Monday, April 27, 2015

4.25-26.2015 Civil War Notes



        25, Excerpts from Governor Isham Harris' Legislative Message advocating secession[1]

….I have convened you again at the seat of Government, for the purpose of enabling you to take such action as will most likely contribute to the defense of our rights, the preservation of our liberties, the sovereignty of the State, and the safety of our people; all of which are now in imminent peril by the usurpations of authorities at Washington, and the unscrupulous fanaticism which runs riot through the Northern States.

* * * *

I do not think it necessary to recapitulate, at this late hour, the long train of abuses to which the people of Tennessee, and our sister States of the South have been subjected by the anti-republican spirit that has for many years been manifesting itself in that section….

* * * *

The present administration, elected upon avowed purposed of hostility to the South – purposes which all knew then as well as now, could not be carried into effect, without an internecine war and a dissolution of the Union – has exerted every energy, resorted to every strategy, and disregarded every constitutional barrier, in order to hasten the accomplishment of the unholy mission for which the people of the Northern section had elevated it to power….As if purposely intended to add additional insult to the people of Tennessee, I have been called upon, as their governor, to furnish a portion of these troops. I have answered that demand as in my judgment became the honor of the State, and leave the people to pass upon my action.

* * * *

I trust that a few days will be amply sufficient to dispose of the business which I have laid before you. Your presence may soon be needed in the field, and if not, will be required at home for counsel among your constituents.

Messages of the Governors, Vol. 5, pp. 279-287.

        25, Secession news in Memphis

No. 1 Fire Company.—This company will have a grand cotillion party at their engine house on Poplar street, this evening. All who would encourage and aid a fire company are requested to patronise the effort to raise the means of meeting necessary expenses.


Liberal.—A considerable number of new recruits to the Washington Rifles being without uniforms for the inspection yesterday, Capt. Frech and Lieut. Strauss made known their wants to a number of our clothing store keepers, who immediately contributed as many grey shirts as supplied the need.


Presentation.—Yesterday as the Washington Rifles were on their way to the inspection at headquarters, they were desired to halt opposite the confectionary of Mr. Joseph Specht, on Madison street above Union, whose lady appeared on the balcony bearing a handsome flag of the Confederate States, which, in brief but striking terms, she presented to the company. The beautiful and acceptable gift was received by Capt. Frech, who responded in an appropriate speech.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 25, 1861

        25, Some Results of the Nashville Vigilance Committee; Mr. Elwell's and Mr. Kelly's Hegira from Nashville

A Western Reserve Man Thinks the Weather Rather Warm in Nashville, Tenn.

Mr. William H. H. Elwell, a young journeyman printer, who left Cleveland two years ago, and well known here, has just returned from Nashville, where he has been for the last year. We have gathered from him the following reliable statement.

Being a Northern man, and expressing himself firmly for the Union under all circumstances, and in defence of the patriotism and bravery of the Northern people, and the sanctity of the American flag, he was warned that such sentiments were treasonable, and would not be tolerated in the South. Though he had man personal friends in the city, they had no power whatever to protect him against the mob, that governs there and elsewhere in the South. No Northern man is safe either in person or property unless he avows himself a secessionist, and declares himself ready to go the full length of the Southern bloody programme.

Mr. Kelley, editor of the Nashville Democrat, a Douglas paper, left at the same time for the same reasons. He was threatened by the Vigilance Committee with the destruction of his press if he continued his treasonable Union paper, and the mob gathered for the purpose of the destruction of himself and press-

The office was put in a state of defence, and the American flag ran up. Finally, however, the friends of the editor persuaded him to let them take down the flag, and the office went into the hands of the Vigilance Committee. The life of the editor being in great danger, he came North, declaring he would return again with a regiment of New York volunteers and settle the account. He is from New York city and leaves all his property. Senator Johnson is in Washington and his friends dare not have him return to the State-his life would be taken. The State is completely in the hands of the secessionists, and will, without doubt, secede immediately.-The idle masses and demagogues completely crush out the Union men. Hangman Foote, Zollicoffer, and the like, constantly harangue the masses and the people seem to be insane on the subject of Southern rights. They believe that Jeff. Davis is near Washington, assisted by Ben McCulloch, and that the Capital will be in their hands in less than twenty days. They think, and openly proclaim, that all the chivalric and military spirit is in the South, that one Southern man can whip a dozen Northern men. There seemed to have been a great change of sentiment, however, on this point last week,-the surprise being great at the sudden rush to arms throughout the North at the call of Lincoln.

The Daily Cleveland Herald, April 25, 1861. [2]

        26, Brigadier-General Gideon J. Pillow endorses Randolph, Tennessee, as optimum site for a fort

MEMPHIS, April 26, 1861.


Randolph is the most eligible situation for a battery to protect Memphis. Capt. Stockton considers his instructions as restricting him to a point nearer Memphis. Will you authorize him to exercise his own judgment and construct at Randolph?


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 73.

        26, "Palmyra True to the South;" demagoguery and enlistment in Clarksville

The citizens of Palmyra and its vicinity met here to-day, in obedience to a call made for the purpose of raising a volunteer company, to enlist in defense of Southern Rights.

S. F. Allen was called to the Chair, and Rbt. Eldridge appointed Sec'y.

Col. W. A. Quarles, of Clarksville, then took the stand, and addressed them, with great earnestness and ability, exposing the duplicity practiced upon the South by Lincoln and his Cabinet, condemning the vile and flagrant acts of usurpation by which they seek to carry out their unholy purpose of subjugating the Southern States. He proved conclusively that the "armed neutrality" position advocated by some, for Kentucky and Tennessee to assume tended only to assist the North. His speech was marked by sincerity and patriotic zeal, was every appropriate, effective, and well received. At the conclusion of which, it was moved by A. Outlaw, Esq., and seconded, that the resolutions presented by Col. W. A. Quarles, to the Southern Rights Association, held at Clarksville, on the 13th inst., as published, be adopted by this meeting, which was agreed to unanimously. Col. M. G. Gholson, having been solicited, gallantly accepted the invitation and announced that he would take command of a company of volunteers, if a sufficient number would enlist. Faster than the Secretary could record their names, 36 of the honest and patriotic young men offered themselves, and were well received.

Liberal contributions were made to supply them with provision while on drill.

The call then for a Home Guard was responded to by every man present, in the district. Col. Quarles proceeded to organize them, by having officer elected. W. B. Russell, Esq., was elected Captain; Mr. R. M. [?] Williamson, 1st Lieutenant; H. T. Oliphant, 2nd; M. C. Powers, Ensign; and S. A. Caldwell, O.S.

On motion of Col. Gholson, it was ordered, that the Clarksville papers be furnished with a report and requested to publish the proceedings of this meeting, which then adjourned, having been conducted with the most exemplary order, particularly characterized by unanimous feelings of indignation and defiance towards the North, and unflinching devoted [sic] to Southern Rights.

Clarksville Chronicle, April 26, 1861.

        26, Germantown Ladies organize to help protect the fatherland

The Ladies of Germantown.

Editors Appeal: We, the ladies of Germantown and vicinity, in consideration of the troubles that are brooding over our native land, have resolved to aid to the best of our ability our relatives and friends who shall engage in the approaching conflict. We, therefore, offer to the soldiers of Germantown all the assistance in our power with our needles, and promise also to aid in the care and sustenance of their families during their absence. And should the war approach our own homes, we will watch over the sick and wounded (though strangers) as our own brothers or fathers.

[Signed] Mrs. Maria L. Pettit, Mrs. E. B. Cornelius, Mrs. Mills, Mrs. Moliter, Mrs. Morgan, Mrs. Rhodes, Mrs. Harris, Mrs. Hicks, Mrs. Boardman, Mrs. Burnley, Mrs. Goode, and many others.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 26, 1861.

        26, Chelsea's Southern Mothers

The "Southern Mothers" of Chelsea. In response to the call of the "Southern Mothers" of Memphis—the mothers of Chelsea met in large numbers yesterday, and formed a similar association. The enthusiasm shown on the occasion should comfort every southern patriot, now arming in defense of his country. The following are the names of the officers: Mrs. W. G. Ford, President; Mrs. J. Y. Gibson, Vice-President; Rachael D. Rawlings, Secretary and Treasurer; managers, Mistress James Woods, Danbury, Walter Morehead, J. Brochus, John Temple, Ammond, Marley, B. R. Thomas, Sarah Means.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 26, 1861.




        25, D. C. Donnohue on cotton seed and the battle of Shiloh

Hamburg Tenn April 25th 62 [sic]

Hon Cabel B. Smith

Secty of the Interior

Dear Sir,

Owing to the unexpected delay of our army in moving I have not been able to secure but few cotton seed – Since my return from Savannah.

Since the smoke of the battle of Pittsburg Landing has cleared away – there seems to be some misgiving on the part of our commander as to the propriety of attacking the Rebels – Though Genl. Popes [sic] force are here – having landed at the point – some five miles up the river from Pittsburg Landing I have this morning got a pass for the purpose of visiting the cotton gins in this neighborhood – where I learn there is considerable seed – the largest gin in this county and the one at which I had some two thousand bushels of seed was burned by the Rebels yesterday – the Rebel Cavelry [sic] are destroying all the cotton in the country – Though we have a large force of Cavelry [sic] here – they do not appear to be able to give relief to the people – Such a state of thing[s] as now exist here will utterly ruin the Country – I cannot see that union men are treated any better than traitors. Their cotton is taken from them by the convenience of the army officers by reckless adventures without being paid for – while rich and influencial [sic] traitors are permitted to ship their cotton on board of our boats in the employment of the Govt. Since the battle here I have been able to control no transportation – that I could make available for fear the teams would be captured – though I am certain I have never asked for a team to run the slightest risk of falling into the hands of the enemy – no team was ever required by me to go to any place until I had visited the place and learned that it was safe not only for the team but for myself.

