23, A call for female volunteers from the Memphis Ladies Benevolent Society
The Ladies Benevolent Society of the Second Presbyterian Church offer their service to the military companies now organized or to be formed hereafter, for the purpose of making uniforms, or any other service that may be required. All ladies feeling an interest in the object, and who are willing to aid, are requested to meet with the society at their room in the basement of the Second Presbyterian Church, on Thursday morning at 8 o'clock. All persons wishing to work will report to the ladies on Thursday evening.
Mrs. W. H. Hunt, President
Annie C. Randolph, Secretary
Memphis Appeal, April 23, 1861.
23, Evidence of Union sentiment in Cleveland
....Sallie Shields presented the Unionest [sic] with a flag today.....
Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman.
23, The Ladies Patriotic Association of South Memphis organized
South Memphis Ladies' Patriotic Association.—A number of the ladies of South Memphis met at Grace church, on Monday evening, to arrange for the making up of military uniforms. Mrs. D. F. Townsend was appointed president, Miss Mary Orne, secretary, and Mrs. Ragan, treasurer. Thirty ladies enroled [sic] themselves as members, and it was resolved to take the name of "The Ladies' Patriotic Association of South Memphis." They will make uniforms for the Young Guards, the Shelby Greys, and the companies of the home guard of South Memphis. Mrs. Capt. McManus, Mrs. Dr. Sale and the Misses Creighton, were appointed a committee to solicit funds or sewing materials. The association will meet, for work, to-morrow evening at 2 o'clock, at the residence of Mrs. Taylor, on Mulberry street, between Beal and Linden, where uniforms, cut and ready for making up, maybe sent immediately. All ladies willing to assist, or to become members of the association, are cordially invited to attend at Mrs. Taylor's on Wednesday evening next.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 23, 1861.
23, Southern Home Society of Memphis' eighth ward formed
Ladies of the Eighth Ward.—The ladies of the Eighth ward responded liberally to a call on them to meet, last evening, to assist the military company of this ward in completing its equipments. Mrs. D. McComb was called to the chair, Mrs. Dr. Dickinson was appointed secretary, and Mrs. L. Perry treasurer. It was resolved that the ladies of the Eighth ward should form a society to be called the "Southern Home Society of Eighth Ward," and that the society tender its services to the military company of the Eighth ward to prepare flags and make up uniforms; also that the society meet every Thursday at 4 o'clock, P.M., at the house of Mrs. B. D. Nabors, on Alabama street. The following ladies were appointed to receive contributions: Mrs. L. Perry and Mrs. Neal. All the ladies of the ward are cordially invited to co-operate with us.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 23, 1861.
23, Memphis Committee Board of Safety Requests L. P. Walker, Confederate Secretary of War, for Assistance to Resist Anticipated Federal Attack
MEMPHIS, April 23, 1861.
L. P. WALKER:
Federal troops are rapidly concentrating at Cairo, having heavy ordnance, horses, &c. The number is hourly increasing, and several thousand will soon arrive. Cairo is now blockaded, and it is very probable a descent will be made upon Memphis and the Mississippi towns. The hour has arrived for prompt and energetic action.
J. M. GONDER, C. DE LOACH,
Committee Board of Safety.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 67.
23, Confederate road obstruction near Purdy [See April 19, Confederate bridge destruction at Purdy above]
23, Confederate Proclamation Tennessee
The major-general commanding this department, charged with the enforcement of martial law, believing that many of its citizens have been misled into the commission of treasonable acts through ignorance of their duties and obligations to their State, and that many have actually fled across the mountains and joined our enemies under the persuasion and misguidance of supposed friends but designing enemies, hereby proclaims:
1st. That no person so misled who comes forward, declares his error, and takes the oath to support the Constitution of the State and of the Confederate States shall be molested or punished on account of past acts or words.
2d. That no person so persuaded and misguided as to leave his home and join the enemy who shall return within thirty days of the date of this proclamation, acknowledge his error, and take an oath to support the Constitution of the State and of the Confederate States shall be molested or punished on account of past acts or words.
After thus announcing his disposition to treat with the utmost clemency those who have been led away from the true path of patriotic duty the major-general commanding furthermore declares his determination henceforth to employ all the elements at his disposal for the protection of the lives and property of the citizens of East Tennessee, whether from the incurious of the enemy or the irregularities of his own troops and for the suppression of all treasonable practices.
He assures all citizens engaged in cultivating their farms that he will protect them in their rights, and that he will suspend the militia draft under the State laws that they me raise crops for consumption in the coming year.
He invokes the zealous co-operation of the authorities and of all good people to aid him in his endeavors.
The courts of criminal jurisdiction will continue to exercise their functions, save the issuing of writs of habeas corpus. Their writs will be served and their decrees executed by the aid of the military when necessary.
