred and fifth Ohio. As the heavy flank movements of the enemy made it necessary, I drew the whole command slowly back, converging my flank regiments to a line with my center along the top of the hillock, where I had determined to make a stand. The heavy column passing to my left was two or three times cut in two by Harris, but from the nature of the ground was enabled to pass out of range. The column on my right was forced to come nearer and run the terrible gauntlet of Harris' fire, which killed and wounded them at every shot, and finally ran against a volley from the Eightieth Illinois, which killed and wounded some 30 men and 8 horses, and but for an unwarrantable delay on the part of the officer commanding the Eightieth Illinois, in giving his men orders to fire, would have been substantially destroyed. As it was, the terrible raking given it by the artillery, and the volley from the Eightieth Illinois which it finally received, quite effectually extinguished its valor and boldness, so that a thin line of skirmishers and part of Blackburn's little company was all that was necessary to control them thereafter.

Each of my regiments came into position on the crest, just as I directed, without confusion or delay; but there was no time to spare on my left. Here the enemy dismounted, and advanced with all the precision, boldness, and rapidity of infantry drill. The blow struck the One hundred and first Indiana and the left wing of the One hundred and twenty-third Illinois. The first attack was at once repelled; but the enemy, quickly re-enforcing his line of skirmishers, renewed it with double force and determination, rapidly advancing his main line. At this moment some confusion was manifest in the One hundred and first Indiana, but the gallant example set the men by their field, line, and staff officers, by the unflinching One hundred and twenty-third Illinois, and the opportune arrival from the right of five companies of the Eightieth Illinois and one of Harris' guns, enabled me to check the disorder. Every man returned to his post and fought to the last. The enemy gained no advantage; the advance he made by it cost him dearly.

The enemy now opened on my center with four pieces of artillery, and vigorously attacked my rear, but was repulsed at the rear by Capt. [W. S.] Crowell, with one company of the One hundred and fifth Ohio, and Capt. Blackburn's company, dismounted. The enemy's artillery assisted in driving the enemy from my rear. The engagement was now general. My line encircling the hillock, inclosing us within 5 acres of space, was entirely surrounded by the enemy, and every reachable spot was showered with shot, shell, grape, and canister. Meantime Harris was not idle; with one gun on the crest, he swung it as on a pivot, and swept them in every direction, and Lieut. [W. P.] Stackhouse, with the other gun on the pike, swept everything within his range. Artillery was never better worked. Again and again the enemy tried to break our devoted circle, and continued the unequal contest upon me steadily from 11.30 a. m. till 2.15 p. m., when, seeing it was of no avail, he drew off his cavalry to my front, leaving but a small force on my flanks; and, desisting from the attack with small-arms, continued to play his artillery till 4.30 p. m., when he finally withdrew it also. He, however, continued to so far occupy the ground outside of my line as to prevent me from taking his slightly wounded or the arms left by him. He collected the most of them and took away all the men, except those within rifle range of my lines that were not dead or mortally wounded. The enemy left upon the field, of men and officers, 63, including 4 captains and 2 lieutenants, dead or mortally wounded; and from an interview with four surgeons, left by the enemy, I learned that the wounded carried away cannot be less than 300, among whom were many officers, including Gen. Morgan, slightly wounded in the arm; Col. [J. W.] Grigsby, arm broken; Lieut.-Col. [Thomas W.] Napier, thigh broken; Lieut.-Col. [R. M.] Martin, flesh-wound in the back, and many officers of lower rank. I am myself satisfied, from a personal examination of the ground, that the enemy's loss is not less than 400. To this could easily have been added a large number of prisoners if my cavalry re-enforcements had reached me in due time. Col. Minty, of the Fourth Michigan, commanding cavalry re-enforcements, reached me about 7 p. m., at dark, and after the enemy had wholly left. I am most credibly informed that Col. Minty received his order to re-enforce me at about 1 p. m., and I submit to the inquiry of my superior officers why it should take Col. Minty six hours to make the distance of 13 miles over one of the best roads in Tennessee. The gallant Col. Hambright, with his brigade of infantry, reached me within thirty minutes after the cavalry had reported.

I have brought into camp fifty-three stand of arms, taken from the enemy, 10 prisoners, and 8 horses. The wounded and prisoners who fell into our hands represent nine regiments, including three of mounted infantry, and there were at least three regiments of the enemy held in reserve during the entire engagement, 1 mile in front. The fatal force of the enemy could not have been less than 3,500. The surgeons declined to disclose the force, and one wounded officer placed it at 4,000. Among the enemy's dead was a mulatto, killed on the advance line, fully uniformed and equipped. My loss is as follows: Killed, 1 captain and 5 enlisted men; wounded, 1 lieutenant and 41 enlisted men; prisoner, 1 enlisted man; missing, 7 enlisted men. Of the number wounded but few are serious, and many will not need hospital treatment. The missing were all inside the lines when the engagement began. They undoubtedly ran away to the rear, and are either captured or are in the woods on the way to this camp. The detailed reports of regimental commander are forwarded herewith, together with a plat of the route passed over and of the field of battle.[25]

I directed the citizens to bury the rebel dead and brought my own into camp. [emphasis added]

The hard fighting of the day was done by the One hundred and first Indiana and the One hundred and twenty-third Illinois, but I feel profoundly thankful for the prompt and gallant co-operation which every officer of the command gave me, and too much praise cannot be given to the men of the entire command for their soldierly conduct. Capt. W. R. Tuttle, of the One hundred and fifth Ohio, my acting assistant adjutant-general, and Lieut. Sanford Fortner, of the One hundred and first Indiana, my aide-de-camp, rendered me the most valuable assistance on every part of the field. Capt. Blackburn, of the First Middle Tennessee Cavalry, deserves especial praise for his daring and efficient conduct during the scout and engagement. I desire also to make especial mention of Private J. H. Blackburn, Company A, First Middle Tennessee Cavalry, for the prompt and intelligent execution of my orders in bearing my dispatch from the point of attack to division headquarters, at Murfreesborough, and also of Private Edward Potter, Company E, One hundred and fifth Ohio, for the faithful and prompt management of my train of pack-mules, so placing them that not an animal was lost, and for his valuable assistance as an orderly on the field.

I have the honor to be, very truly, your obedient servant,

A. S. HALL, Col., Cmdg. Second Brigade.

No. 5.

Report of Col. Henry A. Hambright, Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, commanding Third Brigade, First Division.

HDQRS. THIRD BRIGADE, March 22, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report, for the information of the general commanding, that, in compliance with orders received from division headquarters, at 1 p. m. on the 20th instant, I placed my command in readiness to move immediately, provided with two days' rations and all reserve ammunition.

At 2 p. m. orders were received to report to Brig.-Gen. Reynolds, commanding Fifth Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, and from him I received orders to move, as rapidly as possible, to re-enforce Col. Hall, commanding a brigade, who had been attacked at Milton, 15 miles distant, and was reported as being surrounded by the enemy and out of ammunition.

In accordance with these instructions, I moved forward with my command on the [Cainsville] pike at 2.30 p. m. Forded Stone's River at a point near the pike, which occasioned a delay of about an hour, and, pushing rapidly forward, arrived at the point designated at 8 o'clock p. m.

After reporting to Col. Hall, and being informed that our cavalry were unable to discover any traces of an enemy, I selected a position and bivouacked my command for the night, after throwing out proper pickets and taking necessary precautions against surprise. On the morning of the 21st, a cavalry reconnaissance was ordered.

They scoured the country around as far as Liberty, and reported no enemy in sight.

From information received from citizens and others, I was convinced that the enemy had been warned of our approach, and, not wishing to renew the fight, had fallen back. Deeming it unnecessary to remain longer at that point, I ordered Col. Hall, after taking care of his own killed and wounded, and the killed, wounded, and prisoners of the enemy, to take the advance and return to Murfreesborough. I moved next with my command, the cavalry protecting the rear.

I have no casualties to report in my brigade. I arrived in camp at 8 p. m.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. A. HAMBRIGHT, Col. Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Cmdg.

No. 6.

Report of Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Brigade.


SIR: In obedience to orders received from the major-general commanding cavalry, I marched with the First and Second Brigades at about 2.30 p. m. yesterday for Milton, for the purpose of assisting Col. Hall, commanding a brigade of infantry, who was supposed to be surrounded by Morgan's force. I moved at the trot, and arrived at Milton a little after 6 p. m. I found that Col. Hall had repulsed the enemy, who had retreated at 4 p. m.

I immediately moved to the front, and scouted the country thoroughly for a couple of miles, without finding any trace of the enemy. I bivouacked near the infantry, and covered them in all directions by strong pickets.

This morning [21st] Col. Hall was full of the idea of surrounding and capturing the enemy's force, which he supposed was at Cainsville, Statesville, Auburn, Prosperity Church, Liberty, or Snow Hill. I declined moving until I could gain definite information of the direction of their retreat, and to that end sent out the following scouts: Col. Long, with the Fourth Ohio, to Cainsville; Lieut.-Col. Sipes, With the Seventh Pennsylvania, to Statesville; Lieut.-Col. Murray, With the third Ohio, to and beyond Auburn, and Capt. Tolton, with the Fourth Michigan, to take position at the junction of the liberty and Las Casas [sic] pikes, to protect Col. Murray's rear.

The enemy had not been seen in Cainsville or Statesville for some days. At Auburn, Lieut.-Col. Murray found a scouting party of 6 men; pursued them for a couple of miles without result. He learned that Morgan had fallen back to Snow Hill, leaving Breckinridge's battalion as an outlying picket at their old camp, this side of Liberty.

Col. Murray brought in 2 prisoners, a private of Duke's regiment, whose horse had broken down, and 1 of [R. M.] Gano's regiment, found at a house, wounded.

The force which attacked Col. Hall was:

Duke's regiment...................................... 350

[Adam R.] Johnson's regiment................ 250

Gano's regiment...................................... 350

Breckinridge's battalion (say)................. 250

Smith's and two other regiments from Wharton's brigade, most likely the Fourteenth Alabama [Battalion], under Lieut.-Col. Malone, and [John R.] Davis' Tennessee Battalion,

say 350.......................................... ….. 1,050

Total..............................................  …. 2,250

Two brass pieces (one rifled and one howitzer) and two small mountain howitzers.

The infantry left Milton for Murfreesborough at 12 m. My scouts returned at about 2 p. m., when I had horses fed and followed the infantry, arriving in camp at about 8 p. m.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. H. G. MINTY, Col., Cmdg. Brigade.

No. 7.

Report of Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan, C. S. Army.

LIBERTY, March 21, 1863.

We attacked the enemy at Milton on yesterday morning; drove them 2 miles. They were largely re-enforced, and maintained their position. The fight lasted six hours. Our loss heavy in officers.

The Federals are reported advancing upon us again to-day. If they should, will fight them at this point. Will send a regiment to Lebanon to-day if enemy do not advance.

Col. [R. M.] Martin, who has just returned from the Murfreesborough and Nashville pike, reports that the Federals are not falling back.


JOHN H. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen.

No. 8.