I very much fear that the seed I have forwarded under your direction will be planted too soon and thereby be lost – Though I have taken pains to urge upon those to whom they were sent not to plant them until the frosts of spring had entirely disappeared –

Cotton frequently is not planted here until the tenth of May – I have procured some seed of a new variety in this county that I think will mature in any part of Indiana it is the only variety that fully matures in this climate – I will try and have them at Cairo or Paducah in a few days – I have written directions in brief for the planting cultivation [sic] of the Cotton crop to those to whom seed were sent – to have not heard from them since but suppose they have been received and probably published – though I made every possible haste to return here before a battle would ensure [sic] - I failed to arrive in time – as I have written you on a former occasion. The news having been sent over the Country that our army had routed the rebels and driven from them the field is not exactly true, they were driven from our camps and fell back and are now and have been ever since the battle holding ground over which I traveled for several days after my first arrival here – without seeing or even hearing of anyone who would capture or harm me in any way. I can do nothing in this country through the agency of the natives. The men are mostly in the army & those who come to us for protection seem to lack confidence in our final success – and cannot be begged persuaded of hired to go to any place or do anything – We are having almost interminable rains here which will perhaps to some extent prevent our advance with our heavy artillery though the roads in this county are very fine, but said to be impassable in the vicinity of Corinth some 16 miles from here.

The numbers comprising our forces here I suppose is hardly known to anyone – as the number of regts is no index whatever I am certain the Regts [sic] will not average four hundred fighting men if our dear bought victory at Pittsburg Landing has provided any good result – it is giving our soldiers confidence that they can whip an equal number of the rebels on a fair field – I see from the official report of Genl Grant that our loss is about 1600 killed 3500 wounded & missing the number killed is perhaps nearly right – but the number wounded & missing is more than double and if it is ever know the muster rolls will show. One thing I have learned from my observations on that battle field [sic] that the officers who acted in such a way as to be of any advantage to their men were either killed wounded [sic] or had a number of bullet holes in their clothes or had one horse killed under them. So I think here after there need[s] to be no mistaking who ought to be promoted after such a battle as the one at Pittsburg Landing [sic] or Shiloh - as the Confederates call it which name is taken from [an] old rude log church that stands about two miles from the river and about the middle of the battle field [sic] – which was in the main as fair for one side as the other being principally in open wood & sufficiently cleared to move artillery without any trouble – a few small farms entirely cleared off and a number of good roads – of the number that skulker[s] from the field I am certain other states furnishes [sic] a larger portion than Indiana – over in most cases the officers were more to blame than the men. I seen [sic] one cowardly Captain drown in attempting to swim to a steam boat after the firing had ceased. I don't thing there was a great number drowned though others who were present think different.[emphasis added]

Luft [Lieut.] James M. Alexander now acting quarter master of the 59th Ind. Regt. informes [sic] me

That he has a recommendation on file in the war dept asking appointment of assistant Commissary of Subsistance [sic] – I think Judge Hughes has been acting as his friend in the matter – Luft [Lieut.] Alexander well and know him to be worthy of the confidence of the Govt – and being a good business man and now acting regtmental [sic] Q. M. - the appointment could not fail to give satisfaction – Will be in Washington as soon as possible.

Your Obt. Servt.

D. C. Donnohue

Letters of D. C. Donnohue.

        25, Confederate report on Southern Unionism in the Savannah environs

We take the following from the Savannah, (Tenn.) correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette:

….Accounts of Southern Tennessee Unionism have been highly rose-colored, from those of the first exploring gunboats on down. There are warm Union men here, and in far greater proportionate numbers than at Nashville, but the great mass of the people, and all the leaders are, as they have been, secessionists. Savannah itself is Union; I do not think the same can be said of the county, and I am confident (after careful examination and inquiry,) that it can at any rate be said of none of the adjoining counties. [emphasis added]

The better classes here, except perhaps in Savannah, are all secessionists. Where you find one intelligent, educated man on our side, you will find fifty against us. I know no reason for blinking such facts, or for exciting delusive hopes, by exaggerating the Union sentiment. Continued successes, I make no doubt, will develop abundance of new-born loyalty.

[Houston] Tri-Weekly Telegraph, April 25, 1862.[3]

        25, Report of steamers fired into by insurgents on the Tennessee River

Steamboats Fired at by Guerrillas.

Cairo, April 25.-The Steamers Belle, of Memphis, and Choctaw from Pittsburg Landing, which they left on Thursday morning, arrived here last night. They were fired into, thirty-five miles below Pittsburg, by a band of guerrillas from behind a dwelling on the left bank of the Tennessee river. The Choctaw received seven shots. Her mate was killed. The Belle, of Memphis, received twelve shots, wounding one negro boy on board.

~ ~ ~

Philadelphia Inquirer, April 26, 1862.

        26, Skirmish at Atkins' Mill

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of Brig. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army, commanding cavalry division, of operations from April 23 to June 10, 1862, relative to the skirmish at Atkin's Mill, April 24, 1862.


GEN.: The division which I have the honor to command is composed of four regiments of cavalry, of twelve companies each, comprising the First Brigade, under Col. J. K. Mizner, consisting of the Third Michigan and Seventh Illinois, and the Second Brigade, consisting of the Second Iowa and Second Michigan, under Col. Elliott.

* * * *

April 24.-Col. Elliott, commanding Second Brigade, with a battalion each of Second and Third Michigan, Second Iowa, and Seventh Illinois, proceeded to Greer's Ford. On the 26th Capt. Fowler, Second Michigan, while on escort duty with his company, was fired upon by the enemy's pickets, severely wounding Private John Foster, Company G. The enemy retreated, and the nature of the ground forbade much pursuit. Four companies, same regiment, under Maj. Shaw, drove in the enemy's pickets at Atkins' Mill. Had 1 man wounded. Col. Elliott's force for several days were continually scouring the country toward Monterey.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 727.

        26, Confederate imprisonment order for unionist W. H. Malone and release of John Patterson



SIR: By direction of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith, commanding this military department, I have to request that you will admit into the prison in which the Union men of Tennessee are confined Mr. W. H. Malone, a gentleman who bears this communication and whose loyalty is indorsed by some of the best and most patriotic citizens of the State. Mr. M. proposes to enlist into the army of the Confederacy such of the prisoners as may be disposed and whom he may deem reliable for service without the limits of this department. The major-general commanding heartily approves the motive which influences Mr. M., and trusts that the object he would attain will as far as possible be advanced by the authorities who have the prisoners in charge. You will release John Patterson, one of the prisoners who was by mistake sent among the number. [emphasis added]

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 885.

        26, Confederate authorities give Mrs. Andrew Johnson more time to prepare for exile


April 26, 1862.


MADAM: Your note to Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith has been referred to this office and I am directed respectfully to reply in order to give you more time to make your arrangements for leaving. The time is extended thirty-six hours from the delivery of this second note when the major-general hopes you will be ready to comply with his request. You can go by way of Norfolk, Va., north, or by Kingston to Nashville.

Passports and an escort will be furnished for your protection.

Very respectfully,

[W. M. CHURCHWELL,] Col. and Provost-Marshal.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 885.

        26, Confederate authorities provide escort for Mrs. William B. Carter to be exiled from Tennessee via Cumberland Gap


Mrs. WILLIAM B. CARTER, Elizabethton.

MADAM: I am directed by Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith respectfully to require that you and your family pass beyond the C. S. line in thirty-six hours from the delivery of this note by way of Cumberland Gap.

Passports and an escort will be furnished you for your protection to the enemy's line.

Very respectfully,


OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, pp. 885-886.

[No date.] [sic]


The militia draft under the State laws having been suspended by the proclamation of Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith he also suspends the operation of the conscript bill in this department. [emphasis added] It is expected all good citizens will return from Kentucky. They will not be molested if they come to remain and cultivate their farms and take care of their families.

W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 1, p. 886.

        26, E. Kirby Smith's situation report for East Tennessee


Maj. T. A. WASHINGTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., C. S. Army:

MAJ.: Inclosed is a return of the troops serving in the department under my command.

Of the 11,074 present in "aggregate for duty," one regiment and two battalions (1,030 effective) are unarmed; one regiment (Bradford's, 363 effective) is partly armed with country rifles; Morgan's regiment is disloyal,[4] and has been ordered down from Cumberland Gap, to be sent out of the department; Branner's and McClellan's cavalry (700 effective) are under orders for Gen. Crittenden's command. This leaves an aggregate of 8,619 effective for duty; 1,143 of which are cavalry, generally indifferently armed and inefficient. [emphasis added]

The line of the Cumberland is best defended by a force mobilized at some central point. The enemy with superior forces threatening Chattanooga and Cumberland Gap from without and a disloyal people within requiring large detachments to guard the line of the railroad, leaves a very inadequate command for defending the department.

A move of 5,000 men on Nashville would be productive of great results, but situated as I am it could only be made at the sacrifice of the railroad and department.

My reports from Cumberland Gap, and through other sources, indicate a large force on the Cumberland River, opposite the Gap. Their number is greatly exaggerated; but have a formidable column has been collected and that a forward movement may soon be expected from Kentucky is undoubted. The force originally under Gen. Carter has been re-enforced by three regiments and a battery of artillery from Louisville, Ky. At least 7,000 Unionists from East Tennessee have joined his command within the last three weeks, and the Federal troops which were operating against Pound Gap are reported to have been ordered to the same point. By information received from Lexington, Ky., a large amount of transportation destined for Cumberland Gap had arrived there on the 11th instant, and the belief was prevalent among our friends that East Tennessee would be invaded from that point by a large force.

Re-enforcements should be sent to the department and arms for the unarmed regiments forwarded without delay. More than 5,000 men cannot be concentrated for the defense of any one point. The enemy seems preparing to enter East Tennessee with so formidable a column that, while every effort will be made on my part to oppose him, unless re-enforcements are sent the safety of the State and road will be endangered. [emphasis added]

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, pp. 453-454.

26, Report of a new textile in Tennessee

Cow Hair vs. Wool.—The manufacture of cow hair mixed with cotton has recently been introduced with perfect success. It is said to be quite as warm and durable for coarse fabrics as wool and cotton. It is being manufactured in considerable quantities in Tennessee. One whole company has been uniformed with it.—Ex.

Austin (Texas) State Gazette, April 26, 1862. [5]

26, Observations on Confederate Fortifications from Fort Wright to Memphis

Down the Mississippi, from Fort Wright to Memphis.

The old story is to be re-enacted; barriers and hindrances, new Gibraltars and impregnable positions, new obstructions, new boastings; to be succeeded by new quests b the Government troops, as they steadily press onward to clear the Mississippi, and open its waters, without hindrance or danger, from Lake Itaska to the Gulf, once more uniting the North and South by the remover of Mr. Bright's geographical objection against disunion.

