7, Proclamation by Military Governor Andrew Johnson relative removal of the City Council and Mayor of Nashville for failure to take the oath of allegiance to the U. S.
WHEREAS, At an election held in the city of Nashville on the last Saturday of September, 1861, for the purpose of electing a Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council for said city, the following officers were elected to the respective offices, to-wit:
Richard B. Cheatham, Mayor.
For Alderman of the First Ward--Jno. E. Newman.
For Councilman of the First Ward--John Coltart and John Hooper.
For Alderman of the Second Ward--James T. Bell.
For Councilmen of the Second Ward--Geo. S. Kinnie and Charles S. Thomas.
For Alderman of the Third Ward--Peyton S. Woodward.
For Councilmen of the Third Ward--L. F. Beech and Wm. Shane.
For Alderman of the Fourth Ward--James M. Hinton.
For Councilman of the Fourth Ward--Wm. S. Cheatham.
For Councilmen of the Fifth Ward-Jordan P. Coleman and W. H. Clemons.
For Alderman of the Sixth Ward--B.S. Rhea.
For Councilmen of the Sixth Ward--John J. McCann and James Haynie.
For Alderman of the Seventh Ward--A.H. Hurley.
For Councilmen of the Seventh Ward--Isaac Paul and F. O. Hurt.
For Alderman of the Eighth Ward--C. K. Winston.
For Councilmen of the Eighth Ward--John E. Hatcher, and C. A. Brodie.
And, Whereas, The following persons of the afore-named, to wit: R. B. Cheatham, Mayor, James T. Bell, P.S. Woodward, James M. Hinton, B.S. Rhea, A.H. Hurley, C. K. Winston, John Coltart, John Hooper, Geo. S. Kinney, Chas. S. Thomas, L. F. Beech, Chas. E. H. Martin, William R. Demonbreun, Jordan P. Coleman, W. H. Clemens, John J. McCann, James Haynie, Isaac Paul, F. O. Hurt, John E. Hatcher and C. A. Brodie have heretofore failed, and not refuse to come forward and be qualified according to law, by taking the oath prescribed in the 10th Article, Section 1st, of the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, and therein have manifested such disloyalty and enmity to the Government of the United States, as renders it unsafe for the public good that they should exercise the functions of the offices aforesaid. Now, therefore, I, Andrew Johnson, Governor of the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the power and authority in me vested, do declare the aforesaid offices vacant, and said persons above mentioned are hereby enjoined from exercising the functions of said offices, or performing any of the duties thereof, or receiving the emoluments of the same, from this day.
And the following named persons are hereby appointed and commissioned, after being duly qualified, to perform the duties of said offices, as required by law, and receive the profits and emoluments thereof until their successors are elected, respectively as follows, to-wit:
Councilman for the First Wars--Wm. Roberts.
Alderman for Second Ward--John Hu. Smith.
Councilman for the Second Ward--Chas. Walker.
Alderman for Third Ward--G. A. J Mayfield
Councilman for Third Ward--K. J. Morris.
Alderman for Fourth Ward-- M. M. Monahan.
Councilmen for Fourth Ward--Lewis Hough and M. Burns.
Councilmen for Fifth Ward--Joseph B. Knowles and W. P. Jones
Alderman for Sixth Ward--M. M. Brian.
Councilmen for Sixth Ward--T. J. Yarbrough and Wm. Driver.
Alderman for Seventh Ward--M. G. L. Claiborne.
Councilman for Seventh Ward--Wm. Stewart.
Alderman for Eighth Ward--Jos. C. Smith.
Councilman for Eight Ward--James Cavert.
By order of Governor,
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 278-279.
7, Surrender of Island No. 10 to Flag Officer A. H. Foote, U. S. N.
Off Island No. 10, April 7, 1862.
Two [Confederate] officers have this instant boarded us from Island No. 10, stating that by order of their commanding officer they are ordered to surrender Island No. 10 to the commodore commanding the gunboats....With General Pope now advancing from New Madrid in strong force to attack in [General W.W. Mackall's] rear, I am, with the gun and mortar boats, ready to attack in front, while General Buford here is ready to cooperate with the land forces; but it seems as if the place is to be surrendered without further defense.
A. H. Foote
Flag Officer, Comdg. Naval Forces, Western Waters
Navy OR Ser. I, Vol. 22, p. 720.
7, Confederate situation report for West Tennessee
HEADQUARTERS, Trezevant, Tenn., April 7, 1862.
Col. THOMAS JORDAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived here and relieved Maj. King on Saturday, 5th instant, having visited and conferred with Col. Jackson at Trenton. He could not move under several days forward of that place. I found headquarters here with a company thrown forward at Hico, on picket to its right and left, and Capt. Pell had just returned from Paris with the flag the enemy had left hoisted on the court-house there, with no news of importance of the enemy. I hear to-day through citizens that they sent to-day a large force there--perhaps 1,000 men. My scouts and pickets bring me no news of the enemy. The bridge on Trenton and Dresden road, over the Obion, called Shade's Bridge, was reported by a scout as burned last Friday; by whom not known. I learn all the cavalry that we had in Henderson, at Lexington, has gone to Purdy, but not officially. It is of importance that I be kept advised of such movements, as it leaves my right very much exposed. I shall start a scout of a lieutenant and thirty men to Huntingdon to-morrow at sunrise. I threw forward Capt. Guthrie's company to occupy my left front, with orders to send scout to Rogers' Mill. a short distance from Dresden. I have ordered all the companies of the regiment here. Capt. Wicks' arrived this evening. I cannot learn where Hubbard's and Houston companies are. I learn they are very small and very worthless. I beg that two other new and well-armed companies be substituted in their places, and respectfully urge it. I am not satisfied with the muskets in the hands of a majority of King's late battalion. A great deal has to be done in the way of equipment to make these men efficient. Gray's company had no bridles. I have sent him of to procure them at Memphis. I am laboring to get all the reports necessary to know the condition of each company.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
TH. CLAIBORNE, Col., [Sixth Confederate] Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 297-298.
7, Railroad obstructed, Germantown, in reprisal rebel families sent south of Union lines [see April 7, 1863, "Report on subversive civilian activities in West Tennessee," below]
7, Capture of Confederates near Snow Hill [see April 1-8, 1863, Expedition from Murfreesborough to Lebanon, Carthage, & Liberty above]
7, Skirmishing, Snow Hill to Liberty [see April 1-8, 1863, Expedition from Murfreesborough to Lebanon, Carthage, & Liberty above]
7, George Kryder on the fight at Snow Hill
Camp near Murfreesboro
April 7th 1863
Dear beloved wife
I now take my pen to write a few lines to you to let you know I am getting along. At present I am not very well although I cannot say that I am sick. About a week ago we got some fresh beef and it physicked me and I have had the diarrhea ever since. And we have just come back from a five day scout and while we were out I took an awful bad cold but a few days rest will straighten me out again for another scout.
Last Friday we started with five day rations to go to Liberty, 30 miles from here where about 6000 rebels were. And that evening we met about five or six hundred and had a little skirmish and the next morning they had retreated beyond Liberty about 2 miles to Snow's Hill (but I would call it a mountain) where they made a stand. And they said there [they] would not a live Yankee get up that hill, though the Yankees were too sharp for them. While some of the force was fighting them in front, the 3rd 4th and 10th Ohio went to the right and nearly cut off their retreat but they had pickets out and gave them the alarm and they sent a regiment out to meet us. The 4th was ahead and they dismounted and a very brisk skirmish went on for about half an hour. When the rebels gave way and our regiment charged after them and in the road lay a dead rebel and my horse jumped over him and there were a number more killed and wounded. The 4th Ohio had one man wounded in the leg and our Reg. had two wounded, one of Co. G's men in the shoulder and one of our Co. in the cheek. The Rebs fled in the greatest confusion losing saddles, blankets, coats, hats by the hundred, guns, saddle bags and satchels and some of the carbines which they captured from our men in Lexington, Ky. I picked up when we stopped a pair of saddle bags with 4 pr. drawers, one calico shirt, and 2 pr of woolen socks and the saddle bags are worth two dollars. In all worth about five dollars. Our Reg. took eleven prisoners, and I heard that we killed 15 and wounded a large number.