When the courts fail to preserve the peace or punish offenders against the laws these objects will be attained through the action of military tribunals and the exercise of the force of his command.
E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg. Department of East Tennessee.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Office Provost-Marshal, April 23, 1862.
To the Disaffected People of East Tennessee:
The undersigned, in executing martial law in this department, assures those interested, who have fled to the enemy's lines and who are actually in their army, that he will welcome their return to their homes and their families. They are offered amnesty and protection if they come to lay down their arms and act as loyal citizens within the thirty days given them by Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith to do so.
At the end of that time those failing to return to their homes and accept the amnesty thus offered and provide for and protect their wives and children in East Tennessee will have them sent to their care in Kentucky or beyond the Confederate States lines at their own expense.
All that leave after this date with a knowledge of the above acts their families will be sent immediately after them. The women and children must be taken care of by husbands and fathers either in East Tennessee or in the Lincoln Government.
W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 640-641. 
23, Federal policy toward civilians in Lebanon, an argument in favor of benevolence
Hd. Qrs. Detacht. 23d Brigade
April 23rd. 1862
Mil. Governor of Tenn.
I had the honor to receive today...your letter of 21st. Inst. with writ for the arrest of Jefferson J. Ford and others-Following the prudent suggestion contained in your letter I had a conference with Ex-Governor Campbell and Jordan Stokes Esq. whereupon we determined that the interposition of military authority (which would naturally create panic in the minds of people already terribly exorcised with apprehensions) for the proper punishment of that class of small political offenders who can be so readily reached and dealt with by the civil authorities so so[o]n as your court shall be organized, would be impolitic and therefore unwise-Whatsoever may be the antecedents of the persons named, having learned from Mr. Haley and William B. Stokes Esq. that at present they are pursuing their legitimate business quietly, we deem it most prudent to let investigation wait upon the due process of law, and so instructed Mr. Haley, who has the natural anxiety of the wronged to see retribution dealt out. I have already had Mr. William Floyd and Mr. Alfred Bone before having been arrested by one of my scouting parties upon information obtained from their neighbors. After investigation I discharged Bone from military arrest without administering the oath to him-And Floyd, who informed me that upon taking his seat as Legislator he had taken an oath of allegiance to the Southern Confederacy I required to renounce such allegiance and take the oath of allegiance to the Federal Government, which he most willingly and I discharged him. When I came here with my command I found the people full of apprehensions of outraged and unknown evils caused by the foul misrepresentations of our army industriously circulated by the rebel leaders, which I attempted to relieve by publicly stating to them, that while I was at war with rebels in arms and would arrest all such found-non beligerents [sic] had nothing to fear-as rather than molest them in person or property, in all legitimate pursuits I would protect them, and my aim has been to keep that promise. While the enmity incident with and inseparable [sic] from the accursed insanity of rebellion remains in the hearts of many-all of their apprehensions have long since vanished and business is beginning again to seek its proper channels. Seeing that the policy adopted and pursued by me is working to the reclamation of many misguided men in this community-I would be the more unwilling, unless specially urged, to arouse new apprehensions by exercising military power needlessly.
As you kindly left the matter to my discretion after conference with Messrs Campbell & Stokes I have taken the liberty of stating to you in brief the reasons which influence my non-action in the premises until further advised by you.
I would take great pleasure in obeying any order from you or in adapting any suggestion you may be kind enough to give for the benefit of the great cause in which we are engaged[.]
* * * *
M[arcellus] Mundy, Col. Commanding Post
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 325-326.
23, Fatality in Murfreesboro
We learn that a young man was shot near Murfreesboro, on last Sunday by one of the guard while attempting to pass the pickets. The guard hailed him four times, when he replied that he would not stop for any d____d Abolitionist, whereupon one of the soldiers shot him through the heart. The deceased was a citizen of the town.
Nashville Daily Union, April 23, 1862.
23, General Prentiss' demeanor on the prisoner of war train in Memphis
A VULGAR BRAGGART.-The following incident occurred when the train, containing the Federal prisoners, was about leaving Memphis on Wednesday last [23rd]. On this occasion, at least, General Prentiss proved himself no better than a vulgar braggart. We copy from the Memphis Avalanche:
Some of the Federal prisoners then set up their vulgar songs about the South, and Jeff. Davis, and niggers, which feat was though particularly and refreshingly cute, but an officer who had some self-respect, cautioned them to silence, when Gen. Prentiss, who, despite the "blockade" had a "load" on, said, "D__n it, sing ahead, even if they do shoot you."
One of the Home Guard, standing near, curtly remarked: "that's not the way we do with prisoners; amuse yourself in your own way-we can afford to be merciful even to those who would have murdered us."