Fort Wright, called, we believe, Fort Pillow, until that famous General became infamous even in Rebel eyes, [emphasis added]

 lies on the east bank of the Mississippi, upon an eminence, giving it an extensive command. Connected with it, artificial obstructions are placed across Tie River, and swept by the batteries. Just back of the fort is the town of Fulton, and just below it, in the river, Island No. 34. The fort is about eighty miles from Memphis. It has already been attacked, but the exact character of the defence is not yet known. To judge from the names of runs and bens between Fort Wright and Memphis, the river here must bear a particularly diabolical character. Just below Island No. 35 is the "Devil's Race," a sort of crevasse which cuts off the inner projection a bend; and below Island no 37 is the "Devil's Elbow," an ugly and tortuous bend, about twenty miles above Memphis.

Fort Randolph, the second serious obstruction below Fort Wright, and not more than ten miles distant from it by land-the Hatchie river flowing in between-is situated upon high sand bluffs on the east bank, directly parallel to the river. Its guns also sweep artificial obstructions in the cannel of the river. The next impediment will be found at Fort Harris, on the same bank. It is just below the Devil's Elbow, and the river obstructions are natural ones, in the shape of Island No. 40, and an extensive sand-bar, between which the channel of the river is unusually narrow. The true Fort Pillow, the real "Richmond" of the six or more, lies just north of Memphis and commands the river. [emphasis added]

To move directly down a stream thus formidably defended and obstructed, would be difficult indeed; but when we reflect that every point referred to, even Memphis itself, is really already taken in flank and rear, and the vast numbers of splendid troops assist and combine with the gunboats in the movements, there can only be a small delay-the issue cannot be doubtful.

Philadelphia Inquirer, April 26, 1862.

        26, Mandatory oath of allegiance for public school teachers in Nashville

Our Schools.—It is with profound gratification that we record the adoption of the following resolution, by our City Council:

Resolved, That the Superintendent, together with every teacher in each of the Public Schools in the city of Nashville shall be and they are hereby requested to take the oath of allegiance prescribed to us, within five days from the passage of this resolution, or resign their respective positions.

We thank the Council for their manly and fearless action. Some timid persons may condemn it at present, but ere long they will receive the enthusiastic and unanimous plaudits of a grateful people. The children of the city will no more be exposed to the abominable doctrines of men and women who are traitors to the Government that protects them and pays them. Again, we say, all honor to our City Council!

Nashville Daily Union, April 26, 1862.

        26, Irritation at female taunts of Federal officers in Nashville

We are told that a certain class of women, and a very small one, we are glad to say, are in the habit of repeating, whenever an officer passes them on our streets, in very audible tones, "There goes a Lincoln soldier-strap!" We think that a "Lincoln soldier-strap" is quite as respectable as a strap who unsexes herself by overstepping the limits of womanly modesty and self-respect.

Nashville Daily Union, April 26, 1862.

        26, Bottles for business; recycling in Civil War Nashville

Notice.—Having lost a large amount of bottles the last year, I am necessarily compelled to call the attention of my customers to the fact that unless each and every customer returns to my drivers the full number of bottles, or their equivalent in cash, and also the corks, I will cease to supply such customers. Every business man in this city is aware that if an article is sold at 40 cents, and that customer destroys 10, 15, or 20 cents worth of bottles out of the 40 cents that is paid for a dozen of spruce beer, it is better not to supply such customers. I am aware there are many who save all my bottles, while there are others who wantonly destroy or give them away. I hope all will take this into consideration, and comply with the above in saving my bottles and corks. [emphasis added]

M. McCormack.

Nashville Dispatch, April 26, 1862.

        26, A Quote from the Nashville Gazette of February 13, 1862

It is said there are still some Union men in Nashville. If it be possible that such WHITE LIVERED scoundrels are really in our midst, out citizens CANNOT BEE TO VIGILANT IN WATCHING THEIR MOVEMENTS. WATCH them! WATCH them! WATCH them!

Such was the spirit that governed the rebels of Nashville when that city as in their power is now shown toward them. But do they appreciate it?

Louisville Daily Journal, April 26, 1862. [6]

        26, Yes or No: A Poetic Rhetorical Admonition and Comparison of Bravery and Cowardice in Memphis

[From the Memphis Appeal].


Will you go! will you go?

Where the foeman's steel is bright,

In the thickest of the fight

For God and for the right,

Will you go! will you go!


Will you stay! will you stay!

And let eternal blame

Mark, with finger point of shame,

Your deep, dishonored name,

Will you stay! will you stay!


Will you go! will you go?

For freedom's struggling cry,

In the name of God, most high,

To rescue her, or die,

Will you go! will you go!


Will you stay! will you stay!

While the coils is tighter bound,

And the tyrant, on our ground

Plants his foot, with dismal sound,

Will you stay! will you stay!


Will you go! will you go!

Where our dying brothers call

As they bleed, and bravely fall,

To free us from this thrall,

Will you go! will you go!


Will you stay! will you stay!

And let the silent grave,

Reproach you for the brave,

Who has died, our land to save!

Will you stay! will you stay!


Will you go! will you go!

The brow of boyhood bared,

With the old and hoary haired,

Have the darkest perils dared,

Will you go! will you go!


Will you stay! will you stay!

Slaves of a tyrant's chain,

Slaves ever to remain,

In dishonor's deepest stain,

Will you stay! will you stay!


Will you go! will you go!

Answer yes, or answer no,

For soon the fatal blow

Will descend for weal or woe,

Will you go! will you go!


Will you stay! will you stay!

Then may eternal gloom,

Draped by the hand of doom,

Forever shroud your tomb,

Can you stay! Can you stay!


Semi-Weekly Raleigh Register, April 26, 1862.

        26-29, Scout on Forked Deer River in Lauderdale County

This was a Confederate cavalry operation. According to the report of Capt. J. G. Ballentine, C. S. Army on the scout on the Forked Deer River, April 26-29, 1862:


To the ADJUTANT, First Regt. [sic] Tennessee Cavalry.

SIR: After returning to camp from a four days' scout on the Forked Deer River I have the honor to submit the following report: According to orders received I proceeded by the most direct route to Key Corner, a small village situated on the banks of Forked Deer River, in Lauderdale County, State of Tennessee, distant from the Mississippi River about 15 miles, the road from this place (Ripley) being one of the finest natural roads I know of in this portion of the State, and at the present time in fine condition for the passing of any and all kinds of vehicles; the country slightly broken, plenty of water, and settled by small planters-forage and provisions of all kinds being scarce and difficult to obtain. After passing the junction of the Ashport and Key Corner roads, I found small quantities of cotton, from 10 to 30 bags; also small quantities in the seed and stored in pens near the road. This state of things I found on all the roads leading from Key Corner to the interior. After procuring all the information possible I sent a detachment of men consisting of First Sergt. J. T. Lawler, Privates L. Wilds, McCauley, Vanhorn, Lewellen, Robb, Marlow, Mills, and Marr-under the command of Lieut. Kenneth Garrett, Company A (Shelby Light Dragoons), men used to the river and accustomed to boating. The river, with its present stage of water, is capable of floating small-class steamers. The bends being short and numerous, I think it would not be practicable to undertake its ascension, the drift-wood being closely wedged in the channel proper and the cut off, Bostick's Slough, being too narrow and crooked, only allowing about 6 inches of water between the banks and the guards of the smallest boats. About middle way of the slough there is a drift extending from bank to bank, yet, from all the information I could get, I think its removal could be readily accomplished. From the lower end of the slough Forked Deer is a broad, open stream, sufficient to accommodate the largest class of steamers. After emptying into the Obion, 4 miles from the Mississippi River, there is a gradual bend to where the Obion empties itself into the Mississippi. About a quarter of a mile from the mouth of the Obion, and floating in about 8 feet of water on the shore side, I found the boat ordered to be inspected. It proved to be the wharf boat, built last fall a year ago at Mound City, Ill., for the Memphis and Saint Louis Packet Company, being about 180 feet long by 36 beam, her outside newly painted, and her inner works of the most approved pattern, her estimated worth being about $8,000. From all appearances the boat was intended for hospital purposes, having a fine, large cooking-stove in her lower deck strewn with mattresses and cottage bedsteads. In different apartments were found soldiers' belts, epaulettes, cartridge boxes, and tent poles. The smoke of steamers above being seen, the male inmates of the boat were ordered to the skiffs, and in a few moments our party was in the woods. In a short time the steamers passed down, one (the N. W. Graham) having in tow a boat, supposed to be the wharf boat lying at Mitchell's Landing, opposite Cottonwood Point. We returned to the boat, and after removing the family from her, together with all their valuables (with the exception of about $30 worth, being prevented from saving all by the appearance of boats above Hale's Point), the boat was fired about 5.20 p. m. and burned to the water's edge. Everything aboard was lost-chains, cable, and a very large, splendid anchor. I am prepared to show that this boat was towed to and put in possession of Isaac Bracken by a Federal gunboat manned by Federal soldiers.

On Monday, the 28th instant, at Key Corner, I burned (believing it the only means of keeping the Federals from taking possession of it) 91 bags of cotton, supposed to belong to-Echols, of Dyersburg, Dyer County, Tennessee. I weighed 10 bags, their average weights being 480 pounds; this average being taken from the weight of 10 bags. The number of bags burned 91....

* * * *

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. G. BALLENTINE, Capt. Company A, Cmdg. Scouting Party.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 651-652.




        25, General Orders No. 11 issued by Hardee at Wartrace, to repress depredations


Wartrace, April 25, 1863.

On the transfer of the command to this cultivated and fruitful region, the lieutenant-general commanding appeals to the intelligence and patriotism of the soldiers to respect the rights and the property of citizens, whose labors are necessary to the subsistence of our Armies, and invokes the co-operation of officers of every grade to prevent the depredations and repress the irregularities of the evil-disposed. Officers are especially directed to see that no rails are used or destroyed, and that no fencing is pulled down. Wherever fencing has been destroyed and the individuals committing the depredations cannot be discovered details will be made from the regiment, if that can be identified; if not, then from the brigade, and if the brigade cannot be fixed upon, then from the division to which the parties belong, to split the rails and replace the fencing. [emphasis added ]

By command of Lieut.-Gen. Hardee

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 791.

        25, Capture of seventy-five Federal prisoners by the Carter Scouts [see also July 14, 1863, "The Carter Scouts," below]

No circumstantial reports filed.

        25, General Braxton Bragg defines "detached service" designation to maintain administrative discipline in the Army of Tennessee

HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, Tenn., April 26, 1863.

Col. B. S. EWELL, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

COL.: It is impossible to state upon what duty the men on "detached service" are engaged, more definitely than I have done in the column of "remarks," at least in the present report.