Well we came back this side of Liberty and went into camp. Next morning we started toward Lebanon 23 miles from Liberty, went about half way and went into camp. Our Co. was on picket that night. The next day we started for horses. The 4th Ohio was on our right and the 7th Penn to our left and we spread out so That we formed a line about 8 or 10 miles long and every good horse we came to we took along, and we caught a number of bushwhackers that were scattered through the woods and we lived on ham and eggs.
George Kryder Papers
7, Report on subversive civilian activities in West Tennessee
HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, LaGrange, Tenn., April 7, 1863.
Lieut.-Col. BINMORE, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Memphis:
SIR: I have the honor to inclose to you copies of letters captured in Richardson's camp, showing some of the schemes resorted to by those permitted to trade at Memphis and other points. I am keeping a black list, upon which all such individuals are registered.
Very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
WM. SOOY SMITH.
[Inclosure No. 1.]
RALEIGH, December 4, 1862.
DEAR SIR: We have daily application by deserters from the Federal camp at Memphis for paroles, and if we had any authority to do so, we could, through some friends at Memphis, induce hundreds to come to us. There is a great dissatisfaction in their camps, especially with the late levies, and by proper management they could be drawn off in large numbers. They come out, but are afraid to travel far in the country till they are paroled, for designing persons have told them that they would be captured by rebels and put in the Southern army, and their clothing taken. Two were sent to us on yesterday, who were anxious to be paroled, and we sent them in the direction of your camp. They said there were 50 men in their regiment who would escape if they were not afraid of our men harming them. We told them not to fear. We have an arrangement already in Memphis whereby we can induce many to come to us if we are authorized to parole them. We can procure from them a large number of side-arms at reduced prices, and we will let your men have them at cost. We can have them bring with them the best of arms, and thus weaken their stock of arms as well as men. We therefore ask you to authorize J. M. Coleman and myself to parole such as come, and we think we can in this manner contribute largely in reducing the strength of the enemy at Memphis, and also help to arm your regiment. If you approve our suggestion, we wish you to send us blanks printed for us all. Please answer us by the first one who comes from your regiment. We wish our names not known in the matter, because such would subject us to the baser outrages of the Federals, and we can at the same time conduct the matter so it will not be discovered. You can likewise keep the same with yourself, alone.
Hoping to hear from you soon, we remain, your friends,
W. D. L. STEWART, J. M. COLEMAN.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp. 176-177.
[Inclosure No. 2.]
NEAR SOMERVILLE, TENN., January 29, 1863.
On my way home I sold one of my black horses to Mr. Broadenax, near Belmont. He belongs to Jackson's cavalry, and if Maj. Buery will show him the other, he will buy him also. I have contributed $25 toward buying Mr. Sharpe a horse for the service, and hope it will be all right with you. I shall start to Memphis to-day, and would be off before this, only I found my child very sick. I understand Grant has gone down the river, and that he left some 2,500 troops at Memphis in a disorganized state that he could not make go with him. You shall hear from me as soon as I return.
Respectfully, yours, &c.,
T. G. NEWBILL.
[Inclosure No. 3.]
FEBRUARY 1, 1863.
When I was at your camp I understood you to say that you had orders to break up the entire trade with Memphis; consequently I now write to you upon a subject that interests a good many good citizens of this section. Since seeing you, one of Col. [R. F.] Looney's aides obtained from him permission for me to take five loads of cotton to Memphis, and Mr. George Hood, by a similar permit, has just returned from taking some down. Now, I wish to [know] if your orders and Col. Looney's are liable to conflict, or if I would be molested by soldiers belonging to your command, or not. My view about the one article of cotton is this, that most all of the people have sold all their cotton, while others equally as deserving of these privileges have not sold any, and that it would fall heavy on them now to have their cotton destroyed, and that it must be disposed of in one of these ways; that is, to hunt it up a burn it, let the people sell it, or wait till the Yankees come and take it for nothing. I don't think Gen. Pemberton fully understood the situation of the people here or he would not have given such orders.
I, myself, never thought of selling a bale of cotton until the Yankees got south of us, and I saw persons making money out of it that cared nothing for the South and gave themselves no trouble to accommodate Southern citizens or soldiers except at large profits.
My situation was this: I had lost all my property in Missouri. I have eight children there with my mother, by my first wife, who have been made destitute by the war. I had my wife and one child with me, and but $13 in my pocket, so it is not to be wondered at if I wanted to make something for their support, and while I have been taking cotton to market and selling it for both citizens and soldiers, I have been working out contraband articles of every kind for them and letting them go at Memphis prices. I will name some of the articles: Salt, domestics, soldier clothing, dress goods, cavalry boots, saddles, and horses, military buttons, gold lace, revolvers, caps and cartridges, medicines, &c. I have been spoken to how to bring out over a dozen revolvers and cavalry boots, hats, &c., and shall take my wife and several others down with the in doing so.
Mr. Pierce, Mr. McFadden, Mr. Yancey, and several others belonging to your command want me to take their cotton; also several ladies, whose husbands are south, in the army, and they need the money and several other things that they may want me to bring out; but I have nothing to lose, and don't want to get into trouble is the reason I write to you, and also thinking that possibly you and Col. Looney had decided any points about other things, and being of that opinion, I will make a proposition, and that is this: For every bale of cotton I am permitted to take to market, I will contribute to you $10 in Tennessee money, for the benefit of your soldiers, to be used as you may think proper, which, after paying $20 per bale for hauling, will not leave a very large margin for profits. At the same time I will ever be ready to serve you or your cause in any way that I can half-way consistent with my safety. I do not make this proposition to induce you to deviate from what you may conceive to be your duty, but thinking it might redound to the benefit of all concerned.
When I got home from your camp, I found my child sick with croup. Getting out also came very near laying me up, for my constitution has been had ever since I had congestive chills, in 1852, and I am fearful I have delayed going to Memphis so long that the revolvers and powder I spoke for may be disposed of; but I will learn in a few days. Please write to me by bearer, if you think it right and proper, also indorse [inclose?] me a pass to Memphis for myself and wagons, and I will come and see you upon my return.
Respectfully, yours, &c.,
T. G. NEWBILL.
N. B.-Strictly confidential.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp. 177-178.
[Inclosure No. 4.]
FEBRUARY 4, 1863.
On my way home I sold one of my black horses to Mr. Broadenax, who bought him for his son, who was a soldier, and, I believe, belongs to Jackson's cavalry. I then gave Mr. Sharpe $25 toward buying him a horse, and wrote you a few lines by him, and inclosed your receipt for the horses. He will be there, possibly, by the time you get this. I hope, as a Southern soldier, even true, you will be satisfied with what I have done. In regard to bringing out ammunition and pistols, caps, &c., I can only say this: If any Southern man can get them in Memphis, I can, and if I can get anything that your men want I will do so, and you can have them at cost; but by having several teamsters with me, I will be materially aided in doing so. I fear no damage, except some Union Scoundrels should find out what I am and have been doing, and go to Memphis and inform the Yankees. Everything you say or do with me shall be between us, and I hope to become better acquainted with you.
T. G. NEWBILL.
HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, LaGrange, Tenn. April 7, 1863.
Lieut. Col. HENRY BINMORE, Asst. Adjt. Gen.:
COL.: Following the example of Maj.-Gen. Hurlbut in the matter of removing beyond our lines disloyal families for offenses, I have caused the accompanying letter to Col. W. W. Sanford, commanding Fourth Brigade, to be written. If it meets with the approval of the general commanding the Sixteenth Army Corps, I will see that the directions contained therein shall be promptly executed. I inclose also the letter from Col. Sanford, which called it forth.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. SOOY SMITH.