A head popped out of the cars, and said, "Never mind, we shall have plenty of friends here in less than twenty days." A voice from the street replies quickly: "that's so, and well have 'em in the cars on the way to 'to ther side of Jordan."
Even Prentiss seemed to lose all sense of dignity, and did not rise above the common level.
Macon Daily Telegraph, April 26, 1862
23-25, Operations at Cumberland Gap
Report of Brig. Gen. James G. Spears, U. S. Army, of operations April 23-25, 1862, part of the March 28-June 18, 1862 Cumberland Gap Campaign.
HDQRS. TWENTY-FIFTH BRIGADE, ARMY OF THE OHIO, Boston, April 25, 1862.
SIR: On to-day I am able to report as to the result of the expedition under Cols. Shelley and Cooper to Woodson's Gap and Powell's Valley, East Tenn.:
The forces under Col. Cooper, 300 strong, and under Col. Shelley, of 200 strong, marched to Woodson's Gap. The former marched his force across into the ridges as directed. Col. Shelley took position in the gap to protect his retreat, if necessary. At 9 a. m. 23d instant Col. Cooper arrived in the ridges of the mountain, and remained there until 9 a. m. next day and returned. No rebel enemies were found in arms. Rumor that a brigade was in Big Creek Gap ascertained and believed to be untrue. The expedition ascertained the fact that 427 of the Union fugitives endeavoring to get to this army were taken by the rebel cavalry to Knoxville, and from thence to Tuscaloosa, Ala.; 200 made their escape to this army; 3 killed and 11 wounded, 6 of whom the expedition brought over. There is one regiment of rebel troops at Clinton, or near there, out of which there is 165 effective men, infantry, and 100 cavalry, and no further re-enforcements at Cumberland Gap that could be heard of. Information of the expedition preceded Cols. Cooper and Shelley, and must have made its way through the public speech of Mr. Thornburgh at Boston. The people of Powell's Valley are very anxious for the Federal army to march over into the valley. Col. Cooper arrested and brought into camp__Shadwell, a notorious rebel, and who, as there is abundance of evidence to show, has been, up to his arrest, almost daily guilty of treason, and was in the habit of giving the rebel army information as to our whereabouts and movements, which rebel, together with__,who has come into our camp under suspicious circumstances, who can give no satisfactory account of himself, and refuses to volunteer, I send in charge of Col. Cooper to your headquarters for further order on your part.
By order of Brig.-Gen. Spears:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, p. 14.
23, Skirmish on Shelbyville Pike
No circumstantial reports filed.
23, Guerrilla depredations near Richland
HDQRS. 129TH ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS, Richland, Tenn., April 27, 1863.
Capt. PHELPS PAINE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
SIR: I have to report to the general commanding that a band of thirteen guerrillas, on the evening of the 23d instant, attacked a Union man named Thomas Nowill, at his residence, some four miles from our camp. After severely wounding him, they succeeded in capturing; took him his family without hat or coat; took him off some fifteen miles and there murdered him, literally hewing him to pieces. With them were some at least of what Capt. Peddicord used to call his "command" -- Ellis Harper -- Berryman, and, some say, Peter Blane. As we could not take the murderers, I sent down yesterday the fathers of Harper and Berryman. Last night, some 2 a. m., I received pretty reliable information that a band of some seventy-five rebels were moving toward Franklin, on La Fayette road. My mounted men were then out and did not return until about daylight, and then so jaded were their horses that I have not been able to ascertain any further news. Almost nightly robberies are committed in the country out from five to fifteen miles from this station. If we are expected to stop this a much larger mounted force will be indispensable; though if there were one of the companies from the tunnel sent here, so that I could send 75 or 100 into the country to watch roads, fords, and houses at night, we might possibly effect something more. If four companies at the tunnel would build some little stockades they would be quite as safe as the five now are. Should the general see fit to move any company from the tunnel here, Capt. Baird, of Company E, has asked me to get his company moved here, if be in accordance with the best interests of the service. He would be a very efficient officer in that kind of service.
Your most obedient servant,
A. J. CROPSEY, Maj. 129th, Cmdg. Regt. [sic]
OR, Ser. I. Vol. 52, pt. I, p. 305.
23, Bragg orders ordnance officers of Army of Tennessee to remain with their trains during battle
CIRCULAR. HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, Tenn., April 23, 1863
In time of battle some of the ordnance officers are in the habit of abandoning their trains, causing great confusion and difficulty to the troops in procuring ammunition. It is, therefore, ordered that all ordnance officers in time of battle remain with their ammunition in such places that they can promptly supply their regiments, and that they advise their commanders of their localities by ordnance sergeants. No ammunition will be issued to the regiments except from the proper wagons carrying supplies for them.
By command of Gen. Bragg:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. vol. 23, pt. II, p. 787.
