Wednesday, April 8, 2015

4.8.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        8, Reconnaissance from Shiloh battlefield

APRIL 8, 1862.-Reconnaissance from Shiloh Battle-field.

Report of Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Tuesday, April 8, 1862.

SIR: With the cavalry placed at my command and two brigades of my fatigue troops I went this morning out on the Corinth road. One after another of the abandoned camps of the enemy lined the roads, with hospital flags for their protection. At all we found more or less wounded and dead.

At the forks of the road I found the head of Gen. Wood's division. At that point I ordered cavalry to examine both roads, and found the enemy's cavalry. Col. Dickey, of the Illinois cavalry, asking for re-enforcements, I ordered Gen. Wood to advance the head of his column cautiously on the left-hand road, whilst I conducted the head of the Third Brigade of the Fifth Division up the right-hand road.

About half a mile from the forks was a clear field, through which the road passed, and immediately beyond a space of some 200 yards of fallen timber, and beyond an extensive camp. The enemy's cavalry could be seen in this camp, and after a reconnaissance I ordered the two advance companies of the Seventy-seventh Ohio, colonel Hildebrand, to deploy forward as skirmishers, and the regiment itself forward into line, with an interval of 100 yards. In this order I advanced cautiously until the skirmishers were engaged. Taking it for granted this disposition would clean the camp, I held Col. Dickey's Fourth Illinois Cavalry ready for the charge. The enemy's cavalry came down boldly to the charge, breaking through the line of skirmishers, when the regiment of infantry, without cause, broke, threw away their muskets, and fled. The ground was admirably adapted to a defense of infantry against cavalry, it being miry and covered with fallen timber.

As the regiment of infantry broke, Dickey's cavalry began to discharge their carbines and fell into disorder. I instantly sent orders to the rear for the brigade to form line of battle, which was promptly executed. The broken infantry and cavalry rallied on this line, and as the enemy's cavalry came to it our cavalry in turn charged and drove them from the field.

I advanced the entire brigade upon the same ground, and sent Col. Dickey's cavalry a mile farther on the road. On examining the ground which had been occupied by the Seventy-seventh Ohio we found 15 dead and about 25 wounded. I sent for wagons, and had all the wounded sent back to camp and the dead buried; also the whole camp to be destroyed. Here we found much ammunition for field pieces, which was destroyed; also two caissons, and a general hospital, with about 280 Confederate wounded and about 50 of our own. Not having the means of bringing these off, Col. Dickey, by my orders, took a surrender, signed by Medical Director Lyle and all the attending surgeons, and a pledge to report themselves to you as prisoners of war; also a pledge that our wounded would be carefully attended and surrendered to us tomorrow as soon as ambulances could go out.

I inclose the written document, and a request that you will cause to be sent out wagons or ambulances for the wounded of ours tomorrow; also that wagons be sent out to bring in the many tents belonging to us, which are pitched all along the road for 4 miles. I did not destroy these, because I know the enemy cannot remove them. The roads are very bad, and the road is strewn with abandoned wagons, ambulances, and limber-boxes. The enemy has succeeded in carrying off the guns, but has crippled his batteries by abandoning the hind limber-boxes of at least twenty guns.

I am satisfied the enemy's infantry and artillery passed Lick Creek this morning, traveling all last night, and that he left behind all his cavalry, which has protected his retreat, but the signs of confusion and disorder mark the whole road.

The check sustained by us at the fallen timbers delayed our advance, so that night came upon us before the wounded were provided for and dead buried, and our troops being fagged out by three days' hard fighting, exposure, and privation, I ordered them back to camp, where all now are.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

W. T. SHERMAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 639-640.


APRIL 8, 1862.--Reconnaissance from Shiloh Battle-Field.

Report of Thomas Harrison, Texas Rangers [unattached].

CAMP, NEAR CORINTH, April 11, 1862.

[COL.:] I have to report that, being left by you in command of the Texas Rangers, 220 strong, on the morning of Tuesday last, I remained in the rear of our retiring army until the evening of that day, when information was brought me by a member of Col. Forrest's cavalry that a small body of the enemy's cavalry had appeared on our right flank.

I immediately proceeded with my command, accompanied by a company [about 40 men] of Col. Forrest's cavalry, to the point occupied by the enemy, and finding him apparently in considerable force, and having formed my command in line of battle to his front, I made a personal reconnaissance of his lines. This revealed his cavalry, about 300 strong, with a line of infantry in its rear, the extent of which I could not determine, owing to a dense brush-wood in which the latter was placed. I discovered too, as I thought and still think, artillery almost entirely concealed by the thick undergrowth of timber.[1] I could not ascertain the strength of this battery.

Deeming it unadvisable to attack a force so strong and advantageously situated-their position and the nature of the ground rendering a charge by cavalry extremely hazardous-I retired to a more favorable position, and learning here that the enemy was attempting to pass my flank in force I commenced to retire again to a point beyond that which it was supposed they would reach my rear. At this time I met Capt. [Isaac F.] Harrison, of Col. Wirt Adams' cavalry, commanding about 40 men of that regiment. He informed me that his regiment was so situated as to prevent the flank movement attempted by the enemy.

Being joined by him I returned to my position near the hospital, where I found Col. Forrest commanding in person the company of his cavalry above named. On consultation with him it was determined to charge the enemy then formed for battle to our front. The charge was immediately executed. The front line of the enemy's infantry and his cavalry in its rear was put to flight; a portion of the latter only after a hand-to-hand engagement with the Rangers had attested their superior skill in the use and management of pistol and horse. My command not having sabers and our shots being exhausted I ordered a retreat on the appearance of a strong line of infantry still to our front, which was well executed by the Rangers. I rallied and reformed them on the ground where the charge was begun, but the enemy did not advance. Shortly afterward I was ordered by Gen. Breckinridge to the rear of his infantry and artillery.

I suppose 40 or 50 of the enemy were killed on the ground and doubtless many more were wounded. We captured 43 prisoners. My loss was 2 killed [Champion and Earnest] and 7 wounded, among them Capt. [G.] Cook, Lieut.'s [H. E.] Storey and Gordon; none mortally. Private Ash is missing.

I cannot state the loss of the companies co-operating with me. Col. Forrest I learn, was slightly wounded.

