Tuesday, April 21, 2015

4.21.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes







        21, Peter Turney solicits exemption of his unit from Major-General Gideon J. Pillow's command

WINCHESTER, TENN., April 21, 1861.


DEAR GEN.: Before this reaches you I will have my regiment ready to march. My great desire is that I shall not have such delay as to make my men impatient. So soon as I get my men ready I think I will rendezvous. I dislike exceedingly to think of having my men on oars for Gen. Pillow; we would greatly prefer to be an independent regiment. Gen., my all, my honor, and that of my father is involved in this matter. My father was the first man in Tennessee to take grounds for our present position here. He sacrificed himself upon its altar. I feel that under the circumstances this regiment ought to be received first of all from Tennessee. I was the first to make a tender of a Tennessee regiment. I have now about got it ready, and hope I will not have to wait the movement of Pillow. Such a course would certainly dampen the ardor of my men, who have volunteered as minute men, and are now making rapid preparations to move. How are you off for arms? I request an early answer. Remember that my name has been cursed in Tennessee (I allude to my father) for its devotion to the South. Do not, for God's sake, suspend me to gratify Pillow. Answer right off.

Your friend,


P. S.-I mean by the above no disrespect to Gen. Pillow whatever, but do not want to be postponed to anybody. The fever is high, and want to see nothing cool it here.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 60.

        21, "To the Women of the South"

While the men in every part of the country are arming themselves and mustering in squadrons to resist the invasion and oppression threatening our beloved land, let us emulate the enthusiasm of our husbands, sons, and friends in the cause. Many of our daughters are already active in the service with their needles. Let the matrons of every city, village, and hamlet form themselves into societies, called by some appropriate name, pledged to take care of the sick and wounded soldiers of the Confederate army, whenever the changing drama of war shall bring them in their neighborhood; to take them if necessary and practicable, to their own homes. Let the organizations be commenced at once, with officers appointed and known, to whom the officers of the military companies may communicate the wants of the soldiers, and call upon for aid when the time for action shall come; and Baltimore has taught us how soon it may come.[1] I offer myself for the work. Will not some matron with more time take the lead, and allow me to serve in a subordinate capacity? Let the women of the entire South join and spread the organization till not a spot within the Southern borders shall be with its band of sisters, pledged to the work and ready for it; and thus shall every mother feel assured, in sending her sons to the field, that in time of need they shall have the tender care of some other mother, whose loved ones are in the patriot ranks at other points, and our soldiers feel sure that true hearts are near wherever they may be.

Mary E. Pope

Memphis Appeal, April 21, 1861.[2]

        21, Italian community of Memphis form military company

Garibaldi Guards.—A company of our Italian fellow-citizens organized some time ago under this name, and have reached a high degree of perfection in their drill, but have thus far been unable to procure arms. As soon as the necessary accoutrements can be procured, they hold themselves in readiness to do active and valiant service for their adopted country.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 21, 1861.

        21, Procuring arms for the Memphis Home Guard

Sharpe's Rifles.—The Home Guard of the sixth ward yesterday dispatched Mr. Galbreath, of the firm of Meacham & Galbreath, to New Orleans, as their agent, to purchase a hundred and fifty Sharpe's rifles for the use of the company. There are at present a hundred and six men in the company.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 21, 1861.

        21, Women of Memphis' eighth ward organize

To the Ladies of the Eighth Ward. The undersigned would call the attention of ladies of the eighth ward to the necessity of the early formation of a society to make uniforms, flags, etc., for the military company recently formed in said ward. We can do something in this emergency, and suggest the propriety of a meeting of the ladies at the house of B. D. Nabers, on Alabama street, on Monday, 22d inst., at 4 o'clock P.M., for the purpose of organizing.

[Signed] Mrs. B. D. Nabers, Mrs. G. W. Acree, Mrs. J. M. Lee, Mrs. Dr. Hewett, Miss C. E. Nelson, Miss Sallie Nelson.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 21, 1861.



        21, Cyrus F. Boyd's observations relative to the appearance of Shiloh battlefield

Weather cool and chilly. Has rained for five days and the roads are impassable. This is the most Godforsaken country I ever saw. We move camp about every day and in the woods all the time. This is one vast graveyard [sic] and shall we ever get out to it[.] The rains have washed the earth from the dead men and horses. Skulls [sic] and toes [sic] are sticking up from beneath the clay all around and the heavy wagons crush the bodies turning up the bones of the buried, making this one vast Golgotha [.] Sometimes our tents come over a little mound where sleep[s] some unknown soldier who has died for a principle but his survivors [sic] have not even marked his last resting place or given him the burial of a faithful dog [sic]. What a mockery these lines seem –

"lest are the brave who sink to rest

With all their Country's wishes best."

Boyd Diary, April 21, 1862.

        21, "I cannot do anything in the cotton seed business until the army moves." D. C. Donnohue's letter to Assistant Secretary of the Interior J. P. Usher