23, John Hunt Morgan's report on the fighting in McMinnville
HDQRS. MORGAN'S DIVISION, Sparta, April 23, 1863. (Received April 26, 3 a. m.)
Col. GEORGE WILLIAM BRENT, Asst. Adjt. Gen. and Chief of Staff, Army of Tennessee:
COL.; I have the honor to inclose copy of a dispatch from Col. Chenault, at Monticello, received on the morning of the 21st, copy of which was forwarded by train the same morning from McMinnville.
I also receive a dispatch at 8 a. m. 21st instant, from Maj. Bullitt, commanding regiment on Woodbury road, 12 miles from McMinnville, stating that the enemy was advancing in force-cavalry, infantry, and artillery-on the Woodbury road. I immediately ordered him to hold his position as long as possible and in the event of the enemy pressing him, to fall back slowly toward McMinnville, reporting to me by courier every half hour the movements of the enemy. I also sent out a small scout to gain all possible information, who reported from time to time that a large force of the enemy's cavalry was advancing on the Petty Gap road, and another large force of infantry advancing at the same time on the Woodbury road. I sent a courier to order back the train from Tullahoma not being able to telegraph, the operator informing me that the line was not working.
At 2 p. m. I received a dispatch from Col. Bullitt, stating that the enemy had fallen back a short distance on the Woodbury road. At about the same time one of my scouts came in, reporting that the enemy was then within a mile or two of town, driving my vedettes and pickets in before them.
The enemy destroyed the railroad depot, factory, two railroad bridges, together with the train that was on this side of Morrison's besides some two or three other buildings at McMinnville. They left McMinnville about 12 o'clock on the 22nd proceeding in the direction of Smithville and from thence to Liberty, the force being estimated at from 3,000 to 5,000 strong consisting of cavalry and mounted infantry and seven pieces of artillery.
About 12,000 infantry crossed from Woodbury road to Blue's near Mechanicsville. From there they joined the cavalry who had been at McMinnville, and moved down Snow Hill upon Liberty. I had sent courier after courier giving information to the forces at Liberty of approach of the enemy.
I have also received information from Celina, stating that the enemy, between 1,200 and 1,500 strong, crossed the river at that point on the 19th instant, shelled and burned the town, together with the churches, not even giving the citizens any warning of their intention. Maj. Hamilton had to fall back some 4 or 5 miles, but, being re-enforced by Col. Johnson's regiment, attacked and drove the enemy back across the river.
I understand that Gen. Wheeler is now crossing Caney Fork at Lancaster with his forces. A small detachment of my forces are now occupying McMinnville. Gen. Wheeler will probably be at this point to-morrow. Knowing that it is very important that all information from this direction should reach you at once, I send this without its going through the regular channel.
I have just received a dispatch from Col. Chenault, a Monticello, who states that there is no immediate danger from that direction, as the enemy are reported moving toward Bowling Green, Ky.
I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN H. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 784-785.
23, Lincoln county Confederate tax assessors for 1863
Tax Assessors for 1863 –
County Court last week appointed the following gentlemen Tax Assessors, each for the District preceding his name:
1st District F. Motlow
2 do W. R. Waggoner
3 do J. D. Smith
4 do W. D. Moorehead
5 do J. A. Prosser
6 do J. B. Hudson
7 do W. C. Solomen
8 do J. T. Gordon
9 do L. L. Clark
10 do T. H. Bledsoe
11 do A. C. Martin
12 do C. B. McDaniel
13 do W. W. Wilson
14 do I. R. Nelson
15 do D. G. Smith
16 do S. M. Hapmpton
17 do Jacob Vanhoozer
18 do W. A. Rohodes
19 do John Caughran
20 do O. P. Griffis
21 do N. Koonce
22 do J. Moore
23 do W. E. Carter.
24 do Joseph Daron
25 do W. C. Jennings
Fayetteville Observer, April 23, 1863.
23, Public Health Problems in Fayetteville
Clean up. – We would respectfully refer the attention of the authorities, civil or military, or both, to the condition of the streets, allies [sic], etc., of Fayetteville. Dead hogs, mules, and horses may be found in the corporation or vicinity, on all sides in every state of decomposition. The air is thick with incipient disease, and unless a speedy purifying is resorted to, mid-summer will again find the cholera or some other fatal epidemic in our midst. In behalf of the citizens, we ask that our town may now have a thorough cleansing. The soldiers, we have no doubt, would unite in the request.
Fayetteville Observer, April 23, 1863.
23, Federal patrols on Spring Place road [see April 22, 1864, Confederate reconnaissance near Cleveland above]
23, Clarification of Federal regulations overseeing travel by rail sought by Major-General George H. Thomas
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, Tenn., April 23, 1864.