The Rangers acted throughout the affair with admirable coolness and courage. I cannot say more than that they fully sustained the ancient fame of the name they bear; they could not do more. I cannot discriminate between them, because each one displayed a heroism worthy of the cause we are engaged for.

Very respectfully,

THOS. HARRISON, Maj., Cmdg. Texas Rangers.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 923-924.


We have to record another brilliant victory for the Confederate arms, which occurred on Tuesday [8th] last, and was achieved by a small force of our cavalry, composed of a detachment of Col. FORREST'S regiment and a party of Texas Rangers under Maj. THOS. HARRISON. The whole force was about nine hundred, and was under command of Col. FORREST.

When our army commenced retiring from Shiloah [sic] on Monday [7th] evening, Gen. BRECKINRIDGE'S brigade, with the cavalry, was ordered to bring up the rear, and prevent the enemy from cutting off an of our trains. On Tuesday afternoon the cavalry mentioned were attacked by a Federal force of two regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, the latter being in the advance. After receiving the enemy's fire, which killed and wounded ten, Col. FORREST, in a few spirited words, called upon his men to advance upon the enemy, which they did in the most gallant style.

At the first fire the cavalry of the enemy turned and fled, actually breaking the ranks of their own infantry in endeavoring to escape the missiles of the Confederates. The result of this dashing affair was – Federal loss, killed and wounded, two hundred and fifty, and forty-eight prisoners; Confederates, ten killed and wounded.

In this affair Col. FORREST received a painful, though not dangerous wound. Just as he had brought down the colonel of the Federal cavalry, one of the enemy fired at him with effect. The next instant a bullet from the colonel's pistol revenged the personal injury have had received. The colonel will be with his command in a few days.

Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.

        8, Martial law declared in Confederate East Tennessee

GEN. ORDERS, No. 21. WAR DEPARTMENT, A. AND I. G. O., Richmond, April 8, 1862.

I. The following proclamation is published for the information of all concerned:


By virtue of the power vested in me by law to declare the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do proclaim that martial law is hereby extended over the Department of East Tennessee, under the command of Maj.-Gen. E. K. Smith; and I do proclaim the suspension of all civil jurisdiction (with the exception of that enabling the courts to take cognizance of the probate of wills, the administration of the estates of deceased persons, the qualification of guardians to enter decrees and orders for the partition and sale of property, to make orders concerning roads and bridges, to assess county levies, and to order the payment of county dues), and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in the department aforesaid.

In faith whereof I have hereunto signed my name and set my seal this eighth day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 403.



Adjutant and Inspector General's Office,

Richmond, April 8, 1862.

I. The following Proclamation is published for the information of all concerned:




By virtue of the power vested in me, by law, to declare the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus:

I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do proclaim that martial law is hereby extended over the Department of East Tennessee, under the command of Major General E. K. Smith, and I do proclaim the suspension of all civil jurisdiction, (with the exception of that  enabling the courts to take cognizance of the probate of wills, the administration of the estates of deceased persons, the qualification of guardians, to enter decrees and order for the participation and sale of property, to make orders concerning roads and bridges, to assess county levies, and to order the payment of county dues, and the write of habeas corpus aforesaid.

In witness where of, I have hereunto signed my name and set my seal, this, the 8th day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty two.

Jefferson Davis.

II. Major General E. K. Smith, commanding the Department of East Tennessee, is charged with the due execution of the foregoing proclamation. He will fortheith establish an efficient military police, and will enforce the following orders:

The distillation of spirituous liquors is positively prohibited, and the distilleries will fortheith be closed. The sale of spirituous liquors of any kind is also prohibited, and establishments for the sale thereof will be closed

III. All such persons infringing the above prohibition will suffer such punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial. Provided, that no sentence to hard labor for more than one month shall be inflicted by the sentence of a regimental court martial, as directed by the 67th Article of War.

By command of the Secretary of War,

S. Cooper, Adj't and Insp'r General

Daily National Intelligencer, May 5, 1862.


Affairs in East Tennessee



Martial Law Declared in East Tennessee

Martial law has been declared in East Tennessee, and Col. Wm. M. Churchwell has been appointed Provost Marshal. The following documents relating to the subject are published:


Adjutant and Inspector General's Office,

Richmond, April 8, 1862.

I The following Proclamation is published for the information of all concerned:




By virtue of the power vested in me, by law, to declare the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus:

I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do proclaim that martial law is hereby extended over the Department of East Tennessee, under the command of Major General E. K. Smith, and I do proclaim the suspension of all civil jurisdiction, (with the exception of that enabling the courts to take cognizance of the probate of wills, the administration of the estates of deceased persons, the qualification of guardians, to enter decrees and order for the participation and sale of property, to make orders concerning roads and bridges, to assess county levies, and to order the payment of county dues, and the write of habeas corpus aforesaid.

In witness where of, I have hereunto signed my name and set my seal, this, the 8th day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty two.

Jefferson Davis.

II. Major General E. K. Smith, commanding the Department of East Tennessee, is charged with the due execution of the foregoing proclamation. He will fortheith establish an efficient military police, and will enforce the following orders:

The distillation of spirituous liquors is positively prohibited, and the distilleries will fortheith be closed. The sale of spirituous liquors of any kind is also prohibited, and establishments for the sale thereof will be closed

III. All such persons infringing the above prohibition will suffer such punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial. Provided, that no sentence to hard labor for more than one month shall be inflicted by the sentence of a regimental court martial, as directed by the 67th Article of War.

By command of the Secretary of War,

S. Cooper, Adj't and Insp'r General

Daily National Intelligencer, May 5, 1862.

        8, Capture of Island No. 10 and surrender of Confederates at Tiptonville

Covered by Federal gunboats, Major-General John Pope landed part of his army of 25,000 on the west shore of Madrid Bend, outflanking Confederate defenses, causing Confederate forces to abandon the fortified island. Confederate Brigadier-General W.W. Mackall, retreating south, finding himself cut off by gunboats and high water, surrendered the remnant of the Confederate force on the northern outskirts of Tiptonville.