HDQRS. FOURTH Brig., FIRST DIV., SIXTEENTH A. C., Germantown, Tenn., April 7, 1863.
Capt. H. ATKINSON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
SIR: I have the honor to report that on the night of the 5th instant, a company sent out from Buntyn Station to patrol the road west of that place, discovered some obstruction placed on the railroad in two different places, composed of cross-ties and rails. They were sufficient to have thrown a train from the track. They were removed and a vigilant watch kept during the night, but the perpetrators were not discovered nor the object of these obstructions determined. I have caused a patrol of 20 men, under charge of an officer, to be sent out from each station every night, with instructions the road all night and keep a vigilant watch.
I have the honor to be, very truly, your obedient servant,
W. W. SANFORD, Col., Cmdg. Fourth Brigade.
HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, LaGrange, Tenn., April 7, 1863.
Col. W. W. SANFORD, Comdg. Fourth Brigade, Germantown:
COL.: In answer to your communication of this date, in reference to obstructions having been placed at two different points on the railroad on the night of the 5th instant, the general commanding the division directs that you notify the six rebel families who live nearest the scenes of this outrage that they remove south of our lines within ten days, not to return during the war. You will see that this order is enforced. The most undoubted proofs of loyalty will be required when any doubts exist as to the proper subjects of this order.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
HOFFMAN ATKINSON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp. 178-180.
7-11, Wheeler's raid on Louisville and Nashville and Chattanooga Railroads, including affair (April 10) at Antioch Station, Tenn.
No. 1.--Brig. Gen. Eleazer A. Paine, U. S. Army, of raid on Louisville and Nashville Railroad.
No. 2.--Col. George P. Este, Fourteenth Ohio Infantry, of affair at Antioch Station, Tenn.
No. 3.--Lieut. Col. Christopher J. Dickerson, Tenth Michigan Infantry, of affair at Antioch Station, Tenn.
No. 4.--Gen. Braxton Bragg, C. S. Army.
No. 5.--Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, C. S. Army, commanding cavalry.
No. 6.--Brig. Gen. John A. Wharton, C. S. Army.
Report of Brig. Gen. Eleazer A. Paine, U. S. Army, of raid on Louisville and Nashville Railroad.
GALLATIN, April 11, 1863.
GEN.: I will have 1,000 men at Lebanon to-morrow morning at daylight. The attack on the train was made at 4 o'clock p. m. yesterday, with three pieces of artillery, I think Parrott guns. The battery was across Cumberland River, about 700 yards from the railroad track. The first shot knocked off the dome of the locomotive, the next went through the boiler, one shot broke out a spoke in one of the driving-wheels. Two men very dangerously wounded. Thirty-five shots were fired, and nearly all of them struck the train. Some of the men ran up the track and stopped the passenger trains. After the rebels left, the three trains ran into Nashville about midnight.
E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen.
Brig. Gen. JAMES A. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff.
Report of Col. George P. Este, Fourteenth Ohio Infantry, of affair at Antioch Station, Tenn., HDQRS. 2d BRIGADE, 3d DIVISION, 14TH ARMY CORPS, La Vergne, April 12, 1863.
COL.: I have the honor to report the following relative to the attack upon the Nashville and Murfreesborough passenger train, upon the 10th ultimo [instant]: The train was attacked 5 ½ miles from La Vergne, toward Nashville, about 4.30 p. m., by a force of between 200 and 300 rebels, besides a supporting force of about 200 held in reserve, and one threatening the stockade at Mill Creek, in all about 600, under the command of either Gen. Wharton or Col. [Baxter] smith, of the Tennessee cavalry. The resistance by the train guard was of a fable character, owing, doubtless, to the suddenness of the attack and the fatal effects of the rebel fire. The guard soon fled, and the rebels took possession of the train, capturing most of the passengers, releasing some 43 prisoners, plundering the mail and express packages, and robbing the passengers of money, watches, clothing, boots and hats, and setting fire to and destroying seven cars. They accomplished all this in less than twenty minutes and retired with their prisoners and booty, reaching and crossing Williams' Ford, 10 miles from La Vergne, some time before dark.
At a point some 2 miles beyond the river they paroled the prisoners, about 70 in number, excepting Col. Wood, Fifteenth Indiana Volunteers, Col. Buell, Fifty-eight Indiana Volunteers, Maj. Cupp, First Ohio Cavalry, Capt. Milburn and Capt. Bevill, Tenth Kentucky Volunteers, and 7 other officers, who refused to accept a parole. Taking these officers with them, the rebels moved in the direction of Baird's Mills, upon the Lebanon and Murfreesborough pike, intending to reach there before daylight.
The loss of the Federals was 6 killed and 13 wounded, 3 mortally. The rebels lost 6 killed, 6 wounded, and 3 prisoners.
I did not hear of the attack upon the train until nearly 6 o'clock, when I immediately ordered out all the cavalry here (about 100) and ten companies of infantry. The cavalry I sent down the pike to intercept, if possible, the rebel retreat, while I placed the infantry upon a train of cars, to be immediately moved to the scene of action. Both cavalry and infantry arrived too late to do any good, the rebels having too far the start.
I need not assure you of my vexation at this successful raid. Prior to its occurrence I had received, as I thought, the most satisfactory evidence from scouts, citizens, and contrabands that no rebels were in the vicinity in any considerable force. During the week I had scoured both sides of Stone's River myself, with the cavalry, without being able either to see or hear of any rebel force. The successful expeditions of Col. Wilder and Gen. Mitchell had caused me to believe that there were no rebel cavalry to the south of Lebanon or west of Liberty. Upon the day of the attack my patrols had failed to discover any signs of the rebel forces. I have since learned that they left Lebanon the morning of the day they did attack, and only reached the place of disaster ten minutes before the train arrived. From all the evidence, I am led to believe that they neither placed any obstructions upon the track nor displaced any rails prior to the attack, but that the tender and cars were thrown off the track by the too sudden reversal of the engine for the purpose of running back.
I am now sending upon each day, as far as Antioch, a full regiment of infantry in the freight train in rear of the passenger train going to Nashville. I have two lines of cavalry patrols, extending from La Vergne down 7 miles, but, in order to be better able to guard against such disasters, I ought to have more cavalry or mounted men. I would, therefore, respectfully suggest the concentration of the regiment of cavalry now divided between Stewart's Creek and La Vergne at this point. Each detachment is too weak to do much by itself, whilst, if together, it might effect much good.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEO. P. ESTE, Col., Cmdg.
[Lieut. Col. GEORGE E. FLYNT, A. A. G., and Chief of Staff.]
HDQRS. 14TH ARMY CORPS, DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, April 13, 1863.
Respectfully forwarded. The suggestion for concentration of cavalry at La Vergne is approved and recommended.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen. U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.
Report of Lieut. Col. Christopher J. Dickerson, Tenth Michigan Infantry, of affair at Antioch Station, Tenn.
HDQRS. TENTH Regt. [sic] MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Nashville, April 13, 1863.
COL.: On the 10th instant, 40 privates and 4 non-commissioned and 2 commissioned officers were detailed from this regiment to guard a train on the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad, from this city to Murfreesborough and return. About 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the train, while on its return trip, 4 miles this side of La Vergne, was suddenly attacked by guerrillas, numbering from 200 to 300, who were secreted in a dense grove of cedars, completely covering them from view. Simultaneously with the attack the train was thrown from the track, in consequence of two of the rails being slightly displaced. The guards were stationed upon the top of some passenger cars and upon one platform car, and were under the command of Lieut. Frank M. Vanderburgh. The suffered severely from the first volley fired by the rebels, a number being killed and wounded. After having discharged their pieces at the guerrillas, they jumped, as quickly as possible, from the cars upon the ground, on the opposite side from the point of attack.