Report of Capt. J. D. Kirkpatrick, Ward's Ninth Tennessee Cavalry (Confederate).

AUBURN, March 20, 1863.

We have had rather a warm time to-day. Our loss is great; do not know how much yet; perhaps 125 killed and wounded. Do not know the enemy's loss. They were re-enforced with a large force, and we had to fall back. They are not pursuing us.

Yours, very respectfully,

J. D. KIRKPATRICK, Capt., Cmdg. Ward's Regt. [sic]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 152-160.

The account of Major James A. Connolly, 123rd Illinois Infantry of the Battle of Milton

Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 28, '63

Dear Wife,

As our Lieut. Col. is going back home in a couple of hours I will write you a hasty letter...I received your letter...on the 20th and the time and place of its reception brought me great pleasure.

It was near sunset, the air was still loaded with the sulphurous [sic] smoke of battle, the rattle of musketry and booming of cannon were still ringing in my ears; the dead and wounded lay scattered around me; the browned leaves were marked here and there with little pools of blood where some poor fellow offered up his last sacrifice; our wearied men lay upon the ground in line of battle narrowly watching the dense cedars in our front where the enemy had hid themselves the last time we drove them back. I sat on an old log, my faithful mare near me, still quivering with the excitement of the battle, and as I sat there musing on the fortunes of the day that had lost us one of our bravest captains and two of our best lieutenants, I could see in the distance, the long lines of the enemy commence to move slowly away from us; just then a courier dashed up from our camp at Murfreesboro, his horse covered with foam, bearing with him the mail of our regiment, and also the news that our precarious situation had been heard of at our camp 14 miles distant, and that heavy reinforcements were then on the road to succor us.

But when that mail was distributed I found your letter, and forgot all about war's alarms; occasionally, however, I would look up from the page to glance at the retreating enemy. What better time or place could there have been for me to receive that letter.

It thrills one to feel that his side has won a victory. I never felt it so completely before....and it was the redoubtable Morgan we whipped and sent flying from the field, with a bullet mark of ours on his arm.

He expected to make another Hartsville affair of it but was mistaken in his men. The last letter I wrote you was the evening before we started on our expedition. We started next morning and marched about 15 miles  when we bivouacked for the night; early the next morning we started forward again, expecting to meet the enemy, our regiment being in the advance. I was immediately ordered forward with 3 companies of our regiment deployed as skirmisher to engage the enemy's pickets and drive them in. We went ahead about a quarter of a mile when my men poured a volley into a squad of cavalry which unhorsed one whom we captured, the rest flying in confusion. Moving on some distance farther we came in sight of a heavy force of the enemy drawn up in line of battle, and we halted; our brigade commander came up and concluding the enemy were too strong for us, the whole column about-faced, bringing us in the rear, and marched back. We bivouacked that night on a wooded hill near Auburn, Tenn., expecting to be attacked during the night, but we were not molested, although the enemy's scouts were all around us all night and kept most of us awake.

In the morning we resume our march toward Murfreesboro, moving very cautiously, our regiment still in the rear, and we could see the scouts of the enemy following us all morning. About 9 o'clock in the morning we passed through the village of Milton, Tenn., and halted on this side to rest. In a few minutes the enemy appeared in small force in the village. A shell was thrown at them which caused them to leave suddenly, but in a few minutes they reappeared in greater force. I was then ordered to take 3 companies of our regiment back to the village and open up a skirmish with the enemy, which I did. I concealed my men behind houses and fences in the village and kept up a skirmish fire about 20 minutes, in which two of my men were wounded, but the enemy's cavalry being about to surround us I brought my men back to the regiment. By this time the enemy had disclosed his full force and was filing around on our right and left, in plain view, for the purpose of surrounding our entire brigade. Our brigade kept falling back in line of battle, my 3 companies being in the rear covering the retreat. In this way we fell back about a mile, the enemy keeping up a fire on us and making several ineffectual attempts [sic] to charge us with cavalry to break our lines. Finally we reached a rocky hill on which our little brigade of about 1100 fighting men determined to make a stand and await the attack of the 4000 or 5000 rebels under John Morgan.

We had but few minutes to wait until on they came rushing suddenly upon the 101st Ind., which was on our left, and causing some confusion, but the 101st boys fell in with ours and soon drove the enemy back into the cedars; another charge came upon our front and we drove them back; again they charged on the on the left, but by that time the 101st Ind. was reformed and they punished the enemy terribly.

The fighting continued from 10 o'clock in the morning to 4 in the afternoon. The pommel of my saddle and one of my holsters were carried away by bullets. I then dismounted and in a few minutes they shot away the collar of my overcoat, leaving it in rags and knocking me down, but it didn't' hurt a bit. The next day we returned to camp bringing our dead and wounded with us We had 6 men killed on the field and about 30 so severely wounded, two of our killed being officers. The enemy's loss in killed, wounded and prisoners was about 400. [emphasis added]The battle of Milton will not figure among the big battles of the war, but we flatter ourselves that it will be worthy of mention as a handless victory. They deliberately made the attack with force enough to completely surround us, we had no protection, and they expected to gobble us up as they did the Hartsville brigade but Morgan failed for the first time.[26]

* * * *

Three Years in the Army of the Cumberland, pp. 43-45.

        20, "I would like two flannel shirts with flannel collars." Clothing and medicinal needs in Murfreesboro, excerpts from Gershom M. Barber's letter from Murfreesboro

Head Quarters Sharp Shooters

Murfreesboro Tenn, March 20 1863

My Dear Wife

Mr. A Honey will be coming along soon to join the company. I have written to him to call on you and bring whatever you may desire to send. Lieutenant Pickard has made the same request I would suggest that you and Mrs. Pickard write and port up a small box. I would like two flannel shirts with flannel collars. A buff vest and one night-shirt and a few little items of luxuries. Send as you may have and can spare. We can get a great many things here very reasonably. I wish you would send my brandy flask and send me about a quart of good brandy. I need it for medicines and cannot get it here less than $5 a quart and good for nothing at that. The little stock of medicines I brought with me….Nearly all of us have to take a turn of diarrhea and some have regular dysentery. He have had about twenty cases of measles hear [sic]….

Don't send any other clothing than I have named as I could not do anything with it and would have to throw it away….

Barber Correspondence

        20, "Juvenile Crime."

Yesterday, three boys, Daniel Griscoll, fifteen years old, "Daniel." twelve years old, and "Sub," eight years, entered the Senate Restaurant, on Jefferson street, while the waters waiters were in the back room and stole twenty-five dollars from the till. On obtaining the money they hired a hack, and were enjoying a drive around town when they were taken. They gave up the remainder of their money, and Mr. Coy, with a forbearance that will do them no good, on account of their tender years, declined to prosecute. A dozen new pocketknives, a very large quantity of necklace beads, and a new coat, doubtless all stolen, were found upon them.

Memphis Bulletin, March 21, 1863.

        20, "…I just wish you could see our camp. it [sic] is one of the most beautiful places you ever saw;" Frank M. Guernsey's letter home to Fannie

Memphis, Tennessee

March 20th, 1863

My Dear Fannie

I have nothing to do in particular this afternoon and I know of no more pleasant way to pass a leisure hour than by writing you. I wrote you a few days since which you will probably receive in due course of time. I have nothing in particular to write, no news, nothing but the same old routine over day after day, yet still I am enjoying myself very well, this free and lazy life suite me this warm and pleasant weather. I have not done any duty since I was sick and am as well as I ever was, but I have played off as long as I dare for this time. I shall return to duty to-morrow shure [sic].

Fannie I just wish you could see our camp. it [sic] is one of the most beautiful places you ever saw. the [sic] trees are now fully leaved out, rearing their tall and graceful forms majestically towards heaven, affording a most pleasant retreat in the shade of their broad branches from the scorching rays of a southern sun, and I assure you the boys enjoy and appreciate it.

Glen just came into my tent and of course I had to stop and have a long talk with him as usual. He is well and sends his regards to you all. Fannie what do you think of the 32nd Regiments being ordered to Wis. to spend the summer. There is such a report in our camp that we are to be ordered to Wis. to enforce the conscription act, though I hardly dare believe it, it is to good news, there is however some truth in the reports for our Regmt. [sic] has been recommended as one of the three to go. if we do go I pity the poor Fellow who tryes [sic] to resist the conscription for our boys are soldiers every bit of them, and they would obey orders though the streets flowed in blood and these are the kind of men who ought to be sent on such business, Fanny, men that will not see the laws trifled with, if men are too big cowards to sacrifice a little ease and comfort and their lives if need be for their country they are too big cowards to live and enjoy the rights and protection of her laws. Those are my sentiments. You know the good book says "He that is not for me is against me" so that will not take up arms in the defense of his country and the protection of her rights is a traitor as deep as any of old Jeffs [sic] crew, if we do come north you may calculate on seeing a pair of blue pants (as the Memphisites [sic] call us) just about as quick as the law allows. Oh, wouldn't I enjoy myself while I was there. I would get a furlough as long as I could and make you a good visit [sic] and all the rest of my friends, then we would get your dear mother to give you a good long furlough so you could repay my visit. I guess we could manage some way to enjoy ourselves, dont [sic] you Fannie.

Fannie, enclosed you will find a picture of your soger [sic] boy. I was down town the other day and had one taken so that you could see that secesh had not entirely worried me out yet. We have got our mail very irregularly for a week or two past in fact I have received none at all for nearly three weeks. It is probably going to Vicksburg, but we are in hopes of getting it regulated soon, but it is nearly night so that I must close. So dear

Fanny I will bid you good by for this time. Please give my love to all your people and accept much for yourself

I am

Yours affectionately

Frank M. Guernsey

Guernsey Collection.

        20, J. A. Rogers, assistant surgeon, 28th Tennessee Regiment, in Tullahoma environs, to his father

Near Tullahoma March the 20th 1863

Dear Papa,

I find myself seated for the express purpose of writing you a few lines they have me well with this hope that they may find you all enjoying the same good health I have no news of much importance to write though it is Rumored here today that the Yankees have attacted [sic] Charleston I don't know how reliable the rumor is our forces at Port Hudson have defeted [sic] the federal fleet with considerable loss our loss trifling this place is few miles  about Baton Rouge I saw the other day the Yankees pass through here that Van Dorn captured at Spring Hill there was a large squad of them I wrote this to you the other day If you have not received that letter before you get this you can send to________for it. I sent it by Capt. Bandy in care of A. Vick Lebanon to be forward [sic] to C. A. Winters I have not wore my shoes yet I had my boots mended I think that they will do me a month or so yet. When I wrote for the shoes I thought that I could not get them [illegible] you too send the hat the first chance you have I will need it by May send me another pair of socks also I Believe [sic] that is all the clothing that I want. I am acting asst. surgeon I have been doing so for the past five weeks I could be the ass't. If it was possible for a first course student to be Assistant Surgeon myself & Dr. Wilson have our hands full now the Big base considering we have from 75 to 90 on the sick list every day. I am getting along as well as I could wish I will have to quit write [sic] soon and give me all the news S. S. Stanton is Col. and D. C. Crook Lt. Col.____[sic] Smith major of this Regt. [sic] It goes by the name of the 28th Tennessee Regt. [sic] Quit I must Read all you can and guess at the rest [sic]

We are in Wrights' Brigade Chethams [sic] Divison Polks [sic] Corps

J. A. Rogers

TSL&A Confederate Collection: Box 11, Folder 14,

Letters, Rogers, Joseph Anderson et al.