Gen. Van Dorn has sent several regiments to Northern Alabama and on excursions; all are reported on "detached service." Gen. Wheeler has two regiments and a battalion on an expedition, which he reports on "detached service." The large number in "infantry," so reported, include supernumerary officers under Gen. Pillow hospital guards and nurses in the rear, mechanics at shoe-shops, and carpenters building hospitals, railroad employes, &c. Gen. Cumming left 172 men on "detached" service in District of the Gulf."

Full reports of all absentees on "detached service" have been called for and made. Upon careful inspection, it was discovered a large majority was incorrectly reported. The reports were returned for correction, attention being called to the corps.

Great difficulty is experience in obtaining correct and prompt reports from the cavalry commands. They stretch over so wide an extent of country that returns cannot be regularly received.

I alluded to the "alterations" because, although they have not been accounted for in previous returns, I thought it proper they should be, and wished the paper sent back for that purpose.

To correct the evil that has heretofore existed of reporting all men sent on expeditions as being on "detached service," the general has caused to be issued a circular, which I inclose.

Hoping this will prove satisfactory, I am, colonel with respect, your obedient servant,

KINLOCH FALCONER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


CIRCULAR. HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, Tenn., April 25, 1863

Commanders of corps, in making up reports of troops, will not report troops detached unless they are removed by superior orders from their command, and when this is the case marginal notes will give the number of effective so detached, and the point to which detached.

By command of Gen. Bragg

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 793-794.

        25, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 91 changes in flag insignia and unit designations for the Army of the Cumberland


Murfreesborough, Tenn., April 25, 1863.

It having been found that the flags prescribed by General Orders, No. 41, from these headquarters, December 19, 1862, to designate the headquarters of the various brigade, divisions, and corps of this army, are not sufficiently marked to be readily distinguished from each other, those herein described will be substituted.

General headquarters.- The national flag, 6 feet by 5, with a golden eagle below the stars, 2 feet from tip to tip.

Fourteenth Army Corps.-A bright blue flag, 6 feet by 4, fringed with black eagle in center, 2 feet from tip to tip, with the number "14" in black on shield, which shall be white.

Twentieth Army Corps.-A bright red flag, same as that for Fourteenth Army Corps, except the number on the shield, which shall be that of the corps.

Twenty-first Army Corps.-A bright red, white and blue flag (horizontal) same as that for Fourteenth Corps, except the number on the shield, which shall be that of the corps.

First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.- The flag of the corps, except the eagle and fringe, with one black star, 18 inches in diameter, point 2 inches from staff.

Second Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.- The flag of the corps, except eagle and fringe, with two black stars, each 18 inches in diameter, inner point 2 inches from staff.

Third Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.-The flag of the corps, except eagle and fringe, with three black stars, each 18 inches in diameter, set equally along staff, the inner point being 2 inches from staff.

Fourth Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.-The flag of the corps, except eagle and fringe with four black stars, each 18 inches in diameter, three of them along staff as before, the other set equally on the flag.

Fifth Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.-The flag of the corps, except eagle and fringe, with five black stars, each 18 inches in diameter, three of them along the staff, the other two equally distributed on flag.

The division flags of the Twentieth and Twenty-first Army Corps will correspond with the above, that is the corps flags (without eagle and fringe), with one, two, three, &c., stars, according as they represent the first, second, third, &c., divisions.

The headquarters flags of all brigades will be the flags of their divisions, with the number of the brigade in white, 8 inches long, in center of each star.

The Regular brigade will have the corps and division flag but the stars shall be golden instead of black.

Artillery reserve.-Two bright red flags, each 4 feet by 2, one above the other.

Batteries.-Each battery shall have a small flag, corps colors and arrangement (but 1 foot 6 inches on staff, by 2 feet fly), with the letters and numbers of the battery inscribed thereon in black, 4 inches long, thus, "B, First Ohio."

Cavalry headquarters.-A bright red, white and blue flag, 6 feet by 4 colors running vertically, red outermost.

First Cavalry Division.-A bright red, white, and blue flag, 6 feet by 4, like last, with one star, 18 inches in diameter, black, the point 2 inches from staff.

Second Cavalry Division.-Same as last, except two black stars, each 18 inches in diameter.

As for infantry, the headquarters flags of brigades will be the flags of divisions, with the number of the brigade in black, 8 inches long.

Engineer Corps.- A white and blue flag, blue uppermost, and running horizontally, 6 feet by 4.

Hospitals and ambulance depots.-A light yellow flag, 3 feet by 3, for hospitals and the principal ambulance depot on the field of battle, 2 feet square for the lesser ones.

Subsistence depots and storehouses.-A plain light green flag, 3 feet square.

Quartermaster's depots or storehouses.-Same flag, with letters Q. M. D. in white, 1 foot long.

Ordnance department, general headquarters.-A bright green flag, 3 feet square, with two crossed cannon in white, set diagonally in a square of 3 feet, with a circular ribbon of 6 inches wide and 3 feet greatest diameter (or diameter of inner circle 2 feet), with the letters "U. S. Ordnance Department", in black, 4 inches long, on ribbon, and a streamer above flag, 1 foot on staff by 4 feet long, crimson color, with words "Chief of Ordnance" in black, 6 inches long.

Division ordnance.-Same flag, with cannon and ribbon, but no streamer.

All these flags will be made according to a pattern to be furnished from the quartermaster's department.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

C. GODDARD. Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 275-277.

        25, Planned Confederate demonstration on Murfreesborough countermanded by General Bragg

CIRCULAR. HDQRS. HARDEE'S CORPS, Near Wartrace, April 25, 1863.

The following instructions have been received from Gen. Bragg:

Lieut.-Gen.'s Polk and Hardee will both advance their outposts (cavalry and infantry) to-morrow the 26th instant, and make a demonstration on Murfreesborough. They will keep up communication with each other, and neither will proceed so far as to bring on a heavy engagement.

Brig.-Gen. Helm will accordingly move on Murfreesborough, with his brigade and Col. Thompson's cavalry, to-morrow morning at daylight, through Hoover's Gap, observing the above directions. Brown will move up to Hoover's Mill. Adams' and Preston's brigades will advance to Jacobs' Store at the intersection of the Wartrace road with the Manchester and Murfreesborough pike. Liddell will move on Murfreesborough, through Liberty Gap. Polk's brigade will advance to Liberty Church. Wood and Johnson will move forward to Bellbuckle.

The chief of artillery will assign a battery to each brigade.

The troops will take one day's cooked rations, exclusive of breakfast to-morrow morning. No tents, and but a small amount of ammunition in addition to that in cartridge-boxes, will be taken.

Maj.-Gen. Cleburne will take charge of the left (through Liberty Gap), and Maj.-Gen. Breckinridge, or officer commanding the division, of the right (through Hoover's Gap).

By command of Lieut.-Gen. Hardee:

T. B. ROY, Chief of Staff.

HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, April 25, 1863.

Lieut. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. First Corps, Shelbyville:

GEN.: The following are the orders of Gen. Bragg:

Lieut.-Gen.'s Polk and Hardee will both advance their outposts (cavalry and infantry) to-morrow, the 26th instant, and make a demonstration on Murfreesborough.

They will keep up communication with each other, and neither will proceed so far as to bring on a heavy engagement.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff.


The order for the demonstration on Murfreesborough to-morrow is countermanded by Gen. Bragg. Remain quiet.

By command of Lieut.-Gen. Hardee:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 788-789.

        25, Order from Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton to allow for the demonstration of Starr pistols within Federal lines in Tennessee

War Department

Washington, DC, April 25, 1863

Mr. Vernon W. Starr has permission to visit the armies under the command of Generals Burnside and Rosecrans and to take with him a package of the Starr Pistols, his purpose being to explain the use of the pistol, and to ascertain the advantages and disadvantages which have been developed by its use in the field.

Quartermasters and Commissaries will furnish him transpiration and subsistence and all officers of the Military Service will furnish such aid as he may need for the attainment of the object aforesaid.

By Order of the Sec. of War

Simon Perkins, Jr., Papers

        25, "…any failure to so report will be severely punished." William Truesdail, Chief of the Army Police, to keep a list of new arrivals in Nashville


NASHVILLE, TENN., April 25, 1863

I. The arrival of guests at houses in this city will, in [the] future, be reported to Col. Wm. Truesdail, Chief of the Army Police, instead of to this office. Arrivals must be promptly reported, as ordered, and any failure to so report will be severely punished.

John A. Martin, Col. and Provost Marshal

Nashville Daily Press, May 9, 1863.

        26, Affair near College Grove[7]

APRIL 26, 1863.-Affair near College Grove, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. John M. Schofield, U. S. Army, commanding Third Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.

TRIUNE, April 26, 1863--9.30 p. m.

GEN.: A small scouting party, under Col. [J. P.] Brownlow, had a skirmish with some rebel cavalry a mile south of College Grove this afternoon; 1 officer slightly wounded. It is reported by the citizens in that vicinity that the rebels have moved from Chapel Hill to Riggs' Cross-Roads. I will learn the facts tomorrow.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 279.

        26, Skirmish at Fort Pillow

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

        26, Engagement, U. S. N. and Brigadier-General Alfred W. Ellet's Mississippi Marine Brigade at Duck River Island.[8]

Report of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, U. S. Navy, transmitting report of commanding officer of U. S. S. Emma Duncan regarding engagement at [Duck River Shoals] Green Bottom Bar, Tennessee River.


Hamburg Landing, April 28, 1863


* * * *

[On the morning of the 26th]....I cruised on up leisurely, keeping a good look out for the enemy along the right bank, but saw no signs of them till I arrived at Duck River Shoals, when I heard musketry and artillery a short distance (not a mile) ahead. I pushed on over the bar and met General Ellet's fleet [emphasis added ] just at the head of the shoals engaging the rebel battery. I was then in good range and at once opened fire on the enemy. There was not room for his boats to round to or to back out of the channel. He was compelled to push on over the bank before he could effect a landing.

I took the battery side and moved on up to cover his boats as much as possible, at the same time raking the bank without heavy guns. The ram Monarch by this time came in range and opened fire also.

As soon as I rounded the point the enemy fired a farewell shot at one of the brigade goats, limbered up and were off. Some few sharpshooters remaining behind fired a few shots at a transport having on board sick and wounded.

Several of the enemy were found dead on the bank, and many more were dragged off in the woods. I should suppose that their loss in killed and wounded is about 25 or 30.