Savana [sic] Tennessee

April 21st 1862

J. P. Usher Esq

Assistant Scty of the Interior

Dear Sir

I am still at this place which is in the vicinity of the great Battle – we are having incessant rains – Genl. Pope is arriving with his division of the Army – and I suppose we will now have a forward move, if the roads will at all permit – I cannot do anything in the cotton seed business until the army moves – The seed I have bought are all out of our lines and wagons cannot be had to bring them into the boats – I think I am not mistaken in public sentiment here. The poor or labouring men are the only union men but they cannot easily be brought up to the point of asserting their manhood – Some of the more inteligent [sic] of them are pleased with the emancipation of slaves in the District of Columbia - & they hope to [see] the slaves emancipated every where – They say slavery caused the rebellion and ought to suffer –]Most of the mechanics talk in this way but mechanics are few and far between here – There are others here to say they are for the Union [sic] but some of them who are home praising Union have two or three substitutes in the rebel army – I do not think that our Military leaders act with Candor or Justice – I have known them to allow men to pass through our lines and insult our soldiers hunting negroes and have more facilities and protection than ;you could have extended to yourself – I care not on what business you might visit the army unless you might be hunting negroes [sic] – I know it is very hard to get along with this slavery question but I do think when if a negro runs off from a traitor to the government that always had protected him in the right to own negros [sic] – it asking a great deal from me to have my son to catch and hide the negro until the traitor ties him – Yet other men have it to do who are just [as] good as me or my son it is all wrong – I almost fear that the negroes [sic] will prove the utter ruin of our nationality – I have nothing to say about the policy of the government but if it should turn in the end that in attempting to hold four millions of miserable Africans [sic] in bondage, twenty six Anglo-Saxons should have their freedom – would it not be a sad comment upon our boasted institutions – It is easy to see the end of this rebellion from Washington institutions – It is easy to see the end of this rebellion from Washington City – but when your get in this latitude it seems to have just begun. [emphasis added] Our Army has not moved three miles  farther sought than where they were camped when they were attacked on the 6th Inst – it is true we drove them from the field on Monday but they fell back in good order and have not been attacked since so you can see that both armies were willing to quit! I learn that the rebels are reinforcing and will fight again in the neighborhood of Corinth Miss – They can better afford to wait better than we an as our army will be unfit for fighting in six weeks from this time on account of sickness – We should drive them or fight them at once as all must see that we have all to loose [sic] and nothing to gain by delay – Governor Harvey of Wisconsin, was drowned at this landing night before last – by accidentally stepping over the guard of the boat – That I have been staying on for several days – he was here taking care of and hunting up the wounded from Wisconsin and had been very active and had most of his wounded on board when by some mistake he steped [sic] in the river and was soon our of the each of help. The Gov was a young man of good habits and [it is] said posses [sic] more than ordinary talents – I had been in conversation with him not more than five minutes before he was drowned – his friends offer a $1000.00 [reward] for the recovery of his body – but so far have not succeeded in obtaining it.

I think I will make some money on cotton if ever our army moves – I have a good chance to do so & will do it but the boats are all in Govt [sic] employment, and I have to proced [sic] with great caution so as not to have the cotton burned I have not and dont [sic] intend to have the vandals to burn anything of mine – I am not to pay them until the cotton gets to Paducah.

Will be in Washington as soon as I possibly can – Cant [sic] hear any thing [sic] from there or any other place –

Your Friend

D. C. Donnohue

Letters of D. C. Donnohue.

        21, Changes in Nashville Benevolence One Year Later

A year ago the Nashville papers looked like dairies, so full were they of exhibitions of the milk of human kindness. Doctors advertised their professional services gratuitously to the families of those who had volunteered in the Confederate army; public school teachers taught the young ideas [sic] how to shoot, without pay, in consideration for the parents who were coming in to shoot down Kentucky Unionists; lead for bullets was tendered fee of charge; Gov. Harris was authorized to draw on certain individuals for any amount, and landlords offered tenements rent free to the wives and children of soldiers. Nashville was in fact princely in the munificence of its promises; gorgeous in its display of charity and benevolence and its horn of plenty was lavishly emptied form both ends into the laps of its indigent but lucky inhabitants. Well, time tries all things, even the ostentatious professions of rebel sympathizers. About a month since the Western Union Sanitary Commission wrote to Gov. General Johnson that there were daily discharged from the hospital at St. Louis citizens of Tennessee, formerly belonging to the rebel army, who had become convalescent and were wandering the streets without the means of living or returning to their homes, and the Commission requested that transportation and subsistence should be forwarded for them. In view of these Statements, Gov. Johnson made a public appeal "not only to the charitable but especially to those who have been instrumental in rendering there misguided fellow citizens to this sad degree of suffering, and who have been co laborers in the unholy work in which they were engaged, to come forward and contribute to their relief."

What was the response? Did doctors, or school-teachers, or pig-headed dealers in pig lead, or bankers, or landlords, who in April last made such a parade of their liberality, open their hands or pockets for the relief of these unfortunate convalescent soldiers? Was the horn of plenty sent to St. Louis to gladden the sight of men exiled from their homes and pining to return to their families and friends? How much did the prodigal and lavish charity of Nashville subscribe? History must be written fairly and impartially, and, therefore, we answer-Not one dollar! Not even a donation of Confederate scrip or State shinplasters. The mild of human kindness was frozen in it lacteal fonts; money chests were double padlocked, and the discharged Confederate soldiers who have been prisoners or in hospitals may starve and die and rot for all that Nashville cares! This exemplifies most strikingly the selfishness and hollow-heartedness of secession. Munificent in its professions to induce its deluded victims to serve in its armies, it has no m ore regard or consideration for them when their services are no longer required or useful than it would have for so many sheep with the rot, or swine with the hog-cholera.

Louisville Daily Journal, April 21, 1862. [3]

        21-23, Confederate authorities order Mrs. Andrew Johnson and Mrs. Horace Maynard to leave East Tennessee



MADAM: By Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith I am directed to respectfully require that you and your family pass beyond the C. S. line through Nashville if you please in thirty-six hours. Passports will be granted you at this office.

Very respectfully,

[W. M. CHURCHWELL,] Col. and Provost-Marshal.



April 21, 1862.

Mrs. MAYNARD, Knoxville.

MADAM: By order of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith I am directed respectfully to require that yourself and family pass beyond the C. S. line in thirty-six hours.

W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.



Dr. F. A. RAMSEY, Surgeon.