Maj.-Gen. HALLECK:

Enemy in rapid retreat, leaving artillery, baggage, supplies, and sick. Paine is near Tiptonville; Stanley within mile [sic] of him; Hamilton 3 miles in rear of Stanley; Plummer now at landing on this side; our gunboats below Tiptonville on the bank. Think we shall bag whole force, though not certain. No escape for them below Tiptonville, except by wading shoulder deep in swamp. Whole command well in hand and will move forward at daylight. Captured eleven heavy guns, and enemy's famous floating battery, carrying fourteen guns, which drifted down from Island 10. I think rebels are trying desperately to escape; many of them must be captured. Have already taken 100 prisoners. Will occupy Island 10 early to-morrow unless enemy is assembled there in force; capture it anyhow by evening. Send down all transports you can get at once. Do not believe enemy will make another stand this side of Memphis. If I can get transportation, I will be in Memphis in seven days.

JNO. POPE, Maj.-Gen., Commanding.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, p. 670.


UNITED STATES FLAG-SHIP BENTON, Island No. 10, April 8, 1862.

Maj.-Gen. HALLECK:

SIR: I have the honor to inform the department that since I sent the telegraph last night announcing the surrender of Island 10 to me possession has been taken of both the island and the works upon the Tennessee shore by the gunboats and the troops under command of Gen. Buford. Seventeen officers and 368 privates, besides 100 of their sick and 100 men employed on board transports, are in our hands unconditional prisoners of war.

I have caused a hasty examination to be made of the forts, batteries, and munitions of war captured. There are eleven earthworks, with seventy heavy cannon, varying in caliber from 32s [sic] to 100 pounders rifled. The magazines are well supplied with powder, and there are large quantities of shot and shell and other munitions of war, and also great quantities of provisions. Four steamers afloat have fallen in our hands, and two others, with the rebel gunboat Grampus, are sunk, but will be easily raised. The floating battery of sixteen heavy guns turned adrift by the rebels is said to be lying on the Missouri shore below New Madrid.

The enemy upon the main-land appear to have fled with great precipitation after dark last night, leaving in many cases half-prepared meals in their quarters, and there seems to have been no concert of action between the rebels upon the island and those occupying the shore, but the latter fled, leaving the former to their fate.

These works, erected with the highest engineering skill, are of great strength, and with their natural advantages would have been impregnable if defended by men fighting in a better cause. A combined attack of the naval and land forces would have taken place this afternoon or to-morrow morning had not the rebels so hastily abandoned this stronghold. To mature these plans of attack have absolutely required the past twenty-three days' of preparation. Gen. Pope is momentarily expected to arrive with his army at this point, he having successfully crossed the river yesterday under a heavy fire, which no doubt led to the hasty abandonment of the works last night.

I am unofficially informed that the two gunboats which so gallantly run the fire of the rebel batteries a few nights since, yesterday attacked and reduced a work of the enemy opposite New Madrid mounting eight heavy guns. I regret that the painful condition of my foot, still requiring me to use crutches, prevented me from making a personal examination of the works. I was therefore compelled to delegate that duty to Lieut.-Commanding S. L. Phelps, of the flag-ship Benton.

A. H. FOOTE, Flag Officer, Commanding Naval Forces Western Waters.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, p. 674.


MEMPHIS, TENN., April 9, 1862.

[Gen. POLK:]

DEAR GEN.: I sincerely congratulate you upon the glorious victory that you and your command have acted so conspicuous a part. Since I left Island 10 I have had a severe attack of pneumonia. I am able to write to-day.

The pressure upon me for my report was so great that I was forced to dictate most of it from a sick bed, and of course it is not full, and is imperfect. I regret, too, that Gen. Stewart and Gen. Walker have not made reports to me. However, I attribute it to official duties on the part of Gen. S. and to sickness on the part of Gen. Walker.

If any reports have been sent direct to your office will you send me the reports or copies?

I regret the sad news I hear from Island 10. The poor fellows worked and fought without murmur as long as I was with them. I parted with them with regret. It is a matter of mortification to me to find myself situated as I now am-accused of drunkenness, &c. Nothing but an investigation of all my acts will now satisfy me.

Yours, sincerely,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, pp. 131-132.


The conclusion of the Federal siege of Island No. 10 on April 8, 1862 can be said to have begun on April 4. The following excerpt from the Report of Major-General John Pope is illustrative of the events leading to the surrender of Confederate forces at Tiptonville.

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Camp five miles from Corinth, Miss., May 2, 1862.

* * * *

On the 4th Commodore Foote allowed one of the gunboats to run the batteries at Island No. 10, and Capt. Walke, U. S. Navy, who had volunteered (as appears from the commodore's order to him), came through that night with the gunboat Carondelet. Although many shots were fired at him as he passed the batteries, his boat was not once struck. He informed me of his arrival early on the 5th.

On the morning of the 6th I sent Gen. Granger, Col. Smith, of the Forty-third Ohio, and Capt. L. H. Marshall, of my staff, to make a reconnaissance of the river below, and requested Capt. Walke to take them on board the Carondelet and run down the river, to ascertain precisely the character of the banks and the position and number of the enemy's batteries. The whole day was spent in this reconnaissance, the Carondelet steaming down the river in the midst of a heavy fire from the enemy's batteries along the shore. The whole bank for 15 miles was lined with heavy guns at intervals, in no case exceeding 1 mile. Intrenchments for infantry were also thrown up along the shore between the batteries. On his return up the river Capt. Walke silenced the enemy's batteries opposite Point Pleasant, and a small infantry force, under Capt. L. H. Marshall, landed and spiked the guns.

On the night of the 6th, at my urgent request, Commodore Foote ordered the Pittsburgh also to run down to New Madrid. She arrived at daylight, having, like the Carondelet, come through untouched. I directed Capt. Walke to proceed down the river at daylight on the 7th with two gunboats, and if possible silence the batteries near Watson's Landing, the point which had been selected to land the troops, and at the same time I brought the four steamers into the river, and embarked Paine's division, which consisted of the Tenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-second, and Fifty-first Illinois Regiments, with Hougtaling's battery of artillery.

The land batteries of 32-pounders, under Capt. Williams, First United States Infantry, which had established some days before, opposite the point where the troops were to land, were ordered to open their fire upon the enemy's batteries opposite as soon as it was possible to see them.