I believe General Ellet lost 2 killed and 1 wounded on his boats, also some horses killed.

About 11 p. m. I left General Ellet at the foot of the bar and proceeded on up the river with his boat and the Emma Duncan to communicate with the fleet above. I arrived at Eastport (Mississippi) in the afternoon of the 27th....

[On the 28th] I...returned to Hamburg....

LeRoy Fitch, Lieutenant Commander

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pp. 85-86.



No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Alfred W. Ellet, U. S. Army, commanding Mississippi Marine Brigade with itinerary of the command for April, 1863.

No. 2.-Lieut. William F. Warren, Acting Signal Officer.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. Alfred W. Ellet, U. S. Army, commanding Mississippi Marine Brigade, with itinerary of the command for April, 1863.

CAIRO, ILL., April 30, 1863.

I have the honor to report that, in compliance with instructions received from Admiral Porter, I proceeded with my command up Tennessee River to Eastport, Miss., without interruption from the enemy. Returning in consequence of low water, I made several raids into the country, and destroyed a number of important mills and considerable amount of subsistence and supplies belonging to the enemy. At the mouth of Duck River my boats were attacked by 700 cavalry, with two pieces of artillery, commanded by Maj. [R. M.] White, of Sixth Texas Rangers. The fight was spirited for a few moments only. The enemy were driven back and pursued some 12 miles in the interior, [emphasis added ] with the loss of Maj. White, mortally wounded and left near the field, and 1 lieutenant and 8 men killed. They carried off a large number of wounded in wagons and on horses. We buried their dead. Our loss was 2 men killed and 1 wounded. The west bank of the Tennessee River was lined with refugees, who have been driven from their homes for love to the old Union. I exhausted my supplies in providing for their necessities.

The Tennessee River is too low for my boats to operate in with safety. My orders from Admiral Porter do not provide for this emergency. I shall hope to receive instructions from the Department.

ALFRED W. ELLET, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Mississippi Marine Brigade.

Excerpt from the Itinerary of the Mississippi Marine Brigade for April, 1863.

* * * *

On the morning of the 26th, was attacked below the mouth of Duck River by the enemy, 700 strong, commanded by Maj. [R. M.] White, of the Sixth Texas Rangers, with three pieces of artillery. Landed and pursued the enemy 12 miles, killing 10 men, including Maj. White, and wounding many more. The enemy escaped, in consequence of the utter impracticability of effecting a landing at the point of attack. Our loss was 2 men killed and several wounded, only 1 seriously.

* * * *

No. 2.

Report of Lieut. William F. Warren, Acting Signal Officer.

HDQRS. SIGNAL DETACHMENT, MISS. MARINE BRIGADE, Flag-ship Autocrat, April 26, 1863.

CAPT.: I have the honor to report that the signal detachment of the Mississippi Marine Brigade has had an opportunity to test its efficiency and make itself useful, to some extent, in the following manner:

At a few minutes past 8 o'clock this morning, while passing a point on the Tennessee River, a few miles below Duck River, where the direction of the current compelled us to run within 50 yards of the land, our fleet was opened upon by a field battery of four guns and a regiment of cavalry. The Autocrat, being in advance, was the first to receive the fire. The Diana came next, followed by the Adams, each receiving a raking fire at close range, but with very slight casualties. The Autocrat replied instantly with musketry, the Diana and Adams with musketry and field artillery. Our fire becoming too hot for the rebels, they immediately limbered up and fell back in great haste, out of musket range. The general discovering this, ordered me to signal the other boats to land their forces at once. The order was instantly understood, both by J. Q. Adams, on the Diana, and Lieut. Wilson, on the Adams. This order was immediately followed by instructions about the position in which they should land. As a result of this signaling, the troops were ready to march out almost at the instant the landing was made. We have officers on each of the five large boats who are able to read signals quite readily, and I have the honor to say that I am reliably informed that they were all upon the hurricane deck during the engagement, with glasses and equipments, on close lookout for signals. The Diana and Adams were both hotly engaging the enemy at the time their signals were given, and the Adams was receiving the fire of his battery.

Officers and men deserve commendation for their coolness and close attention to duty.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. F. WARREN, Lieut. and Acting Signal Officer, Mississippi Marine Brigade.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 278-280.

CORINTH, April 29 [Wed.], 1863--5.30 p. m.[9]

Maj.-Gen. HURLBUT:

Scouts in from Hamburg report that all the gunboats (five) and all transport (nine) left Hamburg at 11 o'clock to-day to descend river, to return no more. The Marine Brigade left last Friday [24th]. Had severe fight at mouth of Duck River. Three gunboats, that came up with the order for Stanley and gunboats to go out, had also encountered light battery, and had fight at same place. [24th]. Dodge took rations of bread and meat; balance of stores were taken back on transports. This leaves river open again. I shall have to communicate with Dodge through country, 50 miles. No other information to-day.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 224, pt. III, p. 247.

        26, Letter of Captain Thomas R. Mason to his wife, relative to camp life, local population, and hopes for the end of the war

At Camp, 5 miles from Sparta,

White Co., Tenn., Sunday-April 26th, 1863.

My Dear Wife-

As yet I haven't had an opportunity of sending my letter, so I will write again to let you know how I am getting along (that is if you ever get this). It seems that I will be able to go to the Reg't. [sic] in a few days. Bessy Willis is staying here with me. He was wounded the same time I was. We have been together nearly all the time. They are very clever folks here & treat us well. We have plenty of Books to read & there is an old fiddle here, so we pass off the time as well as circumstances will admit. [sic]

I haven't seen Mon & Dan since the 8th. [sic] of this month, they are with the Reg't. [sic] There is no news going on of any consiquence [sic] & don't know what it means.

There has been no big fight in 4 months, & hope Peace will be made before they fight again. My notion is there wont [sic] be much more fighting done. It is the belief here generally that the war will close out soon. I hope and trust it will, for I do want to come home awful bad. When I do come I want peace to be made, so I will not have to leave you any more. I pray every day for this war to stop, nothing could give me more joy.

Give my love to all & be sure to take a large portion for yourself.

I will write again before I send this.

I did not get to see Guss [sic] when he passed through our camp.

Write when you can. Your affectionate husband.

T. R. Mason

W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, p. 185.

        26, "River Guerrillas in the West."

The announcement from Cairo a day or two since that Gen Ellet's Marine brigade and Gen. [sic] Fitch's gunboats had cleared the banks of the Cumberland river of guerrillas was followed yesterday by the account of the capture of two steamboats, the Alhambra and the Hope, with valuable cargoes, by the guerrillas on the self-same river. The work of Ellet and Fitch was not so thoroughly done, then, but that it requires immediately to be done over.

So far as the Cumberland river is concerned, a little experience will teach our Western Commanders the impracticability of dislodging guerrillas from its banks so long as a disloyal population remains in the country bordering on the river, and armed bands from the rebel army are able to reach that population and stimulate it with the hope of eventual rebel success. No river in the world is better adapted than the Cumberland to the successful operations of guerrillas. The stream is narrow, and the banks on each side are mostly precipitous, ragged, rocky cliffs, from 75 to 150 feet high. It is the easiest thing for armed men to hide themselves in the glades crowning these cliffs and fire down upon passing boats. To return the fire effectively from boats, with any sort of cannon, is simply impossible; and if pursuit is assayed, a boat fired upon might have to run some miles up or down, before a suitable place to land and emerge from the bluffs could be found. In the meantime, the guerrillas would have ample time to escape.

With the best intentions and the best service it is possible for men to give, it will be found impracticable to suppress the system of guerrilla warfare by attacking it from the water. The disease is in the body politic in the country through which the river runs. It must be purged from the interior before it ceases to break out upon the rivers. And this can only be accomplished by advancing southward the lines of the Union army by successful battles – by strengthening the lines when advanced, and connecting them from Memphis to Nashville, so as to make it impossible for rebel bands to appear among the population of Southern Kentucky and Tennessee, to keep alive their rebel sympathies and excite their hopes of rebel success. When this result can be established, we shall be rid of guerrillas on the Tennessee, Cumberland and Mississippi Rivers – not before.

New York Times, April 26, 1863.

        26, Confederate Newspaper Report on the McMinnville Raid

The Raid on McMinnville.

We have conversed with a gentleman just from McMinnville. He represents the outrages of the enemy in that quarter as surpassing any yet perpetrated in Middle Tennessee. His account is substantially as follows:

The enemy appeared on the Northwest side of the town at noon on Monday.—Tidings of his approach had been brought in an hour or two before, allowing the stray cavalrymen, convalescent soldiers and others a chance of escape. There was a company of Provost guardsmen present, who made a stand against the first advance for the purpose of giving our wagons, et cetera, a fair start. After a brisk skirmish of half an hour, overpowering numbers forced this handful of men to disperse. [emphasis added ] Some escaped and others were captured. There being no further obstacle the Federals proceeded at once to the public square. They were mostly mounted infantry, estimated at between six and ten thousand in number.

Their first business was the destruction of the large Cotton Factory, near the railroad bridge. It is one of the most extensive, and has been also one of the most useful in the South. It was completely destroyed. They then burnt the depot buildings, and adjoining houses, and the bridges across the Barren Fork….

–Chatta. Rebel, 26th.

Weekly Columbus [Georgia] Enquirer, May 5, 1863.[10]

        26, The Watuaga bridge incident

Carter's Depot, April 26, 1863.

Editor Register,-This morning at 4 o'clock, A. M. the pickets guarding the trussle-works  near the Watauga bridge, was fired on by some one supposed to be a citizen of this vicinity, slightly wounding Serg't Wm. Kineton in the hand.

If our respective commanders will grant permission to Capt. Butler's company to scout this section of country, I warrant we will give them such a drilling that they never will bush whack [sic] another


Knoxville Daily Register, April 28, 1863.

        ca. 26, Shooting at the Worsham House, Memphis

A SHOOTING AFFRAY. – A few days since Alexander Nutall, who kept a gambling house on Jefferson street, was shot by Mike Lyons, at the Worsham House, under the following circumstances: It seems that Lyons and Nutall have been enemies for some time, and ever time they saw each other it was increased by one or the other making some remark. In the morning of the day of the affray took place, Nutall swore he would shoot Lyons at sight; in the evening they both met at the Worsham House and after having a few words Lyons fired, the ball taking effect in Nutall's body, from the wound of which he has since died. After he received the fatal wound, he rose and taking aim at Lyons discharged his pistol, but his hand was too unsteady, as the charge went harmlessly by. Lyons gave himself into the hands of the civil authorities and has since been discharged. Nutall was one of the many dangerous characters with which this city is now infested. It is said he was always ready for a quarrel and had shot three men.