DOCTOR: I am directed by the major-general commanding to inform you in response to your communication of this date that Mrs. Maynard will not be required to leave before the expiration of the time at which you state she will be able to bear the fatigue of travel.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, p. 883.[4]




        21, Capture of McMinnville by Federal forces; a woman's account [see also April 20 1863-April 30, 1863 "Expedition from Murfreesborough to McMinnville, destruction of Manchester to McMinnville railroad by Federal forces under Brigadier-General J. J. Reynolds," above]

Well, well, well, and it is anything but well! Such a time as we have had during the week that is past! We had just begun to get quieted down a little and to feel that perhaps the war-fiend would spare us for awhile. On Monday (20th) Gen. and Mrs. Morgan came out to see us. One item of our pleasant "running on" was an agreement that Gen. M. should send me some fine "liquor"--(alias brandy,) and I was to make he and Mrs. M. a bowl of elegant egg-nogg [sic]. Next morning (21st)...just about noon [my husband] came in, "Well, Bloss, the Yankees are coming now--certain." I was combing my hair--and I remember my face turned pale as I looked in the glass. "Where are they?" "In a few miles." I went and gathered up my fine books, silver, etc., land put them in my trunks....It was too late for us to move anything if they did come, so I assisted...in hustling a few things out of sight into our trunks and all we could do was "sit deep and stay where we were." Presently....the blue line appeared coming down the hill they rode off in a gallop towards town. Our pickets were driven in. The Yankees threw out their skirmishing [sic] on both sides, those to the left dashed all around our house and down to the river, where they captured John Paine and another soldier who were down there fishing. The first sight of them made me mad--I did think before they came that I could treat them politely-but "my goodness!" (as Gen. Morgan says) how hard it was for me to be commonly civil to the thieves and scoundrels! Soon they were all round the house--off their horses, and after the chickens, fussing and flying in every direction. The little Ting [sic] came running in, crying and screaming "oh! they're going to kill Mammy! they're going to kill Mammy!" I ran to the back door, 6 or 8 of them were at the smoke-house taking out the meat. They rode up and presenting a pistol at her head, ordered her to show them the meat--Ting was standing right by her side, and thinking they would surely kill her mammy she flew wildly into the house screaming to me to save her. Poor child! how frightened she was! All this while their column was moving on into town-- some pausing on the hill-side between our house and Colonel Splurlock's [a neighbor]. Soon the porches were full of them--we were surrounded on all sides--they took this battery certain. [sic] They crowded to the doors, some wanting one thing and some another, all talking at once, until one imp of darkness started into the house swearing he had heard we had meat hid and he was going to search the house for it. Just as he was about to pass me I laid my hand on his shoulder and looked him right in the eyes--(the devil was just about as tall as myself and one of the most repulsive countenances I ever recoiled from,)--I stopped him and asked "Are you a man?"--he hesitated a moment--seemed surprised that I should dare interfere, and sail "Yes." "Are you a gentleman?" he did not reply--but Mr. French [her husband] who was standing just by smiled and said "of course child"--"Well," I said, "if he is a gentleman he will show it by going out of this house," and turning to another of the men who had a rather pleasant face I asked "do your officers permit you to search houses without orders?" He said not--it was strictly against orders--adding "You are loyal people?" "Yes," I replied, "all our sympathies are entirely with the South." His countenance fell in a moment--but by this time the wretch who had sworn to search the house had "fallen back" among the crowd. By this time I saw them breaking into Mammy's house and sent Jessie flying to the kitchen to tell her. By the time she reached there the cabin was full--her drawers, trunks, and boxes upside down and inside out--half of their contents on the floor. Lee's Sunday hat and pants were gone and one of them had two coats making off with them. She gave them a regular "blow out" and made them give up the coats, but when she had time to clear them out and look about her she found they had taken her spoons, her flour and sugar, her silk apron--bucket--Lee's shaving apparatus--Puss' breast pin collar, handkerchiefs, stockings, and a pink tarleton [sic] party dress! The idea! I had all my jewelry, etc., under my hoops, and so had Mollie. We had made enormous pockets and filled them with our choices valuable, before the came. I really felt weighted down. The man who prevented that hateful wretch, McKenzie, from going up stairs, I found out was a Scaright, and a relative of the Scarights of Pa [sic] --of whom two, Tom and Jennie, were great friends of mine at school. He was the only one among the whole 2500 that I saw that had the slightest claim to be considered a gentleman....Darlin' took him up stairs and showed him what meat and corn we had put away there, and afterwards he prevented several from going to search--they would take his word, but now ours, of course. After he left however--the Col. had to take 4 different sets of them up and show them what we had, and among them that hateful McKenzie, who after he had robbed the negro houses, swore he would search the house and he would have what was there, and he didn't' care if our children did starve. I could have looked on and seen that wretch hanged, I am sure I could--just then. And now the cry was raised--"the factory!"--and sure enough there it was all in a blaze. Then a great smoke told us that the R.R. bridge and the old bridge by it were also burning. Soon the whole mass was alight, and a grand tho' [sic] sorrowful sight it would have been to me, had I had time to stand and look upon it--but this I did not. Towards evening the men said they were ordered to leave and some rode off. Seeing [a neighbor], with whom I had a good deal of conversation, seemed troubled and ashamed of the excesses the men were committing--I tried to have him some supper cooked, but just as fast as the bread was baked and meat cooked, or even before, it was taken off the stove--the kitchen being crowded all the time. Just before he rode off I handed him some cake, which I wrapped up carefully and told him not to allow anyone else to see. I was in great hopes then that they were all going off--it was getting late in the evening and rain coming on. A portion of them did move off, but just at dark here they all came back again, and camped right "on top of us." The yard was full--the camp extended from the stables on the left clear round in front--thro' [sic] the grove, on the hill between us and Col. Spurlock's to the bluff and down the bluff almost to the river. The prisoners they had taken were confined in the "old stable" buildings--the "new stable" was occupied by their officers. A Col. Jordon, Maj. Jones, and another Maj. [sic] were here for supper, Jones being sick slept in the house, and the other two and a guard occupied the front porch. I could scarcely keep my face straight at supper to see those officers try to "put on" the courtesy and easy dignity of Southern gentlemen--their manners were fit upon them like a stiff suit of new clothes to a 10 year old boy. It amused me "to death." My poor little children got no supper that night, except some cake I gave them at dark,--I tried to have something got for them but could not succeed. When those officers sent to see about supper, I told them they could have it if they would come and place a guard at the kitchen if not, I could do nothing for them. They did so, and I gave them some bread, biscuit, ham and wheat coffee. All of them had been drinking--I smelled the mean whisky as soon as they came inside the door and they had red faced every one of them....At night M.