A heavy storm commenced on the night of the 6th, and continued with short intermission for several days. The morning of the 7th was very dark, and the rain fell heavily until midday. As soon as it was fairly light our heavy batteries on the land opened their fire vigorously upon the batteries of the enemy, and the two gunboats ran down the river and joined in the action.

* * * *

The whole force designed to cross had been drawn up along the river bank, and saluted the passing steamers with cheers of exultation. As soon as we began to cross the river the enemy commenced to evacuate his position along the bank and the batteries along the Tennessee shore opposite Island No. 10. His whole force was in motion towards Tiptonville, with the exception of the few artillerists on the island, who in the haste of retreat had been abandoned.

As Paine's division was passing opposite the point I occupied on the shore one of my spies, who had crossed on the gunboats from the silenced battery, informed me of this hurried retreat of the enemy. I signaled Gen. Paine to stop his boats, and sent him the information, with orders to land as rapidly as possible on the opposite shore and push forward to Tiptonville, to which point the enemy's forces were tending from every direction. I sent no force to occupy the deserted batteries opposite Island No. 10, as it was my first purpose to capture the whole army of the enemy.

At 8 or 9 o'clock that night (the 7th) the small force abandoned on the island, finding themselves deserted, and fearing an attack in the rear from our land forces, which they knew had crossed the river in the morning, sent a message to Commodore Foote, surrendering to him. The divisions were pushed forward to Tiptonville as fast as they were landed, Paine leading. The enemy attempted to make a stand several times near that place, but Paine did not once deploy his columns. By midnight all our forces were across the river and pushing forward rapidly to Tiptonville.

The enemy, retreating before Paine and from Island No. 10, met at Tiptonville during the night in great confusion, and were driven back into the swamps by the advance of our forces, until, at 4 o'clock a. m. on the 8th, finding themselves completely cut off, and being apparently unable to resist, they laid down their arms and surrendered at discretion. They were so scattered and confused that it was several days before anything like an accurate account of their number could be made.

Meantime I had directed Col. W. L. Elliott, of the Second Iowa Cavalry, who had crossed the river after dark, to proceed as soon as day dawned to take possession of the enemy's abandoned works on the Tennessee shore opposite Island No. 10. and to save the steamers if he possibly could. He reached there before sunrise that morning, the 8th, and took possession of the encampments, the immense quantities of stores and supplies, and of all the enemy's batteries on the main-land. He also brought in about 200 prisoners. After posting his guards and taking possession of the steamers not sunk or injured he remained until the forces from the flotilla landed. As Col. Buford was in command of these forces, Col. Elliott turned over to his infantry force his prisoners, batteries, and captured property for safe-keeping, and proceeded to scour the country in the direction of Tiptonville, along Reelfoot Lake, as directed.

It is almost impossible to give a correct account of the immense quantity of artillery, ammunition, and supplies of every description which fell into our hands. Three [Confederate] generals, 273 field and company officers, 6,700 privates, 123 pieces of heavy artillery, 35 pieces of field artillery) all of the very best character and latest patterns), 7,000 stand of small-arms, tents for 12,000 men, several wharf-boat loads of provisions, an immense quantity of ammunition of all kinds, many hundred horses and mules, with wagons and harness, &c., are among the spoils. Very few, if any, of the enemy escaped, and only by wading and swimming through the swamps.

The conduct of the troops was splendid throughout, as the results of this operation and its whole progress very plainly indicate. We have crossed this great river, the banks of which were lined with batteries and defended by 7,000 men. We have pursued and captured the whole force of the enemy and all his supplies and material of war, and have again recrossed and reoccupied the camps at New Madrid, without losing a man or meeting with any accident.

* * * *

I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. POPE, Maj.-Gen., Commanding.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, pp. 88-90.

        8, Assistant Secretary of War, Thomas A. Scott, to Secretary of War, E. M. Stanton relative to the fall of Island No. 10


NEW MADRID, April 8, 1862.

Just returned from Tennessee. General Pope's movement has been a glorious success. Captured the rebel general, and nearly all his forces are prisoners. They will number about 5,000. Over 100 pieces of heavy artillery at Island No. 10, and along the river shore a large amount of arms and property of every description. The rebels sunk six steamers. Will endeavor to have five of them raised. If transportation arrives to-morrow or next day we shall have Memphis within ten days, and General Pope can cooperate with General Grant at Corinth in wiping out secession. Captain Walke, of the gunboat Carondelet, is entitled to great credit for his efficient cooperation with General Pope to effect the crossing of the river.

THOMAS A. SCOTT, Assistant Secretary of War.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, p. 722.

        8, An Iowa soldier's observations on the mass burial of Confederate soldiers at Shiloh battlefield

* * * *

Where the retreat commenced on Monday afternoon are hundreds and thousands of wounded rebels. They had fallen in heaps and the woods had taken fire and burned all the clothing off them and the naked and blackened corpses are still lying there unburried[.] On the hillside near a deep hollow our men wer [sic] hauling them down and throwing them into the deep gulley [sic][.] One hundred and eighty [sic] had been thrown in when I was there. Men were in on top of the dead [sic] straightening out their legs and arms and tramping [sic] them down so as to make the hole contain as many as possible[.] Other man on the hillside had ropes with a noose on one end and they would attach this to a mans [sic] foot or his head and haul him down to the hollow and roll him in[.] Where the ground was level it was so full of water that the excavation filled up as fast as dug and the corpse was just rolled in and the earth just thrown over it and left.

War is hell [sic] broke loose [sic] and benumbs all the tender feeling of men and makes them brutes [sic] [.] I do not want to see any more such scenes and yet I would not have missed this day for any consideration[.]

Boyd Diary, April 8, 1862

        8, Mrs. J. B. Gray's modest suggestion

A Gunboat Proposal.

Editors Appeal: I wish to make a proposition through your columns to the ladies of Tennessee. That proposition is, that we purchase an iron-clad steamer, to aid in the formation of the Navy of the Confederate States. Having already given what is more precious than money, or any earthly treasure—some of us our beloved husbands, and most of us our noble sons, let us unite our efforts to strengthen their hands and cheer their hearts by the purchase of such a vessel, which, with the blessing of God, may prove as formidable to our enemies as the Virginia. I propose to give to the Secretary of the Navy or his order one hundred dollars to the attainment of this object. An equal sum from each patriotic lady of the State will accomplish it. Messrs. Editors, please speak for me and my sisters. Ask them to respond to this appeal, and say that you will become the agents for our noble purpose. The money will be paid whenever it is called for, through you. I mention ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS, in order that more of us may share in the honor.