Maj.-Gen. SHERMAN, Cmdg. Military Division of the Mississippi, Nashville:
GEN.: Since my telegram to you about going to Nashville I have felt some uncertainty about the propriety of leaving this place for a longer period than one day, for fear something might occur to produce disorder. I wished to see you so as to have a full understanding about our movements, but if you cannot conveniently come down, I can send one of my aides to receive a copy of Gen. Grant's letter to you, if you think it will be prudent to send me one. My only object is to have a clear understanding of what is to be done. Another object for wishing to see you was to have an understanding about the travel on the railroad. By my arrangements only such persons traveled by rail as seemed to have legitimate business here, and they were required to leave as soon as their business was finished, and all refugees and deserters were sent to the rear without any trouble. All persons who got permission to travel had to pay their fare, unless traveled under orders from proper authority (military division or some department headquarters). Now persons come on every train, permitted by papers signed by your provost-marshal-general and indorsed by Capt. Crane, the transportation quartermaster for railroad at Nashville. My military conductors have orders to see that no one gets on the cars unless he has proper authority. The railroad conductors were required to collect tickets from passengers, and if the passenger had no ticket to collect the regular fare and report daily. The military conductors took up the passes and reported daily to my provost-marshal-general, thus acting as a check on the railroad conductors to prevent them from extorting money from passengers, or permitting improper persons from traveling; for the railroad superintendent, by comparing the checks taken up by his conductors with the papers taken by the military conductors each day, could easily discover if anything improper was done by his conductors. I frequently find also that persons who have been refused permission to come here by me, go to your provost-marshal-general, get papers, and come down in defiance of my authority. I think after reading my telegrams with this explanation you will understand my idea about the travel on the railroad, which I really believe the best for the interests of the service.
Very respectfully and truly, yours,
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 455-456.
23, Federal scout from Cleveland
CLEVELAND, April 23, 1864.
Brig.-Gen. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff:
Gen. Stanley reports that his scouts have returned. They went as far as Claus' Chapel, 5½ miles from King's Bridge. No rebels have crossed. Saw no signs of movement. Went on to Spring Place road and no movement there. He cannot account for the rockets.
O. O. HOWARD, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 456.
23, Federal Major-General C. C. Washburn first situations reports for West Tennessee
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 23, 1864.
Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.:
SIR: I report that I arrived here to-day and assumed command. Nothing special to report, except that a reconnaissance made by Gen. Grierson, which returned last night, reports that Forrest, after running his prisoners and plunder down into Mississippi, had returned with his whole force, about 8,000 strong, and was near Jackson, Tenn.
I have only 1,800 mounted cavalry here, and that very poor, 2,000 infantry, and 3,500 colored troops, entirely too weak, as you see, to move far aggressively, without leaving Memphis at his mercy. I have advised Gen. Grant and Gen. Sherman fully of the situation here. The rebels have repaired the Mobile and Ohio Railroad north as far as Corinth.
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., April 23, 1864.
Brig. Gen. JOHN A. RAWLINS, Chief of Staff:
SIR: I report that I arrived here and assumed command to-day. All quiet in town, but Brig.-Gen. Grierson, who returned from a scout last night [22d], reports that Forrest, after sending his prisoners and plunder down into Mississippi, had returned with his whole force and was in the neighborhood of Jackson, Tenn. He is reported to have seven brigades, under the following-named brigade commanders, viz.,: Gen. Bell, Col. Faulkner, Col. Duckworth, Col. Neely, Gen. Chalmers, Col. Forrest, and Gen. Buford, the last named commanding a division. Forrest's total force is said to be about 8,000 men, all well mounted. In returning into West Tennessee he, of course, means mischief somewhere. I regret that my force here is not sufficient to enable me to move out and assail him. I have only 1,800 very poor cavalry mounted, made up of odds and ends, and about 1,000 dismounted cavalry. The rest of the cavalry force of the Sixteenth Army Corps are at home on furlough; two regiments filled to the maximum, the Third Michigan and Seventh Kansas, reached Saint Louis a month ago on their return, and detained there for horses and arms. My whole troops consist of only 2,000 infantry, white, 600 white artillery, and 3,500 colored troops. You will readily see that this force will allow me to do little but act on the defensive.
Information deemed entirely reliable by Maj.-Gen. Hurlbut represents that the rebels have repaired the railroad north to Corinth. The road is also said to be in good repair from Corinth west to LaGrange. If this is the case, there can be no difficulty in their massing a large force of infantry in a short time at Corinth or LaGrange. The brigade of Brig.-Gen. Mower, which was ordered by Gen. Sherman up here, is likely to be detained by Gen. Banks for an indefinite period.