[ollie] and I closed the curtains fast of my room and went to work, our trunks had all been down stairs and into my room--the place was crammed and jammed--we thought that ere they left some desperadoes might search our trunks--so down between the mattresses of my bed went silver cups, and plated, silk dresses, fine books, etc. (the bedstead was a "French" and very deep) then on went the bed clothes, and we lay that night on "silk and silver" if we didn't sleep. None of us more than dozed all night--it was one o'clock when I lay down. About dark I had had the negros [sic] move everything of consequence from Mammy's house and the kitchen up stairs, and they slept in the house. It rained thundered and lightened all night long, and was raining still in the morning when I rose. I was up and dressed early--had the children dressed and sent up stairs--the girls and Mammy in the dining room trying to cook us some breakfast.....Just after breakfast two men came to our doors--I went to open it Darlin being out, when they inquired if "any Confederate soldier had staid in the house last night?" "No--some of your officers did--but no Confederate." After some conversation it appeared that the notorious Dick McCann, whom they had made prisoner the day previous, and who was confined with the rest of the prisoners at the stable, had made his escape, and they were all furious about it. Soon after, here they were to search the house they were all furious about it. Soon after, here they came to search the house for Dick McCann--one man swearing that he saw him run from the negro house to the big house. I laughed at first at the idea of their being such fools as to think McCann would stop here right in the midst of them--but soon my attention was called to Mollie who had fallen aback on the bed almost fainting when she heard the head of that armed ten men say in a bullying insolent tone, "I have orders to search this house for that man, and I don't find him I shall set fire here, sir." "Very well," said the Col. quietly, opening the dining-room door and showing them in [and saying] "proceed with your examination. Your prisoner is not here and I beg you will satisfy yourselves." Poor Mollie she as pale as the pillow she lay on. I was working with her when the two of them burst into the room--looked in the wardrobe tossed up the children's bed--looked under mine, but as good luck would have it did not make Mollie rise--seeing her critical state I suppose. They went over the house like a thunderstorm--looked in the dirty clothes basket even....Everywhere, and in everything, they went with a rush, tossing and turning up everything, before them, and left, after tearing out the under-pinning of the house, and finding--a setting hen! They then fired the stable buildings where the prisoners had been kept and stood round it for awhile with their guns, looking for Dick McCann to jump out at them from a corn-shuck. Two came dashing up to the kitchen and smokehouse and after cursing and snorting round there awhile came to the house--and went thro' [sic] the search again. I...went to the back door--a fellow sat there on his horse and I think he was the maddest man I ever saw. He leveled his pistol at me as soon as I appeared--I supposed he thought I was about to shoot him with the camphor-bottle I held in my hand....I said "It is an impossibility sir, for you to find your prisoner here--he is not and has not been here." He replied angrily "When a man sees a [skunk?] Miss, he knows it--and I saw that man run up to this house--I saw it myself." "Well then," said I "if you saw him why did you not at that time pursue and take him?" "We are going to get him." "One thing is certain you are not going to take him here-it is simply impossible for you to find him where he is not!" I was so mad that if medicines had not been so scarce I think I would had shot him with camfire! [sic] Just then the ...searchers rushed by me out of the house and they all put off together towards the stable. I look out the front door,--the porch floor was all torn up--about 200 men sitting on their horses were ranged all along the front fence facing the house, watching either for the escape of Dick McCann, or for the firing of the house. I am not certain that they expected even that McCann was here--I think sometimes their object was to search the house for plunder. The looked in wash-stands--safes, and twenty places were a man could not possibly be hid, and even climbed up the posts of my bed-stead to look on top of the canopy! After they were gone the sight that this house presented was awful--and Mammy's house--no pen can describe. The stables burned all day--Darlin' save about one half of one poultry-house after they left....They had boasted so over the taking of Dick McCann that when he escaped them, they were perfectly furious, and it is a thousand wonders they didn't arrest the Col., as he escaped here, or burn the place---Anybody would have laughed to have seen the supper I gave those officers: biscuits, batter-cakes, hand and wheat coffee--voila tout!....All the wretches were from Indiana and Pennsylvania,--Great Caesar! How I did hate them! That imp of the devil, McKenzie, after he had been up stairs and searched for provisions--met Mollie in the hall and said to her in the hatefullest [sic], taunting way, "is that all ye got? if it is I pity ye!" Oh how I did want to kill him--the reptile!--They did not behave as badly in town as they did here--some houses were searched, but they burned no property save the factory and bridges. The factory they fired without once warning the operatives, and the building was on fire before the inmates up stairs--some in the third story, and nearly all women, knew anything of it all....Mrs. Morgan and Mrs. McCann left for Sparta in an ambulance about an hour and a half before the Yankees got to town. Morgan sat on his horse at Mrs. Meyers door until the head of the enemy's column appeared....he then fired off his revolver at them and "skedaddled," in the direction of Sparta....Dick McCann was drunk and whether he did it to save Morgan or not I don't know, but he was on the square when the Yanks filed into it. Seated on his horse he called out "halt!" and the whole [Yankee] column halted. "Who the devil are you?" cried the advance. "I'm the great chief," responded Dick. In an instant the cry rang back along the whole line. "Morgan, Morgan, we've got 'imp! We've got 'imp"--and they dashed forward. "Surrender!" "I'll be damned if I do. – come on!" And in an instant they were upon him--a sabre cut laid open his head, etc., he was thrown from his horse....They brought the prisoners out here and put them in the stables – about midnight Dick McCann escaped. He says he feigned to be exceedingly weak from his wound--once he said "Boys I wish you'd be kind enough to raise me up, I want to change my position." They did so, and he fell, apparently exhausted. He had a canteen of the meanest whisky extant – with this he was so kind and generous to the guard that he made them all drunk--the night was pitch dark--raining, thundering, and lightning--Dick moved a rock and got out--got down to the river, swam it...and by daylight he had a horse and was off towards Sparta. As they were carrying him past Armstrong's when they took him he called out to Mollie[:]"Tell my wife I'm not dead yet and I'll fight them again." – On Friday night about 8 o'clock Mrs. Rowans sent a runner to tell us to come right in, that the Yankees were 3½ miles of town. The rumor ran that Wheeler was driving this force back. We hurried up a cart, got our trunks taken in to Mrs. Rowan's and about 10 o'clock Mollie and Martha took the children in. What would I have thought two years ago to have seen my children driven from home at night to seek shelter where they could? Mrs. Rowan gathered them up as soon as they got in, exclaiming, "You poor little things, and did you have to be driven away from home at this hour of the night?" They were nearly asleep – Martha undressed them, and almost ere their young heads touched the pillows they were gone to dream-land. We confidently expected the Yanks in the morning, and as we had got so little away, Darlin' and myself remained at home – Puss and Mammy came to the house to sleep. Early next morning Darlin' went in to get the news and ere he returned the children came flying home to tell me that it was not the Yankees that were coming at all – but – Gens. Wheeler and Wharton! Oh! didn't we rejoice – first that it was not our enemies and second that our friends for whom we had been anxious, were safe! [emphasis added]We were so uneasy lest Gen. Wheeler should not be able to get out for we understood that the enemy were surrounding him, advancing on him in the usual "three Columns" [sic] – one from here, one from Murfreesboro and one from Lebanon – but they did get out with all their men and 100 wagons, and safely too. This afternoon Maj. Chaffie of Gen. Wheeler's staff sent me a package from the Gen. containing a new Poem just issued by Goetzel and Co. of Mobile – entitled "Tannhauser"-(by two young Englishmen,) and a letter from Mrs. LeVert. I was delighted to see Madame's letter, and she no doubt has missed mine. Such is the present demoralization of the mails. This evening Maj. Buford and Major Chaffie called – Oh! I was glad to see Maj. B. It seemed an age had passed over us since we had seen him – that one day and night under Yankee Dominion made itself into months. We learned some particulars of Wheeler's campaign – they went with 8 miles of Nashville – were at Lavergne [sic] midway between Murfreesboro and Nashville, and captured the train at Antioch. They captured a large mail, and Maj. B. Gave Mollie some trophies in "Greenbacks" etc. He said the letters were rich specimens – he opened some hundreds and that was not 50 intelligent letters among them. The greater portion of them contained rings, crosses, jewelry, etc. which the writers were sending to sisters and sweethearts and which they said "were taken from the rebel women"….Maj. Chaffie told us of a Captain Steele with 10 men who kept the whole regiment of Yanks from advancing on his wagons – the day they left McMinnville. They had the fore wheels for a wagon – on this they placed a log, and ran it up and down across the road insight of the enemy who from a distance thought it was a cannon or so – and suspecting an ambuscade "skeedaddled" back to town. [emphasis added] We have all out best things away now, except for my piano. I do not anticipate another visit from the devil soon – because did all the mischief they came to do – viz.,: burnt the factory and destroyed the R.R. bridge. At Morrison they burn the Depot and tore up the track – capturing the train which left here and our mail – also some prisoners. The train coming up they put back in a hurry. We are now in a desolate house – I laughed heartily when Maj. Burford and Chaffie came – the parlor was entirely bare almost and we had hardly chairs enough to seat the company!