Memphis Bulletin, April 28, 1863.

        26-May 3, Streight's Raid begins at Palmyra

No circumstantial reports filed.[11]



        25, Forrest's command conducts conscript sweep and arrests deserters from his command in West Tennessee

HDQRS. FORREST'S CAVALRY, Jackson, April 25, 1864.

Lieut. Col. THOMAS M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

COL.:...My entire command is engaged conscripting and arresting deserters. They are scattered in all directions, but are moving toward this place; will have all concentrated here by the 30th, and will reach Tupelo by the 5th or 6th proximo. I shall move myself via Bolivar and Ripley, and nay dispatches for me will meet me on the road.

I would be glad if the cars would run as far above Tupelo as possible, as I have about 30,000 pounds of bacon which I shall carry in wagons to Corinth, and send it down for my command on hand-cars until it meets a train.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

N. B. FORREST, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 821-822.

        25, Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest on the "massacre at Fort Pillow"

HDQRS. FORREST'S CAVALRY, Jackson, April 25, 1864.

Lieut.-Gen. POLK, Cmdg. Department:


* * * *

Much having been said in the Northern press in regard to the massacre at Fort Pillow[12], I shall forward you by next courier copies of all the correspondence in regard to the demand for surrender and a statement of all material facts; an extra copy of same will also be sent you, with a request to forward to the President. Capt. Young, the provost-marshal at Fort Pillow, now a prisoner, can corroborate all the facts, as he was the bearer of the enemy's flag of truce, and it would be well to have him taken care of on that account.

I am, general, very respectfully, yours, &c.,

N. B. FORREST, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 822.

        25, Major-General William T. Sherman further regulates railroad travel


Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Cmdg. Department of the Cumberland, Chattanooga:

GEN.: I have received your several dispatches and letters touching the check on railroad travel. I have ordered the quartermaster to check the tendency of our military railroads sliding into a public convenience, but to keep it just as he would a train of army wagons. Nobody should travel in the cars save officers and soldiers under orders entitling to transportation. I left him to ease off by sending only such as were caught away from home by the change. I think it will in time come out all right. If we allow conductors to collect money we know they will little by little pick up way-travelers for their own profit. We have not the system of checks that would enable us to detect peculation and fraud. The officers of the Army of the Tennessee have complained bitterly that in all matters pertaining to the railroad they were slighted, and there were some grounds, not intentional on your part, but calculated to raise a prejudice, that after they had come to the relief of the Army of the Cumberland they were denied bread or any facilities from the road. Some even thought you shared this feeling, and had refused them even a passage to or from Nashville.

This resulted from the fact that the conductors and your guards were familiar with your passes, and were not with those of Logan or other commanders of that wing. This made my transportation order manifestly just, putting all department commanders on a just equality.

We have increased the daily cars from about 80 to from 130 to 190. If I can get the average to 150 the road will supply us, and make an accumulation...

* * * *

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 489-490.

        25, Federal destruction of railroad and railroad bridges, Midway Station, Greeneville, Watauga and Lick Creek environs

BULL'S GAP, April 25, 1864.

Maj.-Gen. SCHOFIELD, Knoxville:

Have just returned from Midway Station, 8 miles above here. I expect Reilly's brigade to work a mile farther to-night. The work is very thoroughly done as far as we have gone, and I feel confident the enemy will not repair it this season. Reilly will push ahead in the morning. As there was some risk of a dash at this post by way of Rogersville, I ordered back the Eighth Tennessee and left Reilly the remainder. Manson camped last night 2 miles beyond Greeneville. He was to reach Jonesborough and the cavalry the Watauga to-day. There is no evidence of any considerable force this side of Bristol. Some 200 cavalry, reported at Watauga bridge, are all I can hear of.

J. D. COX, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 25, 1864.

Brig.-Gen. COX, Bull's Gap:

I have just received your dispatch of this evening, and Capt. Bartlett has explained to me the difficulty about your moving before Manson returns. As I dispatched you this afternoon, I deem it quite desirable for you to march on the 27th. Yet, if Manson has gone to Jonesborough to-day, he cannot get back in time; but your work will be done the more promptly and you will probably yet be in time. Hascall's brigade did not move as at first ordered. Judah's division will move this way to-morrow.

J. M. SCHOFIELD, Maj.-Gen.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 25, 1864.

Brig.-Gen. COX, Bull's Gap:

You may continue the work of destruction above Lick Creek until Manson returns; then move your whole division together. Meanwhile send to Knoxville everything which would impede your march. If Manson can destroy the bridges above Greeneville to-day, and get back to the gap by to-morrow night, and the other brigade work all of to-day and to-morrow on the road above the creek, I think the result will be satisfactory, both in point of time and of work done.

J. M. SCHOFIELD, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 492-493.

        25, Belle Edmondson's apprehensions at being forced into exile

April, Monday 25, 1864

….Miss Annie Perdue, Sister and Bro. all sent through the lines today, banished. Washburn countermanded Hurlbut's order and sent them by land, instead of River. Miss Annie came over to see us, and get me to go over the creek for her. Father is rather afraid, but I will try it in the morning-though I expect not, Father has just left my room, and says he is afraid for me to go-I am so unhappy about the trouble I have got in-oh! what is to become of me, what is my fate to be-A poor miserable exile [sic].

Diary of Belle Edmondson

        25, Newspaper Report on West Tennessee

The Department of West Tennessee.

The New York Times thus speaks of the Department to the command of which General Washburn has just been assigned.

"It is most tempting ground for the rebel Generals, both for such operations as those now being carried on by Forrest, and for larger movements such as have been threatened by Dr. Polk. Unless the rebels are driven entirely out of the department, they can give us great annoyance, and neutralize a very large body of our troops. Beside his important and difficult military duties, the Commander at Memphis has great labor of an administrative kind. In the first place, Tennessee is undergoing the process of political reorganization, which has been almost entirely baulked in the western section of the State by the everlasting irruptions  of rebels.

In the second place, Memphis is the seat and center of the great speculative and cotton-trading operations on the Mississippi River, and a commander whose integrity is less than perfect is apt to become the tool of knaves. In the third place, the City of Memphis itself, which at the present time has a population between thirty and forty thousand, is under military rule, and requires firm and just executive direction.

The havoc that Forrest's gang is playing throughout the region of country between the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers cannot be at all realized from the telegraphic accounts of his operations. But it is not merely during the last few weeks that it has suffered from rebel ravages. It has been in a condition of chronic and appalling suffering for two years. The rebels have had nearly everything their own way, except at our posts along the Mississippi River, which were guarded by Admiral Porter's gunboats.

If Gen. Washburn shall succeed in remedying the dreadful state of affairs in his new department-if he can expel and keep out the rebel raiders and ravagers, restore order after anarchy, and at the same time repress the rapacity of speculative harpies, and save society form the total corruption which threatens it-he will certainly have deserved well of his country."

Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, April 25, 1864. [13]

        25-27, Expedition from Bull's Gap to Watauga River

Report of Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Ohio.

KNOXVILLE, April 27, 1864.

I have intelligence from the Watauga expedition. As was anticipated the rebels destroyed the bridge after being driven across it by our cavalry. The river was too high to be forded. Our loss in the fight was 3 killed and 18 wounded; that of the enemy not yet reported. The troops will reach Lick Creek to-night. They have destroyed all the bridges from Bull's Gap to the Watauga and about 20 miles of track. Considering the time allowed them think they have done remarkably well and all that could be desired.

J. M. SCHOFIELD, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 686.

Account of Surgeon John W. Lawing, Thomas' (North Carolina) Legion, C. S. Army, on the expedition from Bull's Gap to Watauga River, April 25-27, 1864.

Carter DEPOT, EAST TENNESSEE, April 28, 1864.

EDITOR, WESTERN DEMOCRAT: I desire through your paper to give a brief account of the engagement recently fought at this place. The enemy, about 2,000 strong, consisting of the Third Indiana, the Tenth Michigan Mounted Infantry, and a battalion with two pieces of artillery under Brigadier-General [Mahlon Dickerson] Manson, United States Army, attacked this place on Monday, April 25.

The fight began at 2 o'clock p. m., and with only occasional intervals continued until dark. The resisting force, which consisted of only a portion of Colonel [William Holland] Thomas' Legion, North Carolina Troops, and without artillery, under Lieutenant-Colonel James [Robert] Love of North Carolina, met them heroically and repulsed them in a crippled condition. Under cover of the night the enemy removed their wounded and dead and resumed the firing early next morning, but after a short skirmish the retired. A few of our cavalry pursued and on their return reported that the enemy had burned a small bridge, torn up a portion of the railroad track, and were still retreating, evidently not intending to renew the attack.

The loss of the enemy, as far as ascertained, was nineteen killed, twenty-seven wounded and three captured. Among their killed was a major and a captain. Our loss was three captured, three very slightly wounded, and one seriously wounded. During this engagement our men displayed a heroism worthy of veterans and of the noble cause in which they are engaged.

This victory, though comparatively small, is in keeping with the progress of events which makes our Confederate cause ever plainer to our minds and dearer to our hearts.

John W. Lawing

Surgeon, Thomas' Legion. (Printed in the Charlotte, North Carolina Western Democrat, May 10, 1864.)

SOR, Ser. I, Vol. 6, pp. 236-237.


Brig. Gen. M. D. MANSON, Cmdg. Second Brigade, Greeneville:

GEN.: Since you left this morning I have received a dispatch from Gen. Schofield, directing that after destroying the Watauga bridge the cavalry join you, destroying all others, and as much of the track as possible by bending the rails and burning the ties, &c. From Jonesborough you may commence working this way, putting your men systematically at it, and doing the business thoroughly. I will myself begin at Lick Creek and work toward you. Communicate by sure messenger with Lieut.-Col. Trowbridge, and inform him that his instructions are modified as above. Time is important, and we will not delay to see what the enemy may do, but do the work ourselves. Let your officers and men use their ingenuity to discover rapid means of rendering the rails useless, as this is the most important thing. Leave no bridges, but if you have not time to destroy all the rails continuously it will be better to do it at intervals rather than all at one point. In this event begin at a bridge or trestle, and destroy this way as far as time will permit, and then pass to the next. Keep an accurate account of what is done, so that an exact report may be made.