        20, The Public Debate on Sanitation in Memphis [see March 6, 1863,"'SANITARY ARRANGEMENTS.' Editorial approval of street cleaning initiative in Memphis" above and March 24, 1863, "'The Dirty Street Theory;' the pre-germ-theory debate on public health in occupied Memphis," below]

City Sanitary Measures.

In consequence of a mandate from Gen. Veatch requiring a larger force to be put to work cleaning the streets than at present employed, a meeting of the city council has held yesterday.

Ald. Mulholland, who had been very active in having the district committed to his case well cleaned, was of the opinion that a full force should be set to work, to have every alley and street thoroughly cleansed.

Alderman Merrill addressed the board at length, repeating his experience gained in the city of Natchez and in this city during the yellow fever period of 1855. He was of the settled opinion that the process of removing the filth lying in the alleys and gutters, at a time when the warm weather was just coming upon us, is one of the most fearful danger. Observations made in New Orleans with the microscope had shown that such street filth was filled with myriads of animalcule. These little creatures were devouring the filth among which they subsist, but when the filth was removed and thrown out so as to expose it to the sun and air, those creatures die and become a mass of putrifying [sic] corruption loading the air with poisonous exhalations. The cleansing process now proceeding should have been performed during the winter. To expose the filth to the air at this period, the speaker declared as a medical man, replete with disease and deaths. [sic] He hoped the board would not underrate [?] the dreadful responsibility of uninviting death to hold horrid carnival in our city- desolating households, sweeping away every away families, bring death and weeping into every house. For his own part he would not, he could not be a sharer in a responsibility as awful. To avoid it he would if necessary, after giving as solemn a warning as was in his power to do, resign his place at the Board, lose his personal liberty, and meet death itself. He spoke what he knew, what experience in this and other southern cities had taught him. The opinions of northern physicians, totally unacquainted with the peculiarities of the Southern climate were on weight in the case. He had, not only in conversation, but in repeated communications in the newspapers in 1855, before the yellow fever broke out, predicted what was coming. The soil was then turned up, and miasmatic affluvia [sic] filled the air, and disease and death was the consequence. Alderman Mulholland was of opinion that a committee should be appointed to wait upon General Veatch and call his attention to the facts he had adverted to, and consult with him generally upon the subject, which was agreed to.

Alderman Drew wished to have an ordinance passed forbidding citizens to throw slops or refuse from their houses into the streets.

Alderman Merrill warned the Board against taking measures that would lead to such articles having poured down in the yards and cellars of private premises. Whatever objection there might be thought to exist against depositing such substances in the open air in the streets, there were innumerable and most important objections against placing them in holes and corners where they would become hotbeds of disease. The official report of the Council, which we publish,[27] explains what steps were taken by that body. We may tomorrow have some remarks to make on Dr. Merrill's theory of street cleaning.

Memphis Bulletin, March 21, 1863

        20, Sanitation measures taken by the Memphis Board of Mayor and Aldermen

* * * *

Ald. Drew offered the following:

Resolved, That the Mayor issue his proclamation prohibiting and forbidding in future the throwing into the streets, alleys and gutters of this city any offal, filthy water, or any substance whatever calculated to produce sickness or uncleanliness, and that the Chief of Police see that said proclamation is enforced, and, further, that the Police Chief be held responsible in their respective wards or beats for any violation of the Mayor's proclamation under this resolution.

Ald. Merrill offered the following as an amendment to the above, and the same was accepted by Ald. Drew, and the resolution was amended adopted by the Board.

That all slop water be required to be emptied into the middle of the streets and alley, and that all offal be deposited in heaps to be taken away by the city carts.

Thereupon the Board adjourned.

L. R. Richards, City Registrar

Memphis Bulletin, March 21, 1863.


We referred in yesterday's Bulletin, to the recent raid upon Tennessee Bank notes. We also stated that one of the banks – the Gayoso Savings Institution, itself the creature of the legislature of Tennessee – had refused to receive Tennessee Bank notes of a denomination under five dollars. It appears that our pointed reference to the affair created quite a stir among the bankers, and the result was, a meeting yesterday morning, at which the act complained of was confessed, but the responsibility of the same disavowed by the head officer of the offending Institution. There was another good resulting from this meeting, which is made apparent by the following rule of action laid down for the future government of all bankers and brokers in this matter:

We, the undersigned, bankers of Memphis, do agree to receive and pay out as heretofore, notes under five dollars on good banks of Tennessee, where they are not mutilated; and we further agree to use as above the traditional parts of dollars notes of the Bank of Tennessee. This we do because of the [late?] practice of some dealers throwing them out. We know they are as good as large notes, and they are needed for use; and by refusing them many poor people will suffer and no good arise. Every argument for their use, and none against it.

I.R. Kirtlan, Presd.

E. M Avery, Cashier

Jesse Page, Cashier

Bolling & Co. Brokers

The action is a step in the right direction. It is what should have been done long ago. There can be no propriety in holding the large notes of the Tennessee Banks at a heavy premium, and at the same time refusing to receive as good the small notes of the same banks! [sic] Merchants who are comparative strangers, seeing the small notes refused, would not only get an unfavorable opinion of our small currency, but also the larger notes, and the ultimate, if not [the] immediate result would be, the depreciation of the whole! – greatly to the injury of everybody except those who make money by its depreciation. It was this consideration – it was because the causeless opposition to Tennessee bank notes originated not with strangers, but with the managers of an institution deriving its existence to a Tennessee legislature – that we felt called upon to expose it, and thus to save from loss, immediate and remote, the great mass of our people. We regretted the necessity of calling attention to the matter, but none rejoice more than ourselves that apologies have been made for the past, and that a better course has been marked out for the future.

Memphis Bulletin, March 20, 1863.

        20, "Markets and Monopolies."

On Tuesday night, in the City Council, Ald. Morgan took a position respecting certain articles sold in the market here that appears worthy of attention. The nature of the matter may be judged from an ordinance offered by Dr. Merrill which provides that it shall hereafter the law [require?] any person, property licensed, of course, will be required, to sell any article of food in any portion in the city at times of the day, just as they sell other merchandize. This [looks?] fair enough, and the reader on pursuing the ordinance will be apt to say certainly, why not? The "why not" is answered in the city ordinance regulating markets, which says no one shall sell any fresh meat, except game in any other part of the city, than in the market at any time. They may sell a quarter of beef, or a half of a pig, sheep or other animal (the city ordinance says "any other animal whatever," but as we do not eat cats, dogs or horses, the provision is not used as extensively as it might be) out of market but to cut off legs [illegible] steaks is strictly forbidden by the combined wisdom of the City Fathers of Memphis. It may seem difficult to understand how a man may innocently sell half a sheep at his store, but be guilty if he sell a leg of mutton; or sell a quarter of an ox but not one of the steaks cut from the quarter. These are nice distinctions and very profuse; doubtless fathomless as the "philosophy of the unconditioned" and the mysteries of theology [?]. The mind is lost in amazement as [he ponders secrets (?)] so bewildering [?], and looks with admiring wonder toward those city fathers, whose power is so great, and to explain so small. The ordinance introduced by Dr. Merrill was considered in Council on Monday, and rejected with profundity wise and mysteriously wonderful distinction between halves and quarters and steaks and [illegible], still remain monuments of profundity and sagacity.

Memphis Bulletin, March 20, 1863.

        20, J. G. M. Ramsey offers interest bearing bonds to fund the Confederate war debt

Office of Depository,

Knoxville, Tenn., March 20, 1863.

I am directed by the Secretary of the Treasury to give public notice that all Treasury notes not bearing interest, and dated prior to Dec., 1, 1862, are entitled to be funded at this office in eight per cent. coupon bonds up to the 22d April ensuing. Notes which bear date subsequent to Dec. 1, 1862, can be funded in bonds at the rate only of seven per cent., or in stock certificates bearing a like interest. Interest bearing notes of $100 each will still be exchanged for the $20, $50, and $100 issues of the Hoyer and Ludwig plates.

East Tennessee papers copy to April 22, and send duplicate bills to this office for payment.

J. G. M. Ramsey, Depository

Knoxville Daily Register, April 18, 1863.

        20, Guerrilla attack on locomotive train above Richland Station


Franklin, Tenn., March 20.-The Nashville train was yesterday thrown off track, by the guerillas placing obstructions on the track, by the guerillas placing obstructions on the track four miles above Richland Station, not at Woodburn, as previously stated. The locomotive, tender and two express cars were crushed.

The guerillas fired into rear car, containing women and children. They called themselves Morgan's men. The passengers returned the fire, killing one and wounding three. One passenger was slightly wounded. The guerrillas commenced paroling at the head of the train, and took away the officers' side arms, rifled their carpet sacks, &c. Adams' Express car was robbed of its contents, but part was subsequently recovered. The mail on the train was seized but recovered.

The Conductor ran back one mile, to the station, and the soldiers coming up at the double-quick, recaptured the train and drove off the guerrillas, wounding several and taking four prisoners.

General Brannon and Lieutennant-Colonel McKer were in the rear car, but were neither captured nor paroled, but are safe at Nashville.

Philadelphia Inquirer, March 21, 1862

        20-21, Reconnaissance, Unionville environs, Wilkinson pike, and road between Murfreesborough and Triune, [see March 21, 1863, Skirmish near Triune below]





        18, Skirmish near Maryville

FEBRUARY 18, 1864.-Skirmish near Maryville, Tenn.


No. 1.-Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army, commanding Fourth Army Corps.

No. 2.-Col. Edward M. McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Division, Army of the Cumberland.

No. 1.

Report of Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army, commanding Fourth Army Corps.

LOUDON, TENN., February 19, 1864.

GEN.: Col. McCook reports that his scouts met about 30 of the enemy a mile the other side of Maryville yesterday [the 18th] and drove them back, killing and wounding 5. They report a large body of the enemy's cavalry encamped 4 or 5 miles from Maryville, near the Sevierville road.

Col. Jacquess reports this morning from Lenoir's that there are no indications of the enemy between that place and Maryville, and that a citizen who came for 15 miles down the north side of the Little Tennessee River last night says he saw no enemy, and heard of none, but citizens were expecting the rebels and were much frightened.

Reports from Sweet Water corroborate the above.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 407.

        18, Skirmish at Mifflin

No circumstantial reports filed.

        18, Skirmish at Sevierville

No circumstantial reports filed.

        18, Confederate scouts near Rockford

McCULLOCH'S HOUSE, One Mile above Rockford, on Little River, February 18, 1864--1 p. m.


GEN.: I have the honor to report that I have found no facts confirmatory of the report made to me by the servant, and which I communicated to you last night.