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, excerpt from the entry for April 26, 1863.


The Experience of the 2nd Tennessee Cavalry in McMinnville

On the 20th of April, 1863, we started for McMinnville. On the morning of the 21st, at daylight, we dashed into town and drove out John H. Morgan and his forces, capturing several prisoners. Morgan was in a private house[5] and saved himself by mounting his fine steed, striking spurs into his side and galloping off at lightning speed. We captured quite a quantity of army stores, including a train of cars, all of which we destroyed. We captured a large supply of whisky which was issued to the men and resulted in lively times. We found in this beautiful town quite a number of Union families, whiles those of the Confederate faith were mild and respectful. We returned by way of Liberty and then back to Murfreesboro,' arriving at our camps April 29th.

Knoxville Daily Chronicle, January 29, 1879.


The McMinnville Raid

On Monday[6] of last week [20th] a body of Federal cavalry from Murfreesboro dashed into McMinnville and burned the Cotton Factory, which was one of the most extensive and valuable in the South, and, beside, destroyed the Depot, Railroad Bridge, a locomotive and three box cars.

The question naturally arises, through whose carelessness was the raid permitted? Why was McMinnville left unprotected? Factories and provisions are not so plentiful in the South that we can afford to loser them in this wise. A Court of Inquiry should be held to ascertain how it is that a cavalry command can dash to the rear of Gen. Bragg's army, destroy property of inestimable value, and return to their own lines unmolested. There was – there must have been, gross negligence.

Fayetteville Observer, April 30, 1863.

        21, Federal orders indefinitely to keep cavalry on Lebanon Pike and Stones River

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, April 21, 1863.

Brig. Gen. THOMAS L. CRITTENDEN, Cmdg. Twenty-first Corps:

GEN.: The general commanding directs you to keep the infantry and cavalry sent out to Stone's River, on the Lebanon pike, last night where they are for the present. They are designed to observe any movement the enemy makes in consequence of Gen. Reynolds' expedition to McMinnville and Liberty. It is possible the rebels may attempt to escape by crossing Stone's River and making their way toward the Harpeth. Col. Palmer's cavalry should keep a sharp lookout toward Baird's Mills.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 263.

        21, Federal cavalry feint during attack upon McMinnville


Murfreesborough, April 21, 1863.

Maj. Gen. P. H. SHERIDAN, Cmdg. Third Division:

GEN.: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication inclosing report of Col. Bradley. There was no especial news that caused the retrograde movement to-day. The position of the troops on the Shelbyville, Middleton, and Salem roads was reported to-day, at 2 p. m., to the general commanding, and the retrograde movements made were at his direction. It is believed that Gen. Reynolds entered McMinnville to-day, and, as stated in a previous communication, these movements were intended to be a feint to confuse the enemy.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. P. THRUSTON. Assistant Adjutant-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 263.

        21, A sham battle at Tullahoma; R. D. Jamison's (49th Tennessee Infantry) letter to his spouse

Today we had a sham battle between our Division and Claiborne's and we whipped them powerfully. Next Friday we are going to have another and bring in the artillery on each side, but this move will break it all up.

....Dearest, you ought to see me. You would hardly know me because I am so fat and have shaved off all my whiskers. My face is all clear of hair now as when at home when there was no war. Must I turn out my whiskers any more or not?