Protecting themselves as well as possible by the cars, they held the train for some minutes, continually firing at the enemy. Being over powered by greatly superior numbers, they were compelled to give up the train, and, falling back a short distance, made a stand behind a fence, where they repulsed a party of rebels who were pursuing them.
Here Lieut. Vanderburgh, who had previously received two wounds, was again shot and completely disabled. The command of the party then devolved upon Lieut. H. Walter Nichols, who, seeing there was no possibility of saving the train, retreated with his men in good order to the first stockade this side of La Vergne. Here he was re-enforced by about 15 men, who were stationed at the stockade. He then moved his men back to the point where the train had been thrown from the track. The rebels had captured the mail and express matter on board, and had set on fire all the cars, together with the engine and tender. The fire, however, had done very little damage to the engine, and the same was saved. Lieut. Nichols gathered up the wounded, who were taken to some houses near by and made as comfortable as possible under the circumstances. A surgeon connected with the army, whose name I have been unable to learn, was on the train at the time of the attack, and rendered very efficient service in providing for the wounded. Six rebels were found dead near the point of attack, and a number are known to have been wounded.
The following is a list of casualties to the party detailed from this regiment: Considering all the circumstances attending the foregoing attack upon said train, and the large number killed and wounded, no less than 18 out of 46 officers and men, the conclusion is irresistible that both officers and men behaved with conspicuous bravery.
C. J. DICKERSON, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Regt. [sic]
Col. CHARLES M. LUM, Cmdg. First Brig., Fourth Div., Dept. of the Cumberland.
No. 4. Report of Gen. Braxton Bragg, C. S. Army.
TULLAHOMA, April 13, 1863.
GEN.: Gen. Wheeler reports from Lebanon, 11th instant: I divided my command into two parties, and made a raid upon the Louisville and Nashville and Nashville and Murfreesborough Railroads, capturing a large train on each, and many officers and men.
Portions of Wharton's and Morgan's cavalry division composed his command.
Report of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, C. S. Army, commanding cavalry.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, Lebanon, April 11, 1863.
COL.: I have the honor to state that on approaching Liberty the enemy, consisting of Wilder's and Matthews' infantry brigades and Gen. Stanley's cavalry division, retreated with great rapidity, no doubt having exaggerated reports regarding our strength. About 700 men, under Col. [Basil W.] Duke, were then at Smithville, and the remainder of Gen. [J. H.] Morgan's command were at Rock Island, between McMinnville and Sparta.
On the 7th, I ordered Gen. Morgan to send up the force from Rock Island and move it forward to Liberty, unless the enemy prevented, in which case he was directed to turn Liberty, and thus outflank that position.
I encamped at Alexandria on the evening of the 8th, with Gen. [J. A.] Wharton's division (about 1,900 strong), the remainder being with Gen.'s [W. T.] Martin and [G. J.] Pillow, and the next morning moved on Lebanon, where I was overtaken by Col. Duke, with 600 men, 100 having been left, by my order, to defend Snow Hill. I determined to move with this force and attack the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and the Nashville and Murfreesborough Railroad. I here sent two companies to Auburn and a small scout to Black's shop, 7 miles from Murfreesborough, to guard the approaches from that point, and proceeded on to the Hermitage, detaching 500 picked men, under Lieut. Col. [S. C.] Ferrill, with orders to cross Stone's River, attack the railroad trains, and do any other good in his power, and return to Lebanon; and leaving Col. Duke, with his command, to picket and defend the approaches near the Hermitage, I proceeded with the remainder of the command to a long, narrow bend to a point about 9 miles a little east of north from Nashville, where the railroad runs down to the river bank. We here placed our guns in position between two stockades, each of which was sufficiently near to be in view and within hearing. We fortunately, by the strictest silence and by creeping up to the bank, got our guns in position without being observed, and, after waiting two hours, a very large locomotive came in view, drawing eighteen cars loaded with horses and other stock. The first three shots broke open the boiler and stopped the train, and a few volleys from a dismounted regiment drove off the guard, who made but feeble resistance, wounding but 1 of my men. Finding that we could not cross the river, we brought our guns to bear upon the locomotive, and shot through it several times. We also shot the horses in the cars, and retired.
The party under Lieut.-Col. Ferrill attacked a train of cars loaded with soldiers near Antioch. Col. Ferrill fired several volleys in crowded cars at distances varying from 10 to 50 yards. He thinks he killed not less than 100 men and wounded a large number. We took about 70 prisoners, including 20 officers, among whom are 2 colonels, 1 major, and 3 of Gen. Rosecrans' staff officers. Col. Ferrill paroled the enlisted men, 1 captain, and 7 lieutenants. We brought off the other officers, and about $30,000 in greenbacks, together with a large mail. We also retook 40 of our soldiers, who were on their way to Camp Chase. Col. Ferrill destroyed the train, and broke up the road and telegraph. Our loss 1 man wounded.
With great respect, colonel, your obedient servant,
JOS. WHEELER, Maj.-Gen.
P. S.--I think that Col. Ferrill's estimate of the dead may be somewhat exaggerated. Perfectly reliable officers state that they saw over 30 dead Yankees, and state that they saw only a portion of those that were killed.
Report of Brig. Gen. John A. Wharton, C. S. Army.
HDQRS. WHARTON'S CAVALRY DIVISION, Lebanon, April 12, 1863.
GEN.: After being relieved on outpost duty at Unionville, my command passed through Shelbyville on the 4th, 5th, and 6th of April, arriving at McMinnville, or rather at a point 8 or 9 miles in advance of that place, on the Woodbury pike, the second day after, without anything to disturb the quiet of the march but a few groundless alarms, soon ascertained to be such.
On the 8th, the command was at and near Blew's, 3 miles from Mechanicsville, on the Liberty road, where, hearing of 10,000 strong of the Federals at Liberty, it was determined to cross the Liberty and Murfreesborough road 5 or 6 miles this side of Liberty while sending a force to develop the Federal strength there. However, before reaching the turning off point, it was ascertained that the Yankees had evacuated Liberty, and the line passed through that place, and camped near Alexandria that night.
On the 9th, after an easy march, the command encamped near Lebanon, with plenty of forage, to rest the horses and recover from the fatigue of the hard march of the day before.
The morning of the 10th found the whole command in saddle, and on the march at 3 o'clock.
Detachments from the various regiments of my brigade, to the number of about 500 men, reported to Lieut.-Col. Ferrill, of the Texas Rangers, for special service, and with this force he started in the advance. The rest of the brigade followed, and on reaching the Hermitage, 18 miles from Lebanon, turned off to the right 6 miles, to the river, where, in a large bend, the Nashville and Louisville Railroad runs along the edge of the bluff on the opposite side, in plain sight, and only 250 or 300 yards distant. A force being left at the turning off point to guard the wagons, which had come along for safety, and the approaches to the river in our rear, the artillery was posted on the bank, after a reconnaissance by Gen. Wheeler and myself, just back of the edge, at the bluff on this side, and out of sight of sentinels on the other, supported by several regiments dismounted, while the remainder was held in reserve half a mile off.
On the approach of the train, the guns were run up to the brink of the bank, and at the second shot from them the steam-pipe was cut, the steam escaped, and the train was slowly stopped.
After much firing on our side, a little from the other, much fuss among the horses, with which the train was mainly freighted, and the scampering off of the few hands left on the train, although the cars were not thrown from the track, as desired, the command was drawn off.
It was 2 o'clock at night before the rear guard encamped, within 5 miles of Lebanon, through which they passed on the morning of the 11th, sitting down again in the neighborhood to picket to advantage and recruit the horses after their march of over 50 miles in one day.
This morning (the 12th) dispatches are received converging the result of Col. Ferrill's raid on the Murfreesborough and Nashville Railroad. Coming to the road near Antioch Station, Mill Creek, he spread the track and placed his men in ambush. The train approached at full speed, the tops of the cars crowded with soldiers.