A small rebel scout of 17 men came into Rockford yesterday and remained but a short time. They represented that the force they came from was up at the mouth of Ellejoy Creek. Just as the head of the column reached Rockford the advance guard met another rebel scout of about 15 men coming in from the same direction toward Rockford. They ran at once and made no stand, nor indicated in any way that they were near a supporting force. It is about 4 or 4½ miles up the river road to Kennedy's Mill, at which point the main road from Trundle's Cross-Roads to Maryville crosses the river. From here I will send a scout of 200 up to Kennedy's Mill. I can get better information of their movements at the crossing places of the river than I can by scouting in the direction of Maryville, and can protect my communication with Knoxville. I will not send a scout toward Maryville.

All the information I can get from citizens corresponds with the theory that they are not moving on an expedition, but merely moving in our rear for forage.

An officer I had in charge of a courier line from Motley's Ford to Maryville has reported to me that when he left Col. McCook's headquarters about noon of day before yesterday the river was not fordable; that it had risen 2 feet above the fordable point.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, pp. 422-423.

        18, Federal scout to Kennedy's Mill [see February 18, 1864, Confederate scouts near Rockford above]

        18-19, Scout from Ooltewah, Tennessee to Burkes and Ellidge's Mills, Ga.

FEBRUARY 18-19, 1864.-Scout from Ooltewah, Tenn., to Burke's and Ellidge's Mills, Ga.


No. 1.-Capt. William C. Harris, Thirty-eighth Illinois Infantry.

No. 2.-Capt. William W. Van Antwerp, Fourth Michigan Cavalry.

No. 1.

Report of Capt. William C. Harris, Thirty-eighth Illinois Infantry.

HDQRS. THIRTY-EIGHTH ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS, Ooltewah Station, Tenn., February 20, 1864.

CAPT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of a scout made by a detachment of the Thirty-eighth Illinois Volunteers and a detachment of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry:

In obedience to orders from brigade headquarters, the command started at 10 o'clock at night, February 18, 1864, the infantry and cavalry moving together for 7 miles. At that point the cavalry took a left-hand road that came in the main Burke's Mill road, 1 mile from the mill. The infantry proceeded on the straight road to the mill. The cavalry arrived at the point where the roads come together before the infantry. It was then getting light, so the captain commanding the cavalry thought it would be imprudent to wait for the infantry.

The first picket was found near Burke's Mill. The cavalry charged on them, and captured 2 of the number. A detachment of cavalry was sent to Cherry's Mill, 1 mile from Burke's Mill, where they found a picket station, and captured 6 men, among the number a lieutenant.

Orders having been entirely complied with, the command marched back, infantry and cavalry together, on the road the infantry went out on, by Salem Church. Upon arriving near Mr. Smith's residence, the command halted and got breakfast and rested.

There was 1 lieutenant, 7 soldiers, and 5 citizens captured. Capt. Van Antwerp, commanding the cavalry, will report the number of horses, mules, and arms captured. They are in his possession.

The night was a bitter cold one. The command suffered a great deal. The officers and men endured the march without a murmur, and did their duty very well. The cavalry was especially active and vigilant.

The command arrived in camp at 2.30 p. m., February 19, 1864.

I am, captain, your obedient servant,

W. C. HARRIS, Capt., Cmdg. Thirty-eighth Regt. [sic]

No. 2.

Report of Capt. William W. Van Antwerp, Fourth Michigan Cavalry.

HDQRS. FOURTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY, Camp Stanley, Ooltewah, Tenn., February 19, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that in compliance with orders I moved from camp on Thursday evening at 10 o'clock with 100 men of my command, and joined the Thirty-eighth Illinois Infantry, Capt. Harris commanding.

Subsequently we moved out in conjunction, my command in advance, in the direction of Burke's Mill.

About 1 a. m., when 6 miles from camp, we halted until 4 o'clock, when we again moved forward. After proceeding 2 miles we separated our commands, the infantry taking the road to the right and my command taking the road to the left. Before separating it was understood that we would form a junction 1 mile this side of Burke's Mill.

When I arrived at that point it was some time after daylight, and deeming it imprudent to delay operations I did not wait for the infantry, but pushed forward. When within 200 yards of the mill I observed the rebel picket, and immediately charged with my command, going through and about 100 yards beyond the gap, in which charge I captured 3 of the enemy. As near as I could learn the post was picketed by 4 men.

I then returned with my command to the mill, picketed the front and flanks, and sent out a detachment of 30 men, under command of Lieut. C. T. Hudson, to Ellidge's Mill, and one of 15 men, under command of a non-commissioned officer, to Cherry's Mill. After an hour's absence Lieut. Hudson returned, having charged a picket of some 30 men near the mill, 6 of whom he captured, 1 a lieutenant. The detachment sent to Cherry's Mill also returned in the course of an hour, but without having seen any rebels.

The infantry having joined us in the mean time, we started back at 8 o'clock, and marched steadily until within 5 miles of our camp at Ooltewah, when the command was halted for one hour and a half to afford the men an opportunity for rest and refreshments.

At 12.30 o'clock we resumed the march, and arrived in camp at 3 p. m.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. VAN ANTWERP, Capt., Cmdg. Fourth Michigan Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 407-408.

        19, Entry in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County

What a negligent creature I am I should have been keeping a journal all this time to show to my rebel brothers. I have been studying all the morning and talking all the evening seeking & sighing for rebels. Our king (Old Payne) has just passed. I suppose he has killed every rebel in twenty miles of Gallatin and burned every town. Poor fellow! you had better be praying old Sinner! His Lordship left Tuesday. Wednesday three wagons loaded with furniture came over. I do not pretend to say that he sent them. No! I indeed, I would not. I would not slander our king. Any old citizen can see by going to his (Paynes) [sic] palace that his furniture was not taken from Archie Miller's house & other places near by. He always goes for rebels but invariably brings furniture. [sic] I suppose his task is to furnish the contraband camp, i.e. the camp of his angels (colored)

Alice Williamson Journal[28]

        19, Federal medical report relative to wounds suffered at the battle of Lookout Valley

Report of Surg. Daniel G. Brinton, U. S. Army, Medical Director.


SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report on the action of the medical department of the Eleventh Army Corps at the battle of Lookout Valley, or Wauhatchie:

On the morning of the 28th October, 1863, the Second and Third Divisions of the Eleventh Corps broke camp at Whiteside's Station, on the Chattanooga and Nashville Railroad, and followed slowly and cautiously the wagon road that leads over a spur of Raccoon Mountain into the Valley of Lookout Creek. At any moment the enemy might appear and an engagement commence. At any moment the medical officers might be called on to provide for the wounded. Accordingly, the acting medical director, Surg. Robert Hubbard, Seventeenth Connecticut Volunteers, was engaged with the surgeon-in-chief of the two divisions in looking for favorable locations for a field hospital, and in providing for the most economical employment of the medical and hospital stores on hand. There was urgent need of such economy. The command had left Bridgeport with no other transportation than the ambulances. No hospital tents were taken, and not only was there a very limited amount of medical stores, especially stimulants, on hand when they marched, but a portion of these, through an error of the ambulance officers, had been left behind.

No enemy was seen until well on in the afternoon, when the troops had passed the junction of the Trenton and Chattanooga Railroad, and entered a dense belt of woods that at this point stretched across Lookout Valley.

Here we came upon the enemy's outposts, and an irregular picket firing ensued. Our cavalry was withdrawn; the Second Brigade of the Second Division deployed in skirmish line and ordered to advance, while a portion of the First Brigade followed the railroad track on the right. The enemy made no resistance, but fired their guns toward the advancing line and hastened to make good their escape.

The casualties, from their irregular fire, amounted to 1 killed and 3 slightly wounded. A frame house, with spacious verandas, about 2 miles in the rear, had been chosen for a provisional field hospital, but only 1 of the wounded was sent there.

Before sunset the troops had reached their destined camping grounds, the Third Division being located in the valley, opposite what has since been called Tyndale's Hill, and the Second about half a mile nearer the river, on the main road. Near Wauhatchie Station, Gen. Geary, with the Second Division of the Twelfth Corps, was encamped. The ambulances of the Eleventh Corps were parked with the ammunition train, near the Second Division. The night was clear and the moon almost full. Shortly after midnight our slumbers were disturbed by rapid musketry in the direction of Geary's command.

The Third Division of our corps was immediately ordered to move at double-quick to their assistance; but hardly were they fairly under way when a volley from the two hills which [are] on either side of the road leading over Lookout Mountain to Chattanooga, showed that the enemy were upon our flank. The Third Division was immediately ordered to stop, face toward the hills, and take the one on the south of the pass, while the Second Brigade of the Second Division was directed to take by assault the hill north of the road. These orders were at once executed, the enemy making but little resistance at the former, but so much the more determined and obstinate opposition at the latter point. Here was where we had our principal loss, and here the battle was decided, as the enemy was aware that this was the key to the position. This position lost, they at once retired and the firing ceased. This was 2.30 a.m.

In the meantime, a site had been chosen in a woods about a mile north of Tyndale's Hill, close to and on the right of the road to Brown's Ferry, convenient to wood and water, for a field hospital; fires built, candles procured, straw collected from a neighboring barn for beds, amputating tables knocked together, and all the stores of the different regiments deposited there, the whole under charge of Surg. W. H. Gunkle, Seventy-third Pennsylvania Volunteers. The moment the firing ceased the ambulances were put in motion for the scene of action, and plied to and fro until daylight. [emphasis added]

At earliest dawn I rode over the field of the Second Division, and so well had the ambulance corps performed its duty that I found only 3 wounded still on the field. One of these was a Confederate, shot in the knee, in whom the collapse was so marked that the ambulance men had supposed him dying. A second had received a musket ball in the head, which entered posteriorly, carrying away a large fragment of the left parietal bone and much of the corresponding lobe of the brain. The man was senseless, but groaning piteously. He was laid in an adjacent cabin, and lived until toward evening.

At the hospital 109 wounded were received, and entered upon the list. Of these, 3 were Confederates. Four amputations were performed, two of thigh, one of the upper third of humerus, and one of three fingers. Eight died at the hospital. The whole number of deaths are not received [in this office. Those who died at the hospital were buried in the field across the road, while those who were killed outright were interred at the foot of Smith's Hill. All these were subsequently exhumed, and the remains transferred to the national cemetery at Chattanooga. At that time (February, 1864), there were 30 bodies found, but a number had been taken North by their friends.

As soon as it was clear that we should have a number of wounded, the acting medical director sent to Chattanooga for a barrel of whisky and other supplies. We had hardly received them ere orders came to send all the wounded at once to the general field hospital over the river. By the middle of the afternoon few were left on this bank. In consequence of this the statistics above given are not correct. Many of the wounded were never entered on the records of the hospital.

Some primary operations were not performed there. The results of all are unknown. I shall not offer guesses, but conclude with some observations of a general character.

All the wounds recorder were by small-arms, except some contusions, and one shell wound. The latter must have been from the battery on Point Lookout, as we used no artillery during the affair, while the artillerists on the mountain dropped their shells with the greatest impartiality over the field.