The massacre at Fort Pillow turns out to be worse than the news-papers have reported. I am taking measures to ascertain the names of officers in command and the regiments engaged in that affair, hoping that the President will issue a proclamation of outlawry against them. Of one thing you may be certain, that I shall not issue any orders requiring the troops of this command to spare the monsters engaging in a transaction that renders the Sepoy a humane being and Nana-Sahib a clever gentleman. I send up by the same boat that takes this a duplicate to be telegraphed to Gen. Sherman, in regard to the continued presence of Forrest in Tennessee, and of the repair of the railroad to Corinth. While with the force I have here I feel perfectly secure against any mounted force they may bring, I do not feel that I could venture to go in pursuit of Forrest without hazarding the city unless I have more force.
As soon as I learn more about matters, I shall again write you.
I am, general, your obedient servant,
C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 462-463.
23, Major-General William T. Sherman advocates a policy no quarter in future cases of Federal soldiers' taking objectives by assault, similar to the Confederate experience at Fort Pillow Massacre
HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Nashville, Tenn., April 23, 1864.
Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War, Washington:
SIR: Pursuant to your orders two officers are now engaged in taking affidavits and collecting testimony as to the Fort Pillow affair. They are ordered to send you direct a copy of their report and one to me.
I know well the animus of the Southern soldiery, and the truth is they cannot be restrained. The effect will be of course to make the negroes [sic] desperate, and when in turn they commit horrid acts of relation we will be relieved of the responsibility. Thus far negroes [sic] have been comparatively well behaved, and have not committed the horrid excesses and barbarities which the Southern papers so much dreaded.
I send you herewith my latest newspapers from Atlanta, of the 18th and 19th instant. In them you will find articles of interest and their own accounts of the Fort Pillow affair.
The enemy will contend that a place taken by assault is not entitled to quarter, but this rule would have justified us in an indiscriminate slaughter at Arkansas Post, Fort De Russy, and other places taken by assault. I doubt the wisdom of any fixed rule by our Government, but let soldiers affected make their rules as we progress. We will use own logic against them, as we have from the beginning of the war.
The Southern army, which is the Southern people, cares no more for our clamor than the idle wind, but they will heed the slaughter that will follow as the natural consequence of their own inhuman acts.
I am, &c.,
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 464.
23, "Eureka Club." [see also November 5, 1863 "Eureka Club,"above]
The Eureka Club, composed principally of amateurs, gave a performance last night at their rooms on Cedar street, which was attended by a select circle of ladies and gentlemen. The piece selected was "Der Muttersegan," ("The Mother's Blessing") after the French of Lemoine. Although the German language is to us a "sealed book, we were so much pleased with the acting that we remained until the end of the third act. We have rarely witnessed better acting, even among professionals. Miss Flora Kunz sang and acted splendidly. Professor Weber presided at the piano with his usual skill and ability, and added greatly to the effectiveness of the songs, with which the piece is interspersed, by his correct accompaniments.
Nashville Dispatch, April 23, 1864.
23, Feeding and lodging Confederate soldiers in Carroll County
Within the last few days I have fed and lodged 15 Confederate soldiers. They offered pay in Confederate money. It being of no use to me, I did not receive it. I have furnished and fed soldiers and citizens until at this time I have nothing to spare.
23, First Lieutenant Robert Cruikshank, 123rd New York Infantry Regiment, letter home to his wife Mary
Camp 123rd Regt. [sic], N. Y. S. V.
Elk River, Tenn.,
April 23rd, 1864.
I can write but a few lines today. The box that the ladies of Salem sent to the soldiers of Company H has arrived and its contents distributed as requested. By request of the Company I have addressed a letter to Mrs. Hawley thanking her and the ladies for their kindness.
Captain Culver passed through here last evening to New York from Chattanooga. He did not stop so I did not see him. You write me, and others hear that Lieutenant Beattie has started to join us. Others say he is in Albany. I do not expect Captain Culver right away so hope that Beattie may come. We shall move in a few days.
With love to all,
Robert Cruikshank Letters.
23, Report of the capture of the Reynolds' guerrilla band at Lick Creek, Greene county
CAPTURE OF A BAND OF THEIVES.
A few days a go, that most efficient of our Federal scouts, Capt. Reynolds, in command of about fifty picked men visited Greene county for the purpose of breaking up a nest of twenty five thieves and murderers, under the command of a villain by the name of Reynolds [sic], who have been for months robbing Union houses and killing Union citizens. They were an independent organization, and had done as much real and hellish work as any equal number of assassins in the rebel service. Our troops came upon them on the workers of Lick Creek, some ten or twelve miles from Greeneville, and killed ten, [sic] and captured the remaining fifteen with their infamous leader included, bringing them all to this city and the leader of the gang in irons. We think our soldiers are to blame for making prisoners out of any of them – they ought all to have been executed on the spot.