Robert D. Jamison Papers, TSL&A

        21, Major-General Rosecrans issues GENERAL ORDERS, No. 87, relative to the observance of the national day of prayer and fasting, April 30, 1863


Murfreesborough, Tenn., April 21, 1863.

In accordance with the proclamation of the President of the United States, Thursday the 30th day of the present month, will be observed in this army as a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer.

The general commanding desires, in thus ordering the observance of this national fast, to impress upon the minds of the officers and soldiers of this army the fact that if we expect the blessing of Almighty God upon our efforts to suppress this rebellion, we must place our trust in Him. Let us acknowledge our entire dependence on Him; let us, by this public and solemn act of humiliation confess the truth that we have often outraged the rights of conscience, and disregarded the authority of the God, of truth and justice. Let us, then, as reason and religion dictate, arise from our humiliation with a firm resolution that we will hereafter avoid blasphemy, impurity, and every kind of wrong toward God, our neighbors, or ourselves, humbly hoping and trusting that God in his mercy will aid us in keeping our good resolutions, and that He will deliver us from the unjust and cruel enemy, who, with lying lips and malicious hearts, seek to destroy us and the nation. [emphasis added] If we do this we shall surely conquer peace and liberty for ourselves and our children, both North and South.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 265.

        21, Ellet's Marine Brigade destroy mills and commissary supplies near Savannah

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Itinerary of the Mississippi Marine Brigade for April, 1863.

* * * *

On the 21st, was forced to leave Eastport, in consequence of the water falling rapidly. Landed at Savannah, and sent scouting parties out to burn mills used by the enemy. Destroyed the mills, with large amount of commissary supplies. Captured 3 of the enemy's pickets, and returned without loss.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 279.

        21, Consequences for Disloyalty in Nashville


Headquarters, U. S. Forces

Nashville, Tenn., April 21.


The sympathizers with the existing rebellion in this city and vicinity, apparently considering the dictates of their political sympathies as of more power than the obligations imposed upon them by their residence and protection within the Federal lines, the General commanding of this post orders as follows:

I. All white persons over the age of eighteen years and residing witching the lines of this command, who do not witching ten days from the publication of this order, subscribe to the oath of allegiance or non combatants' parole, and file with Col. John A. Martin, Provost Marshal, bonds with sufficient securities for the faithful observance of such oaths or paroles will be requested to go South of the lines of this army, by routes to be designated by the military authorities.

II. Parties who have already subscribed to proper oaths or paroles and bonds, and who have not been guilty of acts or words of treason subsequent to the taking of such obligations, are exempted from the operations of this order.

III. Forfeiture of the amount of bonds given as above, and of all other property of persons violating obligations taken in accordance with this order, together with such other punishment as may be decreed by a military commission, will follow any violation of the requirements of such oaths or paroles.

IV. All persons who are unwilling to subscribe to the obligations herein ordered, will report their names and place of residence, within ten days specified, to Col. John A. Martin, Provost Marshal.

By order of

Brig Gen. Robt. B. Mitchell

John Pratt, A. A. General

Nashville Daily Union, April 21, 1863.[7]

        21, "Read this to them and If [sic] I live to get home safe and sound they may dread me and my navy." Lieutenant A. J. Lacy's letter home to his parents in Jackson County

Springhill Maury Co [sic] Tenn [sic] April the 21st 1863 [sic]

My dear Father and Mother,

I am once more permitted to take my pin [sic] in hand to drop you a few lines to inform you that I am reasonably well at the present. Hoping that if these lines arrives [sic] safely to your hand that they will find you all enjoying the best of health.

I havent [sic] much important news to write to you. There is 7 briggades [sic] of Cavalry [sic] here at the present. We are in Gen Armstrongs [sic] briggade. [sic] Gen [sic] Forest has been promoted to Major Gen. Gen Vandorn [sic] is also a major general. There is a large force at Franklin now of the Fedderals [sic]. I was on picket the 18tt 19th and 20th of this inst. The 18th they came out about 500 Yanks and fired on us. Run our advance picket back 1 mi. About that time Major Forest [sic] came up [and] took 15 men and we went and run [sic] them back. When we got in sight of them they was [sic] all formed in a line of battle. Wee [sic] fired on their pickets. They began to fall back. We followed them 2 mil [sic] and we halted and put our pickets on a gain [sic].

Wee [sic] are expecting an engagement evry [sic]; day here. We have to keep 2 days rashens [sic] on hands [sic] on that account. We are a doing [sic] harder drilling now than we ever have and have strictter [sic] orders in general. A man cant [sic] go out of camps without a pass signed by the major genn [sic].

We had a general review the other day. All 7 briggades [sic] was [sic] there on the field and all the batteries. All the gen [sic] marched around us and 2 brass bands of musick [sic] marching after them. It was a beautiful sight. It was 10 or 15 thousand cavalry all together. It was a great sight. Our independence is verry [sic] costly to us but if I live untill [sic] it is gained and return home once more I think that I will see a great deal of pleasure with my friends by no Union man need not expect my friendship for I would as live [sic] shoot one as look at him for Torys [sic] I despise. Read this to them and If [sic] I live to get home safe and sound they may, dread me and my navy.

I will change the subject. If you can get Drapers [sic] buttons for me do so and then if that coat you have had made for me is grey lanes [sic] put them on it and send them to me if you can right off. Do the best you can.

Well Elisabeth [sic] I thought I would right [sic] you a letter but I have got some business to attend to so I cant [sic] have the chance I would like to see and that fine large boy [sic]. You must excuse me for I have to close. Tell mother that I want her to write to me again and you and Father [sic]. Also write often. My friends give my best respects to all my friends if such there be. Give my best respects to M W [sic] Cummins, Uncle Joseph Grimsley, Capt Matheny. You can tell Capt Mathene that I can give LEM [sic] great praise for he is as find a boy as can be found. Tell my friends that I want them to right [sic] to me and that is all the pleasure that I can see while off here in a distant land. I will close by asscribing [sic] our names as friends now and forever. Your most obedient and best friend

Lacy Correspondence.

        21, "Southern soldiers will visit their friends…." An excerpt from the diary of Mary L. Pearre

* * * *

Bro. Robert is here again tonight. Also spent Sat. night here. Chas. Sawyer was our guest last night.