In such an action as this, if anywhere, we would look for bayonet wounds. Here was a charge--a hand-to-hand contest literally; some of the contusions were given by clubbed muskets. Not a bayonet wounds is recorder. I looked for them, but neither saw nor heard of any. There was none. [emphasis added]

The case of Col. (now Brig.-Gen.) Underwood Thirty-third Massachusetts Volunteers, merits especial mention. A conical ball entered externally a few inches below the great trochanter, passed through the soft parts horizontally, fractured the upper third of the femur, passed out and into the dorsum of the penis, [emphasis added] whence it, together with a piece of bone the size of a half pea, which it had carried with it, was extracted by Surgeon Hubbard. A few days after the affair he was taken to Nashville, and at the present writing, I am informed, the bone has united, the wound closed, and the general health good, though the injured leg is 4 inches shorter than before. The treatment was perfect rest, good diet, and an unmovable position of the wounded extremity.

I have the honor, sir, to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. G. BRINTON, Surgeon, U. S. Volunteers, Medical Director, Eleventh Corps.

Surg. GLOVER PERIN, U. S. Army, Medical Director.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, pp. 99-101.

        19, The Needs of Post Confederate East Tennessee

What Tennessee Wants.-Parson Brownlow states the wants of Tennessee, as follows:-

"We want tin and stove shops, with stock to carry on business. We want house-carpenters and cabinet makers, with materials to carry on. We want boot and shoe shops. We want tanneries, for we have the bark and hides. We want tailors, blacksmiths, machinists, and all manner of laborers. Union mechanics, to take the place of a vile set of rebel lickspittles who have had their day, and whose proscriptive course and persecution of loyal men forbids that they should ever do business here again. We want school-teachers, physicians, and preachers who are loyal to the government of the United States. All such men, and many of them, should settle now in this country of fine scenery, productive soil, pure water and a salubrious atmosphere.

Boston Daily Advertiser, February 19, 1864. [29]

19, "I love to hear them sing …." Observations on Slave Religious Services. An Extract from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain

~ ~ ~                                           

On the Sabbath evening I attended the services for the blacks. I felt great interest and we had a pleasant meeting and I trust a profitable one. I do hope some soul was brought to feel its need of the cleansing blood of Jesus. [emphasis added] Mr. Robinson sang a verse of two of that beautiful hymn Jesus I my Cross have taken. After the sermon the communicants were invited to come forward. Some 12 or 15 came forward and took their seats. To me it was peculiarly solemn having been permitted that morning the refreshing of my own heart at the table of the Lord and I felt here are our servants whom God in his infinite wisdom and for purposes known alone to him as bond servants can come and know of the love of Jesus.

I think the blacks sung Alas and did my Savior bleed. They sung that evening with greater spirit Jesus my all to Heaven is gone. I love to hear them sing on earth and I know I shall love to hear them in heaven when the spirit shall be disrobed of the clay tenements which they now inhabit and we shall all see Jesus upon the throne. Christ will them make all free. [emphasis added] To me this is a delightful thought to meet with the members of my dear family-my husband, by children, my servants at the right hand of God.

Fain Diary.

        20, Skirmish on the Sevierville Road, near Knoxville

FEBRUARY 20, 1864.-Skirmish on the Sevierville Road, near Knoxville, Tenn.


No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Milo S. Hascall, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Lieut. Col. Robert Klein, Third Indiana Cavalry.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. Milo S. Hascall, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. THIRD DIVISION, TWENTY-THIRD ARMY CORPS, Knoxville, Tenn., February 21, 1864.

MAJ.: While I was visiting my command on the other side of the river yesterday the enemy attacked my picket-post on the Sevierville road, and showed themselves rather prominently on all the roads. I thought it best to ascertain what was in our front, and accordingly took the Fourth Tennessee Infantry, under Maj. Patterson, about 150 to 175 men, and the left wing of the Third Indiana Cavalry, under Lieut. Col. Robert Klein, about 200 men in ranks, and started out on the Sevierville road, the infantry in advance. About a mile out we encountered the enemy's outpost, which was promptly driven away by the infantry. As soon as we had the rebels fairly started in retreat I directed Col. Klein to go forward with his men and press the enemy vigorously till he ascertained how much force they had. He at once obeyed the order and fell upon them with great vigor, pushing them back about 2 or 3 miles farther. Finally, with two companies, he charged upon the Fourth and Eighth Tennessee [rebel] Cavalry, and succeeded in cutting off some 200 of them, but could only bring off 10 of them, 1 of whom was the adjutant of the Eighth Tennessee. Having now ascertained from citizens and the prisoners taken that it was two brigades of Martin's [rebel] cavalry that we were contending with, and not deeming it prudent to push any farther with my small force, as compared with theirs, I directed them to withdraw. Col. Klein lost 6 men wounded, 1 of whom will die. The whole affair was very well executed by Col. Klein, and proves him to be a remarkably efficient officer. His men behaved themselves also in the most creditable manner.

There were no casualties in the infantry force.

I forward the report of Col. Klein.

All which is respectfully submitted.

MILO S. HASCALL, Brig. Gen. of Vols., Cmdg. Division.

No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Col. Robert Klein, Third Indiana Cavalry.

HDQRS. LEFT WING THIRD INDIANA CAVALRY, Near Knoxville, Tenn., February 21, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report the following as the part taken by my command in the affair of yesterday on the Sevierville road:

After the enemy's outposts were driven in beyond our vedette station, by Gen. Hascall's order I passed to the front with four companies. Leaving one company to guard against a movement around to our rear. I soon met the enemy in considerable force and skirmished [both mounted and dismounted] with them, driving them slowly, until by a charge we drove in the Fourth and Eighth Tennessee Cavalry to where the remainder of their force was dismounted and in line. Here I had every man in hotly engaged, when finding the odds too great against us, I thought it prudent to withdraw, which was done in good order.

As fruits of the engagement I brought off 1 adjutant [Eighth Tennessee] and 9 men, 10 horses, some arms, &c. My loss was 6 men wounded [1 mortally], 12 horses left on the field, 6 stand of arms. The enemy's loss was greater; so far as could be observed, 5 known to be killed. We had at once as many as 200 men cut off, but were too weak to hold them.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBERT KLEIN, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 409-410.

        20, Skirmish on Holston River

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

        20, Skirmish at Flat Creek

No circumstantial reports filed.

        20, Skirmish at Strawberry Plains

No circumstantial reports filed.

        20, Newspaper report on life in Knoxville environs during Longstreet's campaign



Knoxville, E. T., Feb. 9, 1864.-The Rebels sent in a flag of truce on Saturday evening from Strawberry Plains, asking permission to remove four or five families from Knoxville within the Rebel lines eastward.

A person well informed as to the conditions of affairs in Central and East Tennessee states that there will be some two or three thousand families which will be liable to be sent out of the Rebel lines, provided a retaliatory measures are adopted for the sending away of obnoxious families from Knoxville. The mind recoils from a contemplation of the suffering which must fall upon so many women and children…. [emphasis added]

The latest news direct from the Rebel lines by a deserting citizen prisoner from Jonesboro' represents the Rebels as very busy, and as relentless as death in carrying on conscription in that region. All persons from sixteen to fifty-five or sixty-in other words, any who can stand and go-are forced into the Rebel ranks. [emphasis added] Provisions are very scarce among residents and a kind of distribution of what remains, or leveling process, has been adopted, those having anything left in their smoke-house or corn-crib having it distributed to those who have none. The railroad is fast repairing and a large party is employed upon it as far down as Greenville [sic]. They are reoccupying the old saltpeter caves, and hunting up all the old hands capable of working them.


Philadelphia Inquirer, February 20, 1864

        20, Public health initiative taken by the U. S. Army in Memphis

SPECIAL ORDERS [sic] NO. 83[30]

Office of the District Provost Marshal

Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 20th, 1864

It is hereby ordered that after Monday the 1st of March, 1864, persons occupying premises in the city of Memphis, or in case of vacant lots, the owners thereof will be held strictly responsible that the streets adjacent to their property or the premises occupied by them, shall as far as the middle of said street, are by 7 o'clock of every Wednesday afternoon, swept and cleaned. The dirt [is to be] placed in heaps convenient for removal, under a penalty of a fine of not less than $25.00 for each breach of this order. The city authorities are hereby charged with the duty of having the heaps of dirt removed by 7 p. m. of each Thursday.

Geo. A. Williams

Capt. 1st U. S. Inf. and Provost Marshal

R. P. Buckland, Brig. Gen. Comd'g. Dist.

Memphis Bulletin, March 4, 1864.

        20, U. S. N. Reports Illegal Cotton Speculation by U. S. Army Officers

U. S. S. PEOSTA, CAIRO, February 20, 1864.

SIR: When I stopped at Clifton, Tenn., on my way up the Tennessee River, on the evening of February 16, 1864, the commanding officer at that place, Major Murphy, of the (I think) Fifth Tennessee Cavalry, informed me that some of his captains owned cotton near the Tennessee River in the neighborhood of Florence and Waterloo, Ala.

The impression left upon my mind by the conversation between us was that some of his officers were taking advantage of their position and power to speculate in cotton, in direct violation of the laws of Congress and the General Order No. 88 of the War Department, issued March 31, 1863.

I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant,

JAMES W. SHIRK, Lieutenant-Commander, Commanding Seventh District.

Rear-Admiral DAVID D. PORTER, U. S. Navy,

Commanding U. S. Mississippi Squadron.

NOR, Ser. I, Vol. 25, p. 768.





        18, "The enemy were concealed behind some houses, and waited until the patrol got to within 100 yards of them, when they charged." The last Civil War skirmish in Tennessee, near Germantown[31]

APRIL 18, 1865.-Skirmish near Germantown, Tenn.

Report of Capt. George W. Smith, Eleventh New York Cavalry.


CAPT.: I have the honor to report that yesterday as the patrol was marching from Germantown to Collierville it was attacked by a force of the enemy about six miles from Germantown. The force of the enemy is variously estimated from 60 to 100 strong, while the patrol was but eighteen strong, under Lieut. John H. Mills, D Company, this regiment. The enemy were concealed behind some houses, and waited until the patrol got to within 100 yards of them, when they charged. Lieut. Mills drew his men in line, but, after delivering a volley with their carbines, found he would be overpowered be a far superior force, and ordered his men to fall back to the camp at Germantown. He was closely pursued by a well-mounted portion of the enemy to within about two miles of this place (Germantown). The attacking party are supposed to be a part of Ford's command. Those of our men who fell from their horses, or were poorly mounted, were shot. Those who were killed or wounded were robbed of everything, they (the rebels) even taking the boots from some of the dead....I have just received a telegraph from Maj. Morgan, in which he, by order of Gen. Washburn, directs that no patrols will be sent less than fifty men. I have but 190 men available for duty. Out of that my picket, thirty-two men daily; my scouting parties, thirty men daily, and all the camp duties, have to be taken, leaving me no force at all with which to operate to any advantage. I know of fifty men who are mounted on horses which are serviceable, that are in the camp at the headquarters of the regiment at Memphis. If I can have those men and 100 dismounted men for camp duties, I can operate against these guerrillas to advantage, as I have reliable information concerning their haunts.