Mrs. J. B. Gray

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 8, 1862.

        8,Strong Union sentiment reported in Franklin, Tennessee

Franklin, April 8, 1862.

The Union sentiment is stronger than in the more Southern part of the State. It is in the agricultural regions where slaves are largely employed in tilling the soil that the secession fun is now the strongest. Gen. Johnson is industriously bringing his state back into the Federal Union.

The Federal letter writers are to be believed, the amount of Union sentiment in that part of Tennessee now in their possession, is not enough to encourage any hope soon getting the State back in the Federal Union.

Houston Telegraph, June 2, 1862.

        8, "I want you to buy land or land certificates or a young Negro;" Jesse P. Bates to his wife in Hickman County

Camp Near Shelbyville, Tenn.

April the 8th, 1863.

Dear and beloved companion, I take the present opportunity of writing you a few lines to let you know that I am well at this time hoping that when you get this you may be enjoying the same blessing of health. I received yours of the 21st of Dec. and have answered it by mail and Mr. Weatherby is discharged and is going to Clarksville and I send this by him. The neighbor boys are all well that is present. There is no news from those absent. Baird and Beverly as well when I last heard from them. I have wrote [sic] it to you before but for fear you do not get [sic], I will write it again. Father was up her about one month ago. The folks was [sic] all well. John McCaleb is certainly dead as they brought his body home. All the boys from Hickman that is here in the army are well as far as I know. I have not heard from your mother for some time and then not direct. I have wrote to you to try and buy some stock that would grow and you said it was a hard matter to buy mares or any other stock and if you cannot buy stock, I want you to buy land or land certificates or a young negro [sic]. I suppose that land certificates can be bought at fifty cents per acres from the state. If you can buy a good piece of timbered land any where near to home so that it will be in reach of home to haul timber and if you can find any good place any where that you can get a fare price and a good title, but it for it will not pay to keep money lying up to no purpose. I would rather you would buy a fine mare than anything else, but if you can not get one or more, buy land and land certificates and I want you to be careful about getting frauds put upon you. If you get any certificates, try to have them located by some good responsible man.

I will send you some more money as soon as I draw and have a chance to send it to you. I am very anxious to hear from you for your last letter was so old before it came to me. I am sorry that you are out of paper and cannot write to me on account of the want of paper. I will send you a sheet in each letter that I send to you. I have nothing more of importance to write to you at present. Give my respects all enquiring friends. I send you my strongest affections. Tell Frank and Sarah to be good children and pa will come as soon as he can. Put your trust in our God and pray for peace and our return home. May God bless you and keep you from harm. So farewell for the present. So I remain you affectionate husband and companion until death.

Jesse P. Bates

Bates Correspondence.

        8, "Mrs. Smith is a very talkative woman and a regular rebel. I have lots of fun with her." Frank M. Guernsey's letter to Fannie


16th Division, of the Department of the Tennessee,

Memphis, April 8, 1863

[Dear Fannie,]

You need not be alarmed at the style of the heading of this sheet for there is nothing very serious intended. This is the only kind of paper the Adjutants office furnishes at present.

I received your letter day before yesterday and to use a southern phrase was mighty glad to hear from you. I had been waiting patiently for a long time and was finally rewarded with success. I am taking things very easy at present. I have recovered almost entirely from my sickness but am somewhat weak. I have not yet reported for duty and do not intend to for the present. I am going to wait until I get my strength and get fully recruited up. I am having a fine time. I go down Town when I please and stay as long as I have a mind to. The Col. places no restraint upon me what ever. I am boarding with a family by the name of Smith who live near our camp. They are very fine people but like all other southerners are more or less tinctured with secessionism. Mrs. Smith is a very talkative woman and a regular rebel. I have lots of fun with her. She is so plain and candid that it is hard to take offence at any thing she says. She appears to be very sincere in her belief that the Rebels are right and that we are wrong.

We are encamped in one of the most beautiful places you ever saw. There is a small ravine running through the center of our camp, the banks on either side sloping gently down to the little stream. On one side of the ravine is pitched in exact order the tents of the Regiment, on the other the tents of the Regimental and company officers. There is quite a heavy growth of trees on the camp ground which are just leaving out. In a week or two our grounds will be splendid. The leaves will be out and we lazy soldiers will be abundantly protected from the scorching rays of a southern sun.

I think Fanny [sic] that it would be almost impossibility for me to get a furlough. Genl. Grant has issued an order prohibiting the granting of furloughs except in extreme cases, and we are in his department, so the order includes us of course. Perhaps I shall be able to get away on detached service. We are expecting a pay day now very soon and there is two Captains who want me to go home and take the money for their companies.

Most of the men in our Regiment have alotted [sic] their money to their families. I shall know in a few days whether I can go or not. I would not accept of a discharge now unless my health was poor. No Fanny I enlisted for the war and have staked my all on the issue, and although I have such dear ties at home to call me there, yet I think I owe my country a deeper debt of gratitude and I have resolved to stand or fall with her. I don't [sic] want to leave the service until the stars and stripes float over every foot of secessia [sic] in triumph. I should like to have seen you very much when I was sick and should not if it were possible, but I have learned patience since I have been in the Army, but it is nearly mail time so I must close for this time. Now dear Fanny you must write soon, remember that I am always anxious to hear from you. I shall get a leave of absence if it is possible and make you a visit. It is very uncertain though. Please give my best regards to all your people, and accept much love to yourself

From your friend

Frank M. Guernsey

Guernsey Collection.

        8, Confederate Coney-Catching near Wartrace

Gen. Liddel's command, stationed near Wartrace, Tenn., are having a good deal of sport in catching a large number of rabbits daily. An old friend of ours says that on last Friday the boys captured about four hundred of the "molly cottontails." They manage the thing well. Two or three regiments march out and surround a thicket, then cavalry men with dogs enter the thicket and put the rabbits to flight, when our boys close in with clubs, sticks, etc., making a clean sweep of the varments [sic]. Quite a Luxury, and a great saving in a commissary point of view.—Chat. Rebel.