Fire was opened upon them, and soon the last one struck the ground, the train ran off, a heavy fire was directed against the confused mass struggling for life and extrication, and in a few moments, with a charge, the train was ours. Eleven officers were brought prisoners here, and some others, with 150 men, were paroled, while 75 or 80 were killed or wounded. Fifty or sixty of our own men, captured near Liberty, were retaken, and much express and mail matter brought away. I send you the mail bag, the only one brought away, thinking you may find something of interest in it; also some late papers.
After getting through with the mail, you will please forward it to the editor of the Chattanooga Rebel, with my compliments. I will communicate with you from time to time as anything of interest occurs.
With great respect, general, your obedient servant,
JNO. A. WHARTON, Brig.-Gen.
Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. Polk's Corps.
P. S.--A large amount of greenbacks were captured.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 215-221.
Excerpt from General Henry W. Halleck's report on the operations in the Departments of the Ohio and of the Cumberland, February 3-July 26, 1863:
On the 10th of April, a guerrilla force attacked a train near La Vergne, guarded by 40 men. The cars were destroyed, and nearly half of the guard killed and wounded. At the same time Van Dorn, with a large mounted force, attacked Franklin, but was repulsed by Maj.-Gen. Granger, with a loss of 19 killed, 35 wounded left on the field, and 48 prisoners.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 7.
The Murfreesboro train was due here at about 4 o'clock .At 8 all was right, and the usual preparation were made for the reception of passengers and freight. The train not arriving, however, the telegraph was put in operation, when it was discovered that the wires were down. Between six and seven o'clock a messenger arrived in town with the news that the train had been captured; and still later, news came in that the train was attacked at or near Antioch, ten miles from Nashville, and about five miles this side of La Vergne, by from 150 to 200 Confederate cavalry, who had torn up a portion of the track, so as to stoop the train. The entire train, we believe, was destroyed, and a large part of the guard and passengers were captured. One Federal Lieutenant was probably killed, and six or seven wounded. We also hear that two Confederate Colonels, coming up on the train as prisoners, were wounded by the firing into the train. These two Colonels are said to have been captured on last Sunday, below Murfreesboro.
Nashville Dispatch, April 11, 1863.
A Train Destroyed – Yesterday a train on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad on its way to this place, was attacked, captured and destroyed by a party of rebel guerillas, about three miles this side of La Vergne. There were about forty soldiers on the train, of whom it is reported a number were killed. Of the remainder a portion were taken prisoners and others escaped. The wounded were left behind; the guerilla departed in great hast after destroying the train. They had previously cut the telegraph wires to prevent communication between the federal posts along the line of the road.
Nashville Union, April 11, 1863.
A young gentleman of this city who was on the Murfreesboro train captured Friday afternoon, returned to the city yesterday He states that the train was captured about one mile beyond Antioch. When the Rebels fired on the train, the guard, thinking it was but a small squad, returned the fire, killing two of the Rebels. The guards then discovering that the force was very large, attempted to escape. In flight a concentrated fire from the Rebels killed nearly all of them, about twenty in number. Upon the stoppage of the train the cars were cleared of soldiers and citizens, who were marched to a point about half a mile distant, where they were halted until the cars were burned. Our informant says haste was a prominent feature in all the movements of the Rebels. Before the passengers had been removed from the train, the Rebels took charge of the safe belonging to the Adams Express Company, which they forcibly opened and took therefrom a considerable amount of money, supposed to have been sent by soldiers to their families at home.
Nashville Dispatch, April 12, 1863.
April 7, 1863-May 13, 1863, Arrest and release of Fannie Battle and Harriet Booker as Rebel spies
The case of Ms. Fannie Battle and Ms. Harriet Booker is unique in Tennessee Civil War history. The two young rebel women were arrested for spying, sent north to Camp Chase, a prisoner of war camp in Columbus, Ohio, and through the efforts of Colonel Joseph Battle [20th Tennessee], Confederate Governor of Tennessee Isham G. Harris, James Seddon, Confederate States Secretary of State, Robert Ould, Confederate Agent for the Exchange of Prisoners, and Officials of the Federal government, the two Confederate women were released and sent home. The following correspondence indicates the effort that was made on behalf of these two ardent Confederate women:
OFFICE SPECIAL COMMISSIONER, Camp Chase, Columbus, Ohio, April 23, 1863.
Maj. L. C. TURNER, Judge--Advocate:
As to Miss Fannie Battle, aged nineteen years, of Davidson County, Tenn., arrested on the 7th day of April, A. D. 1863, by order of Col. Truesdail, chief of police at Nashville, and brought to Camp Chase on the 15th day of April, 1863, charged with being a spy, with smuggling goods and with getting a forged pass, I have the honor to report that the prisoners denies the all allegation of having been a spy but admits that she is a rebel and she had a forged pass. She further denies that she smuggling goods at the time she was arrested. There can be no doubt from the manner of the prisoner in replying to inquiries that she has been engaged in smuggling. The prisoner is affable and attractive and well qualified by a manners and mind to be influential for evil to the loyal cause. She is a daughter of the rebel Gen. [i.e., Colonel] Battle. I recommend that she be exchanged and sent beyond our lines as soon as it may be convenient to our Government.
SAML. GALLOWAY, Special Commissioner.
OFFICE SPECIAL COMMISSIONER,
Camp Chase, Columbus, Ohio, April 23, 1863.
Maj. L. C. TURNER, Judge--Advocate:
As to Miss Harriet Booker, aged twenty-four years, of Davidson County, Tenn., arrested on the 7th day of April, A. D. 1863, by order of Col. Truesdail, Chief of police at Nashville, and brought to Camp Chase on the 15th day of April, 1863, charged with being a rebel, a spy, with forging a pass and altering the same and with smuggling goods through the lines and conveying letters and information to the enemy, I have the honor to report that the prisoners denies the charge of smuggling, of being a spy or conveying letters to the enemy, but admits herself to be a rebel and to have altered a forged pass, knowing the same to have been forged for the purpose of being fraudulently used. The prisoners is [sic] less intelligent than Miss Battle and more ingenuous. She has been obviously under the control of Miss Battle. There can be no doubt as to her active and cordial co--operation in the acts of Miss Battle. If she could be removed from the influence of [that] designing woman she would be harmless. I recommend that she be exchanged and sent beyond our lines, and if convenient and practicable that she be separated from the companionship of Miss Battle.
SAML. GALLOWAY, Special Commissioner.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 514-515.
EXECUTIVE OFFICE, Tullahoma, Tenn., May 4, 1863.
Hon. JAMES A. SEDDON.
SIR: I send you herewith a note which I have just received from Col. Joel A. Battle upon the subject of the arrest and imprisonment at Camp Chase of his daughter Miss Fannie Battle and Miss Booker. They are refined and very excellent young ladies belonging to the best families in the county, and were arrested alone upon the ground of their strong and openly avowed sympathies with the Confederate cause. Miss Battle has had two brothers killed in battle and her father dangerously wounded at the head of his regiment (the Twentieth Tennessee) at the battle of Shiloh. Gen. Bragg tells me that he can do nothing here in the premises and advises me to address you upon the subject. I trust that the peculiar character of this case will be held to justify the most speedy and decided action. If these ladies are not liberated is it not legitimate to retaliate by placing in close confinement a number of Federal officers?
ISHAM G. HARRIS.
Answer Governor Harris and inform him of what I have done.
J. A. SEDDON.
MAY 11, 1863.
Another shameful outrage of the enemy in spite of their promise to cease such arrests. Do all you can to procure the release of these ladies.
J. A. SEDDON, Secretary.
OFFICE EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS,
Richmond, May 19, 1863.
Respectfully returned to Hon. James A. Seddon, Secretary of War. Miss Battle and Miss Booker were delivered at City Point, Va., May 13, 1863, via flag-of-truce boat.
RO. OULD, Agent of Exchange.
WINCHESTER, TENN., May 4, 1863.