Hoping that my request for a few more men may meet your approbation and that it may be complied with at your earliest practicable convenience, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. W. SMITH, Capt., Cmdg. Detachment Eleventh New York Cavalry. [Indorsement.]


Respectfully forwarded for the information of the major-general commanding District of West Tennessee. The additional mounted men asked for have been ordered. I must ask that the detail of fifty men for each patrolling party be countermanded, as we have not a sufficient number if men in the command--mounted--to obey the order.

E. D. OSBAND, Brevet Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 512-513.

        18, A convert to Roman Catholicism in Bolivar

....Irene McNeal told me that Clara Peters was very anxious and intended joining the Roman Catholic Church. I believe I never was more hurt and surprised in my life before. We warned her before she started...Told her of the facinating [sic] service, the hypocrisy but apparently love they would manifest toward her until she became one of them. I am astonished at Clara. I understand she wrote her father a letter in which she said, if not a Roman Catholic, she would be an infidel and believed that was the only true and apostolic church.

Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.

        18, Military observance of the Funeral of Abraham Lincoln in the 6th Division, Cavalry Corps


In pursuance of instructions from the War Department, to-morrow, being the day appointed for the funeral of the late President, will be a day of rest throughout this command. All drills and other unnecessary labors will be suspended. A salute of twenty-one minute guns will be fired at meridian.

By order of Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnson:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 395.

        18, Report on the defenses of Chattanooga


Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Cmdg. Mil. Div. of the Miss. West of Alleghany Mountains:

GEN.: I have the honor to submit the following report of my inspection of the defenses of Chattanooga and of the line thence to Bridgeport:


This city lies between Cameron Hill on the west and high ground on the east. Cameron Hill, nearly a mile long, rises abruptly from the low bank of the Tennessee and falls in a succession of spurs to the level of the plain toward Lookout Mountain. The high ground east of the city is much lower than Cameron Hill. It consists of several elevations stretching toward Mission Ridge, between one and two miles, till they are lost in the plain. The main lineof works inclosing Chattanooga consists of four redoubts, four batteries, and about two miles of infantry parapet, and rests its flanks upon the Tennessee. The redoubts and batteries have high commands and heavy parapets. Their ditches are six feet deep with scarp too steep generally to be run over. These four redoubts were designed with block-house keeps, three of which have been constructed. This interior defense serves as a bomb-proof, encourages the garrison to defend the parapet till the last moment, and enables them from their loop-holed citadel to drive the successful assailant back into the ditch. When well covered from fire and substantially built it is a great accession to a redoubt. The parapets of thaw works around Chattanooga, excepting only that of Fort Jones, have been cheaply reverted with boards and scantling. In Battery Erwin and on the river front of Fort Carpenter embrasures have been constructed. All other guns deliver their fire en barbette. By this arrangement a good command is attained, but the exposure would be too great in close attack. In the advanced works embrasures should have been constructed. Forts Crutchfield and Lytle, the battery next toward the railroad, and Battery Erwin are finished. Fort Jones has so far progressed that its battery in the salient can be used if necessary. The left face is but half completed and the gorge has not yet been commenced. Reverting the parapet with dressed stone has delayed this work. Lunette O'Meara, though not quite finished, is available. Battery Bushnell is in an unfinished state. The infantry entrenchment where completed has the same steep ditch and cheap revetment as the redoubts. With the exception of the break in the line on either side of Fort Jones this entrenchment around the city, through in several places unfinished, is a serious obstacle to pass under the close fire of the contiguous batteries and that of the line, itself, even though thinly manned. In truth, this single defensive line around Chattanooga, if completed as designed, will be sufficient against coup de main, and ought to stand a long siege against largely superior numbers. It is a wise precaution, however, to place in the rear of such defensive line two redoubts as citadels, which, should the first line be penetrated, would be able to drive back the assailants and restore the superiority of the defenders. There are four redoubts and a strong block-house within the main defensive line of Chattanooga, giving it an excess of strength. Three are finished and the fourth, Fort Putnam, is inclosed and could in a few days be made available. Fort Carpenter, near the river, has a good command upon the opposite bank of the Tennessee, and was doubtless designed with that view. Outside of the inclosing line of works around the city are two advanced forts of bastion from, each possessing a block-house keep. These two works cover the city so favorably as to shut out the probability of an attack upon it. If these works were improved by clearing out and deepening the ditches and by putting the guns in embrasure they could only fall by siege. Three 100-pounder rifled Parrott guns have been placed on Cameron Hill. From this high position they see over the defensive line in almost every direction. Each redoubt and fort of the Chattanooga defenses has a dry and well-constructed magazine. A large depot magazine 150 feet long and 22½ feet wide has been built high up on the slope of Cameron Hill. Some further embankment is necessary to make the top bomb-proof. The site is inconvenient for the transfer of ammunition, but was selected to bring it within a large work originally contemplated to crown this hill as a citadel. This for this unnecessary and has not been commenced. To the north of the Tennessee River crowning the hill top one mile and a half distant from the south bank are five small single block-houses. They are not essentially to the defense of Chattanooga, but serve simply as strong picket positions. In fine, Chattanooga is trebly guarded, and were the rebellion still showing the same front as during the Atlanta campaign, this important depot, if moderately garrisoned, would be beyond the reach of attack.

Water-works.--In the ravine between Cameron Hill and the spur upon which Fort Carpenter stands is a large machine-shop, containing turning lathes, planing machine, a grist-mill, steam biller, and the pumps for forcing the water of the Tennessee over the ridge above, and even to the summit of Cameron Hill, if needed. These water-works, through started under the auspices of Gen.'s Rosecrans, Morton, and W. F. Smith, have been mostly executed under Col. Merrill's direction. The machinery was obtained from workshops and foundries in Atlanta and Chattanooga, and was fitted and sent up by mechanics from the engineer regiment. The outlay for pipes and bands has been the only expenditure made excepting that for nails, spikes, and glass necessary for the building and the construction of the water tanks, about the size of those used at railroad stations. Had Chattanooga remained as it formerly stood, a secondary base to a grand army and a vital point on the great eastern and western route, the building of these works would have proved very useful. One pipe laid from the tank on the ridge to the ordnance, quartermaster, and commissary storehouses, and thence to the railroad buildings, would be great security in case of fire, and would furnish water to the railroad, engines which now are obliged to run over the road two miles and a half to the foot of Lookout Mountain to fill their balers. The major-general commanding the Department of the Cumberland directed labor on the waterworks to be continued, with a view to protecting the public buildings against fire. The policy of further expenditures in laying pipes is at least doubtful. The decision of this question, as well as the execution of the work if required, rests with the chief quartermaster of the department.

Pontoon shop.--This building, erected by engineer troops, is convenient for its object. The workshops of the engineer department at Chattanooga are simple in construction and economically built. In the building containing the water-works several pieces of machinery have been arranged and put in working order; but as this machinery was seized from the rebels and fitted by engineer soldiers, it has involved little outlay on the part of the Government. The timber used in engineer constructions at Chattanooga was obtained from trees cut down in the vicinity of the Tennessee River and sawed by engineer soldiers. Engineer and pioneer soldiers and soldiers of the line have done all the work on the fortifications. I omitted to state that the bridge across the Tennessee is guarded with much precaution by stockades on the piers and by a well-constructed, double-cased block-house near the north abutment. The work at Chattanooga, commenced under Gen.'s Morton and W. F. Smith, have been mostly directed by Col. Merrill.


The delightful climate of Lookout Mountain caused its selection as the site of a large hospital for wounded and sick soldiers. This hospital is situated one mile and a half distant from the north point of the crest. The position is defenses by a rifle-pit across the ridge with emplacements for two batteries about half a mile south of the hospital. A small redoubt with interior block-house keep occupies the high part of the ridge toward Lookout Point. These defenses, with the forces usually in garrison on Lookout Mountain, are sufficient to protect the hospitals against raiding parties. Two little redoubts on the line of rifle-pits would have a deed vastly to the strength of the line and secured the hospital with a smaller garrison. These are not required now.


The trestle-work across the ravine of Running Water is 780 feet long and 116 feet high in the center. Four double-cased block-houses on the slopes of the ravine see every part of this important structure, and are themselves well covered against artillery fire, unless brought so near as to expose the gunners to the murderous fire of the garrison from the loop-holes. Another block-house holds the high hill crest three-quarters of a mile distant that looks down the ravine toward the bridge. Its fire, through distant, would annoy an enemy coming from the east, which is the more natural line of approach to this position. No raiding party with field pieces could destroy this bridge thus protected. Besides, the position is but fourteen miles distant from Chattanooga on the east and Bridgeport on the west, and is difficult of access for the lack of wagon roads. All the small bridges across streams between Chattanooga and Bridgeport are protected by double-cased block-houses substantially built. These defenses have proved efficient. They have not even been attacked.

Col. Merrill has been advised to finish the redoubts on the defensive line of Chattanooga nearly completed, with the least possible expense, and to commence no new works. The accompanying general sketch exhibits these defense with which the commanding general is already familiar. The special drawings, though not minute, given generally the forms of the redoubts and batteries and the positions of the guns, magazines, and block-house keeps. Col. W. E. Merrill, chief engineer, Department of the Cumberland, gave me every assistance needed in making my inspection and supplied drawings from which those accompanying this report have been copied.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Z. B. TOWER, Brig.-Gen. and Inspector-Gen. Fortifications, Military Division of the Mississippi.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 390-393.

        18, Reaction to News of Lincoln's death and educating former slaves in Memphis


When the terrible tidings reached us, early Sabbath morning, that President Lincoln and Secretary Seward were both assassinated, consternation was depicted on nearly every face….


Very early, buildings, public and private, were draped in mourning. Before noon Main street was absolutely gloomy.Gloom was everywhere except, alas! in the face of a very few fiends.

"Have you heard the news?" said a loyal man to one of these demons of secession

"Yes! And I am glad Old Abe is dead!"

"Repeat that, sir, and I'll shoot you!"

"I mean, I am sorry we had a sectional president."

"He was not a sectional president. Take that back or you are a dead man," (drawing a revolver).

He retracted. Two, however, were shot during the day, for uttering such sentiments, and eight or ten arrested and lodged in the military prison, to await trial by military court martial.


Will you believe it, in a few months a thousand negroes have learned to read. Scores of them take and read a daily paper – a loyal paper….


The negro now is easily influenced; but he has wonderful capabilities. A child has learned to read in ten days who did not know a letter before. In one hour another had learned the Lord's Prayer perfectly.  Memory is remarkable in them. Teach them, then! Teach them letters and the principles of our government, and they will be all but a literal "standing army."

Last month, 1949 colored children were in school in Memphis and vicinity. In six months the negroes here have paid $3720 for school purposes; and all this cheerfully.


April 18, 1865.

The Congregationalist, (Boston, MA), May 5, 1865

        18-22, Anti-insurgent patrols, Fulton and Van Buren's landings, Tipton County, along Hatchie River to Brownsville, and Randolph, execution of guerrilla leader

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 102. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 18, 1865.