Southern soldiers will visit their friends, let yanks do what they may to prevent them. They come in the night and leave at dawn. Have not seen Bob C. since the night we had such a dispute. He is afraid to show himself on this side of Harpeth since the Federals scout through here so frequently.

If he is well [i.e., Bob C.] I wish he would join his company and save his reputation.

* * * *

Diary of Mary L. Pearre

    21, The oath or exile in Nashville

Wednesday 21 [April 1863]. An order in today's paper, ordering every white person over 18 to take the oath in 10 days or be sent South, how unhappy….

Diary of Rebecca Carter Craighead.[8]

        21, 28, Correspondence between Major General W. S. Rosecrans and President Abraham Lincoln about an alleged conflict between the military police and civil authority in Nashville

MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., April 21, 1863--11 p. m.


President of the United States:

Thrice has notice directly come to me that some complaint has been lodged in the minds of persons high in authority, or in records in the War Office, against the working of my army police, or that there was a conflict of authority between civil and military. Each time I have stated that I know of none, and asked for the specifications, that I might remedy the evil. No reply has been given, no information of what this all means. If there be anything wrong I want to know it, and appeal to you to please order the complaints to be communicated to me fully. If the fox is unearthed, I will promise to skin him or pay for his hide.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 262-263.


EXECUTIVE MANSION, Washington, April 23, 1863--10.10 a. m.

Maj.-Gen. ROSECRANS, Murfreesborough, Tenn.:

Your dispatch of the 21st received. I really cannot say that I have heard any complaint of you. I have heard complaint of a police corps at Nashville, but your name was not mentioned in connection with it, so far as I remember. It may be that by inference you are connected with it, but my attention has never been drawn to it in that light.


OR, Ser.I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 268.

        21-24, Federal reconnaissance and demonstration in force, Murfreesborough to Stones River on Lebanon Pike

No circumstantial reports filed.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, April 20, 1863--7.15 p. m.

Maj. Gen. THOMAS L. CRITTENDEN, Cmdg. Twenty-first Corps:

The general commanding directs you to send one brigade immediately on the Lebanon pike to Stone's River. The enemy appears to be demonstrating toward La Vergne, and your brigade is designed to attract his attention this way. Col. Palmer's cavalry will report to you, to accompany the brigade. Direct them to build a considerable line of fires in their front, and make an ostentatious display of force. The cavalry may feel out cautiously beyond the river in the morning. The whole force will take two days' rations.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.


Murfreesborough, April 20, 1863.

Col. W. J. PALMER, Cmdg. Anderson Cavalry:

COL.: The general commanding directs you to report with the whole of your available force to Maj.-Gen. Crittenden immediately to accompany a brigade from his corps out on the Lebanon pike to the crossing of Stone's River. He directs me to say that he wishes you to make as much display of your force as possible, to induce the enemy to believe that we are moving in large force. It is not intended that these troops shall cross the river to-night.

You will receive further orders from Gen. Crittenden, to whom you will report in person as soon as you have given the necessary orders to your command.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

C. GODDARD, Lieut.-Col. and Aide-de-Camp.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 257-258.

        21-24, Federal reconnaissance in force from Murfreesborough on Shelbyville Pike

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, April 20, 1863.

No circumstantial reports filed.

Maj.-Gen. McCOOK: Cmdg. Twentieth Army Corps:

The general commanding directs you to send one brigade, with three days' rations, out on the Shelbyville pike to-morrow morning; also a brigade, or such part of a brigade as you may deem sufficient, with three days' rations, to go out beyond Salem 4 or 5 miles, toward Versailles or down the Middleton road, as you may think best. The design of these movements is to cover an expedition of Gen. Reynolds to McMinnville by threatening the enemy in front. Direct these forces to advance cautiously, as if desiring to conceal their movements, but to go far enough to create the impression that we are preparing an advance on Shelbyville. Of course, it is not desired to engage the enemy, unless he attacks, but it may be well for you to be in readiness to support these advanced forces should it become necessary.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen., and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 257

        21-24, Federal feint, from Murfreesborough on Manchester Pike

No circumstantial reports filed.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, April 20, 1863.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Cmdg. Fourteenth Corps:

The general commanding directs you to send a brigade, with three days' rations, to-morrow morning out on the Manchester pike 5 or 6 miles or far enough to engage the attention of the enemy. He desires it to move cautiously as if desiring to conceal its advance; the purpose being to cover the movements of Gen. Reynolds by a diversion in their front.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 258.

        21-26, Reconnaissance in force, Murfreesborough to Nashville to guard against enemy passage over Stones River

No circumstantial reports filed.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, April 20, 1863.

Brig. Gen. JOHN BEATTY, Cmdg. Third Brig. Second Div., Fourteenth Army Corps:

The general commanding directs you to put your brigade in readiness, and march to-morrow at 2 o'clock, with five days' rations and 100 rounds of ammunition.

Capt. Stokes will report to you and accompany you with his battery; also one regiment from Col. Harker's brigade.

You will proceed toward Nashville, and take a position near Scrougeville, for the purpose of resisting any attempt of the enemy's cavalry to cross Stone's River or to attack Nashville or La Vergne. You will, on the way, consult with Col. Este, commanding at La Vergne, in regard to the best points to occupy to effect your purpose. It may be policy for you not to retain one position very long, but change from time to time, so as to watch the various avenues of approach, and also deceive the enemy as to your whereabouts and strength. You will neither take your tents nor camp equipage. Report by telegraph from La Vergne anything of importance, and report daily, whether there be any news or not.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 256.