Hon. I. G. HARRIS.
DEAR SIR: A rumor reached me some days since that one of my daughters, Fannie, has been arrested by the Federal authorities and would probably be sent to a Northern prison. Yesterday I learned for the first time that the report was certainly true and that she was confined closely at Camp Chase in a room adjoining a hospital. Another young lady, Miss Harriet Booker, a daughter of one of our friends in my neighborhood, was arrested at the same time and is confined with my daughter. I have no personal acquaintance with either Gen. Johnston or Gen. Bragg and I would take it as a very great kindness in you if you will see them and know if anything can be done by which my daughter and Miss Booker can be exchanged or the Federals induces to give them up. I am not advised as to whether we have any ladies prisoners in the South, but if their newspaper accounts are true there are some in our lines who ought to be if they persist in their policy of incarcerating our women and burning our houses. A copy of the Nashville Union now before me of a late gives an account of the cordial reception of Federal prisoners by the ladies of Shelbyville. For a less offense my daughter is to be closely confined in a loathsome Northern prison. Will you do me the favor of attending to the foregoing request at your earliest convenience and write me at this place?
Respectfully, your friend,
JOEL A. BATTLE
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 943-944.
7, Longstreet ordered to begin retreat from East Tennessee to Virginia
RICHMOND, VA., April 7, 1864. Gen. J. LONGSTREET, Bristol, Tenn.:
GEN.: The President directs that you move with that part of your corps proper now in the Department of East Tennessee (that is, McLaw's and Field's divisions, and one battalion of artillery, that lately commanded by Col. Alexander) to Charlottesville, Va. Arrived there, you will report to Gen. R. E. Lee. The infantry should first move by rail. If the means of transportation will permit, the artillery, its carriages, harness, &c., will go in the same manner; otherwise, it will march. Should the artillery go by rail, the artillery horses will be sent on the dirt road. Only such field transportation will be taken as is allowed for a campaign in the Army of Northern Virginia. Please see Gen. Lee's special orders, indorsed. The excess in the Department of East Tennessee above that amount will be promptly put in motion for the gap in the Piedmont Railroad, between Danville, Va., and Greensborough, N. C., to assist in providing necessary subsistence supplies for both your own corps and the troops who remain with Gen. Buckner in the Department of East Tennessee.
Very respectfully, general, your obedient servant,
S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 756.
7, Entry in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County
Another (rebel) soldier was shot yesterday. The Yankees went to jail and brought him while a citizen was standing near. He said the soldier was very poorly clad but his countenance was that of a gentleman. When the guard brought his horse to him (a broken down one from the camp) he asked what they were going to do with them. On being told to "Mount that horse and say no more..." he did so remarking that he supposed they were going to shoot him. They took him to the river to shoot him but finding some gentlemen there-Mr. H. & M. they said they had gone in a hornet's nest to shoot and went somewhere else. When they carry them out to shoot them they given [sic] a worn out horse and tell them if they can escape they may; they say "have fine fun chasing the boy with fresh horses" I am sorry I did not commence my journal when old Payne first came; he was worse then than now.
7, "A Warning to Thieving Soldiers"
A case has just been investigated by courts martial, in which Peter Cunningham, bugler of Co. D, 14th U. S. cavalry was tried on the charge of robbery, found guilty, and sentenced to drummed through the camp of the 2d cavalry division with a placard attached to his back, with the word "Robber" written thereon, with a ball and chain attached to his left leg, for the period of six months, and forfeit all pay and allowances now due him from the United States until the expiration of the term of his sentence.
Nashville Dispatch, April 7, 1864.
7, "The Police and Sanitary Regulation of the City;" the fight for public health in Nashville
The citizens of Nashville are thoroughly puzzled to understand their duties with regard to the sanitary regulation of the city. On the 22d ult., an order was issued by Gen. Granger, from which we extract as follows:
Capt. W. D. Chamberlain, 29th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, is announced as Chief of the Police of this city.
He will rigidly enforce all police and sanitary regulations issued or to be issued.
He is authorized, in the discharge of his duties, to search all premises, alleys, outhouses, or yards, and to give any orders or directions concerning the cleaning or keeping of the same; and any orders or directions so given, will be considered as coming from these Headquarters.
Citizens and occupants of Government buildings will be held responsible that all obstructions are removed from and the pavements in front of their houses swept clean by 9 a. m.
No merchandise, boxes, coal, wood or obstruction of any kind will be allowed to remain on the pavements, but will be taken in immediately on delivery.
No dirt or rubbish of any kind will be deposited in he alleys or aback yards. The sweepings, slops, and refuse will be collected in barrels, and the barrels placed in the street [sic] at such stated times as shall be hereinafter designated for each street, to be taken away by the Government wagons. [sic]
As soon as the streets are thoroughly scraped, they will be sprinkled daily by Government water-carts.
As citizens are not taxed to support this-undoubtedly for the cleanliness and health of the city-it is expected that they will perform their share of the work promptly and thoroughly.
Any violation of this order or of any orders or directions given by Captain Chamberlain, will be punished with a fine of five dollars, to be collected fortheith by the City Provost Marshal on the report of the Chief of Police.
On the 28th ult. Chief of Police Chamberlain issued an order from which we quote as follows:
In accordance with Special Order No. 76 [sic], dated March 22d, it is hereby ordered:
I. That occupants of stores, restaurants and dwelling houses, will be required to clean their yards and cellars, and have the offal removed, within forty-eight hours from the date of this order. No garbage or dirt of any kind will be allowed to accumulate on any premises within the city limits.
II. All dirt to be removed in barrels and boxes from the backs yards and alleys by the persons occupying the same. No rubbish will be allowed to remain more than twenty-four hours without being removed.
III. Offal, the accumulation or restaurants, must be removed by the occupants each day (Sundays excepted) before 10 A.M. All ashes and rubbish will be set in barrels on the sidewalks before 10 A. M., each day. [sic]
Everybody seems to have construed these orders to require them to place the rubbish and ashes from their cellars, back yards and alleys in barrels and boxes on the streets in front of their premises, from whence they would be removed in Government wagons. They have complied with what they understood the orders to require of them, and now the municipal authorities quietly tell them that if they do not remove this rubbish the will be indicted for creating a nuisance. The law is plan and explicit upon this point, and the citizens must remove the rubbish in from of their premises forthwith or take the consequences.
For permitting merchandise, boxes, coal, wood, or obstructions of any kind to remain on the pavements, the military police will collect a fine of five dollars from the offender. The same offenses are punishable by the city authorities as follows:
"That hereafter no person or persons shall hand or suspend any sign, show-bill, or show-board, or set or place any goods, wares or merchandise, or any other obstruction, in front of any house, store or other building upon the Public Square, or any street, lane or alley in this city, under a penalty of not less than ten nor more than forty-five dollars for each and every offense, and the further sum of five dollars for each day the said sign, show-bill, show-board, or goods, wares, and merchandise, or other obstruction, remain in violation of this act.["]
As it now stands, both penalties may be enforced, and so many double penalties be imposed in a number of cases.
An order was issued from the military headquarters and a short time since, and is still in force, we believe, requiring the citizens to scrape up the mud and dust into piles or heaps to the middle of streets in front of their premises, when the same would be removed by Government, are taxed for this purpose.
It strikes us that these conflicts might be avoided by having one set of authorities to enforce police and sanitary regulations in the city. The policy adopted by Gen. Hurlbut in Memphis is the right one. In a speech to the City Council of that city on the 17th ult., he gave them to understand that if they did not clean the city and take measures to improve its sanitary condition, he would stop their collection of taxes and do the work himself.
Nashville Dispatch, April 7, 1864.
7, Report of Provost Marshal Major A. W. Billings on organization of home guard companies in Middle Tennessee
HDQRS. FIRST SUB-DISTRICT OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE, OFFICE PROVOST-MARSHAL, Tullahoma, Tenn., April 7, 1865.