For the purpose of capturing Quantrill and his band of about sixty men now operating on the Hatchie River, and Mat Luxton, with his band of about twenty, now operating in the same region, and other enemies, the following troops, will be sent out, viz.,: Two hundred and fifty cavalry on the steamer John Raine, upon which they will embark at 5 p. m. to-day; 350 cavalry on barges in charge of steamers Raine and Cleona at same hour. The steamers will proceed up the river and land the troops on the barges at Randolph, and will then proceed immediately to Fulton and land the troops on the steamer. The steamer will then return to Fulton. The troops landed at Fulton will dash forward to Ripley and Brownsville, and will send a party to Brownsville Landing same night, where they will meet the steam-boats of the expedition. Two hundred of the troops landed at Randolph will dash forward to Covington, and will scour the country and reach Brownsville Landing same night. One hundred and fifty cavalry will dash forward, via Portersville or Beaverdam, to Brownsville Landing, and pursue, destroy, and kill all guerrillas they may find. The steamers Cleona, Dove, and Pocahontas will proceed to-night at 5 o'clock up the Mississippi and Hatchie rivers, each with fifty cavalry and fifty infantry on board, and will form a junction with the rest of the command at Brownsville Landing. From that point the commander of the expedition will move as the object of the expedition may require, and will return to Memphis overland or by boat and barges as may be thought best. The cavalry will take three days' rations, and two days' rations of forage will be placed on one of the Hatchie boats, and three days' rations for the men. All commanding officers are enjoined to maintain the strictest discipline and allow no marauding or ill treatment of citizens, but citizens must be required to give information in regard to guerrilla whereabouts so far as they know, or they will be regarded as harboring and encouraging them.

By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 406.


Maj. W. H. MORGAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

MAJ.: I have the honor to report that in obedience to Special Orders, No. 102, from your headquarters, I proceeded as follows: By steamer John Raine and barges, Fourth Illinois Volunteer Cavalry (250 men), Maj. Search; Third U. S. Colored Cavalry (250 men), Lieut.-Col. Cook; by steamers Sallie List, Dove, and Pocahontas, Eleventh Illinois Volunteer Cavalry (200 men), Maj. Davis. Disembarking the Third U. S. Colored Cavalry at Randolph, Lieut.-Col. Cook proceeded, via Covington, to Brownsville Landing, capturing one _______ Wilcox, alias J. M. Luxton, who was in command of seven others, whom he was unable to capture. He could not reach Brownsville Landing, the country being flooded. Lieut. Col. Funke, in command of the troops sent up Hatchie River, proceeded up the Hatchie River, but the boats being unwieldy, pilots not acquainted with the river, made but little progress, and in order to reach Brownsville Landing to co-operate with the Fourth Illinois Cavalry he disembarked at Van Buren's Landing, marching from there to Brownsville, arriving there on the 21st. The Fourth Illinois Volunteer Cavalry, Maj. Search, disembarked at Fulton, which place was reached on the 19th at 12 p. m. At 3 p. m. the command moved to Brownsville, reaching that place at daylight on the 20th, capturing at that place nine prisoners (as per inclosed roll of prisoners of war) and Col. B. J. Lea, Capt. E. J. Martin, commissary of subsistence, and Lieut. S. M. Russell. The Fourth and Eleventh Illinois returned to Fulton in the afternoon of the 22d and embarked. The Sylph and Annie E, with Dove, Pocahontas, and Sallie List arrived at mouth of Hatchie River at about the same time. Arriving at Randolph, Wilcox, alias Luxton, was tried by drum-head court-martial...and at 6.30 was by my order hung by the neck until he was dead, and left hanging as a warning to his brethren in crime. The command arrived at Memphis with total loss of one man accidentally wounded and left. Eight horses died from buffalo gnats, and gained on the expedition twelve horses. People of the country were extremely friendly, and those in the vicinity of Brownsville can hereafter, in my opinion, take care of themselves. I am under obligations to the commanding officers of gun-boats 57 and 58 for valuable assistance.

I am, major, respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. D. OSBAND, Brevet Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 441-442.

Report of James Fitzpatrick, Acting Master, commanding U. S. S. Siren, Off Randolph, Tenn., April; 22, 1865

Sir: I most respectfully make the following report:

April 19 an expedition under command of Brigadier general Osband started for Brownsville, Tenn., in three columns; one from this place, one by way of Hatchee [sic] River, and one from Fulton, Tenn.

They returned this afternoon, having been successful in capturing 1 colonel, 1 manor, 4 captains, 2 lieutenants, and 12 men, and killing General Shelby's adjutant. One of the men captured is the fellow that has been passing for Luxton. General Osband hung him from a cottonwood tree at this place this evening; his body is still hanging from the tree.

He confessed to burning the St. Paul and to killing one man on board of her. His proper name is Wilcox. His father lives in Memphis, Tenn.

The steamers Anna, Everton, and Sylph were not burned by the guerrillas. They came out of Hatchee [sic] River this afternoon.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES FITZPATRICK, Acting Master, U. S. S. Siren.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 27, p. 149.

        19, Ceremonies in Memphis memorializing Abraham Lincoln's death ordered

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 103. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 19, 1865.

* * * *

VI. As a mark of respect to the memory of our beloved Chief Magistrate, lately stricken down by traitors' hands in the height of his glory and usefulness, all public business in this military district will be suspended to-morrow. All military in Memphis not on duty will form in procession at 10 o'clock on Shelby street, the head of the column resting on Union street, and will move at 10.30 o'clock in accordance with an order of march which will be duly promulgated. The militia who do not belong to any of the various societies will turn out and form on Union street, head of column on Front street. A funeral gun will be fired every half hour from sunrise until sunset from Fort Pickering. Brig.-Gen. Chetlain, commanding the post and defenses of Memphis, will have charge of the procession and direct its movements.

* * * *

By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 413.

        19, Commencement of anti-guerrilla mopping up near Greeneville

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, April 19, 1865.

Col. J. H. PARSONS, Cmdg. Ninth Tennessee Cavalry, Camp at Boyd's Ferry:

COL.: Brigadier-Gen. Tillson, whose command is now on its return to this post, has notified me that he desires no movement of troops at this post. Your regiment will therefore remain quietly in camp until I can consult the general. You will, however, send a detachment of the regiment to Greeneville large enough with the detachment there to make a full company with three efficient officers. You will direct the officer selected for the command to hunt up and chastise all guerrillas in that region, the mode and manner of doing so to be at his discretion. Peaceable citizens must not be disturbed, nor any depredations committed upon private property. All supplies of subsistence or forage taken for the use of the troops must be receipted [sic] for on the proper blanks.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. G. GIBSON, Col. Second Ohio Heavy Artillery, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 409-410.

        19, News of the end of the war reaches an incredulous Madison County farmer

....Mart....says it is not so that Lee has been captured, on the contrary formed a junction with Johns[t]on & ruined Sherman. There was a paper in town yesterday, the Cairo Eagle, in mourning for the death of Lincoln & Seward, said to be assassinated about the 15th by Booth an actor....Dr. Brown stopped here...said he saw a paper in town. The Memphis paper states that Johns[t]on...surrendered...Kirby Smith...surrendered...and Forrest was on his way to Vicksburg to surrender....

I gave these items as [a] sample of what [the] papers contain, not a word of truth in them.

Robert H. Cartmell Diary.

        19, News of Lincoln's assassination reaches a Bolivar school girl

Abraham Lincoln is reported to have been murdered together with Seward and his son, Andrew Johnson is suspected....

Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.

        19, Guerrilla attack on railroad train near Morristown and civilian accountability

No circumstantial reports filed.

KNOXVILLE, April 20, 1865.

Maj. Gen. G. H. THOMAS:

The guerrillas threw a train off the track at midnight last night near Morristown, burn thirteen cars and injured the engine. The train was not guarded. The wreck is cleared and trains are all in motion. Trains hereafter will be guarded, and rebel citizens, of which there are none other from New Market to Morristown, held accountable for outrages.

D. S. STANLEY, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 414.

        19, An appraisal of Nathan Bedford Forrest

Forrest – The Guerrilla Chief.

After the storm of this Revolution has swept over the insurgent States, and the institution that struck so fierce a blow, at the has been itself trampled over by the heel of victory it will remain for some future Hancroft to analyze and portray the features of that old plantation style which is already a thing of the past.

The future historian will, if his research and analysis be successful, find the two salient features of Southern life and the two elements of its military power were, on the one hand, the aristocratic pride of Virginia, and, on the other, the reckless ruffians and cut-throat daring of the Southeast. And, as it were opportunely for his purpose, he find two military chieftains, each masterly in their way, around whom he may group these contrasted systems of society – Robert E. Lee, the Virginia Commander, and Forrest, the guerrilla leader of the Southeast. Lee, the grandson of a bosom friend of Washington – full of revolutionary tradition, full of State pried a grave taciturn, composed and dignified soldier, is the proper type of whatever is best and most worth of pride in old Virginia. Around him now rally the wrecks of those ancient families who were rich and proud when Gov. Dinwiddie spoke of George Washington as a "young man of promise." Patrick Henry told stories over the counter of his country store. Forrest, of obscure family, and with floating habits of life – a gambler, a duelist, a negro trader and sharp speculator, yet possessed the brute courage and tireless energy, is a fit successor of Jim Bowie, and ought to carry at his waistband the identical butcher knife to which that great ruffian first gave name.

And yet so precisely have these bloody days of Southern revolution suited the development of his character, that now this well-dressed and well-mounted adventurer has developed into a great cavalry leader, and won for himself a name in military history beside the names of Marion and Murat. How sudden and how imposing are the revolutions developed by a great war. We could have predicted that the plain simple direct and mildest businessman named U. S. Grant, printed on the right upper corner of his broker's card in St. Louis in 1860, would in four years stamp that name in gigantic capitals on the roll of great warriors, beside the names of Hannibal and Turenne, and Gustavus Adolphus and Cromwell, and Washington and Jackson?

The boys of the next generation will take an unwholesome but absorbing interest in reading such legends as may drift down the rude stream of our border history, telling of Crockett and how he hunted and fought bears and Indians, and how, as civilization crowded upon the rough border, he roved to wilder scenes and fell fighting a swarm of Mexicans with clubbed rifle at the capture of the Alamo.

They may read, too, of Bowie and his bear-fights and the great knife he hammered out of an old trap, and his duels, and his street-fights, and his Indian fights, and how he, too, migrated to the bloody border, and surrounded his life over the bodies of a dozen dead Mexicans, fighting "game to the last"[32] at the Alamo.

The last of this redoubtable line of bowie-knife heroes is Forrest.

For some years before the rebellion, Forrest was well known as a Memphis speculator and Mississippi gambler. His associates were Mississippi steamboatmen, Tennessee negro traders, river gamblers, and plantation speculators. He was for some time Captain of a boat that ran between Memphis and Vicksburgh, and, if stories are true, made it quite as much to his interest to pass his nights at the card table in the cabin as on the hurricane deck. These winnings were held with a thrift now usual in such cases, and regularly invested in "choice lots of negro slaves" regularly who were carried to the large plantations down this river and sold to his friends, the cotton planters, at a handsome advance on their cost in Tennessee. As his fortune thus increased he engaged in plantation speculation, and , in 1860 was the nominal owner of two plantations not far from Goodrich's Landing, above Vicksburg, where he worked some hundred or more slaves.