Knoxville Whig and Rebel Ventilator, April 23, 1864.
23, Ethnic competition for housing in Nashville
Fort Johnson Nashville Tenn.,
Apl. 23d, 1864
Andrew Johnston [sic]
Necessity compels me to make a few statements of facts and to request your interference in behalf of my family –
I am a citizen of Bradley Co. Tenn., and have in the United states [sic] service for more than two years. – some [sic] time in last February my family was compelled to leave home for want of subsistence. I met them at this place Feb. 18th, and have been trying from that time to this to rent a house or room for them to live in but have, as yet, failed to get one –
I find that nearly all of the confiscated, as well as individual houses are occupied by contraband negroes, poor white soldiers [sic] families are left out of doors, more than once have I tried to rent vacant houses only to receive the assurance from some rebel citizen that they were rented to negroes [sic], this being the case I would most respectfully ask that you grant my family a pass to Charleston Tenn. And the privilege of transporting provisions over the Rail Road to them – my family consists of, my wife and four children, my wifes [sic] sister and five children, and my sister (twelve in all)[.] if [sic] you will aid me in procuring a house, or pass them back home I will ever hold you in most greatful [sic] remembrance[.]
Most respectfully Sir Your Obdt Servt
James H. Kile
1st Sergt Battery "D" 1st Tenn. Arty
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 684.
23, Martial provision for blind children in Carthage
Special Orders No. 24
Headquarters 1st Tenn. Mtd. Infty
Carthage, Apl. 23, 1864
Jesse Robinson, your are hereby ordered to take the blind children Mary Caldwell & Hall Cardwell and clothe them & see that they are cared for.
A refusal to do this will subject you to arrest. The negroes belonging to Sarah Cardwell will as soon as it can be made pay the said Robinson for taking care of the Children in produce up to the that time and furnish him supplies still to take care of the children.
By Order of A. E. Gannett, Lt. Col. Comdg. Regt.
Order Book 1st Tenn. Mounted Infty (U. S.)
23, Condition of East Tennessee
Condition of East Tennessee.-The Commissioners sent to East Tennessee by the Pennsylvania Relief Association to investigate the condition of the suffering people of that region and to furnish supplies to them, has published a report of its proceedings. The Commission consisted of Frederic Collins and Lloyd P. L. Smith of Philadelphia, and Colonel N.F. Taylor of East Tennessee was added. The story of outraged and suffering is terrible; the loyal people of East Tennessee, ruined, driven from their homes, hunted like beasts, mercilessly dragged into the rebel armies under the conscription law, were forced to endure for two years the extremes of poverty and hardship. When, at last, Burnside's army appeared and the yoke of rebel tyranny was removed, the people were reduced to the point of starvation. It is stated in this report that the first supplies which reached Knoxville were those sent across the mountains in wagons by the Sanitary Commission.
Among the incidents related by Commissioner are the following:
Such is the destitution of fed and foraged in East Tennessee, than ten thousand animal belonging to the army are now dead at the front, and the farmers are compelled to let their horses and cattle die. The few we saw were emaciated in the extreme. The barns we passed on the road were perfectly empty; no fences were to be seen, no hogs, no poultry, nothing but the bare land. Flour, of poor quality, is worth at Knoxville, thirty dollars a barrel; coffee one dollar and fifty cents a pound in Federal currency, and other articles in proportions.
A STARVING QUAKER SETTLEMENT.
The destitution is not confined to any one class. The most thrifty and hitherto well-to-do, are involved in the common ruin. In Blount county, south of Knoxville, there is a settlement of members of the Society of Friends, amounting to some two hundred and fifty families. The we arrived at Knoxville, one of them, a Mr. Jones, went to Colonel Baxter and said-
"Colonel, can you tell me where the Quartermaster lives?"
"What do you want?"
"I want to get assistance; I have nothing to eat."
"Are you in that condition?"
"Yes, we are all in that condition."
They were previously very well off-.
They had never held slaves.
There is another Quaker settlement at Newmarket, about twenty-five miles north-
East of Knoxville, not quite so large as that in Blount county, but in a still worse condition. The Hon. Horace Maynard told an anecdote which is very significant of their sentiments. About eight or ten years ago there were two candidates for the legislature "stumping" the district of the company. One of them was rich, but had been a negro trader. After making his speech, the other candidate mounted the platform, and, pulling out of his cot pocket a pair of handcuffs, held them up to the audience saying: "This is the way he made his money." The negro trader lost every vote.
HOW THE PEOPLE GREETED THE OLD FLAG.