While this is going on let small parties watch your flanks so that you may not be surprised. The Tenth Michigan Cavalry will remain with you, but send back the Third Indiana, as soon as they report to you after destroying Watauga bridge. Order these last to report to me at First Brigade headquarters on the road.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. D. COX, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 477.

BULL'S GAP, April 27, 1864.


Gen. Manson was 8 miles above Greeneville last night; says he will reach Lick Creek to-night. The enemy were strongly posted at Watauga, but partially destroyed the bridge themselves. River too high to ford. Our troops skirmished across the river but could not accomplish the entire destruction of the bridge. We lost 3 killed and 18 wounded. Manson has destroyed all bridges from Jonesborough to where he is, and fully one-third of the track, as he reports. I send remainder of the Tennessee regiment and part of the One hundred and fourth Ohio by this train, and remainder of the last by next train if the cavalry get here to make some guard for to-night. The One hundredth Ohio is marching.

J. D. COX, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 512.

From East Tennessee-Destruction of Railroads.

Correspondence Cincinnati Commercial.

Charleston, Tenn., May 2, 1864

The destruction of the railroad from the Watauga River to Lick Creek and Bulls Gap, has put it out of the power of any considerable force to advance upon Knoxville for a long time to come. Under directions from Headquarters, Brig. General Manson made a rapid march with his brigade, the 2d of the 3d Division, as far as the crossing of the Watauga. Intelligence of his advance had preceded him, however, for the long-roll was sounded at Bristol and reinforcements were hurriedly dispatched by train for the defense of the bridge at that place. General Manson, upon reconnoitering the position, and finding an attack in front would expose his men to a heavy fire from the enemy, who were strongly posted in block houses, and behind earthworks, resolved to cross below, and turn the enemy's flank.-Being also met here by a heavy fire, and not wishing to bring on an engagement, fell back destroying the road and culverts, and burning all the bridges from that point down to Bull's Gap.

The rails were capsized in long section over the embankment, the chairs broke, the ties piled up with fence rails, and the iron rails laid upon them, and all burned together, bending the rails so as to render them unfit for use. So thorough has been the destruction of the road that it will take months to restore it, even allowing that the rebels had their rails ready at hand. [emphasis added ] In this work Gen. Manson has [out] Morganed Morgan, and thinks the great raider had better give up the business. While near the  Watauga, and marching to attack the bridge, Gen Buckner sent in a flag of truce, demanding that the notorious guerilla and murdered, Reynolds, recently captured near Rheatown, should be treated as a prisoner of war, and stating that he was acting under orders to enforce the conscription.

Gen. Manson received the message and sent it to Gen. Cox to be forwarded to corps headquarters, but sent his compliments to Gen. Buckner, with the remark that he (Buckner) had violated the principles of honorable warfare by sending a flag of truce when he must have known that the Union forces were advancing upon his position. It was, no doubt, the old ruse to gain time for the arrival of his reinforcements. [emphasis added ]

The object of the expedition was fully accomplished. The destruction of the enemy's line of communication was preparatory to an important movement of the troops under command of Gen. Schofield, the detail of which would, at present, be improper to publish. Suffice it to say, that the grand programme of Gen. Grant, concentration of our forces, is now being carried out, and a few days will witness the opening of a new, and, it is believed, a decisive campaign.

Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, May 11, 1864.[14]

        26, Education of the freedmen; an entry in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County

Weather beautiful. Yanks behaving like human beings [sic] with a few exceptions. Today a Yankee officer made his appearance in the school room accompanied by a Northern being whom I supposed to be a man, as he was not a gentleman; he came to look at the church saying that he was president of a school and six of his assistants had just arrived and was going to teach the "freedmen." He says he will have 3 or 400 [emphasis added ]scholars and will need the largest house in town. What a learned city-or rather yankee nest-this will be. I suppose some of us citizens will get a situation as assistant teacher in the "Freedmens [sic] University."

Williamson Diary.

        26, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10 relative to Federal camps of instruction near Nashville and new disciplinary and travel policies

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10. HDQRS. MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1864.

I. There will be established, at or near Nashville, one or more camps of instruction, in which will be collected all regiments arriving from the rear which are not assigned to any one of the departments or armies in the field, all detachments or individuals who have got astray from their commands, and all convalescents discharged from hospitals. These camps will be under the general supervision of the commanding officer of the District of Nashville, who will assign to each a general officer, who will be instructed to organize and equip for service all such regiments and detachments and subject them to a thorough system of instruction in the drill and guard duties.

II. All officers, regiments, and detachments belonging to any of the established departments will, without further orders, be sent with dispatch to their proper posts; but such as are not thus provided for will be held in reserve at Nashville to re-enforce any part of the lines of communication to the front, and subject to orders from these headquarters.

III. Soldiers' homes are merely designed for the accommodation of men in transitu; and when delayed from any cause, the men will be sent to the camp of instruction. Officers and men also in and about Nashville awaiting orders will be sent to the camp of instruction.

IV. Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz is assigned to the command of one of these camps, and will report to Maj.-Gen. Rousseau for further instructions.

V. Patrols will, from time to time, be sent to collect men and officers who are in Nashville without proper authority. All who are not in possession of written orders that warrant their presence in Nashville will be arrested and taken to the camp of instruction, where they will be put on duty till forwarded, under guard or otherwise, to their proper posts.

VI. In time of war leaves of absence can only be granted, and that for limited periods, by commanders of separate armies or departments. Subordinate commanders cannot send officers or men away without such sanction; and therefore the numerous shifts of that kind will be treated as void.

VII. Staff departments, on proper requisitions approved by Gen. Rousseau, will issue the provisions, camp and garrison equipage, arms, and accouterments necessary to carry into effect these orders.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:

R. M. SAWYER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 505.

        26, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 6, relative to changes in flag insignia and unit designations for the Army of the Cumberland [see April 25, 1863 "GENERAL ORDERS, No. 91 changes in flag insignia and unit designations for the Army of the Cumberland" above and August 1, 1863, "GENERAL ORDERS, No. 177, prescribing changes in flag designations and creation of the Army of the Cumberland Reserve Corps and its flag designations" above]

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 62 HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, Tenn., April 26, 1864.

I. General Orders, No. 91, series of 1863, is hereby rescinded. The flags hereinafter described will be used to designate the headquarters of the department, corps, divisions, and brigades named in this order.

Hdqrs. of the department: The national flag, 5 feet square, embroidered spread eagle in the field, lower part of the eagle resting upon the lower edge of the field, with the stars of the Union arranged above.

Hdqrs. Fourth Army Corps: Silk with yellow fringe, or bunting, red with blue field; size of field 2 feet square, same size as for department headquarters, with gilt or embroidered eagle in the field.

First Division, Fourth Army Corps: The flag of the corps, without fringe or the eagle in the field; size of field the same as the flag of the corps; of bunting with white bar, 3 inches wide, running from right-hand upper corner of field to left-hand lower corner.

Second Division, Fourth Army Corps: The same as for the First Division, with the addition of a white bar, 3 inches wide, running from left-hand upper corner to right-hand lower corner, forming cross with the first.

Third Division, Fourth Army Corps: Same as for Second Division, with a addition of a third white bar, 3 inches wide, running parallel to staff through center of field.

All brigade flags to be forked; distance from staff to angle of the fork, 3 feet; size of flag otherwise, same as for divisions, with same colors, with division bars in the field.

First Brigade, First Division, Fourth Army Corps, with addition of one white star, midway between center of lower edge of field and lower edge of flag.

Second Brigade, First Division, Fourth Army Corps: The same as for the First Brigade, except that there will be two white stars, arranged equidistant from each other and center of lower edge of field and lower edge of flag, on a line parallel to the staff.

Third Brigade, First Division, Fourth Army Corps: The same as for the First Brigade, except that there will be three white stars, arranged as described for the Second Brigade.

Flags for headquarters of the brigades of the Second and Third Divisions: Same as for the first, with the exception of the distinguishing bars of the divisions in the field.

Hdqrs. Fourteenth Army Corps: Silk with yellow fringe, or bunting; same size as for department headquarters; blue with red field; size of field, 2 feet square; gilt or embroidered eagle in field.

Hdqrs. First, Second, and Third Divisions, Fourteenth Army Corps: Blue flags, with red field, with same distinguishing marks as the corresponding divisions of the Fourth Corps.

Flags for the headquarters of the brigades of the Fourteenth Army Corps: Same as for the corresponding brigades of the Fourth Corps, with the exception of the colors, which will be those described for the Fourteenth Army Corps.

Hdqrs. Twentieth Army Corps: Blue swallow-tailed flag, white Tunic cross in center, with he numerals "20" in red in center of the cross.

The division flags of this corps will be 6 feet square.

First Division: Red star on white flag.

Second Division: White star on blue flag.

Third Division: Blue star on white flag.

Fourth Division: Green star on red flag.

The flags for the brigades of the respective divisions will be in the shape of an equilateral triangle (each side 6 feet in length), similar in color and device to the division flags.

The flag of the First Brigade will be without border.

That of the Second Brigade have border same color as star, 6 inches wide, down the staff.

That of the Third Brigade a border 6 inches wide all around the flag.

Hdqrs. cavalry command: Red, white, and blue flag, 6 feet by 4; stripes vertical, red outermost, with cross sabers yellow, the hilt and point of sabers extending over one-half of red and blue stripes. Staff portable, 14 feet long, and in two joints. Yellow silk fringe around the flag, 4 inches wide.

First Division: White flag, 6 feet by 4, with cross sabers red, figure (1) blue.

First Brigade: White triangle, cross sabers red, figure (1) blue.

Second Brigade: White triangle; blue border on staff, 6 inches wide; cross sabers red; figure (2) blue.

Third Brigade: White triangle; blue border around flag, 4 inches wide; cross sabers red; figure (3) blue.

Second Division: Blue flag, 6 feet by 4; cross sabers white; figure (2) red.

First Brigade: Blue triangle; cross sabers white; figure (1) red.

Second Brigade: Blue triangle; cross sabers white; red border on staff, 6 inches wide; figure (2) red.

Third Brigade: Blue triangle; cross sabers white; red border, 4 inches wide around flag; figure (3) red. Third Division: White flag, 6 feet by 4; cross sabers blue; figure (3) red.

First Brigade: White triangle; cross sabers blue; figure (1) red.

Second Brigade: White triangle; cross sabers blue; red border on staff, 6 inches wide; figure (2) red.