Montgomery Weekly Advertiser, April 8, 1863.[2]

        8, 10, Brigadier-General George Maney expresses preferences for decorating gallantry in the Army of Tennessee at the Battle of Stones River [see also January 23, 1863 Procedures and nominations for honoring gallantry in the Army of Tennessee at the Battle of Stones River above]

HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, April 8, 1863.

Brig. Gen. GEO. MANEY, Shelbyville, Tenn.:

GEN.: I am instructed by the commanding general to advise you he wishes your battery composed from guns taken from the enemy. You will, therefore, order to turn over one of your guns turned over to you from Capt. Semple's battery to the reserve, and receive one in its place from reserve. He also directs that the names of the four bravest Tennessee men who were killed on the field be inscribed upon guns. The man to engrave them will be in few days at your camp, to whom you will give the names of men to be engraved, and report the same to the general commanding.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. OLADOWSKI, Lieut.-Col., Ordnance Duty.

HDQRS. MANEY'S Brig., CHEATHAM'S DIV., POLK'S CORPS, Camp near Shelbyville, April 10, 1863.

Lieut. Col. H. OLADOWSKI, Chief of Ordnance, Army of Tennessee:

COL.: Your note, conveying directions of the commanding general in reference to my battery, was received this morning. The gun from Capt. Sempley's battery will be turned over to the reserve whenever demanded.

The instructions of the commanding general as to the inscription of names on the pieces is highly gratifying to me, and will be appreciated by my entire command. Your note expresses that -- The names of the four bravest Tennessee men who were killed on the field be inscribed upon guns.

I feel it proper to mention in this connection that while my command at Perryville contained four Tennessee regiments, each one of which can afford many names eminently deserving the appropriated honor designated, the Forty-first Georgia was also part of my brigade at the time, and participated with the Tennessee regiments, and with like valor and devotion, in the severe conflict, resulting in the capture of a quantity of the enemy's artillery; further, it may be noted, this was the only regiment not of Tennessee in the entire [battle?] engaged on our extreme right, and I must add, as my conviction, the southern Army lost neither a truer soldier nor more amiable and admirable a gentleman on that field than Col. Charles A. McDaniel, the commander of that regiment.

It if be the desire of the commanding general to bestow a compliment encouraging and appropriate to the Tennessee troops through my brigade as a medium, the inscription should properly be limited to the names of Tennesseeans [sic]; but if the purpose be to honor the fallen braves of this particular brigade, then justice, far more than any generosity, will strongly direct attention to the name of Col. McDaniel for an inscription.

I respectfully and earnestly suggest that, as the battery complete will contain just one gun for a suitable name from each of my four Tennessee regiments, it would be a profound gratification to me to be allowed the privilege of inscribing the name of Col. McDaniel on one of the guns captured by my brigade at the battle of Murfreesborough, the gun to be presented to some Georgia battery, as a token of respectful memory on the part of my command for a gallant soldier of a different State from themselves, who gave up his life fighting side by side with them, for the results, whatever they be, of usefulness to the country or honor to themselves, achieved on the field of Perryville.

Very respectfully, &c.,

GEO. MANEY, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 1003-1004.

        8, Flanking movement and/or scout initiated, from Memphis, skirting the Coldwater and thence by LaGrange to Bolivar

HDQRS. SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tenn., April 7, 1864.

Brig. Gen. B. H. GRIERSON, Cmdg. Cavalry Division, Sixteenth Corps:

GEN.: Under orders from Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman, you will proceed with your entire available cavalry force skirting the Coldwater and thence by LaGrange to Bolivar.

You have seen Gen. Sherman's orders. The line from here to Hatchie via Bolivar is to be held by your cavalry. You will move all disposable cavalry before daylight, sweeping round by LaGrange to Bolivar. Let go of Memphis, and give yourself no concern about it. Operate on the flanks and rear of the enemy and open communication with Veatch at and west of Purdy. Rally on them, or here if too strong for you, and press the matter home.


S. A. HURLBUT, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 284-285.

        8, Destruction of Confederate bridge over the Wolf River five miles from Memphis

MEMPHIS, TENN., April 9, 1864.

Maj. Gen. W. T. SHERMAN, Cmdg. Mil. Div. of the Mississippi, Nashville, Tenn.:

On yesterday I destroyed a bridge erected by the rebels to cross Wolf 5 miles from town. They have abandoned the idea of coming in here. Forrest's train and artillery are reported moving up via Saulsbury. He means to cross Tennessee in force and should be looked for about Big Sandy.

Cairo should have a full regiment and another for Columbus. S. D. Lee is reported to have chief command of expedition in your rear.

S. A. HURLBUT, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 310.

        8, Estimate for number of troops to protect N&CRR

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, April 8, 1864.

Statement of the number of troops necessary to protect the bridges on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, posted in block-houses at the following points, with garrisons at Murfreesborough, Tullahoma Stevenson, and Bridgeport:

No. Locality.   Troops

1    Mill Creek No. 1                                                   30

2    Mill Creek No. 2                                                   30

3    Mill Creek No. 3                                                   30

4    Hurricane Creek (one-half mile north of La Vergne)               30

5    Bridge near Smyrna                                       30

6    Stewart's Creek                                              30

7    Overall's Creek                                               30

8    Stone's River(Fortress Rosecrans                                      150

9    Stone's River(3 miles south of Murfreesborough                     40

10    Bell Buckle Creek                                        20

11    Creek one-half mile north of Wartrace           10

12    Wartrace Creek                                            30

13    Garrison's Fork                                            50

14    Duck River                                                  40

15    Norman's Creek (Normandy)                        30

16    [Block-house should be erected, I think, between Normandy  [30]

and Poor Man's Creek, though none is projected by the engineers.]

17    Poor Man's Creek (one-half mile south of Tullahoma [Should be block-house between Poor Man's Creek and Taylor's Creek. The road through a forest. All trains stop for wood and is the worst place for guerrillas on the whole road, and the distance is too great from Poor Man's Creek to Elk River to admit of patrolling the road with safety.]

18 [Taylor's Creek (Water Tank) only water between Decherd and Tullahoma.