Maj.-Gen. MILROY, Cmdg. First Sub-District of Middle Tennessee:
GEN.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the organization and operations of the home-guard companies in the counties embraced in your command: In nearly each district of the counties of Coffee, Lincoln, Bedford, Franklin, Marshall, Grundy, Warren, and Cannon, there are from one to two, sometimes three, companies formed. Their workings, as shown by reports and by the great decrease of marauders, guerrillas, and the many small parties of robbers who formerly infested these counties, is most admirable. In the counties of Bedford, Coffee, Lincoln, and that portion of Franklin where they are organized, those terrors and pests of the country have entirely dispersed. The home guards have through their company courts settled fairly, justly, and amicably many claims which have been brought to me as provost-marshal and referred to said courts for adjuration. The workings of the court I find generally restores to a great extent that good feeling and amity so essential to the welfare of a united people. Aside from this the people or home guards have rallied to the assistance of some of our troops, and aided and assisted in driving and killing the guerrillas, by whom our troops were at times repulsed. They have also had encounters with the guerrillas or horse thieves by themselves, in which they acted nobly, capturing [or] killing several guerrillas, one a noted captain, losing several of their own men in the encounter, capturing some seven horses in one instance and several in others. All the horses and other property captured have been returned to their original owners on proof of property adduced before the home-guard company court. They have arrested and brought to justice four Federal soldiers, two of them deserters from the Nineteenth Regulars, who had exchanged clothing with citizens and were endeavoring to escape. The two other had gone about the country exchanging horses with whom they pleased, and doing about as they pleased. These men otherwise would in all probability [have] escaped. In no instance can I learn of a single outrage or theft committed by members such organization. They have so rid the country, where organized, as to render it comparatively safe for Federal soldiers to pass through by themselves. You are aware that the officers have been selected with an eye single to their loyalty, competency, and reliability.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. W. BILLINGS, Maj. and Provost-Marshal.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 292-293.
7, Report of Surg. George E. Cooper, U. S. Army, Medical Director, Department of the Cumberland relative to Hood's Campaign in Tennessee
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, MEDICAL DIRECTOR'S OFFICE, Nashville, Tenn., April 7, 1865.
SIR: My report of the medical department of the Army of the Cumberland from the time of the invasion of Northern Alabama and Tennessee by the rebel army under Gen. Hood till the defeat of the same by the Government forces in front of Nashville, and the pursuit thereof to beyond the Tennessee river, must be a meager and unsatisfactory one in consequence of my having been separated from the army, and not having myself been in active campaign with it until after the battle of Franklin, Tenn., when it presented itself in the defenses of Nashville. The proceedings of the medical corps are, however, exceedingly well pointed out in the accompanying report of Surg. J. Theo. Heard, medical director Fourth Army Corps, who in person accompanied that corps-all that was left as an organized force of the old Army of the Cumberland, the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps having been taken by Maj.-Gen. Sherman to form a portion of the army with which he made the great raid through Georgia.
At the time of evacuating Atlanta the corps hospitals of the Army of the Cumberland were, as they had been in the summer campaign, fully organized and equipped, and were ready to move at a moment's notice. The general field hospital, under the charge of Surg. M. C. Woodworth, was in fine condition and of sufficient capacity to receive all the sick and wounded of the army, who, on the breaking up of the division hospitals, might require medical treatment. Supplies of all kinds had been called for and procured by the field medical purveyor, and the army corps were amply and liberally supplied. The ambulances, which had been greatly used during the summer campaign, were repaired and put in as serviceable condition as the time and material on hand would admit of. When the rebel army feel upon the line of railroad at our rear the inconvenience suffered therefrom was, as far as the medical department was concerned, in reality nothing. The only article which ran short was whisky, and this was procured in ample quantities from the subsistence department. The quality, though not equal to that furnished by the medical department, was good enough for all practicable purposes.
The Fourth and Fourteenth Army Corps, having been detailed to follow Hood's army to the rear, the sick from their division hospitals were transferred to the general field hospital, where they were cared for as well as could be wished for, and the troops left Atlanta entirely disencumbered with sick or wounded men. What occurred from that time till the last days of November, 1864, is known to me by hearsay only and from reading the reports furnished these headquarters. For this information I refer to the excellent report of Surgeon Heard, medical director, Fourth Army Corps, who, having been one of that little band who held the whole rebel army in check from Decatur, Ala., to Nashville, Tenn., is far more competent to make the report than I. Synchronous with my arrival at Nashville from Atlanta and Chattanooga came reports of the falling back of our army from Pulaski, Tenn., and of heavy and continuous skirmishing with Hood's advance. On the 30th of November came the news that a severe action had taken place near Franklin, Tenn., and that our losses in both killed and wounded had been heavy. The medical director of the Fourth Army Corps was immediately telegraphed to and asked if he required a hospital train, and early next morning hospital train No. 2., was sent to Brentwood, between Nashville and Franklin. On the night of November 30 two freight trains loaded with wounded from skirmishes beyond Franklin, and which had been brought to that place in ambulances, arrived here. The wounded were transferred to the general hospitals here, and were promptly and skillfully cared for by the medical officers there on duty.
On the following day the troops arrived from Franklin, bringing with them quite a number of wounded, but having, unfortunately, been compelled to leave by far the greater portion in the hands of the enemy. Almost at the same time came the troops commanded by Maj. Gen. A. J. Smith. These troops were deficient in almost everything belonging to the hospital department; they had no organized ambulance corps or trains; there was no division or brigade organization of hospitals, but were as they had been from the beginning of the war, and seemed to have learned nothing from experience or the example of others, and opposed every improvement as an innovation. They had but few medical supplies, and were wanting in almost everything which would aid them in alleviating the sufferings of the sick and wounded of their commands. It became necessary to fit them out with all possible dispatch, which was done; and thanks are due to Surg. Robert Fletcher, U. S. Volunteers, medical purveyor, for his energy, efficiency, and promptness in this emergency. No one could have performed the duties of purveyor in a manner more creditable to himself or with greater benefit to the Government.
As soon as the troops arrived in front of Nashville they were placed in the lines and were compelled to throw up intrenchments. They were much prostrated by their constant harassing night and day marches from the Tennessee River to Nashville; but, notwithstanding this, in a short time, by constant and severe labor, works were thrown up which rendered Nashville impregnable. As the army was short of men, it became necessary to call to the aid of the beleaguered city all the troops within call. Consequently, the different detachments of the army which left Atlanta with Gen. Sherman, and had remained behind, in hospitals and otherwise, were organized into a temporary corps under the command of Maj.-Gen. Steedman. This extemporized corps was without any organization whatever, and to it was attached the regiments of colored troops. It is impossible for me to learn if these troops consider themselves a part and parcel of the Army of the Cumberland, or a separate command made for Col. Mussey. I should judge them to be out of the department did I take the attention they pay to the existence of this office as a criterion. They are more irregular in forwarding their reports than any regiments in the Army of the Cumberland.