        21 – 30, The Third Tennessee [U. S.] Cavalry in McMinnville and environs

* * * *

On the morning of the 21st the command was again put on the march, passing through Woodbury about sunrise, there leaving the pike and following a rough dirt pad. In the afternoon the march was quickened into a trot and after a while to a gallop. Here and there could be seen broken guns and other weapons indicating that work was going on in front. This rapid march was kept up some two or three miles, when we came to McMinnville, passing through the streets in a fast gallop. As we were thus passing through the town, a little boy come [sic] running down a box or large stone on the corner of the street, mounting it he unfurled the stars and stripes and joyously waved it to cheer us on. This was something we had not me anywhere in Middle Tennessee, so that it raised the spirits of tired and worn soldiers until they were ready to do and to dare anything for the brave little boy who had kept his flag hid until this opportunity was given to cast it to the breezes. [emphasis added]Soon another greeting was given by loud, strong voices at the side of the road, shouting for the Union and the boys in blue. They turned out to be some of our own brigade who had been captured, and were kept there as prisoners of war, being now recaptured they cheered us lustily. Passing through the town, the command dashed at full speed down a very steep hillside into a deep, clear river, neither halting for hill or river, but going as horses could well travel some little distance beyond the river, when a halt was called, upon which an orderly came with orders to report immediately back in McMinnville. Upon getting back we were informed that an engine with one or two cars had just left the depot, and we were ordered to pursue it. As reckless and silly as it may seem, the Second and Third Tennessee and Second Michigan Cavalry started after it. In passing along, the road led us by a large cotton mill. Here, it seemed, there was [sic] a hundred or more women employees of the mills, crowding the doors and windows, excitedly cheering us with their handkerchiefs which was answered by the officers and many of the men raising their hats. These tokens of loyalty reminded us of our own loved, but chain-bound East Tennessee. Soon after we started we found the rebels were loaded with bacon, and they were setting it on fire and throwing it out. On, wildly chased the cavalrymen, every few rods passing middlings of fat bacon simmering and smoking, while the burning lard was spreading over the ground. Following the railroad some ten miles, behold, the engine was in sight of us, but on fire. So, dashing up, it was found to be injured from the fire, but apparently had been in good running order, except, perhaps from the want of some water. An engineer of our command mounted it and raised some steam, then attempted to put it to full speed and run down, on fire, into Bragg's camps then at Tullahoma, but the thing was too badly damaged and would not move. Next, our way was retraced, dark fast coming upon us, but the way was lighted by the burning bacon. Imagine our surprise and chagrin upon coming back to the cotton mills to find them smoldering in ashes. – burned to the ground by some reckless soldier and so many loyally women thrown out of employment among their enemies. [emphasis added]

Sleeping a few hours near McMinnville, we moved out the next morning passing through Smithville and bivoacing [sic] some seven miles from the latter place. On the 23rd we were supplied with some rations and moved to Liberty. Here I took supper and breakfast the first time I had taken a meal in a house with citizens since the 5th of August before – over eight months. On the 25th we moved to Alexandria. Here a little squad of us went into a mill, getting bran for our horses, part of our guard stepped in at another and arrested all in the mill, taking them to jail and keeping them all night-a narrow escaped for some of us. [sic]

On the 27th we moved back near Liberty, and on the 29th moved against toward Murfreesboro, passing through Auburn and Lascassas, returning to camps on the 30th of April. [emphasis added]

On this raid and at McMinnville, the notorious guerilla [sic] and bushwhacker Dick McCann, was badly sabred and captured. He was them place in charge of the Fourth Regular Cavalry, and at night he maid his escape and went back to his old haunts and practices.

Knoxville Daily Chronicle, May 30, 1879. [9]





        21, Entry in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County

"All quiet in Gallatin to-day." Old Payne [sic] and all the rest are mad about the Fort Pillow affair. This vengeance will be taken out on the citizens of G. [sic] in a few days.

Williamson Diary

        21-22, Federal scout and skirmish between Spring Place and Boiling Spring

HDQRS. FIRST CAV. DIV., DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Cleveland, April 22, 1864

Brig. Gen. W. D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff, Chattanooga:

GEN.: I have the honor to report all quiet in our front. There are rumors that the enemy in small parties have been seen near the railroad in the neighborhood of Charleston and Athens. Col. LaGrange has returned with a scouting party of 300 men sent out yesterday, having captured 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, and 12 men, forming part of one of the enemy's outposts without loss. This occurred at a point 29 miles distant from Cleveland, half way between Spring Place and Boiling Spring. Col. LaGrange reports from information obtained by the way that the enemy's cavalry force, now small, but soon to be considerably augmented, is at Tunnel Hill.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDWARD M. McCOOK, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 444-445.





        21, Guerrilla activity on the Obion

No comprehensive reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of Acting Master Fentress, U. S. Navy, commanding U. S. S. Mist, regarding the general movements of that vessel, giving information obtained.

U. S. S. Mist

Off Barefiled's Point [Ark.], May 4, 1865


....I continue to cruise from Osceola to Gayoso Landing....I keep generally under easy steam, and anchor but a very short time at any one place. One of the most important places on my beat is the mouth of the Obion River. Quantities of supplies are landed there, and some cotton is shipped from there almost every week. Steamers will not risk landing at that point without my protection....

Several gangs of...desperadoes, well armed and mounted, and commanded by a Captain Lee, formerly with the Tenth New Jersey Volunteers (U. S.). These are up the Obion, and on the 21st day of April last they boarded the steamer Panola...and after searching her, and finding no money or supplies, allowed her to proceed....

* * * *

I have the honor, sir, to be your most obedient servant,

Walter E. H. Fentress,

Acting Master, Commanding U. S. S. Mist.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 27, pp. 185-186.


[1] From April 17 through April 20, 1861, Baltimore was the scene of secessionist meetings and riots, which seemed to many Southerners to indicate that Maryland would secede from the Union.

[2]Anecdotes, Poetry, and Incidents of the War: North and South, 1860-1865, (NY: Publication Office, Bible House, 1867), p. 542.

[3] As cited in PQCW.

[4] See also: The National Intelligencer, June 7, 1862 as cited in GALE GROUP.

[5] Morgan did the same thing in Greeneville, in early September 1864, but was shot down while trying to escape.

[6] The McMinnville Raid actually took place on the 21st. The editor of the Fayetteville Observer erred.

[7] This order does not appear in the OR, however, it was reprinted in the Memphis Bulletin, April 29, 1863.

[8] Diary of Rebecca Carter Craighead, TSL&A Civil War Collection.

[9] As cited from: William A. McTeer, Reminiscences of the Third Tennessee Cavalry, No. XIII, "The McMinnville Raid."


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  115

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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