At last this long-suffering people saw Burnside's columns advance to their relief, and in September 1863, the flag of the United States was once more unfurled in Knoxville. The occasion was one long to be remembered. As if by magic, the long concealed Union flags were brought forth, and the cherished symbol waved in all parts of the town. The people poured into Knoxville from distances of five to twenty miles on foot, on horseback and in wagons, bringing with them in baskets the little delicacies which they had stored away to greet the Unites States soldiers on their arrival.
In one instance a Baptist [sic] clergyman, living about nine miles from Knoxville, heard at eleven o'clock at night of the arrival of our advance guard. He rose, dressed himself, and started immediately to communicate the glad tidings to his neighbors; and they, catching his spirit, did likewise, and from a distance of eight or ten miles they flocked into Knoxville, arriving there before sunrise. A refugee whom we met in the cars returning to his home, told us that his mother went eighteen miles on horseback "just a purpose to see Burnside's army." It may not be improper to remark in this place, and, indeed, it is only just to do so, that Gen. Burnside has won the love and respect of the East Tennesseeans in a peculiar degree, from the considerate and impartial manner in which he exercised his rule amongst them.
The Daily Cleveland Herald, April 23, 1864. 
23, News of the assassination of Lincoln reaches Lucy Virginia French
A great tragedy has been enacted, since my last writing, in the assassination of Lincoln and Seward. The first we heard of it was on last Thursday evening. I was out in the front yard clipping some cedars when the Col. came to the door – he had just come up from the garden, in his shirt-sleeves – and he said very quietly, "Well, Lincoln's dead!" I had not the smallest idea it was true. Mrs. Myers sent Billy out to tell us. The Col. went in town directly to learn the particulars. The story then ran that Lincoln and Johnson had been at the theatre together – a man had rushed up and stabbed both – killing Lincoln and mortally wounding Johnson, and the assassin had himself been killed on the instant. That was all anybody knew. Next day, in addition, comes the report that Seward had his throat cut also – then I didn't believe any of the story. Thursday, however, a courier came from Tulahoma [sic]-and Mollie came up from Woodbury. The story then ran that Lincoln and Mrs. L. went to the theatre-Mr. L. was shot in the head in his box by Wilkes Booth a son of Booth, the actor, and that he escaped on a fleet horse. The same evening Seward's room was entered – his two sons were murdered and he himself had his throat cut from ear to ear. Andy Johnson and Gen. Grant were included in the conspiracy, but they escaped, and Andy was inaugurated next day – Thus goes the rumor, and we've heard nothing more of any account. There was intense excitement in Nashville – some 10 men killed for rejoicing over Lincoln's death. Gen. Milroy, at Tullahoma also had some of his soldiers shot for the same, it is said. We are told that about 30 citizens of Nashville were arrested because they implicated Andy in the assassination of "Honest Abe." Some person in Murfreesboro took the crape from their doors, which had been placed there by military order – the houses were entered and the furniture destroyed or carried off. In town here many put mourning on their doors – both parties, but no such order was issued. The soldiers, however, exerted themselves to draw citizens into some expression of joy over the tragedy – so that they would have a pretext for ill using them. I feel that it is dreadful,-a tragedy solemn even to awfulness.[emphasis added]
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.
23-26, Scout from Pulaski to Rogersville, Alabama
APRIL 23-26, 1865.-Scout from Pulaski, Tenn., to Rogersville, Ala.
Report of Capt. Albert L. Hathaway, Eighth Michigan Cavalry.
HDQRS. EIGHTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY, Pulaski, Tenn., April 29, 1865.
CAPT.: I have the honor to report that I left camp of the Eighth Michigan Cavalry on Sunday, the 23d instant, with fifty men and proceeded in the direction of Lamb's Ferry by the way of Gilbertsborough and Rogersville. Arriving at the ferry on the second day, saw a small party of Confederate cavalry near the ferry, numbering about nine men, but did not succeed in capturing any of them as they were well mounted. From all the information I could get I learned that Maj. Gilbert had a small command of about thirty men on the south side of the Tennessee River near Lamb's Ferry. They have a ferry-boat and come over this side of the river in small parties and are scouting around the country between the Tennessee River and Sugar Creek. I could not learn that they were doing any damage or troubling any person. I do not think there are over ten Confederate soldiers at any one time over this side of the river in the vicinity of Lamb's Ferry or Sugar Creek. I returned to camp on Wednesday, the 26th instant, having been absent from camp four days on the scout and traveled about 100 miles; which is respectfully submitted.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. L. HATHAWAY,
Capt. Company I, Eighth Michigan Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 513-514.
 See also OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, pp. 882, 884; and Daily National Intelligencer, June 7, 1862; The Christian Banner (Fredericksburg, VA) June 7, 1862 in GALE GROUP.
 Rockets were used as signaling devices by the Union army.
 Grierson's scout most likely covered territory in North Mississippi, but this isn't certain.
 Not found.
 TSL&A, 19th CN
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
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