Not projected by engineers]                                                            [30]

19 Elk River                                                                60

20 Boiling Fork of Elk River (Cowan)                                          30

21 Trestle (1 mile north of Tantalon                                                    10

22 Trestle (one-quarter mile north of Tantalon)                                   10

23 Bridge and station (Tantalon)                                                  20

24 Crow Creek (south of Tantalon)                                                     20

25                                                                       20

26                                                                       20

27                                                                       20

28 Crow Creek (south of Anderson)                                                   20

29 Dry trestle (south of Anderson)                                               10

30 Crow Creek (south of Anderson)                                                   30

31                                                                       30

32 Swamp trestle                                                         20

33 Crow Creek                                                            30

34 Crow Creek (three-quarters of a mile from Stevenson                             20

35 Creek (1 mile east from Stevenson)                                         20

36 Widow's Creek                                                       20

37 Tennessee River, main bridge, Bridgeport         … [sic]

38 Tennessee River, east bridge, Bridgeport                100

39 Dry trestle                                                              20

40 Nickajack Creek (one-quarter of a mile west of Shellmound                                                                                                    30

41 Creek (one-eighth mile east of Shellmound                                     30

42 Dry trestle (Narrows)                                                      30

43 Running Water (one-half mile west of Whiteside's)                         80

44 Lookout Creek                                                                30

45 Chattanooga Creek                                                                                                                                                            30

* * * *

Total troops, 1,460, omitting garrison at Bridgeport. The above are projected by the engineers, with the exception of those noted in red ink [inserted in brackets], which are result of my own observation.

North of Gen. Slocum's old the troops stationed as follows:

Fosterville, two companies Twenty-third Missouri.

Between Fosterville and Christiana, one company Twenty-third Missouri.

Christiana, three companies and headquarters Twenty-third Missouri.

Between Christiana and Stone's River, one company Twenty-third Missouri.

Murfreesborough, One hundred and fifteenth Ohio, Thirty-first Wisconsin, 384 convalescents.

At Stone's River, two companies Twenty-third Missouri Volunteers.

Overall's Creek, 5 miles from Murfreesborough, one company Eighty-fifth Indiana.

Stewart's Creek, one company Eighty-fifth Indiana.

Smyrna, one company Eighty-fifth Indiana.

Antioch, one company Eighty-fifth Indiana.

La Vergne, five companies Eighty-fifth Indiana. Thirty-third Indiana at present on furlough.

Stockade No. 2, one company Eighty-fifth Indiana.

Stockade No. 1, one company Eighty-fifth Indiana.

The following is the proposed arrangement of troops along the line from Nashville down:

Three batteries in forts at Nashville, already in position. This in addition to the infantry.

The Twenty-third Missouri is to be ordered to McMinnville to relieve the Eighteenth Michigan, which regiment will then join its brigade.

Col. Coburn's brigade to join its division. Three companies of artillery to be assigned to Murfreesborough. The convalescents to be armed with muskets.

Gen. Rousseau to man the block-houses from Nashville to Murfreesborough.

Two regiments at Murfreesborough, and in block-houses as far as Tullahoma.

Tullahoma, one regiment.

Stevenson, one regiment.

Bridgeport, two regiments proposed, although I should think it requires 3,000 men on both sides of river, and three batteries.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

NOTE No. 1.-When I passed up on Wednesday, March 20, the timber for these block-house was prepared and upon the grounds with few exceptions. In the cases of the latter I could not learn that nay work had been done upon them as yet. It will probably take until the 16th instant to complete them.

NOTE No. 2.-The block-houses as far south as Anderson are in about the same state of forwardness as those north of that point. Thence to Bridgeport they are probably completed by this time.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 290-291.

        8, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 7 relative to relations between officers and men in Federal Army in Middle Tennessee

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 7. HDQRS. SECOND DIV., 16TH ARMY CORPS, Pulaski, Tenn., April 8, 1864.

The general commanding regrets that the state of discipline in this command has become so loose as to compel him to publish a general order on the subject. No officer having the good of the service at heart can fail to see the pernicious effect of a too free social intercourse between officers and men. All officers are therefore strictly forbidden to associate on terms of equality with enlisted men. This applies especially to officers messing, playing at games of any description, or visiting with their men, as also permitting them to visit their quarters except upon business, which is to be done in the proper manner. In a general sense this order will make it the duty of officers to require respectful and courteous treatment from enlisted men on all occasions. Whenever company officers or officers connected with regiments or batteries are guilty of violating this order it shall be the duty of regimental commanders to place such officer or officers in arrest, and prefer the proper charges against the same without delay, and any regimental commander neglecting to do this will be placed in arrest by his brigade commander and the charge of neglect of duty preferred against him.

This order applies to staff officers who may have enlisted men directly under their charge, and any violation of this order will subject them to the same penalty as above prescribed, the general commanding division and commanders of brigades being the proper officers to execute the same.

Officers of the inspector-general's department are charged with the responsibility of seeing this order properly executed, and will report without favor any officer who violates its requirements.

This order will be read to each regiment and battery composing this command at the evening parade following its receipt.

By order of Brig. Gen. T. W. Sweeny, commanding:

LOUIS H. EVERTS, Capt. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 304-305.

        8, Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest unveils his strategy for his West Tennessee raid


Jackson, Tenn., April 8, 1864.

Col. J. J. NEELY, Cmdg. Brigade, near Whitesville, Tenn.:

COL.: The brigadier-general commanding directs that you move on Sunday morning next with your entire brigade (excepting the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry) and Crews' battalion to the vicinity of Raleigh, and make every preparation as if to build a bridge across Wolf River at that place. You will also send a portion of your command on the Big Creek and Moscow road as if intending to cross the river at those places, the object being to impress the enemy with the belief that Gen. Forrest is moving to attack Memphis. You will make no secret of you movement and pretended object. After maneuvering for two or three days you fall back in the direction of Brownsville. Your command will move with five days' cooked rations.

Your movement is intended to co-operate with one to be made by Gen. Forrest on Fort Pillow, and he desires that it should be made promptly and that the demonstration should be as heavy as possible. When you retire you will (if you are not followed by the enemy) deploy your command in every direction, with orders to arrest, and bring to you at Brownsville all men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, and all officers and soldiers absent from their commands without proper authority. You will also send out proper offices to impress horses to mount your dismounted men, in accordance with the inclosed instructions[3] from Gen. Forrest. A strong rear guard will be held together to protect you scattered men. If the enemy press you in force, you will keep together enough men to elude them.