The weather, which, previous to the arrival of the troops, had been moderate, became, shortly after their arrival at Nashville, excessively cold for this latitude. The result of this was much suffering on the part of the troops and the comparative cessation of all offensive measures on the part of either army. At this time the result of the fatigue undergone by the troops in the retreat from Decatur and the subsequent labor in the trenches began to show themselves in the greatly increased number of men who presented themselves for medical treatment. Many, too, who had without detriment to their health undergone all the hardships of the summer and fall campaign, now yielded to the effects of the bitter cold, and diseases of the pulmonary viscera became numerous. Rheumatic affections, too, became quite prevalent. The advent of the rebel army in front of Nashville, and the fact of entrenching itself, rendered the necessity of a general action a moral certainty. To prepare for the sick and wounded of the Government forces demanded a much larger amount of hospital accommodation than was at that time at the disposal of the hospital department. Anticipating a large influx of wounded, the efficient superintendent and director of U. S. general hospitals at Nashville took possession of every building that could be made use of for hospital purposes and had them fitted up with all possible dispatch. Consequently, some 4,000 vacant beds were at the disposal of the medical department. The Assistant Surgeon-Gen., too, anticipating the necessity, ordered to Nashville a large number of medical officers, of whom many arrived proper to the actions and all in sufficient time to be of the greatest service to the wounded in the battles in front of Nashville. The medical officers of the Fourth Army Corps, being emphatically experts in the care of the wounded after battle, had everything prepared of prompt and efficient action. They had supplied themselves with all the necessaries, and, in addition, had procured all the delicacies within their reach. The result was that after the actions of 15th and 16th of December the men belonging to the Fourth Army Corps, and all who were brought to the field hospitals of that corps, were promptly and skillfully treated and most carefully provided for. Too much praise cannot be awarded to the medical staff of the Fourth Army Corps for their untiring attention and skillful manner of treating the wounded in their division hospitals. Were it not invidious to designate and particularize by name certain officers when all are worthy, I would give a list of the medical officers who so faithfully performed their duty. This I will not do, but justice to themselves demands that I should mention and particularize Surgs. M. G. Sherman, Ninth Indiana Volunteers; Stephen J. Young, Seventy-ninth Illinois Volunteers; E. B. Glick, Fortieth Indiana Volunteers, and C. N. Ellinwood, Seventy-fourth Illinois Volunteers, as men deserving of more than ordinary notice. Previous to the battles instructions had been given to the surgeons in charge to establish division field hospitals as near to the field as practicable, and strict orders were issued directing the surgeons to operate on the field upon all requiring it, previous to transferring the men to the general hospitals in the city.
The weather, which had entirely stopped all offensive military operations, having moderated considerably, the army on the morning of December 15 marched out beyond the fortifications for the purpose of assaulting the enemy's lines. The medical department of the Army of the Cumberland proper were prepared to attend to any number of wounded brought in to them from the field, and established their hospitals as near the front as the safety of the wounded and the configuration of the country would admit of. Water being quite plenty, position only had to be sought for. The extemporized corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Steedman, had no organized medical staff. This was composed of all the surgeons who could be found unattached, in consequence of being on leave…or having been separated from their regiments which had marched from Atlanta with Maj.-Gen. Sherman. To these were added the medical officers of the U. S. Colored Troops. This portion of the medical staff was under the charge of Surg. Josiah D. Cotton, Ninety-second Ohio Volunteers, who acted as medical director. Though hastily brought together and lacking in all the appurtenances for field hospitals, the medical officers of this command did all in their power to assist and relieve the wounded under their charge. The only great drawback to prompt action in this portion of the army was the entire absence of an ambulance corps. The blockade of the Cumberland River by the rebel batteries had prevented the quartermaster's department from bringing a sufficient number to Nashville. To avoid the want of ambulances as much as possible, every one that could be found in Nashville, no matter in what capacity used, was taken possession of and sent into the field, to be used as circumstances might demand. This, in a meander, served in the place of an ambulance corps, but the want of system and organization was most apparent. The soldiery wounded in the action of the 15th of December were, on the same night, brought into the city and placed in the U. S. general hospitals, where every necessary attention was paid them. Such as had not been operated upon were then examined, and such measures were taken as their cases demanded. The wounded in the action of the 16th of December, 1864, were also brought in and placed in the general hospitals. Some were brought in by ambulances of the corps and some by vehicles, which had been impressed for that purpose. Surg. O. Q. Herrick, Thirty-fourth Illinois Volunteers, superintendent of transportation of sick and wounded, made use of all available means to remove from the field each and every wounded man found there. This was a matter of no little labor, for the scene covered several miles, and wounded men were in every portion of it, and the cavalry wounded even farther distant; yet, by midday of the 17th of December all our wounded were in comfortable hospitals, the recipients of every attention that skill and science could furnish. The pursuit of the enemy entailed, as a necessary consequence, much more labor in the care of the wounded. The railroads were destroyed, and all the wounded had to be transferred by means of ambulances to the hospitals at Franklin, Columbia, and Pulaski. This was done under the supervision of Surg. O. Q. Herrick; and too much praise cannot be given him from his untiring energy and labor in collecting and bringing in from the houses in the vicinity of the line of march the wounded of our own and the rebel army. The cavalry in advance paid but little attention to their wounded, but left them in houses by the roadside, to be cared for by the surgeons of the infantry troops who were following. The Fourth Army Corps carried with them the sick and wounded in ambulances until they arrived where proper hospital accommodations could be furnished. The Sixteenth and Twenty-third Army Corps, not being in the advance, had no wounded to care for.
In Franklin, Columbia, and Pulaski a large number of rebel wounded were found who had been left by their army. A sufficient number of medical officers had been left with them to give them proper attention. These wounded were, as soon as practicable, transferred in hospital cars to Nashville, where they were placed in one large hospital. The medical officer in charge was directed to furnish them all necessaries and such luxuries as the condition of their wounds required. This was done until the arrival of the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners, who directed that the wounded rebels should be confined to prison hospital rations. I do not think that it is the intention of the Government to deprive wounded men, rebels though they be, of everything needful for their treatment. Prison hospitals being at a distance from the front, it was not expected that wounded me would be brought there till sufficiently well to travel, when died would be but a matter of minor import. No surgeon can give good results if he be not allowed to use every article called for by sinking nature and to treat disease untrammeled by orders from non-professional men.
The wounded of our armies who were left at Franklin, Columbia, and Pulaski had medical officers detailed to remain with them until the railroad should have been repaired, when those who could bear transportation were to be removed to Nashville. The necessary supplies were left with the sick and wounded as far as was practicable, but not in such abundance as would have been furnished had the railroad been intact.
The weather during the pursuit was of the most disagreeable character. Rain fell for four successive days, and when this ceased the weather grew severely cold. This was followed by rain, rain, rain, and as a sequence mud. Probably in no part of the war have the men suffered more from inclement weather than in the month of December, 1864, when following Hood's retreating army from Nashville to the Tennessee River. The result of this weather and the hard marching was, as might have been looked for, severe affections of the pulmonary viscera, fevers, rheumatism, and diarrheas, which served to fill the hospitals in this vicinity to their utmost capacity.
The number of men wounded in the actions in front of Nashville will never be correctly furnished, in consequence of the character of some of the troops engaged and their having no organized medical department. The records of this office, as far as furnished, show for the actions from Decatur to Nashville, 402 wounded; in front of Nashville and during the pursuit of the rebels, 1,717 wounded. The wounds were caused by musketry, throwing conidial projectiles, and by artillery of the latest and most approved character. The wounds were received at all distances, from contact with the muzzle of the piece to the extreme range of artillery and musketry. The character of many of the wounds were of the most severe kind, having been received at short range, consequent upon the peculiarity of the battle, which was a series of charges upon heavily fortified lines held by strong forces of the enemy.
The medical officers of the Army of the Cumberland did in this campaign all that men could do to alleviate the sufferings of the wounded soldiery, and have only added to the envious reputation gained by them on many a former battle-field. They are skillful, zealous, untiring, and faithful, knowing their whole duty and doing it most conscientiously. The medical officers of Sixteenth Corps did their duty well and faithfully, but want of systematic organization crippled their movements most perceptibly.
I will transmit the nominal list of wounded as soon as it can be made out; it will be defective in the Cavalry Corps and in those troops commanded by Maj.-Gen. Steedman.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEO. E. COOPER, Surg., U. S. Army, Medical Director, Dept. of the Cumberland.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 107-112.
 Located southeast of McKenzie, in Carroll county, Tennessee.
 Nominal list, omitted, shows 6 men killed and 12 wounded.
 See also: OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30; pt. IV, pp. 2, 3.
 Fannie's mother, Mrs. Dolly Battle and her sister, Ms. Sallie Battle would also be arrested in March 1865 on charges of spying. See below, March 7, 1865.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
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