Third Brigade: White triangle; cross sabers blue; red border, 4 inches wide, around flag; figure (3) red.

Fourth Division: White flag, 6 feet by 4; cross sabers blue; figure (4) red; yellow border around flag, 9 inches wide.

First Brigade: White triangle; cross sabers red; figure (1) blue; yellow border around flag, width 4 inches.

Second Brigade: Blue triangle; cross sabers blue; figure (2) red; yellow border around flag, width 4 inches.

Third Brigade: White triangle; cross sabers blue; figure (3) red; yellow border around flag, width 4 inches.

Figures in center of sabers; points of sabers up.

Cross sabers in corps and division flags, 4 ½ feet long, 3 inches wide; in brigade flags, 2 ½ feet long, 1 1/4 inches wide.

Cavalry headquarters flag will be made of silk; division and brigade, of bunting.

Brigade flags will be 4 feet on staff and 6 feet on sides.

Engineer Brigade: A white and blue flag, blue uppermost and running horizontally, 6 feet by 4.

Pioneer Brigade: A blue, white, and blue flag, running vertically; crossed axes in engineer wreath on one side and spread eagle on the other.

Hospital and ambulance flags: Same as prescribed by General Orders, No. 9, current series, War Department.

Subsistence depots and store-houses: A plain light-green flag, 3 feet square.

Quartermaster depots and store-houses: Same flag, with letters "Q. M. D." in white, 1 foot long.

Ordnance department, general headquarters: A bright-green flag, 3 feet square, with two crossed cannon in white, set diagonally in a square of 3 feet, with a circular ribbon of 6 inches wide and 3 feet greatest diameter (or diameter of inner circle 2 feet), with the letters "U. S. Ordnance Department" in black, 4 inches long, on ribbon, and a streamer above flag, 1 foot on staff by 4 feet long, crimson color, with words "Chief of Ordnance" in black, 6 inches long.

Division ordnance: Same flag, with cannon and ribbon, but no streamer.

II. For the purpose of ready recognition of the members of the corps and divisions of this army, and to prevent injustice by reports of straggling and misconduct through mistakes as to organizations, the following-described badges will be worn by the officers and enlisted men of all the regiments of the corps mentioned. They will be made either of cloth or metal, after the patterns deposited in the office of the assistant adjutant-general, at department headquarters, and will be securely fastened upon the center of the top of the cap, or upon the left-hand side of the hat when that is worn:

For the Fourth Corps: An equilateral triangle, red for First Division, white for Second Division, blue for Third Division.

For the Fourteenth Corps: An acorn, red for First Division, white for Second Division, and blue for Third Division.

For the Twentieth Corps: A star, as heretofore worn by the Twelfth Corps.

Pioneer Brigade: Crossed hatches, as prescribed by paragraph 1585, Revised Army Regulations, edition of 1863.

The chief quartermaster of the department will furnish the cloth from which to make the badges, upon proper requisitions, and officers of the inspector-general's department of this army will see that they are worn as directed.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Thomas:

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 506-508.

        26, Skirmish across the Watauga River, above Greeneville and partial destruction of bridge by Confederates and Federals

BULL'S GAP, April 27, 1864.


Gen. Manson was 8 miles above Greeneville last night; says he will reach Lick Creek to-night. The enemy were strongly posted at Watauga, but partially destroyed the bridge themselves. River too high to ford. Our troops skirmished across the river but could not accomplish the entire destruction of the bridge. We lost 3 killed and 18 wounded. Manson has destroyed all bridges from Jonesborough to where he is, and fully one-third of the track, as he reports. I send remainder of the Tennessee regiment and part of the One hundred and fourth Ohio by this train, and remainder of the last by next train if the cavalry get here to make some guard for to-night. The One hundredth Ohio is marching.

J. D. COX, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 512.

        26, Smuggling near Memphis

The Memphis Bulletin of the 26th ult. says: "Notwithstanding the risks run, smuggling from this city through the lines to the enemy is carried on extensively. Gen. Grierson's cavalry patrol has, of late been very successful in picking up offenders. On Sunday night, a wagon was met with eight miles out on the Germantown road. Among other matters, was found a barrel, apparently of flour, its principal contents hid among the flour, was forty yards of grey cloth, two bolts of shirting, ten gallons of whisky, a lot of percussion caps, and other articles. The driver offered the boys five hundred dollars in greenbacks for permission to go, but the boys knew their duty too well to be bribed, but owing to the darkness and rain, he contrived to escape before the city was reached." [emphasis added ]

Nashville Dispatch, May 3, 1864.

        26, Capture of a Guerilla Leader near Cumberland Gap, Drestruction of Railroad Track

~ ~ ~      

April 26th 1864 [Bulls Gap?]

We have just got in from a tramp and I feel pretty tired but I must answer mother's good letter rec'd last Friday, a few minutes before I went on picket. Next evening when I came off picket I was detailed to go with a scouting party. Returned next day and started on another scout next morning…

Our first scout was up the Rogersville R.R. for the purpose of capturing guerilla Capt. and his band of 50 men. Our squad (70 in number) left camp after sunset and marched about 15 miles, almost without halting. Reached our destination by midnight and laid in ambush until daylight when we were very much disappointed to find that our birds had flown a few hours before our arrival. We returned to camp that day and had orders to prepare for a march next day with 2 days rations and blankets, leaving our camp standing. Reveille sounded at 3 ½ a.m. and we were on the road soon after daylight. We had no idea where we were going till we came to the R.R. bridge over Lick Creek which the rebels had partially destroyed when they left here. We completed the destruction and then went to work to tear up the track beyond. We worked hard yesterday and today till noon. Burning all the bridges and ties heating and twisting the iron so as to render it entirely useless. We destroyed 10 or 12 miles so that I hardly think the Confederacy will ever rebuild it. This operation will effectually cut off retreat from Richmond in this direction. I think we will fall back to Knoxville, maybe to Chattanooga in a short time, as this section isn't worth holding and it keeps such a long line of R.R. to guard….

Bentley Letters.




        25, Anti-guerrilla expedition to Bigg's Cross-Roads, Williamson County ordered


Brig. Gen. R. W. JOHNSON, Cmdg. Post of Pulaski:

GEN.: The bushwhackers are investing the neighborhood of Bigg's Cross-Roads, upper end of Williamson County, out on the Nolen pike, thirty-two miles from Nashville. The major-general commanding is informed that they are committing all kinds of depredations, and directs that you send to that neighborhood a sufficient force of cavalry to drive them out of the country. You will please refer to Mr. Alfred Ogilvie for further information.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 465.

        26, Capitulation of the Army of Tennessee near Durham, N. C.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 47, pt. III, pp. 312-315.

        26, Anti-guerrilla mopping up initiative on East Bank of Holston River

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April 26, 1865.

Col. J. H. PARSONS, Cmdg. Ninth Tennessee Cavalry:

SIR: If the Rogersville Branch Railroad is in such condition as to enable you to procure supplies at its terminus, I wish you to move with your whole regiment to the east bank of the Holston River. Arrived there, you will leave all your impediments on the east side, and with the mounted portion of your regiment you will cross the river and thoroughly scour and clear of guerrilla and other bands of outlaws all that portion of East Tennessee and Southwestern Virginia lying between the Holston River on the east and the Cumberland Mountains on the west. In the performance of this duty you are authorized and instructed to use the utmost vigorous and severe measures. The persons with whom you have to deal are outlaws so long as they are at liberty, and as such should be treated. When taken prisoners they must be treated as prisoners, and are entitled to trial, which takes time and entails trouble and expense. Give them to understand that no false mercy will be shown them and no prisoners taken, and that every man found in arms under whatever pretense, and acting without authority from Federal officers or the legally constituted authorities of the State of Tennessee, will be treated as a public enemy and an outlaw and killed like a mad dog by any one who meets him. [emphasis added ]See that your command does not interfere in any way, either in their persons or their property, with the peaceably disposed, and with those who stay at home and mind their own business. In case the railroad is not in running order to the Holston River you will make your depot camp at or near the Rogersville Junction, from which point you will draw your supplies. You will give all the aid and assistance in your power to all civil officers in the execution of their functions, and urge upon the people the necessity of re-establishing civil authority and the supremacy of State laws as soon as possible, and before the U. S. forces are disbanded or withdrawn from this section of the country. Make me, either by courier or telegraph, a daily report of your operations.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, &c.,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 475-476.


[1] This message was incorrectly dated as having been made on April 2, 1861. However, it was made on April 25, 1861, according to White, ed. Messages of the Governors, Vol. 5, p. 279.


[4] It is not known what an entire Confederate regiment had done to warrant being identified as "disloyal." The OR offers no further information.

[5] As cited in:

[6] As cited in PQCW.

[7] Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee places the date at April 25; OR places the date at April 24 (Ser. 1, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 272), OR General Index places the event at April 26 (OR Index, Vol. 1, p. 190). To add to the uncertainty is the fact that Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee names the location "Cotton Grove." Nathan Bedford Forrest's troops traveled to and through Cotton Grove in West Tennessee in August, 1863 (see: Ser. I, Vol. 52, p. 109). Additionally, while the editors of the OR called this event an "affair," Brig. Gen. John M. Schofield here clearly calls it a "skirmish," further adding to the ambiguity of these military terms during the Civil War.

[8] Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee refers to this incident as an action. This engagement was between the 6th Texas Rangers (cavalry), at Duck River Island, [a.k.a. Little Rock Landing], west of the mouth of the Duck River, on the Tennessee River. After the Texans fired a few cannon bursts and rifle volleys at the Navy boats, the Marine Brigade landed and scattered the Texans into the surrounding marshland. The use of such amphibious tactics was both relatively new as well as rare and was repeated on the Tennessee River during the war

[9] As the following correspondence indicates, there is some inconsistency concerning the actual date of the fight at the mouth of the Duck River, although since the naval forces were closer to the action than Major-General Hurlbut it seems safest to conclude the fight took place on the 26th, not the 24th.

[10]As cited in:

[11]Not listed in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee. It was here that Streight's forces gathered horses and mules for the ill fated Union mission. All action took place in Alabama.

[12] This appears to be an admission, although a offhanded one, to Forrest's recognizing that a massacre did indeed occur at Fort Pillow. Otherwise he would most likely have used a different phrase, such as "in regard to the capture of Fort Pillow," etc. It could also be that only 13 days after the event the term "Fort Pillow Massacre" was commonly used both in the North and the South to describe the event.




James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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