Col. Duckworth will be ordered to move to Randolph via Covington, and will return and meet you in Brownsville.

The brigadier-general commanding will go to Brownsville to-morrow; he will accompany the movement on Fort Pillow.

The contents of this letter, so far as it relates to the movements of Gen. Forrest, are strictly confidential.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. A. GOODMAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 758-759.

        8, Comparison of Confederate and Federal occupation of Robert H. Cartmell's farm

....a portion of Forrest's regiment is encamped in [the] woods lot since 12 (o'clock ) today. Some of the officers [are] occupying our vacant room. I have so much soldiers [sic] I would like to get a quit claim [sic]. True[,] Rebels do not act as the Yankees, but there are bad men in all armies & they kill hogs & the like.

Robert H. Cartmell Diary.

        8, A Plea for Charitable Aid for the Refugee Asylum in Civil War Nashville

"Distress and Destitution;"

In one of his sermons on Charity, "Father Jones"[4] laid it down as a rule, and demonstrated it as a fixed fact, the Charity knows no distinction of persons; no question of nativity or creed; no question of politics or even of morality will deter the humane man from bestowing his charity upon the needy, no matter who or what the person is, where he came from, or what caused his poverty. We are expressly commanded to love our enemies, and to do good to them that hate us; how much more, then, should we love those whom Providence has placed among us, destitute of home and friends. These remarks are prompted by a visit yesterday, to the Shelby Medical College, now occupied as an asylum for destitute refugees. When we say destitute [sic] we mean all that can be conveyed by that word, in its broadest sense; for here we found mothers of large families destitute of all earthly goods, except a scanty covering of their nakedness; destitute of relatives and friends, except their helpless children and a few sympathizing ladies and gentlemen who aid in administering to their immediate necessities. No man, possessed of human feeling, could pass through the numerous apartments of that building, without feeling a deep compassion for the poor unfortunates, and gladly contributing [to]ward to their relief.

We have no idea of the number of inmates of this asylum, but we judge no less than one hundred and fifty, of whom not less than one half are sick, and many will never leave their beds alive. One poor woman arrived there four weeks ago with six children, of whom three are now in their graves, two others are dangerously sick, and the other is just able to move about. Another has lost four out of six, another two out of four, and scarcely a family there whose members may be called health. [sic] One beautiful blue-eye boy, with hectic cough, and blush on his sunken cheek, is rapidly sinking, while his brother, sad and suffering, is reclining on a pillow on the same bed. A little girl has just been "laid out," and the stretcher is brought in the room, on which to carry her to the dead house preparatory to being buried. What was once a stalwart young East Tennessee boy, perhaps nineteen years old, is not stretched upon his bed, wasted to a skeleton, unable to articulate, or even by sign, except in the expression of his languid eye, to make known his wants to his fond mother, who still hopes to save one child from the general wreck. Much more did we see, dear reader, to melt the human heart, but we have not the time to write it down.

The inmates are not confined to East Tennesseeans [sic], as many suppose; there are among them many families from Georgia, Alabama, and North Carolina, and some from Middle Tennessee, who have lost all their earthly possessions in this war. Some of their husbands and sons have been killed in the Federal and some in the Confederate service. But this is not matter of consequence now; we desire to impress upon the minds of our citizens, as well as the military authorities, the fact that we have among us a large number of destitute fellow being, who need food and raiment, and suitable accommodations, especially for the sick. Their numbers are increasing daily, while the means are diminishing. Although the building they at present occupy might answer for a transient shelter for families in health, it is in no way suited for a hospital. Of this fact, those having it in charge are well aware, and are exerting themselves to provide other accommodations.

We now ask the public to lend a generous aid in this charity; bestow freely of what you have, remembering that where much is given, much is required; and if you have but little, of that which you have give freely, and Almighty God will reward your charity.

Contributions may be sent to Jos. S. Fowler, Esq., at the Controller's office in the capitol, who will cheerfully impart to visitors any information concerning the institution.

Nashville Dispatch, April 8, 1864.

        8, Shipment of nitre in East Tennessee

Production of Nitre.-Last week, Captain T. J. Finnie, chief of the Nitre Bureau for the Department of East Tennessee, shipped from that District fifty-two thousand six hundred and seventy pounds of Saltpetre. He has in creased the production of his district fifty-fold in four or five months. Such officers deserve well of their country; and there are none more energetic than Captain Finnie.

Macon Daily Telegraph, April 8, 1863.

8, Foraging, Confederate Citizens Prefer Coffee to Money in making Exchanges for breads and pies

April 8th 1864

It is raining this morning and there will be no drill…tho it isn't very pleasant to have the water running through the sent on your paper and besides two lively Yanks in the same bunk jostling and talking. I often wonder how I can write at all but it's nothing after you get used to it…

One of the boys started out foraging in the evening and came back with a bucket full of fresh milk, some corn meal and butter. We mixed up some cakes and baked them in our pans, made milk gravy and coffee, enough for a dozen at home but the 3 of us made short work of it. Next morning we got some nice biscuits, the best I've seen since I left home. So you see, we ain't in a starving condition yet…The rebels took everything they could lay hands on while they were here but some of the citizens were too sharp for them and hid part of their meat and grain. They are very anxious to exchange bread and pies for coffee at any price but don't want to sell for money. Some of them haven't seen coffee before for two years. The rebels being principled against using it – only when they capture it from the Yankees…One lady, a rank rebel – at Morris Town said she was very fond of coffee but wouldn't take a grain of "Lincoln Coffee" as she called it. I expect I will be regular old Grammy for tea & coffee, yet one thing certain – if I had nothing of the kind on a march I should have played out often. Some stimulus is absolutely necessary in some cases and I take coffee in preference to whiskey which many consider essential in camp.

Bentley Letters.


[1] This is also known as the "Fallen Timbers" skirmish or engagement or affair some secondary sources. It is treated by many enthusiasts as a great day for Confederate arms, and the fight in which Nathan Bedford Forrest was wounded, near Michie.

[2] As cited in:

[3] Not found.

[4] The nom de plume found under numerous moralizing editorials printed in the Nashville Dispatch in 1864.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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