This gave him admission to society and grade above his river associates, and he began to cover the hilt of his six-shooter and keep his bowie knife more concealed. Burt when after the election of Mr. Lincoln, in the fall of 1860, Yancey and Gov. Harris and Jeff. Davis took the stump through the southeast for secession, the fighter got the better of the speculator, and Forrest at once developed that taste and talent for bloodshed, which amounts almost to military genius. The same qualities that made him a cool fighter with the bowie knife, and a winner at the card table, gave him steady nerve in a cavalry charge, and enable him to withdraw his forces in time to assure a retreat when he finds himself outnumbered.

Forrest began at the foot of the ladder. He enlisted as a volunteer private in the first or about the first infantry regiment that was recruited in Memphis at the first firing of the Southern heart. But his qualities as a horseman and a fighter soon attracted notice and he was made Captain of a cavalry company. Promotion came as he was made Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment.

He took his first lessons in the cavalry skirmish on the line of the Green River, when Buell advanced on Bowling Green in the Winter of '62.

When Grant won his first laurels and struck his first great blow at the rebel cause at Donelson, Forrest was senior Colonel, commanding a brigade and after the surrender headed his first charge, cut his way through the Union lines, and withdrew his brigade in safety to the mountains of East Tennessee. South after he made a swift and stealthy march on Murfreesboro, caught the good easy [?] commander on the post a napping, and carried the town by a sweeping charge. Then he was been ranging from the Ohio River on the north to the banks of the Tombigbee and from the mountains of North Carolina to the Valley of the Mississippi, now making a raid two hundred miles into our lines, now hanging a citizen, defiant and dangerous I on the rear of a retreat; now driving back Smith in disorder; and now falling back himself but fighting every mile before Grierson, now charging with five hundred picked men through the streets of Memphis, and escaping with trivial losses, and as the darkest and most damning of his rebel exploits, charging into Fort Pillow, and after the outnumbered garrison had ceased firing were wholly at his mercy, permitting his flushed and demonized crew to shoot, stab, roll down the bank and tow into the river six hundred victims [sic].

So far war has proved the most regularly successful and the most dangerous of all the rebel cavalry leaders. He is more collected, deliberate and defiant than was that romantic their and good-natured freebooter, Jack Morgan.

He commands a much larger force, and wields it with more power and skill than Mosby. He fights harder, and is more sullen and defiant in retreat than Stuart. He is more brilliant and effective than Wheeler. When this war subsides from regular filed land post strategy into irregular, predatory and guerrilla warfare, the probability is that Forrest may act independently of Law, and draw around him all those fierce, disappointed and reckless spirits who may escape from the withering volleys and crushing charges of Grant and Sherman.

Lee is too calm a man, and too orderly and well grounded in military first principles, to fight after systematic strategy becomes quite hopeless; and Beauregard, though a good engineer, is not a leader of men. But Forrest lives to shed blood, and is quite likely to keep on killing on our pure revenge, after the Southern Confederacy has been swept into the limbo where are congregated all the dreams of fools.

"Gone glimmering 'mid the dreams of things that were.

A schoolboy's tale, the pageant of an hour"

In person Forrest is formidable, not to say impressive. He is a little over six feet in height, strongly built, and without looking at all plump, weights about a hundred and seventy five. He appears to be thirty-eight years of age, in the perfection of vigorous manhood, insensible to fatigue, incapable alike of sympathy, or weakness, or fear.

He is a consummate horseman and a deadly pistol shot. Yet his control over men is absolute for he takes no airs, will talk familiarly with any of his men, and never, by his actions reminds them of the military interval [?] that separates a lieutenant-general of cavalry from a private in the ranks. The outlines of his face are handsome and the expression generally pleasant. But now and then, when roused a little, or issuing a positive command the devil in him lights up his eye with a fearful gleam, and you can see the terrible legend that the Almighty stamped upon the brow of the first murderer, "A Man of Blood."

While genial with his men he is often exacting and savage with his officers. Disobedience of a gleam of insubordination in an officer, he visits not by the tedious machinery of even a drum-head court-martial. He knows a more summary method.

On one occasion he reprimands a young lieutenant: in language of great severity, and the officer, stung by the insulting words, was for a moment overcome by the passion and drew his pistol. Instantly the bloody chieftain walked, deliberately up to the offender, drew his bowie-knife, and using his immense physical superiority to the uttermost, literally cut the poor fellow to the ground and after his death stab had been given, plunged the reeking dagger again and again to the hilt in the quivering flesh, and when his hellish revenge was sated, coolly wiped the dripping blade, returned it to the wasteband of his pantaloons and rode away quietly as though he had shot a yelping cur. [emphasis added]

Such [sic] is the essential cut-throat fierceness of his nature!

Forrest is indifferent to the pleasure of the senses, a spare eater and abstentious in his habits. But he loves strong, nervous and muscular excitements. When he hears the sharp vollies of the closing fight, and sees now and then a horses, with empty but blood stained saddle coming galloping to the rear, his impatience sometimes gets the better of his discretion; his hand, before he knows it, is on the hilt of his revolver, and he will wheel away and dash in where the fight is thickest. Yet like every successful gambler he keeps a good eye on the main chance, and is hardly the man to throw away his life at the head of a forlorn hope. The likelihood is rather than like other hard fighting knights of the Bowie knife, he will drift away with some of his followers into the far Southeast, and become a Mexican adventurer or a Nicaraguan filibuster.

Very effective for the quiet and order of the Southeast will be the Minnie ball so fortunately aimed as to pierce the heart of N. B. Forrest.

New York Times, March 19, 1865.

        19-23, Expedition from Memphis to Brownsville, Mississippi[33]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 48, pt. I, p. 184.

        20, Mopping up against guerrillas, Rutledge and Talbot's Station in East Tennessee

No circumstantial reports filed.

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 90. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April 20, 1865.

I. Col. Joseph H. Parsons, commanding Ninth Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry, will order a company of his regiment to proceed immediately to Talbott Station for the purpose of pursuing and chastising the guerrilla band which attacked and destroyed the train near that place yesterday. No quarter will be given to these or any band of guerrillas infesting that region of country.

II. A company of the Ninth Tennessee Cavalry will be selected by the colonel of the regiment to proceed to the town of Rutledge on Sunday, the 23d instant, for the purpose of protecting the loyal citizens at that place and neighborhood during the session of the court to be held there during the coming week.

III. The commanding officer of these detachments will be held responsible for the conduct of their men and must permit no depredations upon private property to be committed. All supplies procured for the troops must be properly receipted [sic] for on the proper blank forms.

IV. The Seventh Indiana Battery Light Artillery (dismounted) is hereby assigned to the Fourth Division, Department of the Cumberland, and will take post at Sweet Water, Tenn., and relieve the Tenth Ohio Battery, which will proceed with its guns to London, Tenn., and report to the commanding officer of that post for duty. The Seventh Indiana Battery will be assigned to a brigade by orders from division headquarters.

* * * *

By command of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 420.

        20, News of the Lincoln assassination assessed by a Bolivar school girl

....Report is confirmed as to Abraham Lincoln's assassination also Seward's. It is supposed by Yankees to be Booth the great tragedian. The tragedy surpasses any ever known before, even Caesar's. Dressed Warren's doll this evening. Finished the skirt of blue checked gingham also....

Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.


[1] A province in ancient Greece whose women were noted for their beauty and civic mindedness.

[2] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[3] William G. Stevenson, the author of this account, was a Kentucky native and had been visiting in Arkansas. He was not a secessionist and was strongly suspected of being an abolitionist provocateur. He left Arkansas after the local ad hoc committee of public safety in Jeffersonville threatened to lynch him.

[4] William G. Stevenson, Thirteen Months in the Rebel Army (NY, 1862: A.S. Barnes and Company).



[7] PQRW.

[8] Neither the bridge burning nor the Federal scout are indexed in the OR nor referenced in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

[9] This order is not found in the OR.

[10] As cited in PQCW.

[11] As cited in:

[12] As cited in:

[13] Apparently, if the following is any indication, Brigadier-General Lucius Polk was exchanged sometime after his arrest. A brief note to Lieut. Gen. (Leonidas) Polk in March 1863 is all that provides any indication that he even existed, or was even a general. It might be that this L.J. Polk is someone altogether unknown. There is no further mention of an "L. J. Polk" in the Official Records.

COLUMBIA, March 10, 1863.

Lieut.-Gen. POLK:

Gen. Van Dorn's forces have crossed Rutherford Creek, and have possession of the hill this side of the creek. The Federal forces are about a mile the other side the creek (not fordable). Duck River very high. Their infantry and artillery advancing this way to co-operate with their cavalry. The Federal forces estimated at from 10,000 to 20,000.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 677. 

[14] Sources offering independent corroboration of this unique story have not yet been located. There is probably more truth to the deaths by small pox than deaths resulting from the reported mutiny.

[15] Apparently the governor's remains were never found.

[16] As cited in:

[17] As cited in: This is a letter written by William Hackworth on March 18, 1863 while camped near Columbia, Tennessee. He was a private in H Company of the 4th Tennessee (McClemore's) Cavalry which was part of Bedford Forrest's Cavalry. He was born February 22, 1840 in Marion County, Tennessee (about 35 miles east of Chattanooga). He died February 16, 1929, and is buried in Condra Cemetery in Marion County. One of his brothers, Levi Hackworth, is listed on the muster rolls of the 35th Tennessee Infantry. Courtesy of Bill Thompson Used with permission of

[18] This event is not registered in either the OR or Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

[19] Not found.

[20] No issues of the Murfreesboro Banner are known to be extant.

[21] The fact that this skirmish involved a Confederate forage train, illustrates that the foodstuffs of the civilian population of Middle Tennessee were the target Union and Confederate forces. It was likewise a defeat for Morgan was the result of a guerrilla attack upon a railroad train. Richland Station is today the City of Portland.

[23] It can be readily seen by his use terms "affair" and "engagement" that there was no precise term for such combat, which could just as easily been called a "skirmish."

[24] This date is correct.

[25] Plat omitted by the editors of the OR.

[26] Perhaps it wasn't the first time; Morgan also failed on May 5, 1862, at Lebanon, being taken by surprise and completely routed from the city. He even lost his favorite mare, "Bess."

[27] Not found.

[28] Alice Williamson Diary, Special Collections Library, Duke University, a Digital Scriptorium project, May 1996, [Hereinafter: Williamson Diary.] Ms. Williamson was a sixteen year old school girl living near Gallatin. She kept a diary from February 19, 1864 to September 27, 1864.

[29] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[30] Not found in the OR.

[31] The skirmish near Germantown was fought nine days after Lee had surrendered.

[32] Jim Bowie suffered from acute diarrhea at the time of the fight at the Alamo, so much so that he could not stand up. "Game" is right!

[33] All action took place in Mississippi.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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